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Threatened species are any
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is the foremost authority on threatened species, and treats threatened species not as a single category, but as a group of three categories, depending on the degree to which they are threatened:
Less-than-threatened categories are
Although threatened and vulnerable may be used interchangeably when discussing IUCN categories, the term threatened is generally used to refer to the three categories (critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable), while vulnerable is used to refer to the least at risk of those three categories. They may be used interchangeably in most contexts however, as all vulnerable species are threatened species (vulnerable is a category of threatened species); and, as the more at-risk categories of threatened species (namely endangered and critically endangered) must, by definition, also qualify as vulnerable species, all threatened species may also be considered vulnerable.
Threatened species are also referred to as a
Subspecies, populations and stocks may also be classified as threatened.
- "Extinct" – "no reasonable doubt that the last member of the species has died";
- "Extinct in the wild" – "known only to survive in cultivation" and "despite exhaustive surveys" has not been seen in the wild;
- "Critically endangered" – "extremely high risk of extinction in the wild in the immediate future";
- "Endangered" – "very high risk of extinction in the wild in the near future";
- "Vulnerable" – "high risk of extinction in the wild in medium-term future"; and
- "Conservation dependent" – "focus of a specific conservation program" without which the species would enter one of the above categories.
The EPBC Act also recognises and protects threatened ecosystems such as plant communities, and
Lists of threatened species are drawn up under the Act and these lists are the primary reference to threatened species in Australia. The Species Profile and Threats Database (SPRAT) is a searchable online database about species and ecological communities listed under the EPBC Act. It provides information on what the species looks like, its population and distribution, habitat, movements, feeding, reproduction and taxonomic comments.
A Threatened Mammal Index, publicly launched on 22 April 2020 and combined as of June 2020[update] with the Threatened Bird Index (created 2018
States and territories
Individual states and territories of Australia are bound under the EPBC Act, but may also have legislation which gives further protection to certain species, for example Western Australia's Wildlife Conservation Act 1950. Some species, such as Lewin's rail (Lewinia pectoralis), are not listed as threatened species under the EPBC Act, but they may be recognised as threatened by individual states or territories.
Pests and weeds, climate change and habitat loss are some of the key threatening processes faced by native plants and animals listed by the
The German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (German: Bundesamt für Naturschutz, BfN) publishes a regional Red List for Germany of at least 48000 animals and 24000 plants and fungi. The scheme for categorization is similar to that of the IUCN, but adds a "warning list", includes species endangered to an unknown extend, and rare species that are not endangered, but are highly at risk of extinction due to the small population.
Within the U.S., state wildlife agencies have the authority under the ESA to manage species which are considered endangered or threatened within their state but not within all states, and which therefore are not included on the national list of endangered and threatened species. For example, the trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator) is threatened in the state of Minnesota, while large populations still remain in Canada and Alaska.
- Biodiversity Action Plan
- IUCN Red List
- Illegal logging
- Rare species
- Red and blue-listed
- Threatened fauna of Australia
Notes and references
- "Threatened species under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999". Australian Government. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Archived from the original on 21 February 2009.
- "Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999". Federal Register of Legislation. Australian Government. 18 September 2019. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
- Kilvert, Nick (22 April 2020). "Australia's threatened mammals decline by more than a third since 1990s, but there's a silver lining". ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 23 April 2020.
- "About – TSX". TSX – A threatened species index for Australia. 20 May 2020. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
- "Australian Threatened Species Index". Threatened Species Recovery Hub. Retrieved 28 June 2020.
- "Key threatening processes". NSW Government. Department of Planning, Industry and Environment. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
- "BfN: Rote Liste (Verzeichnis)". BFN.de (in German). Retrieved 27 December 2019.
- Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Endangered Species. "Endangered Species Program – Laws & Policies – Endangered Species Act – Section 3 Definitions". www.fws.gov. Archived from the original on 29 April 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
- "Minnesota Endangered & Threatened Species List" (PDF). state.mn.us. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 May 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2018.