Racing game

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Racing games are a

racing competition. They may be based on anything from real-world racing leagues to fantastical settings. They are distributed along a spectrum between more realistic racing simulations and more fantastical arcade-style racing games. Kart racing games emerged in the 1990s as a popular sub-genre of the latter. Racing games may also fall under the category of sports video games
.

Sub-genres

Arcade-style racing

Sega Rally arcade racing games at the Veljekset Keskinen department store in Tuuri, Finland in 2017

Usually,

Forza Horizon
.

Conversely, many arcade racing games in amusement arcades frequently use hydraulic motion simulator arcade cabinets that simulate the look and feel of driving or riding a vehicle. For example, a motorbike that the player sits on and moves around to control the on-screen action, or a car-like cabinet (with seats, steering wheel, pedals and gear stick) that moves around in sync with the on-screen action. This has been especially common for arcade racing games from Sega since the 1980s.[1][2] However, this can typically only be found in arcade racing games for amusement arcades, rather than arcade-style racing games for home systems.

During the mid-late 2000s there was a trend of new

Juiced series and FlatOut 2. Some arcade-style racing games increase the competition between racers by adding weapons that can be used against opponents to slow them down or otherwise impede their progress so they can be passed. This is a staple feature in kart racing games such as the Mario Kart series, but this kind of game mechanic also appears in standard, car-based racing games as well. Weapons can range from projectile attacks to traps as well as non-combative items like speed boosts. Weapon-based racing games include games such as Full Auto, Rumble Racing, Grip: Combat Racing, Re-Volt and Blur. There are also Vehicular combat games that employ racing games elements: for example, racing has been featured as a game mode in popular vehicular combat franchises such as Twisted Metal, Destruction Derby and Carmageddon
.

Simulation racing

Sierra On-Line was a leading publisher of 1990s simulation racing games, including titles like NASCAR Racing 1999 Edition and Grand Prix Legends.

Simulation style racing games strive to convincingly replicate the handling of a real

automobile. They often license real cars or racing leagues, but will sometimes use fantasy cars built to resemble real ones if unable to acquire an official license for them. Vehicular behavior physics are a key factor in the experience. The rigors of being a professional race driver are usually also included (such as having to deal with a car's tire condition and fuel level). Proper cornering technique and precision racing maneuvers (such as trail braking
) are given priority in simulation racing games.

Although these racing simulators are specifically built for people with a high grade of driving skill, it is not uncommon to find aids that can be enabled from the game menu. The most common aids are

anti-lock brakes
(ABS), steering assistance, damage resistance, clutch assistance, and automatic gear changes.

Sound plays a crucial role in player feedback in racing games, with the engine and tire sounds communicating what is physically happening to the car. The three main elements of car audio are intake, exhaust, and internal engine sounds. Recorded samples of those elements are implemented in-game by methods such as granular synthesis, loop-based modelling, or physical modeling. Tire sounds modulate loop samples or pitch based on slip angle and deformation to let the player know the limit of grip. The best sounding games effectively integrate the sound model with the vehicle and tire simulation models.[3][4][5]

Some of these racing simulators are customizable, as game fans have decoded the tracks, cars, and executable files. Internet communities have grown around the simulators regarded as the most realistic and many websites host internet championships. Some of these racing simulators consist of

Kart racing

SuperTuxKart, an example of a kart racing video game

Kart racing games have simplified driving mechanics while adding obstacles, unusual track designs and various action elements.

clutch pedal.[7][10]

While

Futuristic racing

Futuristic racing games are a type of racing game where players use science fiction vehicles, such as sci-fi cars or other sci-fi vehicles, to race against the clock or other vehicles.[12] A number of futuristic racing games may also feature vehicular combat elements.

In the arcades, futuristic racing games date back to the 1980s. The

STUN Runner (1989) by Atari Games featured 3D polygon graphics and allowed players to blast other vehicles.[16]

On home consoles, futuristic racing games were defined by Nintendo's F-Zero (1990) for the SNES, which spawned the F-Zero series. The PlayStation game Wipeout (1995) by Psygnosis featured 3D polygon graphics and spawned the Wipeout series. The F-Zero series subsequently made the transition to 3D polygon graphics with F-Zero X (1998) for the Nintendo 64.[17]

History

1941–1976: Electro-mechanical driving games

The basis for racing video games were arcade driving

film reel to project pre-recorded driving video footage, awarding the player points for making correct decisions as the footage is played. These early EM driving games consisted of only the player vehicle on the road, with no rival cars to race against.[21]

EM driving games later evolved in Japan, with Kasco's 1968 racing game Indy 500,

first-person perspective on a screen,[21][24][25] resembling a windscreen view.[26] The gameplay involved players driving down a circular road while dodging cars to avoid crashing,[21] and it resembled a prototypical arcade racing video game, with an upright cabinet, yellow marquee, three-digit scoring, coin box, steering wheel and accelerator pedal.[20] Indy 500 sold over 2,000 arcade cabinets in Japan,[19] while Speedway sold over 10,000 cabinets in North America,[22] becoming one of the biggest arcade hits of the 1960s.[19] Taito's similar 1970 rear-projection driving game Super Road 7 involved driving a car down an endlessly scrolling road while having to dodge cars, which formed the basis for Taito's 1974 racing video game Speed Race.[27]

One of the last successful electro-mechanical arcade games was

1970: Mainframe racing games

The BBC television program Tomorrow's World broadcast a mainframe computer racing game played between TV presenter Raymond Baxter and British two-time Formula One world champion Graham Hill on their 1970 Christmas special, broadcast on Christmas Eve, 1970.[33] The game was written by IBM-employee, Ray Bradshaw, using CALL/360 and required two data centre operators to input the instructions.[34]

1972–1988: Top-down 2D racing video games

Atari founder Nolan Bushnell had the idea for a driving video game in the early 1970s. When he was a college student, he worked at an arcade where he became familiar with EM driving games, watching customers play and helping to maintain the machinery, while learning how it worked and developing his understanding of how the game business operates.[35] When he founded Atari, Bushnell had originally planned to develop a driving video game, influenced by Speedway, but they ended up developing Pong (1972) instead.[36]

The earliest rudimentary racing video game to be released dates back to 1972, with the release of the first

two-player game with black and white graphics and controlled with a two-way joystick.[38] The following year, Atari released the first driving video game in the arcades, Gran Trak 10, which presents an overhead single-screen view of the track in low resolution white-on-black graphics.[39][40] It inspired the Kee Games clone Formula K, which sold 5,000 arcade cabinets.[41]

In late 1974,

vertical scrolling,[44] inspired by two older electro-mechanical games: Kasco's Mini Drive and Taito's Super Road 7.[27] Speed Race was re-branded as Wheels by Midway Games for release in North America and was influential on later racing games.[45] Midway also released another version, Racer, with a sit-down cabinet.[46] Speed Race became a hit in Japan,[27] while Wheels and Wheels II sold 10,000 cabinets in the United States.[41] Its use of vertical scrolling was adopted by Atari's Hi-way (1975), which introduced a sit-down cabinet similar to older electro-mechanical games.[44]

In 1977, Atari released Super Bug, a racing game historically significant as "the first game to feature a scrolling playfield" in multiple directions.[47] Sega's Monaco GP (1979) was one of the most successful traditional 2D racing games, becoming the most popular arcade driving game in the US in 1981, and among the highest-grossing games that year,[48] while making a record number of appearances on the RePlay arcade charts through 1987.[49] In 1980, Namco's overhead-view driving game Rally-X was one of the first games to have background music,[50] and allowed scrolling in multiple directions, both vertical and horizontal.[51] It also uses a radar, to show the rally car's location on the map.[52]

1976–1992: Pseudo-3D racing video games

Fonz (1976) upright arcade cabinet

In February 1976,

Killer List of Videogames calls "very impressive and ahead of their time".[64] Turbo, released by Sega in 1981, was the first racing game to use sprite scaling with full-color graphics.[65]

highest-grossing arcade game of 1983 in North America, cemented the genre in place for decades to come and inspired a horde of other racing games".[68] It sold over 21,000 arcade cabinets in the US by 1983,[69] and again became the highest-grossing arcade game of 1984 in the US.[70]

Taito's Laser Grand Prix, introduced in July 1983, was the first racing

REVS, released for the BBC Microcomputer. The game offered an unofficial (and hence with no official team or driver names associated with the series) recreation of British Formula 3. The hardware capabilities limited the depth of the simulation and restricted it (initially) to one track, but it offered a semi-realistic driving experience with more detail than most other racing games at the time.[76]

Since the mid-1980s, it became a trend for arcade racing games to use hydraulic

Super Scaler" technology that allowed pseudo-3D sprite-scaling at high frame rates.[65] Hang-On became the highest-grossing arcade game of 1986 in the United States,[79] and one of the year's highest-grossing arcade games in Japan[80][81] and London.[82]

Suzuki's team at Sega followed it with hydraulic motion simulator cockpit cabinets for later racing games, notably Out Run (1986).[1] It was one of the most graphically impressive games of its time, known for its pseudo-3D sprite-based driving engine, and it became an instant classic that spawned many sequels. It was also notable for giving the player the non-linear choice of which route to take through the game and the choice of soundtrack to listen to while driving,[83] represented as radio stations. The game has up to five endings depending on the route taken, and each one was an ending sequence rather than a simple "Congratulations" as was common in game endings at the time.[84] It became Sega's best-selling arcade cabinet of the 1980s,[85] with over 30,000 arcade cabinets sold worldwide.[86] The same year, Durell released Turbo Esprit, which had an official Lotus license, and working car indicator lights.

In 1987, Square released Rad Racer, one of the first stereoscopic 3D games.[87] In the same year, Atari produced RoadBlasters, a driving game that also involved a bit of shooting.

One of the last successful pseudo-3D arcade racers was Sega's

Lakitu will help you out to know the rules and rescue racers from falling down.[91]

1988–1994: Transition to 3D polygon graphics

Daytona USA (1994) twin-seat arcade cabinet

In 1988, Namco released Winning Run,[92] which used 3D polygon graphics.[93] It became the second highest-grossing arcade game of 1989 in Japan.[89] In 1989, Atari released Hard Drivin', another arcade driving game that used 3D polygon graphics. It uses force feedback, where the wheel fights the player during aggressive turns, and a crash replay camera view.

Sega produced Virtua Racing in 1992. While not the first arcade racing game with 3D graphics (it was predated by Winning Run, Hard Drivin' and Stunts), it was able to combine the best features of games at the time, along with multiplayer machine linking and clean 3D graphics to produce a game that was above and beyond the arcade market standard of its time, laying the foundations for subsequent 3D racing games.[94] It improved on earlier 3D racing games with more complex 3D models and backdrops, higher frame rate, and switchable camera angles including chase-cam and first-person views. IGN considers it the third most influential racing game of all time.[68]

In 1993, Namco released

Crusin' USA
.

1989–1995: Emergence of sim racing subgenre

The now defunct Papyrus Design Group produced their first attempt at a racing simulator in 1989, the critically acclaimed Indianapolis 500: The Simulation, designed by David Kaemmer and Omar Khudari. The game is generally regarded as the first true auto racing simulation on a personal computer. Accurately replicating the 1989 Indianapolis 500 grid, it offered advanced 3D graphics for its time, setup options, car failures and handling. Unlike most other racing games at the time, Indianapolis 500 attempted to simulate realistic physics and telemetry, such as its portrayal of the relationship between the four contact patches and the pavement, as well as the loss of grip when making a high-speed turn, forcing the player to adopt a proper racing line and believable throttle-to-brake interaction. It includes a garage facility to allow players to enact modifications to their vehicle, including adjustments to the tires, shocks and wings.[76] The damage modelling, while not accurate by today's standards, was capable of producing some spectacular and entertaining pile-ups.

Crammond's

Formula One Grand Prix in 1992 became the new champion of sim racing, until the release of Papyrus' IndyCar Racing the following year.[96] Formula One Grand Prix boasted detail that was unparalleled for a computer game at the time as well as a full recreation of the drivers, cars and circuits of the 1991 Formula One World Championship. However, the U.S. version (known as World Circuit) was not granted an official license by the FIA, so teams and drivers were renamed (though all could be changed back to their real names using the Driver/Team selection menu): Ayrton Senna
became "Carlos Sanchez", for example.

In 1995, Sega Rally Championship introduced rally racing and featured cooperative gameplay alongside the usual competitive multiplayer.[97] Sega Rally was also the first to feature driving on different surfaces (including asphalt, gravel, and mud) with different friction properties and the car's handling changing accordingly, making it an important milestone in the genre.[98]

1996–present: Modern racing games

During the early-to-mid-1990s, Sega and Namco largely had a monopoly on high-end arcade racing games with realistic 3D visuals. In 1996, a number of competitors attempted to challenge their dominance in the field, including Atari Games with

Lakitu needs to either reverse, rev up your engines to Rocket Start, or rescue players. Mario Kart 64 focused more on the items used.[91] Atari didn't join the 3D craze until 1997, when it introduced San Francisco Rush
.

In 1997,

career mode where players had to undertake driving tests to acquire driving licenses, earn their way into races and choose their own career path.[101] The Gran Turismo series has since become the second-most successful racing game franchise of all time, selling over 80 million units worldwide as of April 2018.[102]

By 1997, the typical PC was capable of matching an arcade machine in terms of graphical quality, mainly due to the introduction of first generation 3D accelerators such as 3DFX Voodoo. The faster CPUs were capable of simulating increasingly realistic physics, car control, and graphics.

Colin McRae Rally was introduced in 1998 to the PC world, and was a successful semi-simulation of the world of rally driving, previously only available in the less serious Sega Rally Championship. Motorhead, a PC game, was later adapted back to arcade. In the same year, Sega releases Daytona USA 2 (Battle On The Edge and Power Edition), which is one of the first racing games to feature realistic crashes and graphics
.

The year 1999 introduced

Crash Team Racing: Nitro Fueled (June 2019). The year 1999 also marked a change of games into more "free form" worlds. Midtown Madness for the PC allows the player to explore a simplified version of the city of Chicago using a variety of vehicles and any path that they desire. In the arcade world, Sega introduced Crazy Taxi, a sandbox racing game where you are a taxi driver that needed to get the client to the destination in the shortest amount of time.[103] A similar game also from Sega is Emergency Call Ambulance
, with almost the same gameplay (pick up patient, drop off at hospital, as fast as possible). Games are becoming more and more realistic visually. Some arcade games are now featuring 3 screens to provide a surround view.

In 2000, Angel Studios (now Rockstar San Diego) introduced the first free-roaming, or the former "free form", racing game on video game consoles and handheld game consoles with Midnight Club: Street Racing which released on the PlayStation 2 and Game Boy Advance. The game allowed the player to drive anywhere around virtual recreations of London and New York. Instead of using enclosed tracks for races, the game uses various checkpoints on the free roam map as the pathway of the race, giving the player the option to take various shortcuts or any other route to the checkpoints of the race. In 2001 Namco released Wangan Midnight to the arcade and later released an upgrade called Wangan Midnight R. Wangan Midnight R was also ported to the PlayStation 2 by Genki as just Wangan Midnight.

In 2003, Rockstar San Diego's Midnight Club II was the first racing game to feature both playable cars and playable motorcycles. Namco released a sort of sequel to Wangan Midnight R called Wangan Midnight Maximum Tune.

There is a wide gamut of driving games ranging from simple action-arcade racers like

GTR2, rFactor, X Motor Racing, CarX Street, and iPad 3D racer Exhilarace — and everything in between.[105]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Sega's Wonderful Simulation Games Over The Years". Arcade Heroes. 6 June 2013. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  2. ^ .
  3. ^ Anton Woldhek and Damian Kastbauer (May 1, 2012). "#18 – Racing Games". Game Audio Podcast (Podcast). Archived from the original on 2012-05-31.
  4. ^ Kastbauer, Damian (May 2012). "Vroom Vroom: A Study of Sound in Racing Games" (PDF). Game Developer. Vol. 19, no. 5. p. 54. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-08-11.
  5. ^ Nichols, David (May 1, 2012). "Racing Games: A Sound Study". Track Time Audio. Archived from the original on 2019-03-05.
  6. ^ McEachern, Sam (December 9, 2018). "Top 5 Best Racing Simulator Games". Auto Guide.
  7. ^ . Retrieved 2014-11-27.
  8. ^ . Retrieved 2014-11-27.
  9. ^ Adedeji, Shola (2012-06-14). "The Kart Racing Genre". Gamelitist. Archived from the original on 2014-12-11. Retrieved 2014-12-02.
  10. . Retrieved 2014-11-27.
  11. . Retrieved 2014-11-27.
  12. .
  13. ^ Gorzelany, Jim (April 1984). "Going Full Cycle". Video Games. 2 (7): 24–29.
  14. Killer List of Videogames
  15. Computer Gamer. No. 3. Argus Press
    . pp. 18–9.
  16. Future Publishing Limited
    . 20 December 2013. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  17. .
  18. .
  19. ^ .
  20. ^ a b Lendino, Jamie (27 September 2020). Attract Mode: The Rise and Fall of Coin-Op Arcade Games. Steel Gear Press. pp. 18–9.
  21. ^ .
  22. ^ a b "Kasco no Jidai ~ Moto Kansai Seisakusho Staff Interview ~" (キャスコの時代 ~元・関西製作所スタッフインタビュー~) [Kasco and the Electro-Mechanical Golden Age: Former Kansai Seisakusho Staff Interview]. Classic Videogame Station Odyssey (in Japanese). 2001. Archived from the original on 2003-06-22. Retrieved 16 April 2021. Translation available at Shmuplations.
  23. ^ "Kasco Indy 500 coin operated mechanical arcade driving game". Pinball Repair. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  24. ^ "Did You Know... Game & Pop Culture Fun Facts & Trivia". Live Magazine. Gametraders. April–May 2017. pp. 26–7.
  25. .
  26. ^ "Arcade Game Flyers: Indy 500, Kansai Seiki International (AU)". The Arcade Flyer Archive. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
  27. ^ .
  28. Killer List of Videogames
  29. ^ a b c "バンダイナムコ知新「第2回 カーレースゲームの変遷 前編」大杉章氏、岡本進一郎氏、岡本達郎氏インタビュー". Bandai Namco Entertainment (in Japanese). 25 April 2019. Archived from the original on 14 May 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
  30. ^ "調査対象5年間のベスト1" [Best 1 of the 5 years surveyed] (PDF). Game Machine (in Japanese). No. 159. Amusement Press, Inc. 15 February 1981. p. 1. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 February 2020.
  31. ^ Iwatani, Toru (September 2005). Introduction to Pac-Man's Game Science. Enterbrain. p. 33.
  32. Killer List of Videogames
  33. ^ "Tomorrow's World". www.missing-episodes.com.
  34. ^ Unknown (1970). "Ex-champion rallies, loses on points". Data Processing News. IBM.
  35. Imagine Media
    . November 1996. pp. 211–229 (213).
  36. Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation. Smithsonian Institution. pp. 33, 45. Archived
    (PDF) from the original on 23 April 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  37. .
  38. Killer List of Videogames
  39. ^ "The Grandfather of Racing Games". USGamer. Gamer Network. 2015-07-24. Archived from the original on 2016-03-05. Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  40. ^ Macy, Seth (2015-03-27). "The History of Racing Games". IGN. Archived from the original on 2016-08-18. Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  41. ^ .
  42. ^ "Interview: 'Space Invaders' creator Tomohiro Nishikado". USA Today. May 6, 2009. Retrieved 2011-03-22.
  43. ^ .
  44. .
  45. ^ "Super Bug – Overview". AllGame. 14 November 2014. Archived from the original on 14 November 2014. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  46. ^ "Industry News: New Equipment, Formula 1 Race". Cashbox. January 9, 1982. p. 40.
  47. .
  48. ^ "Gaming's most important evolutions". GamesRadar. October 8, 2010. p. 2. Archived from the original on June 15, 2011. Retrieved October 24, 2011.
  49. ^ "Gaming's most important evolutions". GamesRadar. October 8, 2010. p. 3. Archived from the original on 2011-06-15. Retrieved April 27, 2011.
  50. Killer List of Videogames
  51. ^
    Famitsu DC (in Japanese). Enterbrain
    . 2002. pp. 30–2.
  52. Killer List of Videogames
  53. Killer List of Videogames
  54. Killer List of Videogames
    |access-date=November 15, 2018 |language=en}}
  55. ^ "Sexton Star of MOA Seminar: Video". Play Meter. Vol. 2, no. 14. December 1976. pp. 20-26 (23-6).
  56. ^ Torchinsky, Jason. "Meet The Doctor-Engineer Who Basically Invented The Modern Racing Game". Jalopnik. Retrieved 2017-07-29.
  57. ^ Plunkett, Luke (28 February 2012). "Death Race, the World's First Scandalous Video Game". Kotaku. Gizmodo Media Group. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  58. ^ Kohler, Chris (30 October 2007). "How Protests Against Games Cause Them To Sell More Copies". WIRED. Condé Nast. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  59. Famitsu DC (in Japanese). Enterbrain
    . 2002. pp. 33–6.
  60. Killer List of Videogames
  61. Killer List of Videogames
  62. ^ a b c Fahs, Travis (2009-04-21). "IGN Presents the History of SEGA". IGN. Retrieved 2020-06-07.
  63. ^
  64. ^ "Coin-Op Game of the Year". Electronic Games. 2 (23): 77. January 1984. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
  65. ^ a b "The Top 10 Most Influential Racing Games Ever – IGN – Page 2". IGN.com. 2015-04-03. Retrieved 2016-05-13.
  66. ^ Fujihara, Mary (1983-11-02). "Inter Office Memo". Atari. Archived from the original on 2015-07-05. Retrieved 18 March 2012.
  67. Cash Box. November 10, 1984. pp. 31, 33. Archived
    (PDF) from the original on August 15, 2020.
  68. ^ "Overseas Readers Column: Taito Unveils LD Video Driving Game "Laser Grand Prix"" (PDF). Game Machine (in Japanese). No. 219. Amusement Press, Inc. 1 September 1983. p. 30. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 January 2020.
  69. Killer List of Videogames
  70. Killer List of Videogames
  71. Killer List of Videogames
  72. Killer List of Videogames
  73. ^ a b "The History of Papyrus Racing – Page 2". GameSpot. Retrieved 2020-06-07.
  74. 1Up.com. 2010. p. 2. Archived from the original
    on 2016-06-02. Retrieved 22 April 2021.
  75. Killer List of Videogames
  76. ^ "Top 20 of 1986". Top Score. Amusement Players Association. July–August 1987. p. 3.
  77. ^ "Game Machine's Best Hit Games 25: '86 上半期" [Game Machine's Best Hit Games 25: First Half '86] (PDF). Game Machine (in Japanese). No. 288. Amusement Press. 15 July 1986. p. 28. Archived (PDF) from the original on 31 January 2020.
  78. ^ "Game Machine's Best Hit Games 25: '86 下半期" [Game Machine's Best Hit Games 25: Second Half '86] (PDF). Game Machine (in Japanese). No. 300. Amusement Press. 15 January 1987. p. 16. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 November 2019.
  79. ^ "1986 Top Ten Coin-Ops". Sinclair User. No. 59 (February 1987). 18 January 1987. p. 96.
  80. Killer List of Videogames
  81. ^ Gazza, Brian. "Outrun". Hardcore Gaming 101. Retrieved 2018-10-11.
  82. ISSN 1742-3155
    .
  83. .
  84. ^ Faylor, Chris (May 21, 2008). "James Cameron: True 3D Gaming Is the Future, Already in Upcoming Avatar Game". Shacknews.com. Retrieved 2016-05-13.
  85. ^ "C+VG Arcade Action". Computer and Video Games. September 1989. p. 85.
  86. ^ a b "第3回 ゲーメスト大賞 – インカム部門ベスト10" [3rd Gamest Awards – Income Category: Best 10]. Gamest (in Japanese). Vol. 41. February 1990. p. 79.
  87. ^ "第4回ゲーメスト大賞 – インカム部門ベスト10" [4th Gamest Awards – Income Category: Best 10]. Gamest (in Japanese). Vol. 54. February 1991. p. 24.
  88. ^ a b "Super Mario Kart". The history of Mario Kart: a race through time…. Nintendo Australia. 2014. Archived from the original on December 20, 2016. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
  89. Killer List of Videogames
  90. ^ "Winning Run". Advanced Computer Entertainment. 1 October 1989.
  91. ^ "Virtua Racing—Arcade (1992)". 15 Most Influential Games of All Time. GameSpot. 2001. Archived from the original on 20 March 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2012.
  92. ^ McFerran, Damien (28 May 2015). "Throwback Thursday: Ridge Racer". Red Bull. Retrieved 23 September 2015.
  93. ^ "The History of Papyrus Racing – Page 3". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2012-07-08. Retrieved 2011-01-30.
  94. ^ "Top 25 Racing Games... Ever! Part 2". Retro Gamer. 21 September 2009. pp. 5–6. Retrieved 2011-03-17.
  95. ^ "Driving Force: Driving Games And Simulators Hit The Arcade" (PDF). Electronic Gaming Monthly. No. 89. December 1996. p. 144. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 February 2016.
  96. ^ Dean Takahashi (2010-01-14). "Gran Turismo's creator takes a fifth stab at a perfect racing game | GamesBeat | Games | by Dean Takahashi". Venturebeat.com. Retrieved 2016-05-13.
  97. ^ a b "The Greatest Games of All Time: Gran Turismo". Features. GameSpot. Archived from the original on May 28, 2010. Retrieved February 8, 2016.
  98. ^ "'Gran Turismo' Franchise Sales Surpasses 80 Million – Gran Turismo Sport". gran-turismo.com.
  99. ^ "Top 25 Racing Games... Ever! Part 1". Retro Gamer. 16 September 2009. Archived from the original on 23 May 2016. Retrieved 2011-03-17.
  100. ^ "Mario Kart Modern Racing Game". APK GURRU. April 2022. Retrieved 8 July 2022.[permanent dead link]
  101. ^ "'Gran Turismo' Franchise Sales Surpasses 80 Million – Gran Turismo® Sport". gran-turismo.com.