This is a good article. Click here for more information.

Termite

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Termite
Temporal range: Early Cretaceous–Recent
Coptotermes formosanus shiraki USGov k8204-7.jpg
Formosan subterranean termite (Coptotermes formosanus)
Soldiers (red-coloured heads)
Workers (pale-coloured heads)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Cohort: Polyneoptera
Superorder: Dictyoptera
Order: Blattodea
Infraorder: Isoptera
Brullé, 1832
Families

Cratomastotermitidae[1]

Mastotermitidae
Termopsidae[2]
Archotermopsidae
Hodotermitidae
Stolotermitidae
Kalotermitidae
Archeorhinotermitidae

Stylotermitidae
Rhinotermitidae
Serritermitidae
Termitidae

Termites are small

phylogenetic studies indicate that they evolved from cockroaches, as they are deeply nested within the group, and the sister group to wood eating cockroaches of the genus Cryptocercus. Previous estimates suggested the divergence took place during the Jurassic or Triassic. More recent estimates suggest that they have an origin during the Late Jurassic,[3] with the first fossil records in the Early Cretaceous. About 3,106 species are currently described, with a few hundred more left to be described. Although these insects are often called "white ants",[4] they are not ants
, and are not closely related to ants.

Like ants and some bees and wasps from the separate order Hymenoptera, termites divide as "workers" and "soldiers" that are usually sterile. All colonies have fertile males called "kings" and one or more fertile females called "queens". Termites mostly feed on dead plant material and cellulose, generally in the form of wood, leaf litter, soil, or animal dung. Termites are major detritivores, particularly in the subtropical and tropical regions, and their recycling of wood and plant matter is of considerable ecological importance.

Termites are among the most successful groups of insects on Earth, colonising most landmasses except

incomplete metamorphosis that proceeds through egg, nymph, and adult stages. Colonies are described as superorganisms because the termites form part of a self-regulating entity: the colony itself.[5]

Termites have several effects on humans. They are a delicacy in the diet of some human cultures and are used in many traditional medicines. Several hundred species are economically significant as pests that can cause serious damage to buildings, crops, or plantation forests. Some species, such as the

West Indian drywood termite (Cryptotermes brevis), are regarded as invasive species.[where?
]

Etymology

The infraorder name Isoptera is derived from the Greek words iso (equal) and ptera (winged), which refers to the nearly equal size of the fore and hind wings.[6] "Termite" derives from the Latin and Late Latin word termes ("woodworm, white ant"), altered by the influence of Latin terere ("to rub, wear, erode") from the earlier word tarmes. A termite nest is also known as a termitary or termitarium (plural termitaria or termitariums).[7] In earlier English, termites were known as "wood ants" or "white ants".[8] The modern term was first used in 1781.[9]

Taxonomy and evolution

Termites were formerly placed in the order Isoptera. As early as 1934 suggestions were made that they were closely related to wood-eating cockroaches (genus

epifamily within the cockroach order, which preserves the classification of termites at family level and below.[19] Termites have long been accepted to be closely related to cockroaches and mantids, and they are classified in the same superorder (Dictyoptera).[20][21]

The oldest unambiguous termite

giant northern termite (Mastotermes darwiniensis) exhibits numerous cockroach-like characteristics that are not shared with other termites, such as laying its eggs in rafts and having anal lobes on the wings.[31] It has been proposed that the Isoptera and Cryptocercidae be grouped in the clade "Xylophagodea".[32] Termites are sometimes called "white ants" but the only resemblance to the ants is due to their sociality which is due to convergent evolution[33][34] with termites being the first social insects to evolve a caste system more than 100 million years ago.[35] Termite genomes are generally relatively large compared to those of other insects; the first fully sequenced termite genome, of Zootermopsis nevadensis, which was published in the journal Nature Communications, consists of roughly 500Mb,[36] while two subsequently published genomes, Macrotermes natalensis and Cryptotermes secundus, are considerably larger at around 1.3Gb.[37][34]

External phylogeny

Dictyoptera

Manipulatoridae (extinct)

Alienopteridae (extinct)

Mantodea
(Mantises)

Blattodea

Blaberoidea

Solumblattodea

Corydiodea

Blattoidea

Blattoidae

Kittrickea

Lamproblattidae

Xylophagodea

Cryptocercidae
(brown-hooded cockroaches)

Termitoidae
(Termites)

Internal phylogeny[30]

Termitoidae

Cratomastotermitidae

Mastotermitidae

Euisoptera

Carinatermes

Termopsidae

Mariconitermes

Hodotermitidae

Cratokalotermes

Archotermopsidae

Stolotermitidae

Tanytermes

Baissatermes

Dharmatermes

Kalotermitidae

Neoisoptera

Archeorhinotermitidae

Stylotermitidae

Rhinotermitidae

Serritermitidae

Termitidae

As of 2013, about 3,106 living and fossil termite species are recognised, classified in 12 families; reproductive and/or soldier castes are usually required for identification. The infraorder Isoptera is divided into the following clade and family groups, showing the subfamilies in their respective classification:[30]

Basal termite families

Infraorder Isoptera (= Epifamily Termitoidae)
Family
Cratomastotermitidae
Family Mastotermitidae
   Parvorder Euisoptera
Family Arceotermitidae
Family Archotermopsidae
Family Hodotermitidae
Family Kalotermitidae
Family Krishnatermitidae
Family Melqartitermitidae
Family Mylacrotermitidae
Family Stolotermitidae
Family Tanytermitidae
Family Termopsidae

Neoisoptera

The

Neoisoptera, literally meaning "newer termites" (in an evolutionary sense), are a recently coined nanorder that include families commonly referred-to as "higher termites", although some authorities only apply this term to the largest family Termitidae. The latter characteristically do not have Pseudergate nymphs (many "lower termite" worker nymphs have the capacity to develop into reproductive castes: see below). Cellulose digestion in "higher termites" has co-evolved with eukaryotic gut microbiota[38] and many genera have symbiotic relationships with fungi such as Termitomyces; in contrast, "lower termites" typically have flagellates and prokaryotes
in their hindguts. Five families are now included here:

Distribution and diversity

Termites are found on all continents except

subtropical habitats south of the Yangtze River.[39] In Australia, all ecological groups of termites (dampwood, drywood, subterranean) are endemic to the country, with over 360 classified species.[39] Because termites are highly social and abundant, they represent a disproportionate amount of the world's insect biomass. Termites and ants comprise about 1% of insect species, but represent more than 50% of insect biomass.[41]

Due to their soft cuticles, termites do not inhabit cool or cold habitats.[42] There are three ecological groups of termites: dampwood, drywood and subterranean. Dampwood termites are found only in coniferous forests, and drywood termites are found in hardwood forests; subterranean termites live in widely diverse areas.[39] One species in the drywood group is the West Indian drywood termite (Cryptotermes brevis), which is an invasive species in Australia.[43]

Diversity of Isoptera by continent:
Asia Africa North America South America Europe Australia
Estimated number of species 435 1,000 50 400 10 360

Description

Termites are usually small, measuring between 4 to 15 millimetres (316 to 916 in) in length.

Gyatermes styriensis, flourished in Austria during the Miocene and had a wingspan of 76 millimetres (3 in) and a body length of 25 millimetres (1 in).[45][note 1]

Most worker and soldier termites are completely blind as they do not have a pair of eyes. However, some species, such as

compound eyes which they use for orientation and to distinguish sunlight from moonlight.[46] The alates (winged males and females) have eyes along with lateral ocelli. Lateral ocelli, however, are not found in all termites, absent in the families Hodotermitidae, Termopsidae, and Archotermopsidae.[47][48] Like other insects, termites have a small tongue-shaped labrum and a clypeus; the clypeus is divided into a postclypeus and anteclypeus. Termite antennae have a number of functions such as the sensing of touch, taste, odours (including pheromones), heat and vibration. The three basic segments of a termite antenna include a scape, a pedicel (typically shorter than the scape), and the flagellum (all segments beyond the scape and pedicel).[48] The mouth parts contain a maxillae, a labium, and a set of mandibles. The maxillae and labium have palps that help termites sense food and handling.[48]

Consistent with all insects, the anatomy of the termite

thorax consists of three segments: the prothorax, the mesothorax and the metathorax.[48] Each segment contains a pair of legs. On alates, the wings are located at the mesothorax and metathorax, which is consistent with all four-winged insects. The mesothorax and metathorax have well-developed exoskeletal plates; the prothorax has smaller plates.[49]

Diagram showing a wing, along with the clypeus
and leg

Termites have a ten-segmented abdomen with two plates, the tergites and the sternites.[50] The tenth abdominal segment has a pair of short cerci.[51] There are ten tergites, of which nine are wide and one is elongated.[52] The reproductive organs are similar to those in cockroaches but are more simplified. For example, the intromittent organ is not present in male alates, and the sperm is either immotile or aflagellate. However, Mastotermitidae termites have multiflagellate sperm with limited motility.[53] The genitals in females are also simplified. Unlike in other termites, Mastotermitidae females have an ovipositor, a feature strikingly similar to that in female cockroaches.[54]

The non-reproductive castes of termites are wingless and rely exclusively on their six legs for locomotion. The alates fly only for a brief amount of time, so they also rely on their legs.[50] The appearance of the legs is similar in each caste, but the soldiers have larger and heavier legs. The structure of the legs is consistent with other insects: the parts of a leg include a coxa, trochanter, femur, tibia and the tarsus.[50] The number of tibial spurs on an individual's leg varies. Some species of termite have an arolium, located between the claws, which is present in species that climb on smooth surfaces but is absent in most termites.[55]

Unlike in ants, the hind-wings and fore-wings are of equal length.[6] Most of the time, the alates are poor flyers; their technique is to launch themselves in the air and fly in a random direction.[56] Studies show that in comparison to larger termites, smaller termites cannot fly long distances. When a termite is in flight, its wings remain at a right angle, and when the termite is at rest, its wings remain parallel to the body.[57]

Caste system

Worker termites undertake the most labour within the colony, being responsible for foraging, food storage, and brood and nest maintenance.[58][59] Workers are tasked with the digestion of cellulose in food and are thus the most likely caste to be found in infested wood. The process of worker termites feeding other nestmates is known as trophallaxis. Trophallaxis is an effective nutritional tactic to convert and recycle nitrogenous components.[60] It frees the parents from feeding all but the first generation of offspring, allowing for the group to grow much larger and ensuring that the necessary gut symbionts are transferred from one generation to another. Some termite species may rely on nymphs to perform work without differentiating as a separate caste.[59] Workers may be male or female and are usually sterile, especially in termites that have a nest site that is separate from their foraging site. Sterile workers are sometimes termed as true workers while those that are fertile, as in the wood-nesting Archotermopsidae, are termed as false workers.[61]

The soldier caste has anatomical and behavioural specialisations, and their sole purpose is to defend the colony.[62] Many soldiers have large heads with highly modified powerful jaws so enlarged they cannot feed themselves. Instead, like juveniles, they are fed by workers.[62][63] Fontanelles, simple holes in the forehead that exude defensive secretions, are a feature of the family Rhinotermitidae.[64] Many species are readily identified using the characteristics of the soldiers' larger and darker head and large mandibles.[59][62] Among certain termites, soldiers may use their globular (phragmotic) heads to block their narrow tunnels.[65] Different sorts of soldiers include minor and major soldiers, and nasutes, which have a horn-like nozzle frontal projection (a nasus).[59] These unique soldiers are able to spray noxious, sticky secretions containing diterpenes at their enemies.[66] Nitrogen fixation plays an important role in nasute nutrition.[67] Soldiers are usually sterile but some species of Archotermopsidae are known to have neotenic forms with soldier-like heads while also having sexual organs.[68]

The primary reproductive caste of a colony consists of the adult form (imago) female and male individuals, colloquially known as the queen and king.[69] The queen of the colony is responsible for egg production for the colony. Unlike in ants, the king mates with her for life.[70] In some species, the abdomen of the queen swells up dramatically to increase fecundity, a characteristic known as physogastrism.[58][69] Depending on the species, the queen starts producing reproductive alates at a certain time of the year, and huge swarms emerge from the colony when nuptial flight begins. These swarms attract a wide variety of predators.[69]

Life cycle

A termite nymph looks like a smaller version of an adult but lacks the specialisations that would enable identification of its caste.
A young termite nymph. Nymphs first moult into workers, but others may further moult to become soldiers or alates
.
Termite, and shed wings from other termites, on an interior window sill. Shedding of wings is associated with reproductive swarming.[71]

Termites are often compared with the

diploid individuals of both sexes and develop from fertilised eggs. Depending on species, male and female workers may have different roles in a termite colony.[72]

The life cycle of a termite begins with an

incomplete metamorphosis, with egg, nymph and adult stages.[73] Nymphs resemble small adults, and go through a series of moults as they grow. In some species, eggs go through four moulting stages and nymphs go through three.[74] Nymphs first moult into workers, and then some workers go through further moulting and become soldiers or alates; workers become alates only by moulting into alate nymphs.[75]

The development of nymphs into adults can take months; the time period depends on food availability, temperature, and the general population of the colony. Since nymphs are unable to feed themselves, workers must feed them, but workers also take part in the social life of the colony and have certain other tasks to accomplish such as foraging, building or maintaining the nest or tending to the queen.[59][76] Pheromones regulate the caste system in termite colonies, preventing all but a very few of the termites from becoming fertile queens.[77]

Queens of the eusocial termite Reticulitermes speratus are capable of a long lifespan without sacrificing fecundity. These long-lived queens have a significantly lower level of oxidative damage, including oxidative DNA damage, than workers, soldiers and nymphs.[78] The lower levels of damage appear to be due to increased catalase, an enzyme that protects against oxidative stress.[78]

Reproduction

Termite alates only leave the colony when a nuptial flight takes place. Alate males and females pair up together and then land in search of a suitable place for a colony.[79] A termite king and queen do not mate until they find such a spot. When they do, they excavate a chamber big enough for both, close up the entrance and proceed to mate.[79] After mating, the pair never go outside and spend the rest of their lives in the nest. Nuptial flight time varies in each species. For example, alates in certain species emerge during the day in summer while others emerge during the winter.[80] The nuptial flight may also begin at dusk, when the alates swarm around areas with many lights. The time when nuptial flight begins depends on the environmental conditions, the time of day, moisture, wind speed and precipitation.[80] The number of termites in a colony also varies, with the larger species typically having 100–1,000 individuals. However, some termite colonies, including those with many individuals, can number in the millions.[45]

The queen only lays 10–20 eggs in the very early stages of the colony, but lays as many as 1,000 a day when the colony is several years old.[59] At maturity, a primary queen has a great capacity to lay eggs. In some species, the mature queen has a greatly distended abdomen and may produce 40,000 eggs a day.[81] The two mature ovaries may have some 2,000 ovarioles each.[82] The abdomen increases the queen's body length to several times more than before mating and reduces her ability to move freely; attendant workers provide assistance.

Egg grooming behaviour of Reticulitermes speratus workers in a nursery cell

The king grows only slightly larger after initial mating and continues to mate with the queen for life (a termite queen can live between 30 to 50 years); this is very different from ant colonies, in which a queen mates once with the males and stores the gametes for life, as the male ants die shortly after mating.[70][76] If a queen is absent, a termite king produces pheromones which encourage the development of replacement termite queens.[83] As the queen and king are monogamous, sperm competition does not occur.[84]

Termites going through incomplete metamorphosis on the path to becoming alates form a subcaste in certain species of termite, functioning as potential supplementary reproductives. These supplementary reproductives only mature into primary reproductives upon the death of a king or queen, or when the primary reproductives are separated from the colony.[75][85] Supplementaries have the ability to replace a dead primary reproductive, and there may also be more than a single supplementary within a colony.[59] Some queens have the ability to switch from sexual reproduction to asexual reproduction. Studies show that while termite queens mate with the king to produce colony workers, the queens reproduce their replacements (neotenic queens) parthenogenetically.[86][87]

The neotropical termite Embiratermes neotenicus and several other related species produce colonies that contain a primary king accompanied by a primary queen or by up to 200 neotenic queens that had originated through thelytokous parthenogenesis of a founding primary queen.[88] The form of parthenogenesis likely employed maintains heterozygosity in the passage of the genome from mother to daughter, thus avoiding inbreeding depression.

Behaviour and ecology

Diet

Termites are

gut microbiota derives from their dictyopteran ancestors.[102]

Certain species such as

Buchloe dactyloides) from May to August, and blue grama Bouteloua gracilis during spring, summer and autumn. Colonies of G. tubiformans consume less food in spring than they do during autumn when their feeding activity is high.[103]

Various woods differ in their susceptibility to termite attack; the differences are attributed to such factors as moisture content, hardness, and resin and lignin content. In one study, the drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis strongly preferred poplar and maple woods to other woods that were generally rejected by the termite colony. These preferences may in part have represented conditioned or learned behaviour.[104]

Some species of termite practice fungiculture. They maintain a "garden" of specialised fungi of genus Termitomyces, which are nourished by the excrement of the insects. When the fungi are eaten, their spores pass undamaged through the intestines of the termites to complete the cycle by germinating in the fresh faecal pellets.[105][106] Molecular evidence suggests that the family Macrotermitinae developed agriculture about 31 million years ago. It is assumed that more than 90 percent of dry wood in the semiarid savannah ecosystems of Africa and Asia are reprocessed by these termites. Originally living in the rainforest, fungus farming allowed them to colonise the African savannah and other new environments, eventually expanding into Asia.[107]

Depending on their feeding habits, termites are placed into two groups: the lower termites and higher termites. The lower termites predominately feed on wood. As wood is difficult to digest, termites prefer to consume fungus-infected wood because it is easier to digest and the fungi are high in protein. Meanwhile, the higher termites consume a wide variety of materials, including faeces, humus, grass, leaves and roots.[108] The gut of the lower termites contains many species of bacteria along with protozoa and Holomastigotoides, while the higher termites only have a few species of bacteria with no protozoa.[109]

Predators

Crab spider
with a captured alate

Termites are consumed by a wide variety of

hominin Paranthropus robustus suggests that they used these tools to dig into termite mounds.[124]

Among all predators, ants are the greatest enemy to termites.

Camponotus, Crematogaster, Cylindromyrmex, Leptogenys, Odontomachus, Ophthalmopone, Pachycondyla, Rhytidoponera, Solenopsis and Wasmannia, also prey on termites.[119][111][130] In contrast to all these ant species, and despite their enormous diversity of prey, Dorylus ants rarely consume termites.[131]

Ants are not the only invertebrates that perform raids. Many sphecoid wasps and several species including Polybia and Angiopolybia are known to raid termite mounds during the termites' nuptial flight.[132]

Parasites, pathogens and viruses

Termites are less likely to be attacked by parasites than bees, wasps and ants, as they are usually well protected in their mounds.

Metarhizium anisopliae are, however, major threats to a termite colony as they are not host-specific and may infect large portions of the colony;[139][140] transmission usually occurs via direct physical contact.[141] M. anisopliae is known to weaken the termite immune system. Infection with A. nomius only occurs when a colony is under great stress. Over 34 fungal species are known to live as parasites on the exoskeleton of termites, with many being host-specific and only causing indirect harm to their host. [142]

Termites are infected by viruses including Entomopoxvirinae and the Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus.[143][144]

Locomotion and foraging

Because the worker and soldier castes lack wings and thus never fly, and the reproductives use their wings for just a brief amount of time, termites predominantly rely upon their legs to move about.[50]

Foraging behaviour depends on the type of termite. For example, certain species feed on the wood structures they inhabit, and others harvest food that is near the nest.[145] Most workers are rarely found out in the open, and do not forage unprotected; they rely on sheeting and runways to protect them from predators.[58] Subterranean termites construct tunnels and galleries to look for food, and workers who manage to find food sources recruit additional nestmates by depositing a phagostimulant pheromone that attracts workers.[146] Foraging workers use semiochemicals to communicate with each other,[147] and workers who begin to forage outside of their nest release trail pheromones from their sternal glands.[148] In one species, Nasutitermes costalis, there are three phases in a foraging expedition: first, soldiers scout an area. When they find a food source, they communicate to other soldiers and a small force of workers starts to emerge. In the second phase, workers appear in large numbers at the site. The third phase is marked by a decrease in the number of soldiers present and an increase in the number of workers.[149] Isolated termite workers may engage in Lévy flight behaviour as an optimised strategy for finding their nestmates or foraging for food.[150]

Competition

Competition between two colonies always results in agonistic behaviour towards each other, resulting in fights. These fights can cause mortality on both sides and, in some cases, the gain or loss of territory.[151][152] "Cemetery pits" may be present, where the bodies of dead termites are buried.[153]

Studies show that when termites encounter each other in foraging areas, some of the termites deliberately block passages to prevent other termites from entering.

Coptotermes formosanus. Since C. formosanus colonies may get into physical conflict, some termites squeeze tightly into foraging tunnels and die, successfully blocking the tunnel and ending all agonistic activities.[157]

Among the reproductive caste, neotenic queens may compete with each other to become the dominant queen when there are no primary reproductives. This struggle among the queens leads to the elimination of all but a single queen, which, with the king, takes over the colony.[158]

Ants and termites may compete with each other for nesting space. In particular, ants that prey on termites usually have a negative impact on arboreal nesting species.[159]

Communication

Most termites are blind, so communication primarily occurs through chemical, mechanical and pheromonal cues.[47][147] These methods of communication are used in a variety of activities, including foraging, locating reproductives, construction of nests, recognition of nestmates, nuptial flight, locating and fighting enemies, and defending the nests.[47][147] The most common way of communicating is through antennation.[147] A number of pheromones are known, including contact pheromones (which are transmitted when workers are engaged in trophallaxis or grooming) and alarm, trail and sex pheromones. The alarm pheromone and other defensive chemicals are secreted from the frontal gland. Trail pheromones are secreted from the sternal gland, and sex pheromones derive from two glandular sources: the sternal and tergal glands.[47] When termites go out to look for food, they forage in columns along the ground through vegetation. A trail can be identified by the faecal deposits or runways that are covered by objects. Workers leave pheromones on these trails, which are detected by other nestmates through olfactory receptors.[63] Termites can also communicate through mechanical cues, vibrations, and physical contact.[63][147] These signals are frequently used for alarm communication or for evaluating a food source.[147][160]

When termites construct their nests, they use predominantly indirect communication. No single termite would be in charge of any particular construction project. Individual termites react rather than think, but at a group level, they exhibit a sort of collective cognition. Specific structures or other objects such as pellets of soil or pillars cause termites to start building. The termite adds these objects onto existing structures, and such behaviour encourages building behaviour in other workers. The result is a self-organised process whereby the information that directs termite activity results from changes in the environment rather than from direct contact among individuals.[147]

Termites can distinguish nestmates and non-nestmates through chemical communication and gut symbionts: chemicals consisting of hydrocarbons released from the cuticle allow the recognition of alien termite species.[161][162] Each colony has its own distinct odour. This odour is a result of genetic and environmental factors such as the termites' diet and the composition of the bacteria within the termites' intestines.[163]

Defence

Termites rely on alarm communication to defend a colony.

Metarhizium anisopliae spores, through vibrational signals released by infected nestmates.[164] Other methods of defence include intense jerking and secretion of fluids from the frontal gland and defecating faeces containing alarm pheromones.[147][165]

In some species, some soldiers block tunnels to prevent their enemies from entering the nest, and they may deliberately rupture themselves as an act of defence.

Megaponera analis is successful, an entire colony may be destroyed, although this scenario is rare.[167]

To termites, any breach of their tunnels or nests is a cause for alarm. When termites detect a potential breach, the soldiers usually bang their heads, apparently to attract other soldiers for defence and to recruit additional workers to repair any breach.[63] Additionally, an alarmed termite bumps into other termites which causes them to be alarmed and to leave pheromone trails to the disturbed area, which is also a way to recruit extra workers.[63]

The pantropical subfamily Nasutitermitinae has a specialised caste of soldiers, known as nasutes, that have the ability to exude noxious liquids through a horn-like frontal projection that they use for defence.[168] Nasutes have lost their mandibles through the course of evolution and must be fed by workers.[66] A wide variety of monoterpene hydrocarbon solvents have been identified in the liquids that nasutes secrete.[169] Similarly, Formosan subterranean termites have been known to secrete naphthalene to protect their nests.[170]

Soldiers of the species Globitermes sulphureus commit suicide by autothysis – rupturing a large gland just beneath the surface of their cuticles. The thick, yellow fluid in the gland becomes very sticky on contact with the air, entangling ants or other insects that are trying to invade the nest.[171][172] Another termite, Neocapriterme taracua, also engages in suicidal defence. Workers physically unable to use their mandibles while in a fight form a pouch full of chemicals, then deliberately rupture themselves, releasing toxic chemicals that paralyse and kill their enemies.[173] The soldiers of the neotropical termite family Serritermitidae have a defence strategy which involves front gland autothysis, with the body rupturing between the head and abdomen. When soldiers guarding nest entrances are attacked by intruders, they engage in autothysis, creating a block that denies entry to any attacker.[174]

Workers use several different strategies to deal with their dead, including burying, cannibalism, and avoiding a corpse altogether.

pathogens, termites occasionally engage in necrophoresis, in which a nestmate carries away a corpse from the colony to dispose of it elsewhere.[178] Which strategy is used depends on the nature of the corpse a worker is dealing with (i.e. the age of the carcass).[178]

Relationship with other organisms

A species of

appendages on the physogastric abdomen of Austrospirachtha mimetes allows the beetle to mimic a termite worker.[182]

Some species of ant are known to capture termites to use as a fresh food source later on, rather than killing them. For example,

Azteca ants and Nasutitermes termites date back to the Oligocene to Miocene period.[186]

54 species of ants are known to inhabit Nasutitermes mounds, both occupied and abandoned ones.[187] One reason many ants live in Nasutitermes mounds is due to the termites' frequent occurrence in their geographical range; another is to protect themselves from floods.[187][188] Iridomyrmex also inhabits termite mounds although no evidence for any kind of relationship (other than a predatory one) is known.[128] In rare cases, certain species of termites live inside active ant colonies.[189] Some invertebrate organisms such as beetles, caterpillars, flies and millipedes are termitophiles and dwell inside termite colonies (they are unable to survive independently).[63] As a result, certain beetles and flies have evolved with their hosts. They have developed a gland that secrete a substance that attracts the workers by licking them. Mounds may also provide shelter and warmth to birds, lizards, snakes and scorpions.[63]

Termites are known to carry pollen and regularly visit flowers,

Orchidaceae flower in the world to be pollinated by termites.[190]

Many plants have developed effective defences against termites. However, seedlings are vulnerable to termite attacks and need additional protection, as their defence mechanisms only develop when they have passed the seedling stage.

termite barrier for buildings.[193] An extract of a species of Australian figwort, Eremophila, has been shown to repel termites;[194] tests have shown that termites are strongly repelled by the toxic material to the extent that they will starve rather than consume the food. When kept close to the extract, they become disoriented and eventually die.[194]

Relationship with the environment

Termite populations can be substantially impacted by environmental changes including those caused by human intervention. A Brazilian study investigated the termite assemblages of three sites of Caatinga under different levels of anthropogenic disturbance in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil were sampled using 65 x 2 m transects.[195] A total of 26 species of termites were present in the three sites, and 196 encounters were recorded in the transects. The termite assemblages were considerably different among sites, with a conspicuous reduction in both diversity and abundance with increased disturbance, related to the reduction of tree density and soil cover, and with the intensity of trampling by cattle and goats. The wood-feeders were the most severely affected feeding group.

Nests

Termite workers at work
Termite nest in a Banksia, Palm Beach, Sydney.

A termite nest can be considered as being composed of two parts, the inanimate and the animate. The animate is all of the termites living inside the colony, and the inanimate part is the structure itself, which is constructed by the termites.[196] Nests can be broadly separated into three main categories: subterranean (completely below ground), epigeal (protruding above the soil surface), and arboreal (built above ground, but always connected to the ground via shelter tubes).[197] Epigeal nests (mounds) protrude from the earth with ground contact and are made out of earth and mud.[198] A nest has many functions such as providing a protected living space and providing shelter against predators. Most termites construct underground colonies rather than multifunctional nests and mounds.[199] Primitive termites of today nest in wooden structures such as logs, stumps and the dead parts of trees, as did termites millions of years ago.[197]

To build their nests, termites primarily use faeces, which have many desirable properties as a construction material.[200] Other building materials include partly digested plant material, used in carton nests (arboreal nests built from faecal elements and wood), and soil, used in subterranean nest and mound construction. Not all nests are visible, as many nests in tropical forests are located underground.[199] Species in the subfamily Apicotermitinae are good examples of subterranean nest builders, as they only dwell inside tunnels.[200] Other termites live in wood, and tunnels are constructed as they feed on the wood. Nests and mounds protect the termites' soft bodies against desiccation, light, pathogens and parasites, as well as providing a fortification against predators.[201] Nests made out of carton are particularly weak, and so the inhabitants use counter-attack strategies against invading predators.[202]

Arboreal carton nests of

Puerto Rican mangrove swamps. These Nasutitermes nests are mainly composed of partially biodegraded wood material from the stems and branches of mangrove trees, namely, Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), Avicennia germinans (black mangrove) and Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove).[203]

Some species build complex nests called polycalic nests; this habitat is called polycalism. Polycalic species of termites form multiple nests, or calies, connected by subterranean chambers.[119] The termite genera Apicotermes and Trinervitermes are known to have polycalic species.[204] Polycalic nests appear to be less frequent in mound-building species although polycalic arboreal nests have been observed in a few species of Nasutitermes.[204]

Mounds

Nests are considered mounds if they protrude from the earth's surface.[200] A mound provides termites the same protection as a nest but is stronger.[202] Mounds located in areas with torrential and continuous rainfall are at risk of mound erosion due to their clay-rich construction. Those made from carton can provide protection from the rain, and in fact can withstand high precipitation.[200] Certain areas in mounds are used as strong points in case of a breach. For example, Cubitermes colonies build narrow tunnels used as strong points, as the diameter of the tunnels is small enough for soldiers to block.[205] A highly protected chamber, known as the "queen's cell", houses the queen and king and is used as a last line of defence.[202]

Species in the genus Macrotermes arguably build the most complex structures in the insect world, constructing enormous mounds.[200] These mounds are among the largest in the world, reaching a height of 8 to 9 metres (26 to 29 feet), and consist of chimneys, pinnacles and ridges.[63] Another termite species, Amitermes meridionalis, can build nests 3 to 4 metres (9 to 13 feet) high and 2.5 metres (8 feet) wide. The tallest mound ever recorded was 12.8 metres (42 ft) long found in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.[206]

The sculptured mounds sometimes have elaborate and distinctive forms, such as those of the compass termite (Amitermes meridionalis and A. laurensis), which builds tall, wedge-shaped mounds with the long axis oriented approximately north–south, which gives them their common name.[207][208] This orientation has been experimentally shown to assist thermoregulation. The north–south orientation causes the internal temperature of a mound to increase rapidly during the morning while avoiding overheating from the midday sun. The temperature then remains at a plateau for the rest of the day until the evening.[209]

Shelter tubes

Termites construct shelter tubes, also known as earthen tubes or mud tubes, that start from the ground. These shelter tubes can be found on walls and other structures.[210] Constructed by termites during the night, a time of higher humidity, these tubes provide protection to termites from potential predators, especially ants.[211] Shelter tubes also provide high humidity and darkness and allow workers to collect food sources that cannot be accessed in any other way.[210] These passageways are made from soil and faeces and are normally brown in colour. The size of these shelter tubes depends on the number of food sources that are available. They range from less than 1 cm to several cm in width, but may be dozens of metres in length.[211]

Relationship with humans

As pests

Termite mound as an obstacle on a runway at Khorixas (Namibia
)

Owing to their wood-eating habits, many termite species can do significant damage to unprotected buildings and other wooden structures.[212] Termites play an important role as decomposers of wood and vegetative material, and the conflict with humans occurs where structures and landscapes containing structural wood components, cellulose derived structural materials and ornamental vegetation provide termites with a reliable source of food and moisture.[213] Their habit of remaining concealed often results in their presence being undetected until the timbers are severely damaged, with only a thin exterior layer of wood remaining, which protects them from the environment.[214] Of the 3,106 species known, only 183 species cause damage; 83 species cause significant damage to wooden structures.[212] In North America, 18 subterranean species are pests;[215] in Australia, 16 species have an economic impact; in the Indian subcontinent 26 species are considered pests, and in tropical Africa, 24. In Central America and the West Indies, there are 17 pest species.[212] Among the termite genera, Coptotermes has the highest number of pest species of any genus, with 28 species known to cause damage.[212] Less than 10% of drywood termites are pests, but they infect wooden structures and furniture in tropical, subtropical and other regions. Dampwood termites only attack lumber material exposed to rainfall or soil.[212]

Drywood termites thrive in warm climates, and human activities can enable them to invade homes since they can be transported through contaminated goods, containers and ships.[212] Colonies of termites have been seen thriving in warm buildings located in cold regions.[216] Some termites are considered invasive species. Cryptotermes brevis, the most widely introduced invasive termite species in the world, has been introduced to all the islands in the West Indies and to Australia.[43][212]

In addition to causing damage to buildings, termites can also damage food crops.[217] Termites may attack trees whose resistance to damage is low but generally ignore fast-growing plants. Most attacks occur at harvest time; crops and trees are attacked during the dry season.[217]

The damage caused by termites costs the southwestern United States approximately $1.5 billion each year in wood structure damage, but the true cost of damage worldwide cannot be determined.[212][218] Drywood termites are responsible for a large proportion of the damage caused by termites.[219] The goal of termite control is to keep structures and susceptible ornamental plants free from termites.;[220] Structures may be homes or business, or elements such as wooden fence posts and telephone poles. Regular and thorough inspections by a trained professional may be necessary to detect termite activity in the absence of more obvious signs like termite swarmers or alates inside or adjacent to a structure. Termite monitors made of wood or cellulose adjacent to a structure may also provide indication of termite foraging activity where it will be in conflict with humans. Termites can be controlled by application of Bordeaux mixture or other substances that contain copper such as chromated copper arsenate.[221] In the United states, application of a soil termiticide with the active ingredient Fipronil, such as Termidor SC or Taurus SC, by a licensed professional,[222] is a common remedy approved by the Environmental Protection Agency for economically significant subterranean termites.[223][224] A growing demand for alternative, green, and "more natural" extermination methods has increased demand for mechanical and biological control methods such as Orange Oil.

To better control the population of termites, various methods have been developed to track termite movements.[218] One early method involved distributing termite bait laced with immunoglobulin G (IgG) marker proteins from rabbits or chickens. Termites collected from the field could be tested for the rabbit-IgG markers using a rabbit-IgG-specific assay. More recently developed, less expensive alternatives include tracking the termites using egg white, cow milk, or soy milk proteins, which can be sprayed on termites in the field. Termites bearing these proteins can be traced using a protein-specific ELISA test.[218]

In 1994, termites, of the species Reticulitermes grassei, were identified in two bungalows in Saunton, Devon. Anecdotal evidence suggests the infestation could date back 70 years before the official identification. There are reports that gardeners had seen white ants and that a greenhouse had had to be replaced in the past. The Saunton infestation was the first and only colony ever recorded in the UK. In 1998 Termite Eradication Programme was set-up, with the intention of containing and eradicating the colony. The TEP was managed by the Ministry of Housing, Communities & Local Government (now the Department for Levelling Up, Housing and Communities.) The TEP used 'insect growth regulators' to prevent the termites from reaching maturity and reproducing. In 2021 the UK’s Termite Eradication Programme announced the eradication of the colony, the first time a country has eradicated termites.[225]

As food

43 termite species are used as food by humans or are fed to livestock.[226] These insects are particularly important in impoverished countries where malnutrition is common, as the protein from termites can help improve the human diet. Termites are consumed in many regions globally, but this practice has only become popular in developed nations in recent years.[226]

Termites are consumed by people in many different cultures around the world. In many parts of Africa, the alates are an important factor in the diets of native populations.[227] Groups have different ways of collecting or cultivating insects; sometimes collecting soldiers from several species. Though harder to acquire, queens are regarded as a delicacy.[228] Termite alates are high in nutrition with adequate levels of fat and protein. They are regarded as pleasant in taste, having a nut-like flavour after they are cooked.[227]

Alates are collected when the rainy season begins. During a nuptial flight, they are typically seen around lights to which they are attracted, and so nets are set up on lamps and captured alates are later collected. The wings are removed through a technique that is similar to winnowing. The best result comes when they are lightly roasted on a hot plate or fried until crisp. Oil is not required as their bodies usually contain sufficient amounts of oil. Termites are typically eaten when livestock is lean and tribal crops have not yet developed or produced any food, or if food stocks from a previous growing season are limited.[227]

In addition to Africa, termites are consumed in local or tribal areas in Asia and North and South America. In Australia,

geophagy) in many countries including Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe and South Africa.[229][230][231][232] Researchers have suggested that termites are suitable candidates for human consumption and space agriculture, as they are high in protein and can be used to convert inedible waste to consumable products for humans.[233]

In agriculture

Scientists have developed a more affordable method of tracing the movement of termites using traceable proteins.[218]

Termites can be major agricultural pests, particularly in East Africa and North Asia, where crop losses can be severe (3–100% in crop loss in Africa).[234] Counterbalancing this is the greatly improved water infiltration where termite tunnels in the soil allow rainwater to soak in deeply, which helps reduce runoff and consequent soil erosion through bioturbation.[235] In South America, cultivated plants such as eucalyptus, upland rice and sugarcane can be severely damaged by termite infestations, with attacks on leaves, roots and woody tissue. Termites can also attack other plants, including cassava, coffee, cotton, fruit trees, maize, peanuts, soybeans and vegetables.[21] Mounds can disrupt farming activities, making it difficult for farmers to operate farming machinery; however, despite farmers' dislike of the mounds, it is often the case that no net loss of production occurs.[21] Termites can be beneficial to agriculture, such as by boosting crop yields and enriching the soil. Termites and ants can re-colonise untilled land that contains crop stubble, which colonies use for nourishment when they establish their nests. The presence of nests in fields enables larger amounts of rainwater to soak into the ground and increases the amount of nitrogen in the soil, both essential for the growth of crops.[236]

In science and technology

The termite gut has inspired various research efforts aimed at replacing

lignocellulose polymers are broken down into sugars and are transformed into hydrogen. The bacteria within the gut turns the sugar and hydrogen into cellulose acetate, an acetate ester of cellulose on which termites rely for energy.[237] Community DNA sequencing of the microbes in the termite hindgut has been employed to provide a better understanding of the metabolic pathway.[237] Genetic engineering may enable hydrogen to be generated in bioreactors from woody biomass.[237]

The development of autonomous robots capable of constructing intricate structures without human assistance has been inspired by the complex mounds that termites build.[240] These robots work independently and can move by themselves on a tracked grid, capable of climbing and lifting up bricks. Such robots may be useful for future projects on Mars, or for building levees to prevent flooding.[241]

Termites use sophisticated means to control the temperatures of their mounds. As discussed above, the shape and orientation of the mounds of the Australian compass termite stabilises their internal temperatures during the day. As the towers heat up, the solar chimney effect (stack effect) creates an updraft of air within the mound.[242] Wind blowing across the tops of the towers enhances the circulation of air through the mounds, which also include side vents in their construction. The solar chimney effect has been in use for centuries in the Middle East and Near East for passive cooling, as well as in Europe by the Romans.[243] It is only relatively recently, however, that climate responsive construction techniques have become incorporated into modern architecture. Especially in Africa, the stack effect has become a popular means to achieve natural ventilation and passive cooling in modern buildings.[242]

In culture

The Eastgate Centre is a shopping centre and office block in central Harare, Zimbabwe, whose architect, Mick Pearce, used passive cooling inspired by that used by the local termites.[244] It was the first major building exploiting termite-inspired cooling techniques to attract international attention. Other such buildings include the Learning Resource Center at the Catholic University of Eastern Africa and the Council House 2 building in Melbourne, Australia.[242]

Few zoos hold termites, due to the difficulty in keeping them captive and to the reluctance of authorities to permit potential pests. One of the few that do, the Zoo Basel in Switzerland, has two thriving Macrotermes bellicosus populations – resulting in an event very rare in captivity: the mass migrations of young flying termites. This happened in September 2008, when thousands of male termites left their mound each night, died, and covered the floors and water pits of the house holding their exhibit.[245]

African tribes in several countries have termites as

Keramat and Datok Kong.[citation needed] In urban areas, local residents construct red-painted shrines over mounds that have been abandoned, where they pray for good health, protection and luck.[247]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ It is unknown whether the termite was female or male. If it was a female, the body length would be far greater than 25 millimetres when mature.

References

  1. ^ Behrensmeyer, A. K.; Turner, A. "Fossilworks, Gateway to the Paleobiology Database".
  2. ^ Engel, M.S.; Grimaldi, D.A.; Krishna, K. (2009). "Termites (Isoptera): their phylogeny, classification, and rise to ecological dominance". American Museum Novitates (3650): 1–27.
    S2CID 56166416
    .
  3. ^ .
  4. ^ "Termite". Merriam-Webster.com.
  5. ^ Bignell, Roisin & Lo 2010, p. 2.
  6. ^ .
  7. .
  8. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Termite". Online Etymology Dictionary.
  9. ^ "Termite". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
  10. .
  11. .
  12. .
  13. ^ .
  14. .
  15. .
  16. .
  17. .
  18. .
  19. .
  20. .
  21. ^ .
  22. .
  23. .
  24. .
  25. .
  26. .
  27. .
  28. ^ .
  29. .
  30. ^ .
  31. .
  32. .
  33. PMC 349550. Archived from the original
    (PDF) on 2010-05-30.
  34. ^ .
  35. .
  36. .
  37. .
  38. .
  39. ^ a b c d e "Termite Biology and Ecology". Division of Technology, Industry and Economics Chemicals Branch. United Nations Environment Programme. Archived from the original on 10 November 2014. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  40. ^ Meyer, V.W.; Braack, L.E.O.; Biggs, H.C.; Ebersohn, C. (1999). "Distribution and density of termite mounds in the northern Kruger National Park, with specific reference to those constructed by Macrotermes Holmgren (Isoptera: Termitidae)". African Entomology. 7 (1): 123–130.
  41. .
  42. .
  43. ^ .
  44. .
  45. ^ .
  46. .
  47. ^ .
  48. ^ a b c d Bignell, Roisin & Lo 2010, p. 7.
  49. ^ Bignell, Roisin & Lo 2010, pp. 7–9.
  50. ^ a b c d Bignell, Roisin & Lo 2010, p. 11.
  51. .
  52. ^ Bignell, Roisin & Lo 2010, p. 12.
  53. PMID 19746415
    .
  54. .
  55. .
  56. ^ Bignell, Roisin & Lo 2010, p. 9.
  57. ^ Bignell, Roisin & Lo 2010, p. 10.
  58. ^ a b c Bignell, Roisin & Lo 2010, p. 13.
  59. ^ a b c d e f g "Termites". Australian Museum. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  60. ^
    S2CID 21310420
    .
  61. .
  62. ^ a b c Bignell, Roisin & Lo 2010, p. 18.
  63. ^ a b c d e f g h Krishna, K. "Termite". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
  64. .
  65. ^ Meek, S.P. (1934). Termite Control at an Ordnance Storage Depot. American Defense Preparedness Association. p. 159.
  66. ^ .
  67. .
  68. .
  69. ^ . 96-38.
  70. ^ .
  71. ^ Srinivasan, Amia (September 10, 2018). "What Termites Can Teach Us". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on March 7, 2020.
  72. PMID 18822181
    .
  73. ^ Davis, P. "Termite Identification". Entomology at Western Australian Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2009-06-12.
  74. S2CID 23356632
    .
  75. ^ a b "Native subterranean termites". University of Florida. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  76. ^ a b Schneider, M.F. (1999). "Termite Life Cycle and Caste System". University of Freiburg. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  77. S2CID 656039
    .
  78. ^ .
  79. ^ a b Miller, D.M. (5 March 2010). "Subterranean Termite Biology and Behavior". Virginia Tech (Virginia State University). Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  80. ^ a b Gouge, D.H.; Smith, K.A.; Olson, C.; Baker, P. (2001). "Drywood Termites". Cooperative Extension, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences. University of Arizona. Retrieved 16 September 2015.
  81. S2CID 35656795
    .
  82. ISBN 978-0-08-026850-7. {{cite book}}: |first1= has generic name (help
    )
  83. .
  84. .
  85. ^ "Supplementary reproductive". University of Hawaii. Archived from the original on 30 October 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2015.
  86. PMID 25404335
    .
  87. .
  88. .
  89. ^ Bignell, Roisin & Lo 2010, pp. 13–14.
  90. .
  91. .
  92. .
  93. ^ Ritter, Michael (2006). The Physical Environment: an Introduction to Physical Geography. University of Wisconsin. p. 450. Archived from the original on 18 May 2007.
  94. S2CID 28048145
    .
  95. .
  96. ^ "The Termite Gut and its Symbiotic Microbes". iBiology. Retrieved 2020-05-16.
  97. S2CID 4384555
    .
  98. .
  99. .
  100. ^ "The Termite Gut and its Symbiotic Microbes". iBiology. Retrieved 2020-05-16.
  101. ^ Geetha Iyer Scroll.in (Mar 09, 2017) Why Indians worship the mound of the much-hated termite "[The soldier termites] and the reproductive castes obtain their nutrients from the workers through oral or anal trophallaxis."
  102. PMID 24487532
    .
  103. .
  104. .
  105. .
  106. .
  107. .
  108. ^ Radek, R. (1999). "Flagellates, bacteria, and fungi associated with termites: diversity and function in nutrition – a review" (PDF). Ecotropica. 5: 183–196.
  109. .
  110. .
  111. ^ .
  112. ^ .
  113. .
  114. .
  115. .
  116. ^ .
  117. ^ Bignell, Roisin & Lo 2010, p. 509.
  118. .
  119. ^ .
  120. ^ Wilson, D.S.; Clark, A.B. (1977). "Above ground defence in the harvester termite, Hodotermes mossambicus". Journal of the Entomological Society of South Africa. 40: 271–282.
  121. .
  122. .
  123. .
  124. .
  125. .
  126. .
  127. .
  128. ^ .
  129. .
  130. .
  131. S2CID 13689479. Archived from the original
    (PDF) on 2015-11-12. Retrieved 2015-09-20.
  132. .
  133. ^ Schmid-Hempel 1998, p. 61.
  134. ^ Schmid-Hempel 1998, p. 75.
  135. .
  136. ^ Schmid-Hempel 1998, p. 59.
  137. ^ Schmid-Hempel 1998, pp. 301–302.
  138. ^ Schmid-Hempel 1998, p. 19.
  139. .
  140. .
  141. ^ Schmid-Hempel 1998, pp. 38, 102.
  142. . Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  143. .
  144. .
  145. .
  146. .
  147. ^ .
  148. .
  149. .
  150. .
  151. .
  152. .
  153. .
  154. .
  155. .
  156. .
  157. ^ Messenger, M.T.; Su, N.Y. (2005). "Agonistic behavior between colonies of the Formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) from Louis Armstrong Park, New Orleans, Louisiana". Sociobiology. 45 (2): 331–345.
  158. S2CID 31608071
    .
  159. ^ a b c Mathew, T.T.G.; Reis, R.; DeSouza, O.; Ribeiro, S.P. (2005). "Predation and interference competition between ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and arboreal termites (Isoptera: Termitidae)" (PDF). Sociobiology. 46 (2): 409–419.
  160. S2CID 40214049
    .
  161. .
  162. S2CID 8108234. Archived from the original
    (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-10-08.
  163. .
  164. .
  165. ^ Wilson, D.S. (1977). "Above ground predator defense in the harvester termite, Hodotermes mossambicus (Hagen)". Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa. 40: 271–282.
  166. .
  167. ^ .
  168. .
  169. .
  170. .
  171. .
  172. .
  173. .
  174. .
  175. .
  176. .
  177. ^ .
  178. .
  179. .
  180. .
  181. .
  182. . (subscription required)
  183. ^ Darlington, J. (1985). "Attacks by doryline ants and termite nest defences (Hymenoptera; Formicidae; Isoptera; Termitidae)". Sociobiology. 11: 189–200.
  184. S2CID 33487814
    .
  185. .
  186. ^ .
  187. .
  188. .
  189. ^ .
  190. ^ McHatton, R. (2011). "Orchid Pollination: exploring a fascinating world" (PDF). The American Orchid Society. p. 344. Retrieved 5 September 2015.
  191. .
  192. ^ .
  193. ^ a b Clark, Sarah (15 November 2005). "Plant extract stops termites dead". ABC. Archived from the original on 15 June 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  194. ISSN 0140-1963
    .
  195. ^ Bignell, Roisin & Lo 2010, p. 3.
  196. ^ .
  197. ^ Bignell, Roisin & Lo 2010, p. 20.
  198. ^ .
  199. ^ a b c d e Bignell, Roisin & Lo 2010, p. 21.
  200. S2CID 33877331
    .
  201. ^ a b c Bignell, Roisin & Lo 2010, p. 22.
  202. S2CID 130782273
    .
  203. ^ .
  204. .
  205. .
  206. .
  207. .
  208. .
  209. ^ .
  210. ^ .
  211. ^ .
  212. ^ Thorne, Ph.D, Barbara L. (1999). NPMA Research Report On Subterranean Termites. Dunn Loring, VA: NPMA. p. 22.
  213. ^ "Termites". Victorian Building Authority. Government of Victoria. 2014. Archived from the original on 3 February 2018. Retrieved 20 September 2015.
  214. ^ Thorne, Ph.D, Barbara L. (1999). NPMA Research Report On Subterranean Termites. Dunn Loring, VA: NPMA. p. 2.
  215. ^ Grace, J.K.; Cutten, G.M.; Scheffrahn, R.H.; McEkevan, D.K. (1991). "First infestation by Incisitermes minor of a Canadian building (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae)". Sociobiology. 18: 299–304.
  216. ^ .
  217. ^ a b c d Flores, A. (17 February 2010). "New Assay Helps Track Termites, Other Insects". Agricultural Research Service. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  218. ^ Su, N.Y.; Scheffrahn, R.H. (1990). "Economically important termites in the United States and their control" (PDF). Sociobiology. 17: 77–94. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-12.
  219. ^ Thorne, Ph.D, Barbara L. (1999). NPMA Research Report On Subterranean Termites. Dunn Loring, VA: NPMA. p. 40.
  220. ^ Elliott, Sara (26 May 2009). "How can copper keep termites at bay?". HowStuffWorks.
  221. ^ "Questions and Answers About Termites" (PDF). Department of Consumer Affairs, Structural Pest Control Board of California. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  222. ^ "EPA Registration and Label for Taurus SC Termiticide" (PDF). EPA.gov.
  223. ^ "EPA Registration and Label for Termidor SC" (PDF). EPA.gov. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  224. ^ Pidd, Helen (21 December 2021). "'A world first': Devon calls victory in 27-year war on termites". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  225. ^
    PMID 25925503
    .
  226. ^ .
  227. ^ .
  228. .
  229. .
  230. .
  231. .
  232. .
  233. .
  234. ^ Löffler, E.; Kubiniok, J. (1996). "Landform development and bioturbation on the Khorat plateau, Northeast Thailand" (PDF). Natural History Bulletin of the Siam Society. 44: 199–216.
  235. PMID 21448161
    .
  236. ^ a b c d e "Termite Power". DOE Joint Genome Institute. United States Department of Energy. 14 August 2006. Archived from the original on 22 September 2006. Retrieved 11 September 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  237. ^ Hirschler, B. (22 November 2007). "Termites' gut reaction set for biofuels". ABC News. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  238. ^ Roach, J. (14 March 2006). "Termite Power: Can Pests' Guts Create New Fuel?". National Geographic News. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
  239. S2CID 38776920
    .
  240. .
  241. ^ a b c "Termites Green Architecture in the Tropics". The Architect. Architectural Association of Kenya. Archived from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2015.
  242. .
  243. ^ Tsoroti, S. (15 May 2014). "What's that building? Eastgate Mall". Harare News. Archived from the original on 11 April 2021. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  244. ^ "Im Zoo Basel fliegen die Termiten aus". Neue Zürcher Zeitung (in German). 8 February 2014. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
  245. S2CID 198497332
    .
  246. ^ a b Neoh, K.B. (2013). "Termites and human society in Southeast Asia" (PDF). The Newsletter. 30 (66): 1–2.

Cited literature

External links