The Washington Post

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The Washington Post
Media of the United States
  • List of newspapers
  • The Washington Post, locally known as the Post and, informally, WaPo or WP, is an American

    daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C., the national capital. It is the most widely circulated newspaper in the Washington metropolitan area[5][6]
    and has a national audience.

    The Post was founded in 1877. In its early years, it went through several owners and struggled both financially and editorially. Financier

    Nash Holdings, a holding company owned by Jeff Bezos, for $250 million.[7]

    As of 2023, the newspaper had won the

    foreign bureaus,[16] with international breaking news hubs in London and Seoul.[17]

    Overview

    lead section, which should provide an overview of the subject. Please merge it
    with the introduction, move its content to other sections, or retitle the section to give it a clear scope. (August 2023)

    The Washington Post is regarded as one of the leading daily American newspapers along with The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, and The Wall Street Journal.[18] The Post has distinguished itself through its political reporting on the workings of the White House, Congress, and other aspects of the U.S. government. It is considered a newspaper of record in the U.S.[11][12]

    The Washington Post does not print an edition for distribution away from the East Coast. In 2009, the newspaper ceased publication of its National Weekly Edition due to shrinking circulation.[19] The majority of its newsprint readership is in Washington, D.C., and its suburbs in Maryland and Northern Virginia.[20]

    The newspaper's 21 current foreign bureaus are in Baghdad, Beijing, Beirut, Berlin, Brussels, Cairo, Dakar, Hong Kong, Islamabad, Istanbul, Jerusalem, London, Mexico City, Moscow, Nairobi, New Delhi, Rio de Janeiro, Rome, Seoul, Tokyo, and Toronto.[21] In November 2009, the newspaper announced the closure of three U.S. regional bureaus in Chicago, Los Angeles and New York City, as part of an increased focus on Washington, D.C.-based political stories and local news.[22] The newspaper has local bureaus in Maryland (Annapolis, Montgomery County, Prince George's County, and Southern Maryland) and Virginia (Alexandria, Fairfax, Loudoun County, Richmond, and Prince William County).[23]

    As of March 2023, the Post's average printed weekday circulation is 139,232, making it the third largest newspaper in the country by circulation.[4]

    For many decades, the Post had its main office at 1150 15th Street NW. This real estate remained with Graham Holdings when the newspaper was sold to Jeff Bezos' Nash Holdings in 2013. Graham Holdings sold 1150 15th Street, along with 1515 L Street, 1523 L Street, and land beneath 1100 15th Street, for $159 million in November 2013. The Post continued to lease space at 1150 L Street NW.[24] In May 2014, The Post leased the west tower of One Franklin Square, a high-rise building at 1301 K Street NW in Washington, D.C.[25]

    Mary Jordan was the founding editor, head of content, and moderator for Washington Post Live,[26][27] The Post's editorial events business, which organizes political debates, conferences and news events for the media company, including "The 40th Anniversary of Watergate" in June 2012 that featured key Watergate figures including former White House counsel John Dean, Washington Post editor Ben Bradlee, and reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, which was held at the Watergate hotel. Regular hosts include Frances Stead Sellers.[28][29][30] Lois Romano was formerly the editor of Washington Post Live.[31]

    The Post has its own exclusive

    Zip Code
    , 20071.

    Publishing service

    Arc XP is a department of The Washington Post, which provides a publishing system and software for news organizations such as the Chicago Tribune and the Los Angeles Times.[32][33]

    History

    Founding and early period

    The Washington Post and Union in 1878
    Harry Truman
    following his surprising re-election.

    The newspaper was founded in 1877 by Stilson Hutchins (1838–1912), and in 1880 it added a Sunday edition, becoming the city's first newspaper to publish seven days a week.[34]

    19th century

    In April 1878, about four months into publication, The Washington Post purchased The Washington Union, a competing newspaper which was founded by John Lynch in late 1877. The Union had only been in operation about six months at the time of the acquisition. The combined newspaper was published from the Globe Building as The Washington Post and Union beginning on April 15, 1878, with a circulation of 13,000.[35][36] The Post and Union name was used about two weeks until April 29, 1878, returning to the original masthead the following day.[37]

    In 1889, Hutchins sold the newspaper to

    Frank Hatton, a former Postmaster General, and Beriah Wilkins, a former Democratic congressman from Ohio. To promote the newspaper, the new owners requested the leader of the United States Marine Band, John Philip Sousa, to compose a march for the newspaper's essay contest awards ceremony. Sousa composed "The Washington Post".[38] It became the standard music to accompany the two-step, a late 19th-century dance craze,[39]
    and remains one of Sousa's best-known works.

    In 1893, the newspaper moved to a building at 14th and E streets NW, where it would remain until 1950. This building combined all functions of the newspaper into one headquarters – newsroom, advertising, typesetting, and printing – that ran 24 hours per day.[40]

    In 1898, during the

    Remember the Maine, which became the battle-cry for American sailors during the War. In 1902, Berryman published another famous cartoon in the PostDrawing the Line in Mississippi. This cartoon depicts President Theodore Roosevelt showing compassion for a small bear cub and inspired New York store owner Morris Michtom to create the teddy bear.[41]
    Wilkins acquired Hatton's share of the newspaper in 1894 at Hatton's death.

    20th century

    The July 21, 1969, edition with the headline "'The Eagle Has Landed': Two Men Walk on the Moon", covering the Apollo 11 landing

    After Wilkins' death in 1903, his sons John and Robert ran the Post for two years before selling it in 1905 to

    typo" in D.C. history according to Reason magazine; the Post intended to report that President Wilson had been "entertaining" his future-wife Mrs. Galt, but instead wrote that he had been "entering" Mrs. Galt.[42][43][44]

    When McLean died in 1916, he put the newspaper in a trust, having little faith that his playboy son Edward "Ned" McLean could manage it as part of his inheritance. Ned went to court and broke the trust, but, under his management, the newspaper slumped toward ruin. He bled the paper for his lavish lifestyle and used it to promote political agendas.[45]

    During the

    Red Summer of 1919 the Post supported the white mobs and even ran a front-page story which advertised the location at which white servicemen were planning to meet to carry out attacks on black Washingtonians.[46]

    In 1929, financier

    Chairman of the Federal Reserve. He had bid anonymously, and was prepared to go up to $2 million, far higher than the other bidders.[50][51] These included William Randolph Hearst, who had long hoped to shut down the ailing Post to benefit his own Washington newspaper presence.[52]

    The Post's health and reputation were restored under Meyer's ownership. In 1946, he was succeeded as publisher by his son-in-law,

    Herald before their 1939 merger that formed the Times-Herald. This was in turn bought by and merged into the Post in 1954.[54] The combined paper was officially named The Washington Post and Times-Herald until 1973, although the Times-Herald portion of the nameplate
    became less and less prominent over time.

    The merger left the Post with two remaining local competitors, the

    Washington Star (Evening Star) and The Washington Daily News. In 1972, the two competitors merged, forming the Washington Star-News.[55][56]

    Following Graham's death in 1963, control of The Washington Post Company passed to his wife, Katharine Graham (1917–2001), who was also Eugene Meyer's daughter. Few women had run prominent national newspapers in the United States. Katharine Graham described her own anxiety and lack of confidence as she stepped into a leadership role in her autobiography. She served as publisher from 1969 to 1979.[57]

    Graham took The Washington Post Company public on June 15, 1971, in the midst of the Pentagon Papers controversy. A total of 1,294,000 shares were offered to the public at $26 per share.[58][59] By the end of Graham's tenure as CEO in 1991, the stock was worth $888 per share, not counting the effect of an intermediate 4:1 stock split.[60]

    Graham also oversaw the Post company's diversification purchase of the for-profit education and training company Kaplan, Inc. for $40 million in 1984.[61] Twenty years later, Kaplan had surpassed the Post newspaper as the company's leading contributor to income, and by 2010 Kaplan accounted for more than 60% of the entire company revenue stream.[62]

    Executive editor Ben Bradlee put the newspaper's reputation and resources behind reporters Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, who, in a long series of articles, chipped away at the story behind the 1972 burglary of Democratic National Committee offices in the Watergate complex in Washington. The Post's dogged coverage of the story, the outcome of which ultimately played a major role in the resignation of President Richard Nixon, won the newspaper a Pulitzer Prize in 1973.[63]

    In 1972, the "Book World" section was introduced with Pulitzer Prize-winning critic William McPherson as its first editor.[64] It featured Pulitzer Prize-winning critics such as Jonathan Yardley and Michael Dirda, the latter of whom established his career as a critic at the Post. In 2009, after 37 years, with great reader outcries and protest, The Washington Post Book World as a standalone insert was discontinued, the last issue being Sunday, February 15, 2009,[65] along with a general reorganization of the paper, such as placing the Sunday editorials on the back page of the main front section rather than the "Outlook" section and distributing some other locally oriented "op-ed" letters and commentaries in other sections.[66] However, book reviews are still published in the Outlook section on Sundays and in the Style section the rest of the week, as well as online.[66]

    In 1975,

    the pressmen's union went on strike. The Post hired replacement workers to replace the pressmen's union, and other unions returned to work in February 1976.[67]

    Donald E. Graham, Katharine's son, succeeded her as a publisher in 1979.[57]

    In 1995, the domain name washingtonpost.com was purchased. That same year, a failed effort to create an online news repository called Digital Ink launched. The following year it was shut down and the first website was launched in June 1996.[68]

    Jeff Bezos era (2013–present)

    The demolition of The Washington Post's 15th Street headquarters in April 2016
    One Franklin Square, the current home of the Post

    In late September 2013, Jeff Bezos purchased The Washington Post and other local publications, websites, and real estate[69][70][71] for US$250 million,[72][73][74] transferring ownership to Nash Holdings LLC, Bezos's private investment company.[73] The paper's former parent company, which retained some other assets such as Kaplan and a group of TV stations, was renamed Graham Holdings shortly after the sale.[75][76]

    Nash Holdings, which includes the Post, is operated separately from technology company Amazon, which Bezos founded and where he is as of 2022 executive chairman and the largest single shareholder, with 12.7% of voting rights.[77][78]

    Bezos said he has a vision that recreates "the 'daily ritual' of reading the Post as a bundle, not merely a series of individual stories..."[79] He has been described as a "hands-off owner", holding teleconference calls with executive editor Martin Baron every two weeks.[80] Bezos appointed Fred Ryan (founder and CEO of Politico) to serve as publisher and chief executive officer. This signaled Bezos' intent to shift the Post to a more digital focus with a national and global readership.[81]

    In 2015, the Post moved from the building it owned at 1150 15th Street to a leased space three blocks away at One Franklin Square on

    2020 Webby People's Voice Award for News & Politics in the Social and Web categories.[86]

    In 2017, the newspaper hired Jamal Khashoggi as a columnist. In 2018, Khashoggi was murdered by Saudi agents in Istanbul.[87][88]

    In October 2023, the Post announced it would cut 240 jobs across the organization by offering voluntary separation packages to employees.[89] In a staff-wide email announcing the job cuts, interim CEO Patty Stonesifer wrote, "Our prior projections for traffic, subscriptions and advertising growth for the past two years — and into 2024 — have been overly optimistic".[89] The Post has lost around 500,000 subscribers since the end of 2020 and was set to lose $100 million in 2023, according to The New York Times.[89] The layoffs prompted Dan Froomkin of Presswatchers to suggest that the decline in readership could be reversed by focusing on the rise of authoritarianism (in a fashion similar to the role the Post played during the Watergate scandal) instead of staying strictly neutral, which Froomkin says places the paper into an undistinguished secondary role in competition with other contemporary media.[90]

    In November 2023, the Post joined with the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Paper Trail Media and 69 media partners including Distributed Denial of Secrets and the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP) and more than 270 journalists in 55 countries and territories[91][92] to produce the 'Cyprus Confidential' report on the financial network which supports the regime of Vladimir Putin, mostly with connections to Cyprus, and showed Cyprus to have strong links with high-up figures in the Kremlin, some of whom have been sanctioned.[93][94] Government officials including Cyprus president Nikos Christodoulides[95] and European lawmakers[96] began responding to the investigation's findings in less than 24 hours,[95] calling for reforms and launching probes.[97][98]

    Political stance

    20th century

    Two United States soldiers and a South Vietnamese soldier waterboard a captured North Vietnamese prisoner during the Vietnam War; the image, which appeared on the front cover of The Washington Post on January 21, 1968, led to the court-martial of a United States soldier, although The Washington Post described waterboarding as "fairly common".[99][100]

    In 1933, financier Eugene Meyer bought the bankrupt Post, and assured the public that neither he nor the newspaper would not be beholden to any political party.

    Agnes Ernst Meyer was a journalist from the other end of the spectrum politically. The Post ran many of her pieces including tributes to her personal friends John Dewey and Saul Alinsky.[105][106][107][108]

    In 1946, Meyer was appointed head of

    Harvard alumni) that would color the Post's political orientation.[109] Kay Graham's most memorable Georgetown soirée guest list included British diplomat/communist spy Donald Maclean.[110][111]

    The Post is credited with coining the term "

    Dickstein Committee of the 1930s.[113]

    Phil Graham's friendship with John F. Kennedy remained strong until their deaths in 1963.[114] FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover reportedly told the new President Lyndon B. Johnson, "I don't have much influence with the Post because I frankly don't read it. I view it like the Daily Worker."[115][116]

    Ben Bradlee became the editor-in-chief in 1968, and Kay Graham officially became the publisher in 1969, paving the way for the aggressive reporting of the Pentagon Papers and Watergate scandals. The Post strengthened public opposition to the Vietnam War in 1971 when it published the Pentagon Papers.[117] In the mid-1970s, some conservatives referred to the Post as "Pravda on the Potomac" because of its perceived left-wing bias in both reporting and editorials.[118] Since then, the appellation has been used by both liberal and conservative critics of the newspaper.[119][120]

    21st century

    In the PBS documentary Buying the War, journalist Bill Moyers said in the year prior to the Iraq War there were 27 editorials supporting the Bush administration's desire to invade Iraq. National security correspondent Walter Pincus reported that he had been ordered to cease his reports that were critical of the administration.[121] According to author and journalist Greg Mitchell: "By the Post's own admission, in the months before the war, it ran more than 140 stories on its front page promoting the war, while contrary information got lost".[122]

    On March 23, 2007, Chris Matthews said on his television program, "The Washington Post is not the liberal newspaper it was [...] I have been reading it for years and it is a neocon newspaper".[123] It has regularly published a mixture of op-ed columnists, with some of them left-leaning (including E. J. Dionne, Dana Milbank, Greg Sargent, and Eugene Robinson), and some of them right-leaning (including George Will, Marc Thiessen, Michael Gerson and Charles Krauthammer).

    Responding to criticism of the newspaper's coverage during the run-up to the 2008 presidential election, former Post ombudsman Deborah Howell wrote: "The opinion pages have strong conservative voices; the editorial board includes centrists and conservatives; and there were editorials critical of Obama. Yet opinion was still weighted toward Obama."[124] According to a 2009 Oxford University Press book by Richard Davis on the impact of blogs on American politics, liberal bloggers link to The Washington Post and The New York Times more often than other major newspapers; however, conservative bloggers also link predominantly to liberal newspapers.[125]

    Since 2011, the Post has been running a column called "The Fact Checker" that the Post describes as a "truth squad".

    Google News Initiative/YouTube to expand production of video fact checks.[126]

    In mid-September 2016, Matthew Ingram of Forbes joined Glenn Greenwald of The Intercept, and Trevor Timm of The Guardian in criticizing The Washington Post for "demanding that [former National Security Agency contractor Edward] Snowden ... stand trial on espionage charges".[127][128][129][130]

    In February 2017, the Post adopted the slogan "Democracy Dies in Darkness" for its masthead.[131]

    Political endorsements

    In the vast majority of U.S. elections, for federal, state, and local office, the Post editorial board has endorsed Democratic candidates.[132] The paper's editorial board and endorsement decision-making are separate from newsroom operations.[132] Until 1976, the Post did not regularly make endorsements in presidential elections. Since it endorsed Jimmy Carter in 1976, the Post has endorsed Democrats in presidential elections, and has never endorsed a Republican for president in the general election,[132] although in the 1988 presidential election, the Post declined to endorse either Governor Michael Dukakis (the Democratic candidate) or Vice President George H. W. Bush (the Republican candidate).[132][133] The Post editorial board endorsed Barack Obama in 2008[134] and 2012;[135] Hillary Clinton in 2016;[136] and Joe Biden for 2020.[137]

    While the newspaper predominantly endorses Democrats in congressional, state, and local elections, it has occasionally endorsed

    Thomas M. Davis, and Frank Wolf, have enjoyed the support of the Post; the Post also endorsed Republican Carol Schwartz in her campaign in Washington, D.C.[132]

    Criticism and controversies

    "Jimmy's World" fabrication

    In September 1980, a Sunday feature story appeared on the front page of the Post titled "Jimmy's World" in which reporter Janet Cooke wrote a profile of the life of an eight-year-old heroin addict.[140] Although some within the Post doubted the story's veracity, the paper's editors defended it, and assistant managing editor Bob Woodward submitted the story to the Pulitzer Prize Board at Columbia University for consideration.[141] Cooke was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Feature Writing on April 13, 1981. The story was subsequently found to be a complete fabrication, and the Pulitzer was returned.[142]

    Private "salon" solicitation

    In July 2009, in the midst of an intense debate over

    The Politico reported that a health-care lobbyist had received an "astonishing" offer of access to the Post's "health-care reporting and editorial staff."[143] Post publisher Katharine Weymouth had planned a series of exclusive dinner parties or "salons" at her private residence, to which she had invited prominent lobbyists, trade group members, politicians, and business people.[144] Participants were to be charged $25,000 to sponsor a single salon, and $250,000 for 11 sessions, with the events being closed to the public and to the non-Post press.[145] Politico's revelation gained a somewhat mixed response in Washington[146][147][148]
    as it gave the impression that the parties' sole purpose was to allow insiders to purchase face time with Post staff.

    Almost immediately following the disclosure, Weymouth canceled the salons, saying, "This should never have happened." White House counsel Gregory B. Craig reminded officials that under federal ethics rules, they need advance approval for such events. Post Executive Editor Marcus Brauchli, who was named on the flier as one of the salon's "Hosts and Discussion Leaders", said he was "appalled" by the plan, adding, "It suggests that access to Washington Post journalists was available for purchase."[149][144]

    China Daily advertising supplements

    Dating back to 2011, The Washington Post began to include "China Watch" advertising supplements provided by China Daily, an English language newspaper owned by the Publicity Department of the Chinese Communist Party, on the print and online editions. Although the header to the online "China Watch" section included the text "A Paid Supplement to The Washington Post", James Fallows of The Atlantic suggested that the notice was not clear enough for most readers to see.[150] Distributed to the Post and multiple newspapers around the world, the "China Watch" advertising supplements range from four to eight pages and appear at least monthly. According to a 2018 report by The Guardian, "China Watch" uses "a didactic, old-school approach to propaganda."[151]

    In 2020, a report by

    crackdown in Hong Kong."[155] According to The Guardian, the Post had already stopped running "China Watch" in 2019.[156]

    Employee relations

    In 1986, five employees, including Newspaper Guild unit chairman Thomas R. Sherwood and assistant Maryland editor Claudia Levy, sued The Washington Post for overtime pay, stating that the newspaper had claimed that budgets did not allow for overtime wages.[157]

    In June 2018, over 400 employees of The Washington Post signed an open letter to the owner Jeff Bezos demanding "fair wages; fair benefits for retirement, family leave and health care; and a fair amount of job security." The open letter was accompanied by video testimonials from employees, who alleged "shocking pay practices" despite record growth in subscriptions at the newspaper, with salaries rising an average of $10 per week, which the letter claimed was less than half the rate of inflation. The petition followed on a year of unsuccessful negotiations between The Washington Post Guild and upper management over pay and benefit increases.[158]

    In March 2022, reporter Paul Farhi was suspended for five days without pay after he tweeted about the publication's policy on bylines and datelines regarding Russian-based stories.[159]

    Felicia Sonmez

    In 2020, The Post suspended reporter Felicia Sonmez after she posted a series of tweets about the 2003 rape allegation against basketball star Kobe Bryant after Bryant's death. She was reinstated after over 200 Post journalists wrote an open letter criticizing the paper's decision.[160] In July 2021, Sonmez sued The Post and several of its top editors, alleging workplace discrimination; the suit was dismissed in March 2022, with the court determining that Sonmez had failed to make plausible claims.[161]

    In June 2022, Sonmez engaged in a Twitter feud with fellow Post staffers David Weigel, criticizing him over what he later described as "an offensive joke", and Jose A. Del Real, who accused Sonmez of "engaging in repeated and targeted public harassment of a colleague".[162] Following the feud, the newspaper suspended Weigel for a month for violating the company's social media guidelines, and the newspaper's executive editor Sally Buzbee sent out a newsroom-wide memorandum directing employees to "Be constructive and collegial" in their interactions with colleagues.[162] The newspaper fired Sonmez, writing in an emailed termination letter that she had engaged in "misconduct that includes insubordination, maligning your co-workers online and violating The Post's standards on workplace collegiality and inclusivity."[163] The Post faced criticism from the Post Guild after refusing to go to arbitration over the dismissal, stating that the expiration of the Post's contract "does not relieve the Post from its contractual obligation to arbitrate grievances filed prior to expiration."[159]

    Lawsuit by Covington Catholic High School student

    In 2019,

    January 2019 Lincoln Memorial confrontation between Covington students and the Indigenous Peoples March.[164][165] A federal judge dismissed the case, ruling that 30 of the 33 statements in the Post that Sandmann alleged were libelous were not, but allowed Sandmann to file an amended complaint as to three statements.[166] After Sandmann's lawyers amended the complaint, the suit was reopened on October 28, 2019.[167][168]

    In 2020, The Post settled the lawsuit brought by Sandmann for an undisclosed amount.[169]

    Controversial op-eds and columns

    Several Washington Post op-eds and columns have prompted criticism, including a number of comments on race by columnist Richard Cohen over the years,[170][171] and a controversial 2014 column on campus sexual assault by George Will.[172][173]

    The Post's decision to run an op-ed by

    antisemitic group supported by Iran."[174] The headline of a 2020 op-ed titled "It's time to give the elites a bigger say in choosing the president" was changed, without an editor's note, after backlash.[175]

    In 2022, actor Johnny Depp successfully sued ex-wife Amber Heard for an op-ed she wrote in The Washington Post where she described herself as a public figure representing domestic abuse two years after she had publicly accused him of domestic violence.[176][177]

    Criticism by elected officials

    Former president

    his Twitter account,[178] having "tweeted or retweeted criticism of the paper, tying it to Amazon more than 20 times since his campaign for president" by August 2018.[179] In addition to often attacking the paper itself, Trump used Twitter to blast various Post journalists and columnists.[180]

    During the

    Marty Baron responded by saying that Sanders' criticism was "baseless and conspiratorial".[185]

    Executive officers and editors

    Major stockholders

    1. Stilson Hutchins (1877–1889)
    2. Frank Hatton and Beriah Wilkins (1889–1905)
    3. John R. McLean
      (1905–1916)
    4. Edward (Ned) McLean (1916–1933)
    5. Eugene Meyer (1933–1948)
    6. The Washington Post Company (1948–2013)
    7. Nash Holdings (Jeff Bezos) (2013–present)

    Publishers

    1. Stilson Hutchins (1877–1889)
    2. Beriah Wilkins (1889–1905)
    3. John R. McLean
      (1905–1916)
    4. Edward (Ned) McLean (1916–1933)
    5. Eugene Meyer (1933–1946)
    6. Philip L. Graham (1946–1961)
    7. John W. Sweeterman (1961–1968)
    8. Katharine Graham (1969–1979)
    9. Donald E. Graham (1979–2000)
    10. Boisfeuillet Jones Jr. (2000–2008)
    11. Katharine Weymouth (2008–2014)
    12. Frederick J. Ryan Jr. (2014–2023)
    13. William Lewis (2024–present)

    Executive editors

    1. James Russell Wiggins (1955–1968)
    2. Ben Bradlee (1968–1991)
    3. Leonard Downie Jr. (1991–2008)
    4. Marcus Brauchli (2008–2012)[186]
    5. Martin Baron (2012–2021)[187]
    6. Sally Buzbee (2021–present)[188]

    See also

    References

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    Further reading

    • Kelly, Tom. The imperial Post: The Meyers, the Grahams, and the paper that rules Washington (Morrow, 1983)
    • Lewis, Norman P. "Morning Miracle. Inside the Washington Post: A Great Newspaper Fights for Its Life". Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly (2011) 88#1 pp: 219.
    • Merrill, John C. and Harold A. Fisher. The world's great dailies: profiles of fifty newspapers (1980) pp 342–52
    • Roberts, Chalmers McGeagh. In the shadow of power: the story of the Washington Post (Seven Locks Pr, 1989)

    External links