Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence
Semantic Scholar is an artificial intelligence–powered research tool for scientific literature developed at the Allen Institute for AI and publicly released in November 2015. It uses advances in natural language processing to provide summaries for scholarly papers. The Semantic Scholar team is actively researching the use of artificial-intelligence in natural language processing, machine learning, Human-Computer interaction, and information retrieval.
Semantic Scholar began as a database surrounding the topics of
Semantic Scholar provides a one-sentence summary of scientific literature. One of its aims was to address the challenge of reading numerous titles and lengthy abstracts on mobile devices. It also seeks to ensure that the three million scientific papers published yearly reach readers, since it is estimated that only half of this literature are ever read.
Artificial intelligence is used to capture the essence of a paper, generating it through an "abstractive" technique. The project uses a combination of machine learning, natural language processing, and machine vision to add a layer of semantic analysis to the traditional methods of citation analysis, and to extract relevant figures, tables, entities, and venues from papers.
In contrast with Google Scholar and PubMed, Semantic Scholar is designed to highlight the most important and influential elements of a paper. The AI technology is designed to identify hidden connections and links between research topics. Like the previously cited search engines, Semantic Scholar also exploits graph structures, which include the Microsoft Academic Knowledge Graph, Springer Nature's SciGraph, and the Semantic Scholar Corpus.
Each paper hosted by Semantic Scholar is assigned a unique identifier called the Semantic Scholar Corpus ID (abbreviated S2CID). The following entry is an example:
- Liu, Ying; Gayle, Albert A; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Rocklöv, Joacim (March 2020). "The reproductive number of COVID-19 is higher compared to SARS coronavirus". Journal of Travel Medicine. 27 (2). S2CID 211099356.
- Liu, Ying; Gayle, Albert A; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Rocklöv, Joacim (March 2020). "The reproductive number of COVID-19 is higher compared to SARS coronavirus". Journal of Travel Medicine. 27 (2).
One study compared the search abilities of Semantic Scholar through a systematic approach, and found the search engine to be 98.88% accurate when attempting to uncover the data. The same study examined other Semantic Scholar functions, including tools to survey metadata as well as several citation tools.
Number of users and publications
As of January 2018, following a 2017 project that added biomedical papers and topic summaries, the Semantic Scholar corpus included more than 40 million papers from
In 2020, users of Semantic Scholar reached seven million a month.
- Citation analysis – Examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in documents
- Citation index – Index of citations between publications
- Knowledge extraction – Creation of knowledge from structured and unstructured sources
- List of academic databases and search engines
- Scientometrics – Study of measuring and analysing science, technology and innovation
- Eunjung Cha, Ariana (3 November 2015). "Paul Allen's AI research group unveils program that aims to shake up how we search scientific knowledge. Give it a try". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 6 November 2019. Retrieved November 3, 2015.
- Hao, Karen (November 18, 2020). "An AI helps you summarize the latest in AI". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 2021-02-16.
- "Semantic Scholar Research". research.semanticscholar.org. Retrieved 2021-11-22.
- Matthews, David (1 September 2021). "Drowning in the literature? These smart software tools can help". Nature. Retrieved 5 September 2022.
...the publicly available corpus compiled by Semantic Scholar — a tool set up in 2015 by the Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence in Seattle, Washington — amounting to around 200 million articles, including preprints.
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- "Tech Moves: Allen Instititue Hires Amazon Alexa Machine Learning Leader; Microsoft Chairman Takes on New Investor Role; and More". GeekWire. 2018-05-02. Archived from the original on 2018-05-10. Retrieved 2018-05-09.
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- "AI2 joins forces with Microsoft Research to upgrade search tools for scientific studies". GeekWire. 2018-12-05. Archived from the original on 2019-08-25. Retrieved 2019-08-25.
- "The University of Chicago Press joins more than 500 publishers working with Semantic Scholar to improve search and discoverability". RCNi Company Limited. Retrieved 2021-11-22.
- Dunn, Adriana (December 14, 2020). "Semantic Scholar Adds 25 Million Scientific Papers in 2020 Through New Publisher Partnerships" (PDF). Semantic Scholar. Retrieved November 22, 2021.