Protests over responses to the COVID-19 pandemic

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Protests over responses to the COVID-19 pandemic
Part of the COVID-19 pandemic
Canadian COVID-19 protesters (cropped).jpg
An anti-lockdown protest at Queen's Park in Toronto, Canada, on 25 April 2020
Date15 March 2020[1]ongoing
(1 year, 7 months, 1 week and 5 days)
Location
Worldwide
Caused byLocal struggles or opposition to government responses to the COVID-19 pandemic
Goals
Methods

There have been protests, demonstrations and strikes around the world against national responses to the COVID-19 pandemic by governmental bodies. Some have protested against governmental failure to stem the spread of the virus effectively, while others have been driven by the financial hardship resulting from government measures to contain the virus, including restrictions on travel and entertainment, hitting related industries and casual workers hard. Protests against restrictions on people's movements, compulsory wearing of face masks, lockdowns, vaccinations and other measures.

This article lists and summaries such activities in various countries around the world.

Background

Reasons

In order to prevent the spread of the SARS-CoV2 virus which gave rise to the COVID-19 pandemic from 2019, governments brought in health measures at varying levels of strictness to restrict the movement of people and transmission of the virus. In response to these restrictions, protests have been organised at a number of locations around the world,[2] and strikes have also occurred. Some of the protests have criticised governments for not acting effectively enough in their responses to the pandemic, while others have been opposed to preventative measures and called for their revocation. According to analysis as part of the Global Peace Index, as of July 2021, there had been around 50,000 protests linked to the pandemic worldwide, 5,000 of which were violent.[3] COVID-19 lockdowns have inspired protests in many territories, and from late 2020 deployment of COVID-19 vaccines also inspired protests.[4][5]

The protests have varied in scale, motivations and type, with protesters drawn from a fairly wide range of backgrounds and inspired by a range of reasons. One of the main drivers has been the economic distress brought about by businesses having to close for long periods, leading to widespread unemployment, especially of casual workers in the hospitality industry. Uncertainty about the future and the feeling of lack of control has led to a predilection for believing in conspiracy theories (such as that COVID-19 is a hoax and that governments have deliberately created the crisis), anti-vaxxer beliefs, including that COVID-19 vaccinations and restriction of citizens' movements are part of a government plot to control people, Bill Gates is behind implanting microchips into people via vaccinations.[6][7] The spread of COVID-19 misinformation has been a driving factor in some country's protest movements, with some organisers making money out of the protests.[8]

Players

Elements of right leaning and libertarian groups as well as right-wing politicians have been involved in the protests in some countries: in the US, Donald Trump spread misinformation,[6] and the Proud Boys, American religious fundamentalists and various militia groups have been active in protests;[9] across Europe, the extreme right has been active;[10] in the UK, far-right hate groups have been involved in spreading misinformation, scapegoating minority groups and trying to organise lockdowns,[11] while former politicians such as Martin Daubney and journalists such as Julia Hartley-Brewer have spread misinformation and either supported or joined protests;[12] in Australia, the Proud Boys,[13] the neo-Nazi National Socialist Network[14] and a few politicians have become involved in spreading misinformation and stirring discontent.[15]

Organisers and methods

The Telegram and Instagram apps are popular means for spreading messages about planned protests,[16] and some events are also posted on Facebook.[17]

A German group called Worldwide Demonstration, operated out of the city of Kassel by individuals self-described as “Freie Bürger Kassel” (Free Citizens of Kassel),[16] coordinated a series of 129 events around the world in March 2021, each one dubbed "World Wide Rally for Freedom", using the hashtag "#WewillALLbethere". Misinformation, QAnon beliefs, antisemitism and COVID-19 denial were prevalent in the groups' chats.[18]

Africa

Ivory Coast

Protesters destroyed a coronavirus testing center that was being built in Abidjan, which they said was in a crowded residential area too close to their homes.[19]

Kenya

The Kenyan government has been accused of extreme measures, with protesters accusing the Kenyan Police of killing at least six people within the first 10 days of the lockdown. Others protested against the forced quarantine of individuals failing to comply with regulations or returning home from abroad, claiming that they had been quarantined for longer than 14 days and made to pay the government for their care.[20] Hundreds protested on 8 May 2020 when the government destroyed 7,000 homes and a market in Kariobangi in an effort to control the virus.[21]

Malawi

A Malawi high court temporarily barred the government from implementing a 21-day lockdown after it was challenged by the Human Rights Defenders Coalition, after it was argued that more consultation was needed to prevent harm to the poorest and most vulnerable. Small protests had been staged prior to the ruling, in at least three major cities with some protesters stating it was better to contract the virus than die of hunger due to lack of work.[22]

Nigeria

A group of at least twenty coronavirus patients forced their way out of an isolation facility to protest against alleged improper care and the government's actions which they believed to worsen their conditions.[23] Workers at a construction site rioted against lockdown measures that limited their ability to work on constructing an oil refinery for billionaire Aliko Dangote.[24]

Rwanda

Refugees that had been relocated to the country from an overcrowded refugee camp in Libya, protested against the lockdown from the refugee camp in the capital Kigali.[25]

South Africa

Many residents protested against the policy that food parcel aid would only be going to households that earn below R3600, and demanded action from the South African Social Security Agency.[26] Surfers have also protested to be allowed to surf during the lockdown, that allows exercise but not water activities.[27]

Zimbabwe

Three young, female opposition activists were reported missing following a protest in Harare, Zimbabwe, over COVID-19 lockdown measures on 15 May 2020. They were later treated at a hospital after asserting they had been abducted and sexually abused by suspected state security agents.[28]

Asia

China

Small shop owners protested the continuation of rent charges outside of the Grand Ocean Department Store in Wuhan, chanting "Exempt rental for a year, or refund the lease". Videos from the demonstration were posted in the social media platform Sina Weibo but quickly censored.[29] A woman was arrested and facing criminal charges after attempting to rally about 100 people to protest the poor management and overpriced provisions during the lockdown. She has been charged with "picking quarrels and provoking trouble" an offense normally used to detain dissidents and social activists.[30]

Hong Kong

Protest against plans to set up designated coronavirus clinics near residential areas in Hong Kong on 15 February 2020

Pro-democratic movement's tactics were repurposed to pressure the government to take stronger actions to safeguard Hong Kong's public health in the face of the coronavirus outbreak in Hong Kong. Protesters demanded all travellers coming from China be banned from entering Hong Kong. From 3 to 7 February 2020, hospital staff launched a labour strike with the same goal. The strike was not successful as Carrie Lam rejected a full border closure and still left three of the 14 crossing points with China open.[citation needed]

People responded negatively to the government's attempt to set up quarantine and clinical centres in neighbourhoods close to residents and marched to express their discontent or blocked roads to thwart the government's plans across the territory.[citation needed]

India

After the televised announcement by Prime Minister Narendra Modi that the lockdown was to be extended until at least 3 May, police used batons to disperse protesting migrant workers in Mumbai. Thousands of jobless migrant workers had gathered at railway stations and were demanding to be allowed to break the lockdown to return home.[31] Similar protests were seen in other parts of the country by the workers, and those who claimed that they received no aid which was promised by the government to provide them with during the lockdown period.[32]

Indonesia

Protest at Padang on 7 October 2020

On 5 October 2020, Indonesia has passed a law on job creation that will weaken environmental protections and workers’ rights in an attempt to boost the economy hit hard by the Wuhan pneumonia pandemic.[33] On 6 October, thousands of Indonesians protest in industrial areas around Jakarta including Tangerang and Karawang and on Batam. A three-day national strike was started which unions expected to involve two million workers in protest against the law.[34]

Demonstrations in Bandung and Jakarta were held on 22 July and 24 July respectively in order to protest the extension of the government's "social activities restriction" (PPKM) measures.[35][36][37][38][39][excessive citations]

Israel

In April 2020, thousands of Israelis engaged in social distancing while gathering to protest against the believed anti-democratic measures in the country by Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. Many were involved in the Black Flag movement which had been allowed to protest by police if they stood six feet apart and all wore masks. An earlier protest had seen the protesters drive to Jerusalem to protest anti-democratic measures.[40] Other demonstrations have been seen in the ultra-Orthodox Jerusalem neighborhood of Mea Shearim with men and youths throwing rocks at police before being arrested.[41] Riots broke out in Bnei Brak with crowds vandalizing property and throwing rocks against police attempts to clear yeshiva classes and religious gatherings being held in violation of lockdown rules.[42]

Iraq

Protests against the lockdown have been coupled with the ongoing protests against the current government and female-targeting violence within the country.[43][44]

Kazakhstan

Following announcement of quarantine measures, videos of hospital staff in Atyrau protesting against new rules were spread on social media in April 2020, resulting in reporting journalists being detained.[45]

On 25 January 2021, a demonstration was held in city of Kokshetau where citizens expressed discontent with concept of compulsory vaccination against COVID-19 in which the deputy äkım met with the crowd and assured them that decision whether to be vaccinated would be based on each individual's personal choice.[46]

in result of the government's COVID-19 vaccine mandate for all in-person employees, protests took place on 6 July 2021 in Kazakhstan where citizens demanded to stop the fines for businesspeople who refused to mandate for workers as well free PCR testing for the unvaccinated.[47][48] In Oral, instructions were given out to crowd in avoiding the inoculation.[49] Reports of detentions of people by the police occurred in Almaty and Aktobe that day.[50] On 17 July, demonstrations occurred throughout the cities, where in Pavlodar hundred people gathered at the central square which was dispersed by security forces with detainees being pushed into police vans and some managing to flee the area.[51]

Lebanon

Many protesters argued for monetary relief from the countries slumping economy after weeks of the lockdown.[44] At least one demonstrator died after soldiers used tear gas, batons, and live bullets to disperse a protesters in Tripoli who were throwing molotov cocktails.[52] Protesters also congregated in Beirut outside the central bank and threw rocks at the building, and took over major roads as they claimed there wasn't enough done to protect the economy and those that would suffer the most economically.[53]

Malaysia

On 31 July 2021, hundreds of protesters attempted to gather in Merdeka Square, Kuala Lumpur, calling for the resignation of Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin over his and the Malaysian government's handling of the COVID-19 pandemic.[54][55][56] The protests took place despite Movement Control Order (MCO) restrictions being in place, and Malaysian police blocking access to Merdeka Square itself.[57][58] The anti-government protests took place following a state of emergency declaration, where parliament and elections were suspended, and amid an ongoing political crisis.[54][55] On 2 August, opposition MPs held a protest in Merdeka Square after being blocked from entering Parliament by police.[59][60]

Pakistan

Dozens of doctors were arrested in Quetta after protesting the lack of safety equipment that they had been given to battle the spread of the disease.[61] Hundreds of laborers protested against their forced layoffs due to the pandemic by gathering outside their old places of work throughout the city of Karachi.[62]

Parents of students who had been studying abroad in the Chinese province of Hubei protested against the government's decision to leave the children in the area in February 2020.[63]

Philippines

Spontaneous demonstrations were held on 1 April 2020 by a Quezon City urban poor community to protest lack of food and other assistance during the metropolitan-wide COVID-19 lockdown.[64] Police violently dispersed protesters and arrested 21 people.[65] The city mayor and a Congress representative appealed to police to release those arrested.[65]

In May 2020, journalist and individuals protested the cease and desist order that led to the shutdown of media giant ABS-CBN, a move that jeopardized more than 11,000 jobs and prevented the broadcast of vital information about the pandemic. More protests were held after the House of Representatives junked ABS-CBN's application for a legislative franchise.[citation needed]

Jeepney drivers rendered jobless by the COVID-19 emergency protested in Caloocan on 3 June 2020. Six protesters were arrested and jailed for a few days to one week.[66]

Several groups held protests nationwide to coincide with the commemoration of Philippine Independence on 12 June 2020.[67] Among these was the "Grand Mañanita" protest at the University of the Philippines in Quezon City. The Grand Mañanita protested the government's response to the COVID-19 crisis and Congress' passage of a controversial anti-terror bill.[68]

Thailand

Demonstrations at the Democracy Monument, Bangkok at night

On 18 July, Thailand saw the largest street demonstration since the 2014 Thai coup d'état at the Democracy Monument in Bangkok with around 2,500 protesters. The protesters, organised under the name Free Youth (Thai: เยวชนปลดแอก; yaowachon plod aek), announced three demands: dissolution of the House, stop threatening the people and drafting of a new constitution. The event was triggered by the failed economy due to pandemic, and unjustified implementation of the COVID-19 acts that were heavily criticised as being a tool against any possible protest. The situation erupted after two COVID-19 cases; an Egyptian soldier in Rayong Province, and a Sudanese diplomat's daughter in Asok neighbourhood of Bangkok, were tested positive earlier on 15 July. Both were excepted from COVID-19's travel restrictions and containment. Many criticised on both the government's failure to contain the disease from these VIPs, and its failure to boost the heavily affected tourism industry in Rayong Province.[69][70] The protesters demanded the government to accept within two weeks, or face larger demonstrations.[citation needed]

Later on 19 July, several protests erupted in Chiang Mai Province and Ubon Ratchathani Province.[71]

Europe

Anti-lockdown demonstration in Rådhuspladsen, Copenhagen, 27 March 2021

Belgium

On 31 January 2021, police in Brussels said they had arrested more than 400 people to prevent a banned protest of anti-COVID-19 measures.[72]

Belarus

In May 2020, a lowered approval of authoritarian president Alexander Lukashenko amid his handling of the COVID-19 pandemic led to street protests against his government. Mass protests erupted across Belarus following the August 2020 Belarusian presidential election which was marred by allegations of widespread electoral fraud.[citation needed]

Bosnia and Herzegovina

On 6 April 2021, anti-governmental protests "Fight for Life" were held by a group of citizens and activists in Bosnia and Herzegovina's capital Sarajevo in front of the Parliamentary Assembly and the Federal Government, seeking resignations from Chairman of the Council of Ministers Zoran Tegeltija and Federal Prime Minister Fadil Novalić, due to lack of leadership during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bosnia and Herzegovina and late procurement of COVID-19 vaccines for the country.[73] Further anti-governmental protests were held eleven days later, on 17 April as well.[74]

Bulgaria

On 30 March 2020 The Bulgarian Health Ministry issued an order that made not wearing a face mask in public punishable by law at a time when no masks were available for purchasing in the country. After strong public unrest, the order was recalled on the following day[75] and re-instated yet again later, with some modifications.[76] A small protest took place on 19 April 2020 in Sofia against the measures to combat the COVID-19 pandemic, with many of the participants expressing concerns about their livelihoods.[77] Protests with an anti-vax slant that also demanded the resignation of the government, organized by the Vazrazhdane party,[78] were held in May and June, resulting in a few arrests, but did not see a significant turnout.[79]

Public disapproval grew during the pandemic and reached a spontaneous culmination on 9 July 2020 after a police raid on the Presidency of Bulgaria in what was perceived as an attack against President Rumen Radev, a vocal critic of prime minister Boyko Borisov, who has been in power since 2009,[80] and the long-standing grievances against endemic corruption and state capture. Daily demonstrations were held in the country's capital Sofia until April 2021, though the number of protesters dwindled during the autumn and winter months when the country was heavily affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.[81]

Czechia

In late 2020 and during 2021, many anti-responses protests occurred as the pandemic situation in country worsened and measures, often legally unsubstantiated, were prolonged. Protesters demanded revoking of the restrictions such as gathering limitations or pubs closure. Many of them also refused face-masks wearing, which gave them a nickname "anti-rouškaři", meaning "mask-refusers". The most violent incident occurred on 18 October in Prague, when group of radical protesters, including football hooligans, clashed with police forces after protest was dissolved due to violations of hygienic measures. 20 officers were injured as well as unknown number of protesters. 144 persons were arrested. This is in contrast with mostly peaceful protests which are typical in Czechia. Since then, police has changed a tactics to document offences rather than doing large maneuvers to disperse crowds. [82][83][84]

France

The Paris suburb Villeneuve-la-Garenne saw riots in April 2020, partly about the strains of the coronavirus outbreak and lockdown on working-class families, often immigrants, who live in small apartments in crowded public housing buildings. Many have reported that in poorer neighbourhoods the policies are difficult to follow due to over crowding and cause the neighbourhoods to be impacted more than wealthier Parisians. The demonstrations have since been seen in the suburb Hauts-de-Seine, and other French cities Toulouse, Lyon and Strasbourg.[85]

Vaccination obligation, sanitary pass

The announcement of president Macron on 12 July 2021 of a COVID-19 vaccination obligation for all health care workers by 15 September, as well as the obligation for people older than twelve to show a "sanitary pass" as of August for admittance to cafés, restaurants, cinemas, hospitals,[86] senior citizens' homes, trains,[87] shopping malls,[88] and other public venues led to protests across France. The 'sanitary pass' should prove that someone is either vaccinated, has recently tested negative,[86] or has recovered from COVID-19.[89] Macron's motivation was: "We are in a new race against time", "Vaccination is the only way to protect yourself and others".[86]

Marine Le Pen, challenger of Macron in the 2022 French presidential election, immediately condemned the vaccination obligation as "indecent insolence" attesting of "ingratitude" towards the health care workers.[86] On Wednesday 14 July, the French National day called 'Bastille Day', in Paris some 2,250 people protested against these new corona restrictions. Demonstrations were also held in Toulouse, Bordeaux, Montpellier, Nantes and 48 other places, totalling around 19,000 protesters. Slogans chanted were: "Down with dictatorship", "Down with the health pass". A demonstrator equated the health pass with "segregation". Objects and fireworks were thrown at the police, who answered with tear gas and arrests.[90]

On Saturday 17 July, nationwide some 114,000 people protested against the two new measures.[91] On 24 July, some 160,000 people around France protested against the measures. Protesters chanted: "Liberty! Liberty!" Projectiles including a chair were thrown at the police in Paris, who reacted with tear gas and water cannons.[92]

On 25 July, the French Senate nevertheless agreed to the measures except the pass obligation for children under 18 years old.[93]

On 31 July, over 200,000 people nationwide protested against these plans. Thousands around Place de la Bastille in Paris chanted: "Liberté!" [Freedom!]. Signs accused Macron of being a dictator.[94] A bus driver motivated his protest as: "I'm not an antivaxer (...) But this is going to fast, I want to wait and see". A hospital worker said: "These vaccines are experimental ; there's no way I'm gonna take it".[91] A placard in Paris cited Macron: ' "Je ne rendrai pas la vaccination obligatoire", Emmanuel Macron, Novembre 2020 ' ["I will not make vaccination obligatory", Macron, Nov. 2020]. Another: ' De la démocratie à la dictature il n'y a qu'un <<PASS>> ' [From democracy to dictatorship is only one step [or] one pass].[95] Another: 'VACCINÉ A LA LIBERTÉ' [VACCINATED FOR FREEDOM].[96]

On Saturday 7 August, 237,000 people protested on 198 locations in France, the authorities reported. In Paris, Lyon, Toulouse, rioters pelted the police with all sorts of things, police reacted with tear gas and charges and arrests.[97] The sanitary pass obligation came into effect on 9 August, civilians risk a fine of 135 euro for disobedience, business owners risk a 45,000 euro fine or one year prison and the closure of their business.[89]

Protesters in Toulouse (Occitania), 28 August 2021

On 14 August 2021, between 200,000 and 250,000 people according to the police and the organisers have again demonstrated, on more than 200 locations in France, against the pass sanitaire and the obligated vaccination of health care personnel. Placards compared the sanitary pass with 'Apartheid', people chanted slogans about the "health dictatorship". Police in Lyon used pepper spray against rioters.[98]

Since then, these protests grew smaller ; on Saturday, 18 September 2021, the demonstrators in France against the sanitary pass and obligated vaccination counted 80,000.[99]

Greece

The 2021 Greek protests broke out in response to a proposed government bill that would allow police presence on university campuses for the first time in decades, for which opposition groups accused the government of taking advantage of the COVID-19 lockdown to impose increasingly authoritarian measures.[100]

Germany

Protester with a "Free The Bee" placard during the COVID-19 protests in Berlin on 29 August 2020, near the Brandenburg Gate

Since April 2020, in Germany numerous protests against government policies over the COVID-19 pandemic have been held in several cities. A protest in Berlin on 29 August was estimated by authorities to have drawn 38,000 participants.[101]

Several of the protests in Germany, like the one of 29 August, were organized by the group Querdenken 711, based in Stuttgart. They consider the German corona restrictions to be disproportionate, but most of all they censure the violation of nine articles of the German Constitution by the German corona measures.[102][better source needed]

Anarchist anti conspiracy theory, anti-gentrification protest

At the 29 August demonstration in Berlin, one of the invited orators was Robert F. Kennedy Jr., lawyer and conspiracy theorist and nephew of the assassinated U.S. President John F. Kennedy. He warned the crowd that the COVID-19 measures being deployed in many countries might lead to the implementation of a surveillance state and global totalitarianism, and predicted that the Berlin protests would be discredited by news media as a "nazi" eruption.[101][103]

Anarchists, libertarian socialists and anti-fascists in Germany have been protesting what is seen as increased state control and surveillance. Focusing on increasing gentrification, wealth inequality, evictions and police measures. Anarchists have seen increasing evictions of anarchist communities and squats.[104][105][106]

Hungary

On 28 February 2021, around 3-5000 protesters gathered in the capital city of Budapest at Hősök tere to protest the lockdown regulations, and the illegitimate Constitution of 2012.[citation needed]

Ireland

On 24 July 2021, over ten thousand people attended an anti discrimination march in Dublin, in response to the Irish government's government's announcement that vaccine passports would be introduced.[107] Said passports were to be used to prevent unvaccinated people availing of indoor dining services.

Freedom March Dublin
July 24 Anti Discrimination March, Dublin

Hundreds attended an anti-lockdown, anti-face mask protest in Dublin on 22 August 2020. The protest was organised by Health Freedom Ireland with support from Yellow Vest Ireland. Four people were arrested at the protest.[108] Another protest was organised by the same groups on 3 October, with up to a thousand protesters marching through the city centre before staging a sit-down protest in the main shopping area of Grafton Street.[109]

On 27 February 2021, violent clashes between protesters and the Garda Síochána erupted during an anti-lockdown protest near St Stephen's Green in Dublin. Three Gardaí were injured and 23 people were arrested in the aftermath of the protest. The Taoiseach Micheál Martin condemned the demonstration as "an unacceptable risk to both the public and Gardaí".[110] A non-violent anti-lockdown protest with approximately 450 people in attendance took place on 6 March in Cork. The event was organised by The People's Convention.[111] Six people were arrested on the day of the protest.[112]

Italy

Since the month of March 2020, many people started protesting over COVID-19 and the rules imposed by the Italian government.

Netherlands

On 24 January 2021, violent protests erupted as a reaction to the Dutch government decision to impose a curfew as a means to curb the spread of the COVID-19.[113][114] The curfew, imposed between 9 PM to 4:30 AM, was the first of its kind to be enacted in the country since the Second World War.[113][115] Protests took place in most major cities, including Amsterdam and Eindhoven. Police made hundreds of arrests and issued thousands of fines.[113][116][114] The Dutch Police Association described the riots at the worst violence in Netherlands in the last 40 years.[113] The protests have been described as being composed of mostly young men.[113][116]

An opinion poll by public broadcaster NOS indicated that the curfew was supported by seven out of 10 Dutch respondents, with just 18% of the population opposing it.[116]

Poland

Protest against anti-pandemic measures in Warsaw

Hundreds of protesters gathered in the Polish border town of Zgorzelec to protest the lockdown regulations, the protest was staged specifically on the foot bridge connecting Zgorzelec and the German town of Görlitz as many lived in Poland but worked in Germany. Many protested the inability to cross the borders of the countries as they lived in a different country from where they worked, and similar protests were seen in border towns along the Polish-German border and the Polish-Czech border.[117] Freedom march (Marsz Wolności) happens every month, for example in Wrocław.[118]

Russia

Security forces broke up a crowd of about 2,000 individuals protesting against the lockdown in Vladikavkaz, with some detained and the believed organizer arrested prior to the event.[119] Some protesters at the event used their social media to post videos about their demands against the lockdown, with one stating; "Today, under the pretext of the coronavirus, which doesn't exist, people are driven into slavery, they are trying to establish total control over us all."[120]

Serbia

On 7 July, a riot began in Belgrade after the government's announcement of a curfew for the weekend. Protests began because of the government's continuous change in handling COVID-19 policy and alleged hiding of the number of COVID-19 cases in the country.[citation needed]

Spain

Protest in Spain on 26 May 2020

Thousands of people, mostly supporters of the far-right party Vox, attended protests in Madrid and the country's regional capitals over the lockdown and its impact on the Spanish economy. The protesters drove in convoys to adhere to social distancing, with the Madrid protest led by a bus containing Vox leader Santiago Abascal. Abascal called for the national government of Pedro Sánchez to resign over its handling of the virus.[121]

On 20 September 2020, thousands of people went out in protest throughout the Community of Madrid demanding the resignation of the regional government of Isabel Díaz Ayuso, after the latter had announced two days earlier a partial lockdown affecting 850,000 people living in the region's poorest areas which was dubbed as "segregationist" and fostering "stigmatisation, exclusion and territorial discrimination".[122] The protests came amid growing criticism of Ayuso's handling of the virus as "ineffective" and of her coalition government having "floundered" in its attempt to antagonize with Sánchez's government, as the region became the most heavily hit area in all of Europe in the second wave of the pandemic with many neighborhoods being near or above 1,000 cases per 100,000 people.[123]

Sweden

On 7 March 2021, an estimate of 300-500 people gathered at Medborgarplatsen in Stockholm to protest against COVID-19 measures.[124]

Anti-lockdown protest march in London, April 2021

United Kingdom

The first protests against the national mandatory lockdown in the United Kingdom took place in April 2020, extending into the following month before abating as lockdown restrictions were slowly eased. As local area lockdown measures were reintroduced towards the end of summer, followed by stricter national lockdown measures, anti-lockdown protests resurged across the country beginning in September 2020. More than 55 protesters have been arrested in these events as of October 2020. Some protesters have claimed that COVID-19 is a hoax, and many refused to wear masks or practice social distancing.[125] Protests have occurred in Shrewsbury,[126] Glastonbury,[127] London, Manchester, Glasgow, Belfast,[128] Hove,[129] Birmingham,[130] Liverpool,[131] and a few other cities.

Protests over restrictions overlapped with anti-vaccine protests following the start of the UK's COVID-19 vaccination programme in December 2020.[132][133] On the weekend of July 24–25, 2021, protests broke out again in several major cities in the United Kingdom including London,[134] Leeds,[135] Manchester,[136] and Birmingham due to people opposing vaccines and proposed COVID passports.[137]

North America

Canada

Anti-lockdown protest in Vancouver, British Columbia, on 26 April 2020

In Canada, American imitation protests began on 19 April 2020 in Vancouver.[138][139] Protests also occurred in Toronto, Edmonton, and Ottawa.[140][141]

On 21 April 2020 it was reported that prisoners at the Saskatchewan Penitentiary had been protesting against restrictions placed upon them in response to COVID-19, like being kept in their cells for 20 hours a day.[142]

On 15 January 2021, Roman Baber, Member of Provincial Parliament for the Toronto riding of York Centre, was removed from the caucus of the governing Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario after publishing an open letter to Premier Doug Ford criticizing Ontario's lockdown restrictions. Baber continued his anti-lockdown advocacy as an independent member of the legislative opposition.[143][144][145]

On 1 September 2021, thousands of people protested COVID-19 vaccine policies and mask mandates outside of Vancouver City Hall.[146]

Alberta

A group calling itself "Walk for Freedom" has been organizing anti-mask protests since at least April 2020.[147][148] Concerns were raised when several hundred protestors took part in a February 20, 2021 freedom convoy and Jericho Torch March at the Legislature organized by the "Walk for Freedom Alberta" and the "Freedom Unity Alliance".[149] Posters advertising the rally included an image of white nationalists marching through Charlottesville with Tiki torches in the 2017 US Unite the Right rally.[149][150][151][152] The group of hundreds of unmasked anti-lockdown protestors, carrying a Walk for Freedom banner included COVID-19 deniers.[153] Others were supporters of a pastor who was arrested for repeatedly refusing to comply to public health regulations, such as capping attendance, physical distancing and mask-wearing.[154][155] The Justice Centre for Constitutional Freedoms (JCCF), representing the pastor, had launched a legal charter challenge against the Alberta government.[156] The Mayor of Edmonton said that the rally organizers were from outside Edmonton and that they "may be associated with known hate groups. Edmonton unequivocally condemns racism, misogyny and other forms of hate—such speech is not welcome in our community."[157][153][158]

Cuba

A series of protests began on 11 July 2021, triggered by the shortage of food and medicine and the government's response to the resurgent COVID-19 pandemic in Cuba.[159]

Mexico

On 29 April, police in Yajalón, Chiapas, southern Mexico, opened fire on people who were protesting against a checkpoint that left their community isolated. Residents of neighbouring Tumbalá complained that the checkpoint made it impossible for them to access governmental and banking services and that it seemed to be related to a belief that Tumbalá had a high rate of coronavirus infection. Checkpoints have been installed in about 20% of Mexico's municipalities, which the federal government has declared illegal.[160]

Hundreds of Mexicans participated in caravans on 30 May demanding the resignation of President Andrés Manuel López Obrador because of his handling of the COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico and the economy. The caravans, which took place in about a dozen cities across the country, consisted largely of luxury cars.[161]

Violence broke out on 4 June during demonstrations in Guadalajara, Jalisco to demand justice after the death of Giovanni López in the town of Ixtlahuacán de los Membrillos.[162] López, a 30-year-old mason, had been arrested on 4 May for not wearing a facemask during a lockdown and died the next day while in police custody.[163]

United States

The United States' national response began in early January, originating with actions by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the White House. The first U.S. case of COVID-19 was recorded on 19 January 2020. In the United States, the response was determined by state and local officials in coordination with the CDC and federal officials. On 9 February, governors were briefed by the White House Coronavirus Task Force.[164] Beginning in mid-March, various social distancing measures to limit spread of the virus were undertaken by state governors and in some cases counties or cities.[165] Actions taken included stay-at-home orders ("quarantine"), school and business closures, and limitation on the size of gatherings. On 19 March 2020, President Donald Trump, and Vice President Mike Pence met (via teleconference) with governors of most states to continue coordination and to assist states with their responses. FEMA was brought into the effort around this time.[166] By 7 April 42 states had lockdown orders in place.[167] The shutdowns had serious economic effects, including a steep rise in unemployment due to the shutdown of stores and workplaces.[168] By 15 April protests and demonstrations had broken out in some states, demanding that the area be "re-opened" for normal business and personal activity. By 1 May there had been demonstrations in more than half of the states, and many governors began to take steps to lift the restrictions.[169]

Ohio protesters, 18 April
Ohio protesters, 20 April 20
Several hundred anti-lockdown protesters rallied at the Ohio Statehouse on 20 April.[170]

One of the first protests was in Michigan on 15 April 2020, organized by conservative groups which also encouraged groups in other states to copy their wording and templates.[citation needed] Protesters in numerous other states said they were inspired by Michigan, and they used Michigan's material on their own websites, Facebook groups, and Reddit pages to promote their protests.[171] Subsequent protests were organized by Republican activists or party organizations,[172][173][174] Tea Party activists,[175] armed militia movement supporters,[176] guns-rights activists,[177] and "anti-vaccination" advocates.[178][179]

Protesters, many without face masks, opposed the shelter-in-place orders in their states for various reasons. Many said they wanted businesses reopened so they could go back to work. Many others displayed pro-Trump banners, signs, and MAGA hats.[180] Still others insisted the lockdowns were a violation of their constitutional rights. One militia leader told a reporter, "Re-open my state or we will re-open it ourselves."[181] An opinion article in The New York Times, and an article in the Washington Post claimed that the anger driving the protests was "both real and manufactured", blaming conservative groups for engaging in astroturfing via centralized organization backed by anonymous donors.[182][183]

President Trump originally issued guidelines for how to phase out restrictions, saying that governors would decide how to reopen their own states and suggesting a cautious three-phase approach.[184] However, the next day he reacted to the protests against social restrictions by encouraging the protests.[185][186][187][188] Governor Jay Inslee (D-WA) accused the president of "fomenting domestic rebellion" and said the president's call to ignore his own team's guidelines was "schizophrenic".[189][190]

An anti-lockdown protester in April 2020

Facebook announced that it would block events and messages from anti-quarantine protest groups "when gatherings do not follow the health parameters established by the government and are therefore unlawful".[191]

In California, Libertarian Party chapters in Santa Clara and San Francisco counties condemned lockdown measures in the state with a resolution stating in part that, "these government impositions have already lasted for longer than could be justified by the purpose for which they were allegedly necessary, constituting a sort of "mission creep" that could potentially keep them in place with no definite end, and with economic and social damage continuing to accumulate and becoming more severe."[192] Such responses were compared to the Anti-Mask League of San Francisco movement that was seen during the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic, where the efficacy of masks was debated during the second wave of flu in the city.[193] The Anti-Mask League saw the medical advice on masks as unconstitutional, and contrary to the principles of a free society.[193]

Cell phone data from digital-contact tracing software, captured from opt-in cellphone apps and the Firm VoteMap, then provided to The Guardian (publication) by progressive campaign group the Committee to Protect Medicare, suggests that cell phones present at anti-lockdown protests in Colorado, Florida, Illinois, Michigan and North Carolina traveled long distances after leaving the protests. Dr. Rob Davidson, executive director of the Committee to Protect Medicare, said that although “it's hard to draw a straight line between devices, individuals at these protests, and cases”, the data suggests that the protests may be epidemiologically significant events." and that "The behavior we’re seeing at protests carries a high risk of infection."[194]

On 30 January 2021, dozens of "SCAMDEMIC" protesters blocked the entrance to the vaccination center at Dodger Stadium in Los Angeles.[195]

Oceania

Australia

Throughout 2020 and 2021, numerous illegal protests against COVID-19 lockdown restrictions and the Australian Federal Government's vaccination programme were held in several state capitals including Adelaide, Brisbane, Melbourne, Perth and Sydney.[196][197][198] Police have responded to these protests by arresting demonstrators and issuing fines.[199][200][201]

In Melbourne, Victoria from 20 to 24 September 2021, a series of protests occurred in the city's CBD. Protestors were predominantly tradesmen who were acting against lockdowns, the closure of the construction industry and vaccine mandates. It is believed that several protestors were 'fake tradies' who could be described as 'professional protestors'. Police responded with rubber bullets, batons and tear gas. Various media outlets were critical of the police's heavy handed response to the protestors and bystander civilians.[202][203][204]

New Zealand

Between August and October 2021, several protests were held across New Zealand to protest official lockdown measures, vaccination, and spread disinformation about the COVID-19 pandemic. Key groups and individuals that were involved in these protests included FACTS NZ, Kotahitanga Movement Aotearoa, the NZ Liberty Movement and Jami-Lee Ross and Billy Te Kahika's Advance New Zealand party.[205][206][207][208]

In January 2021, Te Kahika led a "freedom rally" outside the New Zealand Parliament opposing lockdown policies, Communist China, and the United Nations while expressing support for US President Donald Trump.[209] Following the reinstatement of lockdown restrictions in mid–August 2021 in response to a Delta variant community outbreak, anti-lockdown protests were staged in Auckland, Tauranga, Nelson, and Christchurch. Key participants included Te Kahika and far right activist Kyle Champman.[210][211]

South America

Argentina

The 17A protests on 17 August 2020

On 25 May, during the Anniversary of the First National Government, protests erupted all over the country,[212] but predominantly in Buenos Aires and Cordoba. The protest consisted mostly of small business owners demanding the local and national governments to be allowed to work, under a sanitary protocol. At this point, the stay-at-home order had been in place nationwide for 65 days.

On 20 June, which is the country's National Flag Day, the size of the protests had grown immensely compared to the previous ones held in late May.[213] While business owners and workers were still calling for more workplaces to be allowed to operate, the government's attempt to expropriate Vicentín, a soy and wheat manufacturer and one of the largest exporting firms in the country, also sparked outrage and motivated protests in many provinces where agriculture plays a big role in their local economy, particularly in the Santa Fe Province, where this business is located. Due to the huge backlash, president Alberto Fernandez has decided to step down and not take over the company. Protests also took place in the city centre of most cities and at the gates of the presidential residence. While the lockdown had been lifted in most provinces and municipalities, it was still enforced in Greater Buenos Aires, which represents around 60% of the Argentine economy. On this day, the stay-at-home order had been in place for 90 days, making it the longest mandatory quarantine in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.[214]

On 9 July, the country's Independence Day, protests flared up once again.[215] In addition to workers and entrepreneurs asking to be allowed to work, many were angered by the fact that Lazaro Baez, who is serving jail time for money laundering and stealing from taxpayers' money and is associated with much of the government staff, could be eligible for parole. This incident, and the murder of Fabián Gutiérrez, who was ex-president Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner's secretary while she was in office, which many opposition affiliates believe was orchestrated by the administration and covered up as a "crime of passion" by two unknown men, also caused large outrage in some sectors of the population. This day marked 109 days since the lockdown was put in place in the Greater Buenos Aires area.[citation needed]

On 1 August, many opponents of Alberto Fernandez's government, and of Kirchnerism in general, took to the streets to rally against the judicial reform proposed by the administration. Many believe this is a way to absolve vice president Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner from her ongoing trials, and also a way to give the governing political party control over the judicial branch of government, all disguised under the promise that this reform will make judges and trials fairer and less biased to certain ideologies or political parties. While the lockdown has not been completely lifted in Buenos Aires, many activities and businesses are now allowed to take place again since mid-July, and a re-opening scheme with various stages has been designed and put in place, although with no strict dates. However, many companies, such as restaurants or bars for instance, still cannot open and many business owners are uncertain of how much more they can endure with their doors closed.

On 17 August, the General José de San Martín Memorial Day, a public holiday which commemorates Argentine liberator and army general José de San Martín, protesters gathered once again on the city centres of the main Argentine cities for the same reasons as the previous one, 16 days prior. This manifestation was backed by many political figures from the Juntos por el Cambio, Frente Despertar, Fuerza Unidaria Argentina, opposition forces, near liberal, libertarian and survivalist groups. Some, however, have decided to not publicly support the protests, most notably Horacio Rodríguez Larreta, mayor of Buenos Aires.

Brazil

2020

On 18 March, Brazilians in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro protested Jair Bolsonaro's handling of the pandemic by banging pots and pans on their balconies and shouting "Bolsonaro out!"[216]

On 19 April, Brazil's Armed Forces Day, Bolsonaro gathered with about 600 protesters in front of the Army's headquarters in Brasilia to demand a "military intervention" into the handling of the coronavirus situation. Smaller protests calling for governors to resign occurred the previous day in Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Brasilia.[217]

2021

Protest against the government of President Bolsonaro in Campinas on 29 May 2021
Pro-government protest in Brasília on 15 May 2021
Bolsonaro flies over protests in Brasília on 15 May 2021

On May 1, protest in favor of Jair Bolsonaro happened around the country. The protesters demanded the end of lockdowns, shouting “I authorize”, referring to the president's claim that he will invoke Article 142 of the Brazilian Constitution to “restore the entire Article 5 of the Constitution” and that he was only waiting for an “authorization” of the people. The protests happened in many Brazilian cities, occupying avenues such as Avenida Paulista. Bolsonaro flew by helicopter over the protests in Brasilia, where there were also protests against his government, although they left after pro-Bolsonaro protesters came and surprised by their size, considered “small” by some.[218][219][220][221][222][223][224][225][226][227][228][229][230][citation needed]

Chile

On 18 March, riots took place at the communes of El Bosque, La Pintana, and other communes in the Santiago Metropolitan Region.[231] Rioters are denouncing the hunger resulting from the partial and total lockdowns in the region. They claim that the lockdowns have left them without work and means of sustenance.

Colombia

Protesters in Medellín, Colombia on 1 May 2021

In April 2021, President Iván Duque proposed increased taxes at a time when the COVID-19 pandemic in Colombia was beginning to worsen as various healthcare systems were failing throughout the country. A series of protests began in Colombia on 28 April 2021 against increased taxes, corruption, and health care reform.[232]

Ecuador

The 2020 demonstrations in Ecuador were a series of national mobilizations carried out in May 2020, after the announcement of economic measures by the government of Lenín Moreno adopted due to the serious health and economic crisis generated by the COVID-19 pandemic in Ecuador.[233][234]

Paraguay

On March 5, protests broke out across Paraguay due to the lack of efficient government response against the pandemic in the country. The protests gathered thousands of people, and left hundreds of injured. It culminated in the resignation of the then health minister Julio Mazzoleni.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Bolsonaro compartilha vídeo de manifestações; veja fotos de militantes". Poder360. 15 March 2020.
  2. ^ Haddad, Mohammed. "Mapping coronavirus anti-lockdown protests around the world". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  3. ^ Newey, Sarah; Gulland, Anne; Smith, Nicola (25 July 2021). "Plague and protests: how Covid has sparked a wave of unrest around the world". The Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  4. ^ "Thousands Around Globe Protest COVID-19 Shots, Lockdowns | Voice of America - English". www.voanews.com. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  5. ^ "Analysis | The pandemic leads to another summer of anger". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  6. ^ a b Melimopoulos, Elizabeth (7 February 2021). "What's driving the COVID lockdown protests?". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  7. ^ Dearden, Lizzie (16 May 2020). "Inside the UK's biggest anti-lockdown protest". The Independent. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  8. ^ "How COVID-conspiracists and anti-vaxxers are getting organised and making money". Sky News. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  9. ^ Wilson, Jason (17 April 2020). "The rightwing groups behind wave of protests against Covid-19 restrictions". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  10. ^ Ong, Kyler; Pantucci, Raffaello. "From fringe to mainstream: The rightwing in Europe". Observer Research Foundation.
  11. ^ Commission for Encountering Extremism (July 2020). COVID-19: How hateful extremists are exploiting the pandemic (PDF) (Report). UK Government.
  12. ^ Loucaides, Darren (9 August 2021). "Inside the U.K.'s anti-lockdown media machine". Coda Story. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  13. ^ McGowan, Michael (25 March 2021). "Where 'freedom' meets the far right: the hate messages infiltrating Australian anti-lockdown protests". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  14. ^ Kelly, Cait (25 August 2021). "How neo-Nazis use anti-lockdown protests to recruit new members". The New Daily. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  15. ^ Bongiorno, Frank (15 August 2021). "Right out there: how the pandemic has given rise to extreme views and fractured conservative politics". The Conversation. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  16. ^ a b Knaus, Christopher (27 July 2021). "Who's behind Australia's anti-lockdown protests? The German conspiracy group driving marches". the Guardian. Retrieved 30 August 2021.
  17. ^ "World Wide Rally for Freedom, Peace & Human Rights III". Facebook. 23 July 2021. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  18. ^ Backovic, Nick; Wildon, Jordan; Ondrak, Joe (14 May 2021). "Exclusive: Worldwide Anti-Lockdown Protests Organized by German Cell". Logically. Retrieved 30 August 2021.
  19. ^ "Coronavirus: Ivory Coast protesters target testing center". BBC News. 6 April 2020.
  20. ^ Dahir, Abdi Latif (8 May 2020). "Kenyans held for weeks in quarantine were then told to pay to get out". baltimoresun.com. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  21. ^ "Kenyans protest house demolitions amid virus restrictions". ABC News. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  22. ^ "Malawi high court blocks coronavirus lockdown". www.aljazeera.com. 17 April 2020. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  23. ^ "Nigeria: COVID-19 patients protest over 'ill treatment'". www.aa.com.tr. 6 May 2020. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  24. ^ "Nigerian workers riot over Covid-19 lockdown | New Straits Times". NST Online. 27 April 2020. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  25. ^ "Refugees Protest Under Coronavirus Lockdown in Rwanda | Voice of America - English". www.voanews.com. 17 April 2020. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  26. ^ Anciano, Fiona (24 April 2020). ""We are still waiting" – protesting under lockdown in South Africa". openDemocracy. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  27. ^ "Anti-lockdown protests around the world | Reuters.com". www.reuters.com. 5 May 2020. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  28. ^ "Zimbabwe police accused of assaulting young female activists". ABC News. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  29. ^ "covid 19: Wuhan rent protest shows unrest brewing in China after lockdown - The Economic Times". Economictimes.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  30. ^ Huang, Kristin (19 April 2020). "Chinese woman charged with organising protests during coronavirus lockdown". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  31. ^ Jain, Sanjeev Miglani (14 April 2020). "India extends world's biggest lockdown, ignites protest by migrant workers". Reuters – via reuters.com.
  32. ^ Puranam, Elizabeth (15 April 2020). "India's migrant workers protest against lockdown extension | India News". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  33. ^ "國會通過爭議性法案 印尼各地發起罷工示威". Liberty Times (in Chinese). 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  34. ^ "Thousands of Indonesians protest against passage of jobs bill". Reuters. 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  35. ^ BERITA TERBARU ~DEMO PPKM DI JAKARTA~BERITA VIRAL HARI INI. KABAR MILITER. 24 July 2021. Archived from the original on 24 July 2021. Retrieved 7 September 2021 – via YouTube.
  36. ^ Dinilai Merugikan, Warga Bandung Berunjuk Rasa Tolak PPKM Darurat | Fokus. Indosiar. 21 July 2021. Archived from the original on 25 July 2021. Retrieved 7 September 2021 – via YouTube.
  37. ^ Demo Tolak PPKM Darurat Berakhir Ricuh. CNN Indonesia. 21 July 2021. Archived from the original on 25 July 2021. Retrieved 7 September 2021 – via YouTube.
  38. ^ Demo Mahasiswa Tolak Kebijakan PPKM Darurat di Flyover Pasar Rebo Berujung Ricuh. KOMPASTV. 23 July 2021. Archived from the original on 24 July 2021. Retrieved 7 September 2021 – via YouTube.
  39. ^ Demo Tolak PPKM hari ini dijakarta pusat. Echa mahkota. 24 July 2021. Archived from the original on 25 July 2021. Retrieved 7 September 2021 – via YouTube.
  40. ^ Rosner, Elizabeth (20 April 2020). "Israelis maintain social distancing while protesting Netanyahu". Nypost.com. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  41. ^ staff, T. O. I. (20 April 2020). "Police clash with stone-throwing Haredi protesters in Jerusalem, 5 arrested". www.timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  42. ^ Hendrix, Steve; Rubin, Shira (26 January 2021). "Violence erupts in Israel's ultra-Orthodox neighborhoods over coronavirus restrictions". The Washington Post. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
  43. ^ Arab, The New (May 2020). "The Iraq Report: Protest movement revives as coronavirus lockdown eased". alaraby. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  44. ^ a b "Coronavirus lockdowns prompt protests in India, Lebanon, Iraq". The Washington Post. 19 April 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  45. ^ "Казахстан: митинг в белых халатах". belsat.eu (in Russian). 16 April 2020. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  46. ^ "Несколько десятков человек собрались на площади в Кокшетау". www.nur.kz (in Russian). 25 January 2021. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  47. ^ ГОВОРОВ, Георгий (6 July 2021). "НГ: "Принудительной вакцинации нет" - аким Костаная встретился с участниками акции протеста". www.ng.kz. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  48. ^ "В Казахстане вводится режим обязательной вакцинации". inbusiness.kz (in Russian). 1 July 2021. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  49. ^ ЛЕВИНА, МАРИЯ (6 July 2021). "В Уральске и Костанае прошли митинги против обязательной вакцинации". vlast.kz (in Russian). Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  50. ^ "Несколько человек задержаны в Алматы и Актобе на месте анонсированных Аблязовым акций". Радио Азаттык (in Russian). 6 July 2021. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  51. ^ "Митинги против обязательной вакцинации прошли в нескольких городах Казахстана". ust-kamenogorsk.city. 19 July 2021. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  52. ^ Osseiran, Nazih; Nissenbaum, Dion (28 April 2020). "Protesters in Lebanon Demand Economic Relief as Coronavirus Lockdown Eases". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  53. ^ Hatoum, Bassam; Hussein, Bilal (29 April 2020). "Lockdown lifts in Lebanon, protests erupt over economic crises". Christian Science Monitor. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  54. ^ a b "Hundreds take to Kuala Lumpur's streets in anti-gov't protest". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
  55. ^ a b Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Malaysian protesters demand PM Muhyiddin's resignation | DW | 31.07.2021". DW.COM. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
  56. ^ Ramlan, Alyaa Alhadjri & Vivian Yap, Yasmin (31 July 2021). "Hundreds of #Lawan protesters in KL demand PM's resignation". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
  57. ^ Solhi, Farah (31 July 2021). "#Lawan rally ends as protesters fail to get inside Dataran Merdeka | New Straits Times". NST Online. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
  58. ^ Solhi, Farah (31 July 2021). "#Lawan rally goes on despite police warning, risk of spreading Covid-19 [NSTTV] | New Straits Times". NST Online. Retrieved 1 August 2021.
  59. ^ hermesauto (2 August 2021). "Police stop Malaysian opposition lawmakers from marching to Parliament". The Straits Times. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  60. ^ "Malaysia opposition MPs gather at Merdeka Square after being blocked from entering parliament". CNA. Retrieved 2 August 2021.
  61. ^ "Pakistan arrests doctors protesting over lack of virus safety equipment | World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  62. ^ Latif, Aamir (30 April 2020). "Millions of Pakistani laborers struggle amid COVID-19 lockdown". www.aa.com.tr. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  63. ^ Raza Hassan, Syed (16 February 2020). "Parents protest as Pakistani students stuck in China under coronavirus lockdown". Reuters. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  64. ^ Ellao, Janess Ann J. (1 April 2020). "Arrests in QC reveal lack of gov't support to lockdown-affected residents". Bulatlat. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  65. ^ a b "21 protesters demanding food aid arrested in Quezon City". CNN. 1 April 2020. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  66. ^ Lalu, Gabriel Pabico (18 June 2020). "2 of jailed Piston 6 protesters test positive for COVID-19". Inquirer. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  67. ^ "LIST: 'Grand mañanita' and other Independence Day 2020 activities". Rappler. 11 June 2020. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  68. ^ Gonzales, Cathrine (12 June 2020). "Look: 'Grand mañanita' protest on Independence Day". INQUIRER.net. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  69. ^ "Thai protesters call for government to resign". Reuters. 18 July 2020. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  70. ^ ""เยาวชนปลดแอก" ยุติการชุมนุมก่อนเที่ยงคืน อ้างความปลอดภัย สรุปบรรยากาศจากเริ่มจนจบ". BBC Thai (in Thai). 18 July 2020. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  71. ^ "Chiang Mai, Ubon rally against Prayut, government". Bangkok Post. 20 July 2020. Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  72. ^ "Coronavirus digest: Brussels police detain hundreds of anti-lockdown protesters | DW | 31.01.2021". DW.COM.
  73. ^ D. Be. (6 April 2021). "Protesti u Sarajevu: Građani ispred Vlade FBiH skandiraju "Ostavke" i "Paraziti napolje"" (in Bosnian). Klix.ba. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
  74. ^ N.V. (17 April 2021). "Završeni protesti građana u Sarajevu: Na potezu su parlamentarci, rok je 1. maj" (in Bosnian). Klix.ba. Retrieved 17 April 2021.
  75. ^ "Министър Ананиев отменя заповедта си за задължително носене на маски до постигане на консенсус". dariknews.bg (in Bulgarian). 31 March 2020. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  76. ^ "Връщат маските на закрито - стават задължителни в магазина и в офиса". dariknews.bg (in Bulgarian). 22 June 2020. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  77. ^ "Протест в София срещу мерките за ограничаване на коронавируса". mediapool.bg (in Bulgarian). 19 April 2020. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
  78. ^ "8 арестувани на протеста в София (ВИДЕО+СНИМКИ)". nova.bg (in Bulgarian). 14 May 2020. Retrieved 3 September 2020.
  79. ^ Kirov, Nikolay (6 June 2020). "Протест на антиваксъри в София". vesti.bg (in Bulgarian). Retrieved 3 September 2020.
  80. ^ "Raids Worsen Bulgarian President's Spat With Prosecutor". Bloomberg.com. 9 July 2020. Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  81. ^ "88-а вечер на протести в София: Призоваха за атаки срещу офисите на управляващата коалиция (Снимки)". 24chasa.bg (in Bulgarian). 4 October 2020. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  82. ^ "Demonstrace proti vládním opatřením se změnila v potyčky s těžkooděnci. Policie zadržela přes 100 lidí". 18 October 2020.
  83. ^ "Na Václavském náměstí demonstrovaly stovky lidí proti omezením". 31 January 2021.
  84. ^ Šplíchal, Pavel (25 February 2021). "Antirouškaři jsou ti nejtrapnější disidenti. Jako poslední věří vládě".
  85. ^ McAuley, James (25 April 2020). "Violent protests in Paris suburbs reflect tensions under lockdown". The Washington Post. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  86. ^ a b c d (Dutch) 'Fransman die zich niet wil laten prikken moet maar voelen'. NRC Handelsblad, 13 July 2021.
  87. ^ (Dutch) 'Frans parlement stemt in met coronapaspoort en verplichte vaccinatie voor het zorgpersoneel'. NRC Handelsblad, 26 July 2021.
  88. ^ De Fournas, Marie (13 July 2021). "Coronavirus : Comment ça va se passer avec la fin des tests PCR et antigéniques gratuits ?". 20 Minutes. Retrieved 25 July 2021.
  89. ^ a b (Dutch) 'Coronapaspoort in Frankrijk: 'Wij houden ons hart vast' '. NRC Handelsblad, 11 August 2021.
  90. ^ "French police fire tear gas as anti-vaccine protest turns violent". Al Jazeera. 15 July 2021. Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  91. ^ a b (Dutch) 'Gele hesjes lopen te hoop tegen 'pasdictatuur' ' ('Yellow vests crowd together against 'pass dictatorship' '). NRC Handelsblad, 1 August 2021.
  92. ^ "French protesters reject virus passes, vaccine mandate". AP NEWS. 24 July 2021. Retrieved 25 July 2021.
  93. ^ Dagblad van het Noorden, 26 July 2021.
  94. ^ 'Protesters Say France's Anti-Virus Pass Is A Threat To Personal Freedoms'. National Public Radio, 2 August 2021. Retrieved 20 August 2021.
  95. ^ Dagblad van het Noorden, 5 August 2021.
  96. ^ (Dutch) 'Gedwongen vaccinatie: demonstraties in Frankrijk, applaus in Italië' ('Enforced vaccination: demonstrations in France, applause in Italy'). NRC Handelsblad, 10 August 2021.
  97. ^ Dagblad van het Noorden, 9 August 2021.
  98. ^ (Dutch) 'Weer massale protesten tegen Franse 'gezondheidsdictatuur' ' (Again massive protests against French 'health dictatorship'). De Telegraaf, 14 August 2021. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  99. ^ Dagblad van het Noorden, 23 September 2021.
  100. ^ "Protest gets heated ahead of campus policing vote". Athens: Associated Press. 10 February 2021.
  101. ^ a b In German: 'Fast 40.000 Menschen bei Corona-Demos – Sperren am Reichstag durchbrochen' (Almost 40,000 people by corona demos – fences at the Reichstag broken through). rbb24.de, 29 August 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  102. ^ QUERDENKEN 711 – Manifesto, version 2 May 2020, official English version.[permanent dead link] (Routed from their homepage https://querdenken-711.de/) Retrieved 18 September 2020.
  103. ^ 'Germany coronavirus: Hundreds arrested in German 'anti-corona' protests'. BBC, 30 August 2020. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  104. ^ "Berlin police clear anarchist-occupied house Liebig 34 | DW | 09.10.2020". DW.COM.
  105. ^ Collective, CrimethInc Ex-Workers. "CrimethInc. : Surviving the Virus: An Anarchist Guide : Capitalism in Crisis—Rising Totalitarianism—Strategies of Resistance". CrimethInc.
  106. ^ "German Company Targeted in Anarchist Arson Attack for COVID-19 "Repression" | Far-Right / Far-Left Threat | Articles". ent.siteintelgroup.com. 29 June 2020.
  107. ^ O'Riordan, Ellen. "Large crowd gathers in Dublin to protest vaccine cert system". The Irish Times.
  108. ^ Lally, Conor; Burns, Sarah; Cosgrove, Jennifer (22 August 2020). "Four arrested in clashes at anti-facemask protest in Dublin". The Irish Times. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  109. ^ Beresford, Jack (3 October 2020). "Anti-mask demonstrators stage sit-in protest in Dublin". The Irish Post. Retrieved 4 October 2020.
  110. ^ McGreevy, Ronan (27 February 2021). "Three gardaí injured and 23 arrested after clashes at Dublin anti-lockdown protest". The Irish Times. Retrieved 2 March 2021.
  111. ^ Baker, Noel; O'Keeffe, Cormac; English, Eoin (6 March 2021). "Cork anti-lockdown protest attracts hundreds into city centre". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  112. ^ Neville, Steve (6 March 2021). "Six arrested on day of Cork anti-lockdown protest". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  113. ^ a b c d e Khan, Mehreen (26 January 2021). "Dutch extend Covid curfew despite violent backlash". Financial Times. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  114. ^ a b Henley, John (26 January 2021). "Netherlands shaken by third night of riots over Covid curfew". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  115. ^ Cunningham, Erin (25 January 2021). "Riots explode across Netherlands over covid restrictions, with Dutch leader calling participants criminals". The Washington Post. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  116. ^ a b c Pop, Valentina (26 January 2021). "Dutch Rioters Clash With Police for Third Night Over Covid-19 Curfew". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  117. ^ Reuters (25 April 2020). "Hundreds Protest Against Lockdown at Polish-German Border". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  118. ^ Wójcik, Jerzy (20 February 2020). "Marsz wolności we Wrocławiu. Koronasceptycy przyszli tłumnie, interweniowała policja [ZDJĘCIA]" (in Polish). Gazeta Wrocławska.
  119. ^ Furlong, Ray (21 April 2020). "Russian Police Break-Up Anti-Lockdown Protest". Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
  120. ^ Alexander Marrow and Maria Tsvetkova (20 April 2020). "Hundreds protest in southern Russian against coronavirus curbs". Reuters.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  121. ^ "Coronavirus: Anti-lockdown car protest draws thousands". BBC. 23 May 2020.
  122. ^ "Protests in Madrid over coronavirus lockdown measures". The Guardian. 20 September 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  123. ^ "Lockdown measures and rising anger in Madrid as Covid-19 takes hold again". The Guardian. 18 September 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  124. ^ "Polisen upplöser demonstration mot coronarestriktioner". SVT Nyheter. 6 March 2021 – via www.svt.se.
  125. ^ "Revealed: The So-Called 'Top Class Doctors And Nurses' Backing Anti-Mask Protests". HuffPost. 5 September 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020.
  126. ^ Leather, Harry. "Two arrested after anti-lockdown protesters in stand-off with police on roof of Shrewsbury College". www.shropshirestar.com. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  127. ^ Mills, Richard (1 May 2020). "Live updates as police attend protest against lockdown in Somerset". somersetlive. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  128. ^ Brown, Faye (16 May 2020). "19 arrested as anti-lockdown protests take place across country". Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  129. ^ "Coronavirus lockdown prompts Hove seafront protest". Brighton and Hove News. 19 May 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  130. ^ Balloo, Stephanie (12 September 2020). "Protests in Birmingham city centre over lockdown restrictions". BirminghamLive. Retrieved 12 September 2020.
  131. ^ Humphries, Jonathan (18 October 2020). "Conspiracy theorist Piers Corbyn tells crowd of unmasked protesters 'covid is a hoax'". Liverpool Echo. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  132. ^ "The anti-lockdown movement is still going strong". The Economist. 3 July 2021. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
  133. ^ "Bottles thrown at police in anti-lockdown and anti-vaccination protest". ITV News. 19 July 2021. Retrieved 12 September 2021.
  134. ^ "Thousands protest amid global anger against COVID restrictions". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 25 July 2021.
  135. ^ Norden, Jasmine; 18:38, 24 Jul 2021 (24 July 2021). "'Freedom Rally' blocks Leeds roads as protestors accuse government of lies". LeedsLive. Retrieved 25 July 2021.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  136. ^ Abbit, Beth; 17:40, 24 Jul 2021Updated22:23 (24 July 2021). "Protesters chant 'shame on you' at police during march through Manchester". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 25 July 2021.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  137. ^ by Oprah Flash, Nick Horner; Updated18:04, 24 Jul 2021 (24 July 2021). "Lockdown protests causing city centre road chaos". BirminghamLive. Retrieved 25 July 2021.
  138. ^ Carrigg, David (19 April 2020). "COVID-19: Small group protests coronavirus restrictions in Vancouver". Vancouver Sun. Postmedia Network. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  139. ^ "Protesters march against COVID-19 prevention measures in Vancouver | CTV News". Bc.ctvnews.ca. 26 April 2020. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  140. ^ "'A bunch of yahoos,' Ont. premier says of people protesting COVID-19 emergency measures | CTV News". Toronto.ctvnews.ca. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  141. ^ Lauren, Boothby (1 May 2020). "Hundreds flock to Alberta legislature to protest COVID-19 restrictions". Edmonton Journal. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  142. ^ Bridges, Alicia (21 April 2020). "Sask. Penitentiary inmates protest COVID-19 restrictions they say put them in cells 20 hours per day". CBC News. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
  143. ^ Benzie, Robert (15 January 2021). "Premier Doug Ford turfs MPP Roman Baber from Tory caucus for opposing COVID-19 lockdown". Toronto Star. Torstar. Retrieved 15 January 2021.
  144. ^ "Ford ousts MPP from caucus over open letter pushing for end to COVID-19 lockdown". cbc.ca. 15 January 2021.
  145. ^ @Roman_Baber (15 January 2021). "I was removed from the @OntarioPCParty caucus. It's a regretful decision since many colleagues agree with me, incl @fordnation in large part. I don't regret speaking out for millions of lives & livelihoods decimated by Public Health, I serve the public. The Lockdown is grounded in false public health narrative, poor planning & bad data. While Doug only cares about re-election, Lockdowns are killing more than saving. I couldn't watch the suffering anymore. I hope I encouraged other professionals to speak out" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 15 January 2021 – via Twitter.
  146. ^ "Protesters target B.C. hospitals disrupting patients, staff - NEWS 1130". www.citynews1130.com. Retrieved 3 September 2021.
  147. ^ "Protest to 'End the Lockdown' attracts more than 100 people to Alberta legislature". CTV News Edmonton. 29 April 2020. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  148. ^ Bruch, Timm (12 December 2020). "Anti-mask protesters take to the streets in Calgary to fight COVID-19 restrictions". CTV News. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  149. ^ a b Bench, Allison (21 February 2021). "Protesters gather from across the province at Alberta legislature to fight COVID-19 health measures". Global News. Edmonton, Alberta. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  150. ^ "COVID Conspiracy Groups Are Using A Picture From Charlottesville Neo-Nazi Rally To Promote Their Upcoming 'Torch March'". Canadian Anti-Hate Network. 16 February 2021. Archived from the original on 16 February 2021. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  151. ^ WALK108 (16 February 2021). "Poster for Walk for Freedom rallies". Facebook. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  152. ^ "Experts confused, concerned with anti-lockdown rally imagery". 660 NEWS. 24 January 2021. Retrieved 22 February 2021.
  153. ^ a b "Hatred, COVID-19 skepticism denounced after anti-lockdown rally at Alberta legislature". CTV Edmonton. 21 February 2021. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  154. ^ "GraceLife pastor held in custody for refusing to comply with bail conditions". Edmonton, Alberta. 17 February 2021. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  155. ^ "Anti-lockdown rally at Alberta legislature voices support for jailed pastor". The Star. Edmonton, Alberta. 21 February 2021. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  156. ^ Griwkowsky, Catherine (7 December 2020). "Justice centre launches legal challenge against Covid restrictions". Politics Today. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  157. ^ "Anti-restriction protesters gather at legislature, march in streets with tiki torches". 660 News. Edmonton, Alberta. 20 February 2021. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  158. ^ Anti-lockdown protesters clash with media at "Walk for Freedom" rally. CTV News. 21 February 2021. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  159. ^ Robles, Frances (11 July 2021). "Cubans Denounce 'Misery' in Biggest Protests in Decades". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 11 July 2021.
  160. ^ "México: Protesta contra retén por COVID termina en tiroteo". AP NEWS. 30 April 2020. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  161. ^ "Manifestaciones anti AMLO en varios estados - Estados - La Jornada". www.jornada.com.mx (in Spanish). 30 May 2020. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  162. ^ "Justicia para Giovanni: Protestan por el asesinato en Jalisco". www.milenio.com. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  163. ^ "Así fue la detención de Giovanni López justo antes de su muerte". La Vanguardia (in Spanish). 5 June 2020. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  164. ^ "TIMELINE: The Trump Administration's Decisive Actions To Combat the Coronavirus". www.donaldjtrump.com. Archived from the original on 11 July 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  165. ^ Rodriguez, Olga R.; Har, Janie (16 March 2020). "San Francisco Bay Area counties issue shelter-in-place order". ABC News. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  166. ^ "Remarks by President Trump and Vice President Pence in a Video Teleconference with Governors on COVID-19". whitehouse.gov. Retrieved 10 July 2020 – via National Archives.
  167. ^ Dittrich, Valerie (7 April 2020). "COVID-19: 'People have to be responsible for themselves': Eight U.S. states still not locked down". National Post. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  168. ^ Lee, Yen Nee (24 April 2020). "7 charts show how the coronavirus pandemic has hit the global economy". CNBC. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  169. ^ Budryk, Zack (3 May 2020). "Governors, experts await results of reopening states as protests continue". The Hill. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  170. ^ Rouan, Rick (20 April 2020). "Protesters at Statehouse demand state reopen as DeWine announces schools to remain closed". The Columbus Dispatch. Archived from the original on 25 April 2020. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
  171. ^ "This Is How A Group Linked To Betsy DeVos Is Organizing Protests To End Social Distancing, Now With Trump's Support". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  172. ^ "How Trump allies have organized and promoted anti-lockdown protests". Reuters. 22 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  173. ^ "Meet the Trump-loving group behind protest of Gov. Whitmer's stay-home order". bridgemi.com. 22 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  174. ^ News, Cole Miller | KOMO (18 April 2020). "Protest against state closure planned for tomorrow in Olympia". KOMO.
  175. ^ "Trump allies have their fingerprints on lockdown protests". POLITICO. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  176. ^ Wilson, Jason (17 April 2020). "The rightwing groups behind wave of protests against Covid-19 restrictions". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 18 April 2020. ...  ...
  177. ^ Uren, Adam. "WaPo reveals Minnesota gun group link to anti-quarantine protests". Bring Me The News. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  178. ^ Bogel-Burroughs, Nicholas (4 May 2020). "Antivaccination Activists Are Growing Force at Virus Protests". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
  179. ^ Sommer, Will; Kucinich, Jackie (22 April 2020). "Anti-Vaxxers and Lockdown Protesters Form an Unholy Alliance". Daily Beast. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  180. ^ Flynn, Meagan (16 April 2020). "Chanting 'lock her up,' Michigan protesters waving Trump flags mass against Gov. Gretchen Whitmer's coronavirus restrictions". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  181. ^ "Coronavirus lockdown protest: What's behind the US demonstrations?". BBC News. 21 April 2020. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  182. ^ Graves, Lisa (22 April 2020). "Opinion | Who's Behind the 'Reopen' Protests?". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  183. ^ Stanley-Becker, Isaac; Romm, Tony (22 April 2020). "The anti-quarantine protests seem spontaneous. But behind the scenes, a powerful network is helping". The Washington Post. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  184. ^ "Trump completes reversal, telling govs 'you are going to call your own shots' and distributes new guidelines". CNN. 16 April 2020. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  185. ^ Shear, Michael D.; Mervosh, Sarah (17 April 2020). "Trump Encourages Protest Against Governors Who Have Imposed Virus Restrictions". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
  186. ^ Itkowitz, Colby (17 April 2020). "'Liberate': Trump Tweets Support of Protests Against Stay-at-Home Orders". The Washington Post. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  187. ^ "Trump Foments Protests Against Governors; Experts Warn of Testing Shortages". The New York Times. 17 April 2020. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  188. ^ "'They seem very responsible to me': Trump defends anti-lockdown protesters - video". The Guardian. Reuters/AP. 18 April 2020. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  189. ^ "Trump accused of 'fomenting rebellion' after 'LIBERATE' tweets". aljazeera.com. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  190. ^ Cummings, William. "Governors slam Trump's call to 'liberate' states where protesters object to coronavirus restrictions". USA TODAY. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
  191. ^ Overly, Steven. "Republicans attack Facebook as network shuts down anti-lockdown protests". POLITICO. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  192. ^ "Resolution Regarding Government Pandemic Response". Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  193. ^ a b Kane, Peter Lawrence (29 April 2020). "The Anti-Mask League: lockdown protests draw parallels to 1918 pandemic". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
  194. ^ Wilson, Jason (18 May 2020). "US lockdown protests may have spread virus widely, cellphone data suggests". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 23 May 2020.
  195. ^ "Dodger Stadium mass COVID-19 vaccination site temporarily shuts down after protesters block entrance". KTLA. 31 January 2021. Retrieved 31 January 2021.
  196. ^ "'Incredibly disappointing': Ugly scenes at Melbourne coronavirus protests as violence erupts". Seven News. 10 May 2020. Archived from the original on 11 September 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  197. ^ Noble, Freya (20 February 2021). "Anti-coronavirus vaccine protests held in Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth". 9 News. Nine Digital Pty Ltd. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  198. ^ Dye, Josh; Clun, Rachel (21 February 2021). "COVID-19 vaccines begin as Prime Minister receives Pfizer immunisation". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  199. ^ "Police arrest more than 400 demonstrators at Melbourne anti-lockdown protest". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 3 November 2020. Retrieved 5 June 2021.
  200. ^ "Australia: Scores arrested at anti-coronavirus lockdown protests". Al Jazeera. 21 August 2021. Archived from the original on 21 August 2021. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  201. ^ "Anti-lockdown protesters clash with police in Australia". Radio New Zealand. 21 August 2021. Archived from the original on 21 August 2021. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  202. ^ Clench, Sam; Smith, Rohan (20 September 2021). "Melbourne 'freedom' protest: Chaos erupts on CBD streets, West Gate Freeway over construction sector shutdown". News.com. Nationwide News Pty Ltd. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
  203. ^ Tuffiel, Rhiannon (20 September 2021). "Tradie protest 'hijacked' by 'extreme organisations': CFMEU boss". News.com.au. Nationwide News Pty Ltd. NCA NewsWire. Retrieved 21 September 2021.
  204. ^ Harley, Kyle (24 September 2021). "More than 200 arrests made across Melbourne as police disperse anti-lockdown protesters". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 24 September 2021.
  205. ^ Pearse, Adam (13 August 2020). "Covid 19 coronavirus: Lockdown protest stops traffic in Whangārei". The Northern Advocate. ISSN 1170-0777. Archived from the original on 21 August 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  206. ^ "Anti-lockdown, vaccination and 1080 protesters take over Auckland's Aotea Square". Newshub. Archived from the original on 24 August 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
  207. ^ Bayer, Kurt (5 September 2020). "Covid 19 coronavirus: Hundreds turn out for anti-lockdown protests". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 5 September 2020. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
  208. ^ "Advance Party and crowd rallies against Covid-19 restrictions and lockdowns". The New Zealand Herald. 12 September 2020. ISSN 1170-0777. Archived from the original on 13 September 2020. Retrieved 13 September 2020.
  209. ^ Walls, Jason (14 January 2021). "Police keeping a close eye on controversial Billy TK 'freedom rally' outside Beehive". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 14 January 2021. Retrieved 14 January 2021.
  210. ^ "Conspiracy theorist Billy TK arrested at anti-lockdown protest". Radio New Zealand. 18 August 2021. Archived from the original on 18 August 2021. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  211. ^ Lourens, Marine; Sherwood, Sam; McNeilly, Hamish (20 August 2021). "Covid-19: Former far-Right leader to spend weekend behind bars after alleged lockdown breach". Stuff. Archived from the original on 20 August 2021. Retrieved 20 August 2021.
  212. ^ de 2020, 25 de Mayo. "Un reducido grupo de manifestantes protestó contra la cuarentena en la Plaza de Mayo". infobae (in Spanish). Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  213. ^ "En Twitter: cómo es el banderazo nacional contra la expropiación de Vicentin". La Nación (in Spanish). 20 June 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  214. ^ Goñi, Uki (17 June 2020). "Argentina's president enters voluntary isolation amid coronavirus surge". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  215. ^ "Multitudinario banderazo contra el Gobierno en diferentes puntos del país". La Nación (in Spanish). 10 July 2020. Retrieved 10 July 2020.
  216. ^ "Coronavirus protest in Brazil sees millions bang pots from balconies". BBC. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 13 May 2020.
  217. ^ "Brazil's Bolsonaro joins protest against coronavirus restrictions | Coronavirus pandemic News". Al Jazeera. 20 April 2020. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  218. ^ "Fortaleza tem manifestação a favor de Bolsonaro neste 1º de maio; 17 são detidos". G1. 1 May 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  219. ^ "Manifestação em defesa de Bolsonaro tem grande adesão na Avenida Paulista: 'Eu autorizo', gritava a multidão". Conexão Política. 2 May 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  220. ^ "No Rio de Janeiro, manifestação a favor de Bolsonaro interdita totalmente a Avenida Atlântica". Conexão Política. 2 May 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  221. ^ "Bolsonaro sobrevoa de helicóptero manifestação a seu favor no DF". R7. 1 May 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  222. ^ "Manifestações pró e contra Bolsonaro tomam conta da Esplanada". Metrópoles. 1 May 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  223. ^ "Manifestação pró-Bolsonaro passa do lado de Manifestação da esquerda em Brasília e causa perplexidade: "olha o tamanho da Manifestação da CUT", VEJA VÍDEO". Terra Brasil Notícias. 2 May 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  224. ^ "Natal/RN fica verde e amarela com movimento pró-Bolsonaro, veja vídeos e imagens". Terra Brasil Notícias. 1 May 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  225. ^ "Manifestantes vão às ruas de diversas capitais em defesa do presidente Jair Bolsonaro". Conexão Política. 1 May 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  226. ^ "Feriado do Dia do Trabalho tem manifestações em cidades do RS". G1. 1 May 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  227. ^ "Cidades no Sul de MG registram manifestações a favor do governo Bolsonaro neste 1º de maio". G1. 1 May 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  228. ^ "Apoiadores de Bolsonaro promovem manifestações em diversos Estados". Jovem Pan. 1 May 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  229. ^ "No 1º de Maio, povo vai às ruas sob o lema: 'Eu autorizo, presidente!'". Pleno.News. 1 May 2021. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
  230. ^ "Brasil. Milhares de pessoas nas ruas para apoiar Bolsonaro no Dia do Trabalhador". RTP Notícias. 2 May 2021. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
  231. ^ El Mercurio S.A.P (18 May 2020). "Protestas en la comuna de El Bosque: Vecinos denuncian falta de alimentos en medio de cuarentena | Emol.com". Emol. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  232. ^ Acosta, Luis (29 April 2021). "More subdued second day of Colombia tax reform protests". Reuters. Archived from the original on 1 May 2021.
  233. ^ "Coronavirus: Ecuador protests against cuts amid pandemic". BBC News. 26 May 2020.
  234. ^ "Police Beat and Injure Ecuador's Covid-19 Protesters". Human Rights Watch. 25 May 2020.