Protestant Bible

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

A Protestant Bible is a Christian Bible whose translation or revision was produced by Protestants. Such Bibles comprise 39 books of the Old Testament (according to the Hebrew Bible canon, known especially to non-Protestants as the protocanonical books) and 27 books of the New Testament for a total of 66 books.[1] Some Protestants use Bibles which also include 14 additional books in a section known as the Apocrypha (though these are not considered canonical) bringing the total to 80 books.[2][3] This is often contrasted with the 73 books of the Catholic Bible, which includes seven deuterocanonical books as a part of the Old Testament.[4] The division between protocanonical and deuterocanonical books is not accepted by all Protestants who simply view books as being canonical or not and therefore classify books found in the deuterocanon, along with other books, as part of the Apocrypha.[5]

It was in Luther's Bible of 1534 that the Apocrypha was first published as a separate intertestamental section.[6] To this date, the Apocrypha is "included in the lectionaries of Anglican and Lutheran Churches."[7] The practice of including only the Old and New Testament books within printed bibles was standardized among many English-speaking Protestants following a 1825 decision by the British and Foreign Bible Society.[8] Today, "English Bibles with the Apocrypha are becoming more popular again" and they may be printed as intertestamental books.[9] In contrast, Evangelicals vary among themselves in their attitude to and interest in the Apocrypha but agree in the view that it is non-canonical.[10]

Early Protestant Bibles

The first proto-Protestant Bible translation was Wycliffe's Bible, that appeared in the late 14th century. Wycliffe's writings greatly influenced the philosophy and teaching of the Czech reformer Jan Hus (c. 1369–1415)[11]

The Hussite Bible was translated into Hungarian by two Hussite priests, Tamás Pécsi and Bálint Újlaki, who studied in Prague and were influenced by Jan Hus. They started writing the Hussite Bible after they returned to Hungary and finalized it around 1416.[12] However, the translation was suppressed by the Catholic Inquisition. It was not until the 16th century that translated Bibles became widely available. The full New Testament was translated into Hungarian by János Sylvester in 1541. In 1590 a Calvinist minister, Gáspár Károli, produced the first printed complete Bible in Hungarian, the Vizsoly Bible.

Following the Reformation, Protestants Confessions have usually excluded the books which other Christian traditions consider to be deuterocanonical books from the canon (the canon of the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches differs among themselves as well),[13] most early Protestant Bibles published the biblical apocrypha along with the Old Testament and New Testament.

The German language Luther Bible of 1534 did include the biblical apocrypha. However, unlike in previous Catholic Bibles which interspersed the books of the apocrypha throughout the Old Testament, Martin Luther placed the Apocrypha in a separate section after the Old Testament, setting a precedent for the placement of these books in Protestant Bibles. The books of the Apocrypha were not listed in the table of contents of Luther's 1532 Old Testament and, in accordance with Luther's view of the canon, they were given the well-known title: "Apocrypha: These Books Are Not Held Equal to the Scriptures, but Are Useful and Good to Read" in the 1534 edition of his bible.[14]

In the English language, the incomplete Tyndale Bible published in 1525, 1534 and 1536, contained the entire New Testament. Of the Old Testament, although William Tyndale translated around half of its books, only the Pentateuch and the Book of Jonah were published. Viewing the canon as comprising the Old and New Testaments only, Tyndale did not translate any of the Apocrypha.[15] However, the first complete Modern English translation of the Bible, the Coverdale Bible of 1535, did include the Apocrypha. Like Luther, Miles Coverdale placed the Apocrypha in a separate section after the Old Testament.[16] Other early Protestant Bibles such as the Matthew's Bible (1537), Great Bible (1539), Geneva Bible (1560), Bishop's Bible (1568), and the King James Version (1611) included the Old Testament, Apocrypha, and New Testament.[9] Although within the same printed bibles, it was usually to be found in a separate section under the heading of Apocrypha and sometimes carrying a statement to the effect that the such books were non-canonical but useful for reading.[17]

Protestant translations into Italian were made by Antonio Brucioli in 1530, by Massimo Teofilo in 1552 and by Giovanni Diodati in 1607. Diodati was a Calvinist theologian and he was the first translator of the Bible into Italian from Hebrew and Greek sources. Diodati's version is the reference version for Italian Protestantism. This edition was revised in 1641, 1712, 1744, 1819 and 1821. A revised edition in modern Italian, Nuova Diodati, was published in 1991.

Several translations of Luther's Bible were made into Dutch. The first complete Dutch Bible was printed in Antwerp in 1526 by Jacob van Liesvelt.[18] However, the translations of Luther's Bible had Lutheran influences in their interpretation. At the Calvinistic Synod of Dort in 1618/19, it was therefore deemed necessary to have a new translation accurately based on the original languages. The synod requested the States-General of the Netherlands to commission it. The result was the Statenvertaling or States Translation which was completed in 1635 and authorized by the States-General in 1637. From that year until 1657, a half-million copies were printed. It remained authoritative in Dutch Protestant churches well into the 20th century.

Protestant translations into Spanish began with the work of Casiodoro de Reina, a former Catholic monk, who became a Lutheran theologian.[19] With the help of several collaborators,[20] de Reina produced the Biblia del Oso or Bear Bible, the first complete Bible printed in Spanish based on Hebrew and Greek sources. Earlier Spanish translations, such as the 13th-century Alfonsina Bible, translated from Jerome's Vulgate, had been copied by hand. The Bear Bible was first published on 28 September 1569, in Basel, Switzerland.[21][22] The deuterocanonical books were included within the Old Testament in the 1569 edition. In 1602 Cipriano de Valera, a student of de Reina, published a revision of the Bear Bible which was printed in Amsterdam in which the deuterocanonical books were placed in a section between the Old and New Testaments called the Apocrypha.[23] This translation, subsequently revised, came to be known as the Reina-Valera Bible.

For the following three centuries, most English language Protestant Bibles, including the Authorized Version, continued with the practice of placing the Apocrypha in a separate section after the Old Testament. However, there were some exceptions. A surviving quarto edition of the Great Bible, produced some time after 1549, does not contain the Apocrypha although most copies of the Great Bible did. A 1575 quarto edition of the Bishop's Bible also does not contain them. Subsequently, some copies of the 1599 and 1640 editions of the Geneva Bible were also printed without them.[24] The Anglican King James VI and I, the sponsor of the Authorized King James Version (1611), "threatened anyone who dared to print the Bible without the Apocrypha with heavy fines and a year in jail."[3]

The Souldiers Pocket Bible, of 1643, draws verses largely from the Geneva Bible but only from either the Old or New Testaments. In 1644 the Long Parliament forbade the reading of the Apocrypha in churches and in 1666 the first editions of the King James Bible without the Apocrypha were bound.[25] Similarly, in 1782–83 when the first English Bible was printed in America, it did not contain the Apocrypha and, more generally, English Bibles came increasingly to omit the Apocrypha.[9]

19th-century developments

In 1826,[26] the National Bible Society of Scotland petitioned the British and Foreign Bible Society not to print the Apocrypha,[27] resulting in a decision that no BFBS funds were to pay for printing any Apocryphal books anywhere. They reasoned that by not printing the secondary material of Apocrypha within the Bible, the scriptures would prove to be less costly to produce.[28][29] The precise form of the resolution was:

That the funds of the Society be applied to the printing and circulation of the Canonical Books of Scripture, to the exclusion of those Books and parts of Books usually termed Apocryphal[30]

Similarly, in 1827, the American Bible Society determined that no bibles issued from their depository should contain the Apocrypha.[31]

Current situation

Since the 19th century changes, many modern editions of the Bible and re-printings of the King James Version of the Bible that are used especially by non-Anglican Protestants omit the Apocrypha section. Additionally, modern non-Catholic re-printings of the Clementine Vulgate commonly omit the Apocrypha section. Many re-printings of older versions of the Bible now omit the apocrypha and many newer translations and revisions have never included them at all. Sometimes the term "Protestant Bible" is used as a shorthand for a bible which only contains the 66 books of the Old and New Testaments.[32]

Although bibles with an Apocrypha section remain rare in protestant churches,[33] more generally English Bibles with the Apocrypha are becoming more popular than they were and they may be printed as intertestamental books.[9] Evangelicals vary among themselves in their attitude to and interest in the Apocrypha. Some view it as a useful historical and theological background to the events of the New Testament while others either have little interest in the Apocrypha or view it with hostility. However, all agree in the view that it is non-canonical.[34]


Protestant Bibles comprise 39 books of the Old Testament (according to the Jewish Hebrew Bible canon, known especially to non-Protestants as the protocanonical books) and the 27 books of the New Testament for a total of 66 books. Some Protestant Bibles, such as the original King James Version, include 14 additional books known as the Apocrypha, though these are not considered canonical.[2] With the Old Testament, Apocrypha, and New Testament, the total number of books in the Protestant Bible becomes 80.[3] Many modern Protestant Bibles print only the Old Testament and New Testament;[28] there is a 400-year intertestamental period in the chronology of the Christian scriptures between the Old and New Testaments. This period is also known as the "400 Silent Years" because it is believed to have been a span where God made no additional canonical revelations to his people.[35]

These Old Testament, Apocrypha and New Testament books of the Bible, with their commonly accepted names among the Protestant Churches, are given below. Note that "1", "2", or "3" as a leading numeral is normally pronounced in the United States as the ordinal number, thus "First Samuel" for "1 Samuel".[36]

Old Testament

Apocrypha (not used in all churches or bibles)

New Testament

Notable English translations

Most Bible translations into English conform to the Protestant canon and ordering while some offer multiple versions (Protestant, Catholic, Orthodox) with different canon and ordering. For example, the version of the ESV with Apocrypha has been approved as a Catholic bible.[37]

Most Reformation-era translations of the New Testament are based on the Textus Receptus while many translations of the New Testament produced since 1900 rely upon the eclectic and critical Alexandrian text-type.

Notable English translations include:

Abbreviation Name Date With Apocrypha? Translation Textual basis
principal sources indicated
WYC Wycliffe's Bible 1382 - 1395 Yes Formal equivalence Jerome's Latin Vulgate
Tyndale Bible 1526 (NT), 1530 (Pentateuch), 1531 (Jonah) No Formal equivalence Pent. & Jon: Hebrew Bible or Polyglot Bible with reference to Luther's translation[38]
NT: Erasmus's Novum Instrumentum omne
TCB Coverdale Bible 1535 Yes Formal equivalence Tyndale Bible, Luther Bible, Zürich Bible and the Vulgate
Matthew Bible 1537 Yes Formal equivalence Tyndale Bible, Coverdale Bible
GEN Geneva Bible 1557 (NT), 1560 (OT) Usually Formal equivalence OT: Hebrew Bible
NT: Textus Receptus
KJV King James Version (aka "Authorized Version") 1611, 1769 (Blayney revision) Varies Formal equivalence OT: Bomberg's Hebrew Rabbinic Bible
Apoc.: Septuagint
NT: Beza's Greek New Testament
YLT Young's Literal Translation 1862 No Extreme formal equivalence OT: Masoretic text
NT: Textus Receptus
RV Revised Version (or English Revised Version) 1881 (NT), 1885 (OT) Version available from 1894 Formal equivalence
ASV American Standard Version 1900 (NT), 1901 (OT) No Formal equivalence NT: Westcott and Hort 1881 and Tregelles 1857, (Reproduced in a single, continuous, form in Palmer 1881). OT: Masoretic Text with some Septuagint influence).
RSV Revised Standard Version 1946 (NT), 1952 (OT) Version available from 1957 Formal equivalence NT: Novum Testamentum Graece.
OT: Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia with limited Dead Sea Scrolls and Septuagint influence.
Apocrypha: Septuagint with Vulgate influence.
NEB New English Bible 1961 (NT), 1970 (OT) Version available from 1970 Dynamic equivalence NT: R.V.G. Tasker Greek New Testament. OT: Biblia Hebraica (Kittel) 3rd Edition.
NASB New American Standard Bible 1963 (NT), 1971 (OT), 1995 (update) No Formal equivalence
AMP The Amplified Bible 1958 (NT), 1965 (OT) No Dynamic equivalence
GNB Good News Bible 1966 (NT), 1976 (OT) Version available from 1979 Dynamic equivalence, paraphrase NT: Medium Correspondence to Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece 27th edition
LB The Living Bible 1971 No Paraphrase Paraphrase of American Standard Version, 1901, with comparisons of other translations, including the King James Version, and some Greek texts.
NIV New International Version 1973 (NT), 1978 (OT) No Optimal equivalence
NKJV New King James Version 1979 (NT), 1982 (OT) No Formal equivalence NT: Textus Receptus, derived from the Byzantine text-type. OT: Masoretic Text with Septuagint influence
NRSV New Revised Standard Version 1989 Version available from 1989 Formal equivalence OT: Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia with Dead Sea Scrolls and Septuagint influence.
Apocrypha: Septuagint (Rahlfs) with Vulgate influence.

NT: United Bible Societies' The Greek New Testament (3rd ed. corrected). 81% correspondence to Nestle-Aland Novum Testamentum Graece 27th edition.[42]

REB Revised English Bible 1989 Version available Dynamic equivalence
GB God's Word Translation 1995 No Optimal equivalence
CEV Contemporary English Version 1991 (NT), 1995 (OT) Version available from 1999 Dynamic equivalence
NLT New Living Translation 1996 Version available Dynamic equivalence
HCSB Holman Christian Standard Bible 1999 (NT), 2004 (OT) No Optimal equivalence NT: Novum Testamentum Graece 27th edition.
OT: Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia with some Septuagint influence.
ESV English Standard Version 2001 Version available from 2009 Formal equivalence
MSG The Message 2002 Version available from 2013 Highly idiomatic paraphrase / dynamic equivalence
CEB Common English Bible 2010 (NT), 2011 (OT) Yes Dynamic equivalence OT: Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (4th edition), Biblia Hebraica Quinta (5th edition)
Apoc.: Göttingen Septuagint (in progress), Rahlfs' Septuagint (2005)
NT: Nestle-Aland Greek New Testament (27th edition).
MEV Modern English Version 2011 (NT), 2014 (OT) Formal equivalence NT: Textus Receptus
OT: Jacob ben Hayyim Masoretic Text
CSB Christian Standard Bible 2017 Optimal equivalence NT: Novum Testamentum Graece 28th edition.
OT: Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia 5th Edition with some Septuagint influence.
EHV Evangelical Heritage Version 2017 (NT), 2019 (OT) No Balanced between formal and dynamic OT: Various. Includes Masoretic Text, and Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia.
NT: Various. Includes Textus Receptus and Novum Testamentum Graecae.
LSV Literal Standard Version 2020 No Formal Equivalence Major revision of Young's Literal Translation
OT: Masoretic Text with strong Septuagint influence and some reference to the Dead Sea Scrolls.
NT: Textus Receptus and the Majority Text.

A 2014 study into the Bible in American Life found that of those survey respondents who read the Bible, there was an overwhelming favouring of Protestant translations. 55% reported using the King James Version, followed by 19% for the New International Version, 7% for the New Revised Standard Version (printed in both Protestant and Catholic editions), 6% for the New American Bible (a Catholic Bible translation) and 5% for the Living Bible. Other versions were used by fewer than 10%.[45] A 2015 report by the California-based Barna Group found that 39% of American readers of the Bible preferred the King James Version, followed by 13% for the New International Version, 10% for the New King James Version and 8% for the English Standard Version. No other version was favoured by more than 3% of the survey respondents.[46]

See also


  1. ^ Meade, John. "Why Are Protestant and Catholic Bibles Different?". Text & Canon Institute.
  2. ^ a b King James Version Apocrypha, Reader's Edition. Hendrickson Publishers. 2009. p. viii. ISBN 9781598564648. The version of 1611, following its mandate to revise and standardize the English Bible tradition, included the fourteen (or fifteen) books of the Apocrypha in a section between the Old and New Testaments (see the chart on page vi). Because of the Thirty-Nine Articles, there was no reason for King James' translators to include any comments as to the status of these books, as had the earlier English translators and editors.
  3. ^ a b c Tedford, Marie; Goudey, Pat (2008). The Official Price Guide to Collecting Books. House of Collectibles. p. 81. ISBN 9780375722936. Up until the 1880s every Protestant Bible (not just Catholic Bibles) had 80 books, not 66. The inter-testamental books written hundreds of years before Christ, called the "Aprocrypha," were part of virtually every printing of the Tyndale-Matthews Bible, the Great Bible, the Bishops Bible, the Protestant Geneva Bible, and the King James Bible until their removal in the 1880s. The original 1611 King James contained the Apocrypha, and King James threatened anyone who dared to print the Bible without the Apocrypha with heavy fines and a year in jail.
  4. ^ Roman Catholic Code of Canon Law, 825
  5. ^ Henze, Matthias; Boccaccini, Gabriele (20 November 2013). Fourth Ezra and Second Baruch: Reconstruction after the Fall. Brill. p. 383. ISBN 9789004258815. Why 3 and 4 Esdras (called 1 and 2 Esdras in the NRSV Apocrypha) are pushed to the front of the list is not clear, but the motive may have been to distinguish the Anglican Apocrypha from the Roman Catholic canon affirmed at the fourth session of the Council of trent in 1546, which included all of the books in the Anglican Apocrypha list except 3 and 4 Esdras and the Prayer of Manasseh. These three texts were designated at Trent as Apocrypha and later included in an appendix to the Clementine Vulgate, first published in 1592 (and the standard Vulgate text until Vatican II).
  6. ^ Bruce, F.F. "The Canon of Scripture". IVP Academic, 2010, Location 1478–86 (Kindle Edition).
  7. ^ Readings from the Apocrypha. Forward Movement Publications. 1981. p. 5.
  8. ^ Howsham, L. Cheap Bibles: Nineteenth-Century Publishing and the British and Foreign Bible Society. Cambridge University Press, Aug 8, 2002.
  9. ^ a b c d Ewert, David (11 May 2010). A General Introduction to the Bible: From Ancient Tablets to Modern Translations. Zondervan. p. 104. ISBN 9780310872436. English Bibles were patterned after those of the Continental Reformers by having the Apocrypha set off from the rest of the OT. Coverdale (1535) called them "Apocrypha". All English Bibles prior to 1629 contained the Apocrypha. Matthew's Bible (1537), the Great Bible (1539), the Geneva Bible (1560), the Bishop's Bible (1568), and the King James Bible (1611) contained the Apocrypha. Soon after the publication of the KJV, however, the English Bibles began to drop the Apocrypha and eventually they disappeared entirely. The first English Bible to be printed in America (1782–83) lacked the Apocrypha. In 1826 the British and Foreign Bible Society decided to no longer print them. Today the trend is in the opposite direction, and English Bibles with the Apocrypha are becoming more popular again.
  10. ^ Carson, D. A. (2 January 1997). "The Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical Books: An Evangelical View". In Kohlenberger, John R. (ed.). The Parallel Apocrypha (PDF). Oxford University Press. pp. xliv–xlvii. ISBN 978-0195284447.
  11. ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia: Jan Hus". Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  12. ^ Békesi Emil (1880). "Adalékok a legrégibb magyar szentírás korának meghatározásához". Magyar Sion (in Hungarian).
  13. ^ Schaff, Philip. Creeds of the Evangelical Protestant Churches, French Confession of Faith, p. 361; Belgic Confession 4. Canonical Books of the Holy Scripture; Westminster Confession of Faith, 1646; The 1577 Lutheran Epitome of the Formula of Concord
  14. ^ Brecht, Martin. Martin Luther. Volume 3, p. 98 James L. Schaaf, trans. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1985–1993. ISBN 0-8006-2813-6
  15. ^ Werrell, Ralph S. (2013). The Roots of William Tyndale's Theology. James Clarke & Co. p. 42. ISBN 9780227174029.
  16. ^ "1. From Wycliffe to King James (The Period of Challenge) |".
  17. ^ Fallows, Samuel; et al., eds. (1910) [1901]. The Popular and Critical Bible Encyclopædia and Scriptural Dictionary, Fully Defining and Explaining All Religious Terms, Including Biographical, Geographical, Historical, Archæological and Doctrinal Themes. The Howard-Severance co. p. 521.
  18. ^ Paul Arblaster, Gergely Juhász, Guido Latré (eds) Tyndale's Testament, Brepols 2002, ISBN 2-503-51411-1, p. 120.
  19. ^ Rosales, Raymond S. Casiodoro de Reina: Patriarca del Protestantismo Hispano. St. Louis: Concordia Seminary Publications. 2002.
  20. ^ González, Jorge A. The Reina–Valera Bible: From Dream to Reality Archived 2007-09-18 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ James Dixon Douglas, Merrill Chapin Tenney (1997), Diccionario Bíblico Mundo Hispano, Editorial Mundo Hispano, pág 145.
  22. ^ "Sagradas Escrituras (1569) Bible, SEV". Retrieved 8 July 2013.
  23. ^ A facsimile edition was produced by the Spanish Bible Society: (Sagrada Biblia. Traducción de Casiodoro de Reina 1569. Revisión de Cipriano de Valera 1602. Facsímil. 1990, Sociedades Biblicas Unidas, ISBN 84-85132-72-6)]
  24. ^[bare URL PDF]
  25. ^ Kenyon, Sir Frederic G. (1909). "English Versions". In James Hastings (ed.). Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 978-1-56563-915-7.
  26. ^ Howsam, Leslie (2002). Cheap Bibles. Cambridge University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-521-52212-0.
  27. ^ Flick, Dr. Stephen. "Canonization of the Bible". Christian heritage fellowship. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
  28. ^ a b Anderson, Charles R. (2003). Puzzles and Essays from "The Exchange": Tricky Reference Questions. Psychology Press. p. 123. ISBN 9780789017628. Paper and printing were expensive and early publishers were able to hold down costs by eliminating the Apocrypha once it was deemed secondary material.
  29. ^ McGrath, Alister (10 December 2008). In the Beginning: The Story of the King James Bible and How It Changed a Nation, a Language, and a Culture. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. p. 298. ISBN 9780307486226.
  30. ^ Browne, George (1859). History of the British and Foreign Bible Society. The Society's house. p. 362.
  31. ^ American Bible Society (1966). The Many Faces of the Bible. Washington Cathedral Rare Book Library. p. 23.
  32. ^ "Why are Protestant and Catholic Bibles different?".
  33. ^ Manser, Martin H.; Beaumont, Michael H. (5 September 2017). The Christian Basics Bible. Tyndale House Publishers, Inc. p. 1057. ISBN 9781496413574.
  34. ^[bare URL PDF]
  35. ^ Lambert, Lance. "400 Silent Years: Anything but Silent". Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved 2012-09-21.
  36. ^ Library of Congress Rule Interpretations, C.8.
  37. ^ "Catholic Edition of ESV Bible Launched". Daijiworld. 2018-02-10.
  38. ^ "On Translating the Old Testament: The Achievement of William Tyndale".
  39. ^ "More Information about NASB 2020". The Lockman Foundation. Archived from the original on 2021-01-10. Retrieved 2021-01-10. For the Old Testament: Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (BHS) and Biblia Hebraica Quinta (BHQ) for the books available. Also the LXX, DSS, the Targums, and other ancient versions when pertinent.
  40. ^ "More Information about NASB 2020". The Lockman Foundation. Archived from the original on 2021-01-10. Retrieved 2021-01-10. For the New Testament: NA28 supplemented by the new textual criticism system that uses all the available Gr mss. known as the ECM2.
  41. ^ a b "The New International Version". Biblia. Archived from the original on 2020-08-08. Retrieved 2020-08-08.
  42. ^ Clontz (2008), "The Comprehensive New Testament", ranks the NRSV in eighth place in a comparison of twenty-one translations, at 81% correspondence to the Nestle-Aland 27th ed. ISBN 978-0-9778737-1-5
  43. ^ "Preface to the English Standard Version". Archived from the original on 2020-05-26. Retrieved 2021-01-04. The ESV is based on the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible as found in Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia (5th ed., 1997) ... The currently renewed respect among Old Testament scholars for the Masoretic text is reflected in the ESV’s attempt, wherever possible, to translate difficult Hebrew passages as they stand in the Masoretic text rather than resorting to emendations or to finding an alternative reading in the ancient versions. In exceptional, difficult cases, the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Septuagint, the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Syriac Peshitta, the Latin Vulgate, and other sources were consulted to shed possible light on the text, or, if necessary, to support a divergence from the Masoretic text.
  44. ^ "Preface to the English Standard Version". Archived from the original on 2020-05-26. Retrieved 2021-01-04. [The ESV is based] on the Greek text in the 2014 editions of the Greek New Testament (5th corrected ed.), published by the United Bible Societies (UBS), and Novum Testamentum Graece (28th ed., 2012), edited by Nestle and Aland ... in a few difficult cases in the New Testament, the ESV has followed a Greek text different from the text given preference in the UBS/Nestle-Aland 28th edition.
  45. ^ Goff, Philip. Farnsley, Arthur E. Thuesen, Peter J. The Bible in American Life, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, p. 12 Archived 2014-05-30 at the Wayback Machine
  46. ^[bare URL PDF]
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