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Republic of Türkiye
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (Turkish)
Flag of Turkey
Location of Turkey
39°N 35°E / 39°N 35°E / 39; 35Coordinates: 39°N 35°E / 39°N 35°E / 39; 35
Largest cityIstanbul
41°1′N 28°57′E / 41.017°N 28.950°E / 41.017; 28.950
Official languagesTurkish[1][2]
Spoken languages[3]
Other languages
Ethnic groups
See religion in Turkey
  • Turkish
  • Turk
GovernmentUnitary presidential constitutional republic
• President
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Fuat Oktay
Mustafa Şentop
Zühtü Arslan
LegislatureGrand National Assembly
c. 1299
19 May 1919
23 April 1920
24 July 1923
29 October 1923
9 November 1982[5]
₺) (TRY)
Time zoneUTC+3 (TRT)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+90
ISO 3166 codeTR
Internet TLD.tr

Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Turkish pronunciation: [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Türkiye (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyɾcije dʒumˈhuːɾijeti] (listen)), is a transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia, with a small portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the north; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran to the east; Iraq to the southeast; Syria and the Mediterranean Sea to the south; the Aegean Sea to the west; and Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest. Cyprus is off the south coast. Most of the country's citizens are ethnic Turks, while Kurds are the largest ethnic minority.[4] Ankara is Turkey's capital and second-largest city; Istanbul is its largest city and main financial centre.

One of the world's earliest permanently settled regions, present-day Turkey was home to important Neolithic sites like Göbekli Tepe, and was inhabited by ancient civilizations including the Hattians, Hittites, Anatolian peoples, Mycenaean Greeks, Persians, and others.[11][12][13][14]

Following the conquests of Alexander the Great which started the Hellenistic period, most of the ancient regions were culturally Hellenized, and this continued during the Byzantine era.[12][15] The Seljuk Turks began migrating to Anatolia in the 11th century, which started the Turkification process. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities.[16] Beginning in the late 13th century, the Ottomans united the principalities and conquered the Balkans, while the Turkification of Anatolia further progressed during the Ottoman period. After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople (now Istanbul) in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire became a global power.[11][17][18]

From the late 18th century onwards, the

Assyrian subjects.[23][24] After its defeat in the war, the Ottoman Empire was partitioned.[25]


reforms initiated by the country's first president, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Turkey became a secular, unitary and parliamentary republic. Turkey remained neutral during most of World War II, but entered the closing stages of the war on the side of the Allies

Turkey played a prominent role in the

nominal GDP took place until 2013,[26][27] which was followed by a period of recession and stagnation in terms of USD-based nominal GDP between 2013 and 2020,[27] and high inflation as of 2023.[28] The AKP government's initial economic achievements, which were financed through privatization revenues and loans, were overshadowed by democratic backsliding and an erosion in the separation of powers and civil liberties, which gained momentum after the parliamentary republic was replaced by an executive presidential system with a referendum in 2017.[29][30]

Turkey is a

OIC, BSEC, ECO, MIKTA, TURKSOY and OTS; and an early member of NATO. After becoming one of the early members of the Council of Europe in 1950, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995, and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005. Turkey has a rich cultural legacy shaped by centuries of history and the influence of the various peoples that have inhabited its territory over several millennia; it is home to 19 UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is among the most visited
countries in the world.


The English name Turkey (from

Geoffrey Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess (c. 1369). The phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Later usages can be found in the William Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum (Turkie) and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum (Turky). The spelling Turkey dates back to at least 1719.[34]

The name Turkey appeared in Western sources after the

Armenia, the name Türkiye entered international documents for the first time. In the treaty signed with Afghanistan, the expression Devlet-i Âliyye-i Türkiyye ("Sublime Turkish State") was used, likened to the Ottoman Empire's name.[35]

Official name change

In December 2021, the country issued a circular, calling for exports to be labeled "Made in Türkiye". The circular also stated that in relation to other governmental communications, the "necessary sensitivity will be shown on the use of the phrase 'Türkiye' instead of phrases such as 'Turkey', 'Türkei', 'Turquie', etc."[38][39] The reason given in the circular for preferring Türkiye was that it "represents and expresses the culture, civilization, and values of the Turkish nation in the best way". According to Turkish state broadcaster TRT World, it was also to avoid pejorative associations with the birds.[40] The government notified the United Nations and other international organizations on 31 May 2022, requesting that they use Türkiye, which the UN immediately agreed to do.[41][42][43] The United States Department of State officially began using Türkiye in January 2023.[44]


Prehistory of Anatolia and Eastern Thrace

Some henges at Göbekli Tepe were erected as far back as 9600 BC, predating those of Stonehenge, England, by over seven millennia.[45]


Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least 40,000 years ago, and is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC.[13] The spread of agriculture from the Middle East to Europe was strongly correlated with the migration of early farmers from Anatolia about 9,000 years ago, and was not just a cultural exchange.[48] Anatolian Neolithic farmers derived a significant portion of their ancestry from the Anatolian hunter-gatherers.[49]

Şanlıurfa. The Urfa Man statue is dated c. 9000 BC, to the period of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, and is defined as "the oldest known naturalistic life-sized sculpture of a human".[51] It is considered to be contemporaneous with Göbekli Tepe. Troy was first settled in the Neolithic Age, with inhabitation continuing into the Byzantine period. Troy's Late Bronze Age layers are considered potential historical settings for the later legends of the Trojan War.[52][53][54]

The Temple of Zeus in the ancient city of Aizanoi in Phrygia

The earliest recorded inhabitants of Anatolia were the Hattians and Hurrians, non-Indo-European peoples who lived in Anatolia, respectively, as early as c. 2300 BC. Indo-European Hittites came to Anatolia and gradually absorbed the Hattians and Hurrians c. 2000–1700 BC. The first empire in the area was founded by the Hittites, from the 18th through the 13th centuries BC. The Assyrians conquered and settled parts of southeastern Turkey as early as 1950 BC[55] although they have remained a minority in the region.[56]

Following the collapse of the Hittite empire c. 1180 BC, the Phrygians, an Indo-European people, achieved ascendancy in Anatolia until their kingdom was destroyed by the Cimmerians in c. 695 BC.[57] The most powerful of Phrygia's successor states were Lydia, Caria and Lycia.

Assyrian king Shalmaneser I (1263–1234 BC) recorded a campaign in which he subdued the entire territory of "Uruatri".[58][59] Urartu re-emerged in Assyrian inscriptions in the 9th century BC.[60] Starting from 714 BC, the Urartu state began to decline, and finally dissolved in 590 BC, when it was conquered by the Medes.[61]

The city of

metallurgists of Sardis discovered the way of separating gold from silver, thereby producing both metals of a purity never known before.[63]


The gymnasium complex in Sardis, the capital of Lydia

Starting around 1200 BC, the coast of Anatolia was settled by

Diogenes the Cynic was one of the founders of the Cynic philosophy, born in an Ionian colony, Sinope, on the Black Sea coast of Anatolia, in 412 BC.[72]

Sebasteion of
The Library of Celsus in Ephesus was built by the Romans in 114–117.[74] The Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, built by king Croesus of Lydia in the 6th century BC, was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World

The first state that was called Armenia by the neighboring peoples was the state of the Armenian Orontid dynasty, which included parts of what is now eastern Turkey, beginning in the 6th century BC. In northwestern Turkey, the most significant tribal group in ancient Thrace was the Odyrisians, founded by Teres I.[76]

All of modern-day Turkey was conquered by the Persian

satrapy of Caria, fought as an ally of Xerxes I, King of Persia, against the independent Greek city-states during the second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC.[78][79]

Anatolia fell to

From the 1st century BC up to the 3rd century AD, large parts of modern-day Turkey were contested between the

Roman-Parthian Wars

Gallic invasion of the Balkans
in 279 BC.


Mithridates VI the Great, who conquered Colchis, Cappadocia, Bithynia, and the Greek colonies of the Tauric Chersonesos. After a long struggle with Rome in the Mithridatic Wars
, Pontus was defeated.


Roman provinces

Early Christian and Roman period

According to the

center of Christianity.[92][93] Apostle Paul of Tarsus traveled to Ephesus and stayed there, probably working as a tentmaker.[94] He is claimed to have performed miracles and organized missionary activity in other regions.[95] Paul left Ephesus after an attack from a local silversmith resulted in a pro-Artemis riot.[95]

Justinian the Great, at its greatest extent since the fall of the Western Roman Empire
in 476.

According to extrabiblical traditions, the Assumption of Mary took place in Ephesus, where Apostle John was also present. Irenaeus writes of "the church of Ephesus, founded by Paul, with John continuing with them until the times of Trajan."[97] While in Ephesus, Apostle John wrote the three epistles attributed to him. John was allegedly banished by the Roman authorities to the Greek island of Patmos, where he wrote the Book of Revelation. The Basilica of St. John near Ephesus, built by Justinian the Great in the 6th century, marks the burial site of Apostle John, while the nearby House of the Virgin Mary is accepted by the Catholic church as the place where Mary, mother of Jesus, lived the final days of her life, before her Assumption. Saint Nicholas, born in Patara, lived in nearby Myra (modern Demre) in Lycia.

In 123 CE, Roman emperor

Imperial cult (neocoros) during this period.[99]

Byzantine period

After defeating Licinius (the senior co-emperor (augustus) of the East in Nicomedia) at the Battle of Chrysopolis (Üsküdar) in 324 (thus bringing an end to the Tetrarchy system and becoming the sole emperor), Constantine the Great chose the nearby city of Byzantium across the Bosporus as the new capital of the Roman Empire and started rebuilding and expanding the city. He resided mostly in Nicomedia (modern İzmit) during the construction works in the next six years. In 330 he officially proclaimed it as the new Roman capital with the name New Rome (Nova Roma), but soon afterwards renamed it as Constantinople (Constantinopolis, modern Istanbul). Under Constantine, Christianity did not become the official religion of the state, but enjoyed imperial preference since he supported it with generous privileges.

Mosaic of Jesus at the Pammakaristos Church in Istanbul. Byzantine mosaics are the most celebrated form of Byzantine art

Theodosius the Great made Christianity the official state religion of the Roman Empire with the Edict of Thessalonica in 380 and was instrumental in establishing the Nicene Creed as the orthodox doctrine for Christianity with the First Council of Constantinople
in 381.

Following the death of Theodosius the Great in 395 and the permanent division of the Roman Empire between his two sons, Constantinople became the capital of the

Roman-Persian Wars
, took place between the 4th and 7th centuries.


Iznik) in 325 (which resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed), the First Council of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 381, the Council of Ephesus in 431, and the Council of Chalcedon (Kadıköy) in 451.[101] During most of its existence, the Byzantine Empire was one of the most powerful economic, cultural, and military forces in Europe.[102] Established in the Roman period, the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople is the oldest continuously active institution in Istanbul.[103] The First Council of Constantinople in 381 recognized that the rights of the bishop of Constantinople are equal to those of the bishop of Rome.[103]

Great Seljuk Empire

Malik Shah I[104]


Persia, which became the administrative core of the Great Seljuk Empire, after its foundation by Tughril.[106]
In the latter half of the 11th century, the Seljuk Turks began penetrating into
and Turkish-speaking one was underway.


The defeat of the Seljuk armies by the Mongols in 1243 caused the territories of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm (Anatolia) to slowly disintegrate into small Turkish principalities.[16]

Ottoman Empire

In the early 14th century, the

Mehmed the Conqueror. Mehmed II further expanded the territories of the Ottoman Empire in Anatolia and the Balkan peninsula. His expedition to Italy (1480–1481), commanded by Gedik Ahmed Pasha, began with the Ottoman invasion of Otranto and the nearby areas in Apulia. The invasion, which had the goal of establishing a foothold on the Italian peninsula for a subsequent conquest of Rome, started on 28 July 1480 and ended on 10 September 1481, four months after Mehmed II's death on 3 May 1481.[112]

Following the end of the

Topkapı and Dolmabahçe palaces in Istanbul were the primary residences of the Ottoman Sultans in 1465–1856[114] and 1856–1922,[115]

In 1514, Sultan

a number of naval battles in the Red Sea, the Arabian Sea and the Persian Gulf. The Portuguese presence in the Indian Ocean was perceived as a threat to the Ottoman monopoly over the ancient trade routes between East Asia and Western Europe. Despite the increasingly prominent European presence, the Ottoman Empire's trade with the east continued to flourish until the second half of the 18th century.[116]

The Ottoman Empire's power and prestige peaked in the 16th and 17th centuries, particularly during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, who personally instituted major legislative changes relating to society, education, taxation and criminal law.

The empire was often at odds with the Holy Roman Empire in its steady advance towards Central Europe through the Balkans and the southern part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.[117]

The Ottoman Navy contended with several Holy Leagues, such as those in 1538, 1571, 1684 and 1717 (composed primarily of Habsburg Spain, the Republic of Genoa, the Republic of Venice, the Knights of St. John, the Papal States, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Duchy of Savoy), for the control of the Mediterranean Sea.

The second Ottoman siege of Vienna in 1683 (the first siege was in 1529) initiated the Great Turkish War (1683–1699) between the Ottomans and the Holy League

In the east, the Ottomans were often at war with Safavid Persia over conflicts between the 16th and 18th centuries.

Ottoman wars with Persia continued as the Zand, Afsharid, and Qajar dynasties succeeded the Safavids in Iran, until the first half of the 19th century

Even further east, there was an extension of the

send soldiers to their farthest and easternmost vassal and territory, the Aceh Sultanate[119][120] in Southeast Asia, to defend it from European colonizers as well as the Latino invaders who had crossed from Latin America and had Christianized the formerly Muslim-dominated Philippines.[121]

From the 16th to the 20th centuries, the Ottoman Empire also

fought twelve wars with the Russian Tsardom and Empire. These were initially about Ottoman territorial expansion and consolidation in southeastern and eastern Europe; but starting from the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774), they became more about the survival of the Ottoman Empire, which had begun to lose its strategic territories on the northern Black Sea
coast to the advancing Russians.

From the second half of the 18th century onwards, the

constitutional movement of 1876, which introduced the First Constitutional Era, but these efforts proved to be inadequate in most fields, and failed to stop the dissolution of the empire.[122]

The Süleymaniye Mosque is the largest Ottoman imperial mosque in Istanbul, located on the Third Hill in the city's historical peninsula. The mosque was commissioned by Suleiman the Magnificent and designed by the imperial architect Mimar Sinan

As the empire gradually shrank in size, military power and wealth; especially after the

rise in nationalist sentiment among its various subject peoples, leading to increased ethnic tensions which occasionally burst into violence, such as the Hamidian massacres of Armenians, which claimed up to 300,000 lives.[126]

The loss of

London Conference of 1912–13 and the Treaty of London (1913) was a major shock for the Ottoman society and led to the 1913 Ottoman coup d'état. In the Second Balkan War (1913) the Ottomans managed to recover their former capital Edirne (Adrianople) and its surrounding areas in East Thrace, which was formalized with the Treaty of Constantinople (1913). The 1913 coup d'état effectively put the country under the control of the Three Pashas, making sultans Mehmed V and Mehmed VI
largely symbolic figureheads with no real political power.

of Bulgaria

The Ottoman Empire entered

Following the

Republic of Turkey

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, founder and first President of the Turkish Republic, with the Liberal Republican Party leader Fethi Okyar (right) and Nermin Kırdar (Fethi Okyar's daughter) in Yalova
, 13 August 1930


Battle of Gallipoli, the Turkish War of Independence (1919–1923) was waged with the aim of revoking the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres (1920).[138]

In 1922, the Greek, Armenian and French armies had been expelled,

abolished the Sultanate
, thus ending 623 years of monarchical Ottoman rule.

The Treaty of Lausanne of 24 July 1923, which superseded the Treaty of Sèvres,[137][138] led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the newly formed "Republic of Turkey" as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, and the republic was officially proclaimed on 29 October 1923 in Ankara, the country's new capital.[140] The Lausanne Convention stipulated a population exchange between Greece and Turkey.[141]

social changes initiated by Atatürk.[142]

Mustafa Kemal became the republic's first

Turkish Parliament bestowed upon Mustafa Kemal the honorific surname "Atatürk" (Father Turk).[138]


Turkish Straits, including the right to militarize the coastlines of the Dardanelles and Bosporus straits and the Sea of Marmara, and to block maritime traffic in wartime.[144]

After the establishment of the republic, some

Atatürk's reforms aiming to modernize the country, such as secularism (the Sheikh Said rebellion, 1925)[145] and land reform (the Dersim rebellion, 1937–1938),[146]
and staged armed revolts.

charter member of the United Nations.[147] In 1950 Turkey became a member of the Council of Europe


OECD in 1961, and an associate member of the EEC in 1963.[148]

The country's transition to

1997.[149][150] Between 1960 and the end of the 20th century, the prominent leaders in Turkish politics who achieved multiple election victories were Süleyman Demirel, Bülent Ecevit and Turgut Özal. Tansu Çiller
became the first female prime minister of Turkey in 1993.

Following the liberalization of the economy in the 1980s, Turkey experienced stronger GDP growth and greater political stability in the last two decades of the 20th century; but inflation remained high throughout this period, and the GDP growth was interrupted by three economic crises in 1990, 1994 and 2000–2001.[151]

Turkey applied for full membership of the EEC in 1987, joined the European Union Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005.[152][153] In a non-binding vote on 13 March 2019, the European Parliament called on the EU governments to suspend EU accession talks with Turkey, citing violations of human rights and the rule of law; but the negotiations, effectively on hold since 2018, remain active as of 2023.[154]

In 2014, Turkish prime minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan won Turkey's first presidential election.[155] On 15 July 2016, an unsuccessful coup attempt tried to oust the government.[156]

With a

Supreme Electoral Council of Turkey lifted a rule that required each ballot to have an official stamp.[157] The opposition parties have claimed that as many as 2.5 million ballots without a stamp were accepted as valid.[157]

In 2018, Erdoğan won the presidential election for a second term, which ends in 2023. The 2023 Turkish presidential election is scheduled to take place on 18 June 2023 as part of the 2023 general elections, alongside parliamentary elections. President Erdoğan has signalled that the election might be held early, on 14 May 2023.[158] According to Article 101 of the Constitution of Turkey: "A person can be elected as President maximum two times" (Turkish: "Bir kimse en fazla iki defa Cumhurbaşkanı seçilebilir").[159][160] No amendments have been made to this definition in Article 101 with the referendum in 2017.[159][160]

Administrative divisions

Turkey has a unitary structure in terms of administration and this aspect is one of the most important factors shaping the Turkish public administration. Turkey does not have a federal system, and the provinces are subordinate to the central government in Ankara.

When three powers (executive, legislative and judiciary) are taken into account as the main functions of the state, local administrations have little power. Local administrations were established to provide services in place and the government is represented by the province governors (vali) and town governors (kaymakam).

Other senior public officials are also appointed by the central government, except for the mayors (belediye başkanı) who are elected by the constituents.[161] Turkish municipalities have local legislative bodies (belediye meclisi) for decision-making on municipal issues.

Within this unitary framework, Turkey is subdivided into 81 provinces (il or vilayet) for administrative purposes. Each province is divided into districts (ilçe), for a total of 973 districts.[162] Turkey is also subdivided into 7 regions (bölge) and 21 subregions for geographic, demographic and economic purposes; this does not refer to an administrative division.

Government and politics

Turkey is a presidential republic within a multi-party system.[163] The current constitution was approved by referendum in 1982, which determines the government's structure, lays forth the ideals and standards of the state's conduct, and sets out the state's responsibility to its citizens. Furthermore, the constitution specifies the people's rights and obligations, as well as principles for the delegation and exercise of sovereignty that belongs to the people of Turkey.[164] Turkish politics have become increasingly associated with democratic backsliding, being described as a competitive authoritarian system.[165][166]

In the Turkish

973 districts

The government, regulated by a system of separation of powers as defined by the constitution of Turkey, comprises three branches:

  • Legislative: The unicameral Parliament makes laws, debates and adopts the budget bills, declares war, approves treaties, proclaims amnesty and pardon, and has the power of impeachment, by which it can remove incumbent members of the government.[167]
  • Executive: The president is the commander-in-chief of the military, can veto legislative bills before they become law (subject to parliamentary override), can issue presidential decrees on matters regarding executive power with the exception of fundamental rights, individual rights and certain political rights (parliamentary laws prevail presidential decrees), and appoints the members of the Cabinet and other officers, who administer and enforce national laws and policies.[168]
  • Council of State (final decision maker in administrative judiciary) and the Court of Jurisdictional Disputes (for resolving the disputes between courts for constitutional jurisdiction) are the four organizations that are described by the Constitution as supreme courts. The judges of the Constitutional Court are appointed by the president and the parliament.[5]

The Parliament has 600 voting members, each representing a

direct vote and serves a five-year term. The president can't run for re-elections after two terms of five-years, unless the parliament prematurely renews the presidential elections during the second term of the President. Elections for the Parliament and presidential elections are held on the same day. The Constitutional Court is composed of fifteen members. A member is elected for a term of twelve years and can't be re-elected. The members of the Constitutional Court are obliged to retire when they are over the age of sixty-five.[169]

Parties and elections

Elections in Turkey are held for six functions of

district mayors (local), provincial or municipal council members (local) and muhtars (local). Apart from elections, referendums
are also held occasionally.

Every Turkish citizen who has turned 18 has the

members of parliament who are elected for a five-year term by a party-list proportional representation
system from 88 electoral districts. The Constitutional Court can strip the public financing of
alliance with other parties, in which it is sufficient that the total votes of the alliance passes 7%. Independent candidates
are not subject to an electoral threshold.

After World War II, starting from 1946, Turkey operated under a

Democrat Party (DP), Justice Party (AP), Motherland Party (ANAP) and Justice and Development Party (AKP) became the most popular political parties in Turkey, winning numerous elections. Turkish right-wing parties are more likely to embrace the principles of political ideologies such as conservatism, nationalism or Islamism.[175] On the left side of the spectrum, parties like the Republican People's Party (CHP), Social Democratic Populist Party (SHP) and Democratic Left Party (DSP) once enjoyed the largest electoral success. Left-wing parties are more likely to embrace the principles of socialism, Kemalism or secularism.[176]

The 12th


The 2018 parliamentary election was held for voting into office the members of the 27th Parliament of Turkey, which had an initial composition of 295 seats for the Justice and Development Party (AKP), 146 seats for the Republican People's Party (CHP), 67 seats for the Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP), 49 seats for the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) and 49 seats for the Good Party (İP).[177] The next parliamentary election is scheduled to take place in 2023.


With the founding of the Republic, Turkey adopted a

German Penal Code and German law generally. Administrative law is based on the French equivalent and procedural law generally shows the influence of the Swiss, German and French legal systems.[178] Islamic principles do not play a part in the legal system.[179]

Turkey has adopted the principle of the separation of powers. In line with this principle, judicial power is exercised by independent courts on behalf of the Turkish nation. The independence and organization of the courts, the security of the tenure of judges and public prosecutors, the profession of judges and prosecutors, the supervision of judges and public prosecutors, the military courts and their organization, and the powers and duties of the high courts are regulated by the

According to Article 142 of the Turkish Constitution, the organization, duties and jurisdiction of the courts, their functions and the trial procedures are regulated by law. In line with the aforementioned article of the Turkish Constitution and related laws, the court system in Turkey can be classified under three main categories; which are the Judicial Courts, Administrative Courts, and Military Courts. Each category includes first instance courts and high courts. In addition, the Court of Jurisdictional Disputes rules on cases that cannot be classified readily as falling within the purview of one court system.[180]

National Intelligence Organization, General Directorate of Customs Protection, etc.) or local (Village guards, Municipal Police, etc.) assignments that are under the jurisdiction of the president or different ministries.[citation needed

In the years of government by the AKP and Erdoğan, particularly since 2013, the independence and integrity of the Turkish judiciary has increasingly been said to be in doubt by institutions, parliamentarians and journalists both within and outside of Turkey; due to political interference in the promotion of judges and prosecutors, and in their pursuit of public duty.[181][182][183][184] The Turkey 2015 report of the European Commission stated that "the independence of the judiciary and respect of the principle of separation of powers have been undermined and judges and prosecutors have been under strong political pressure."[181]

Foreign relations

The 2015 G20 Summit held in Antalya, Turkey, a founding member of the OECD (1961) and G20

Turkey is a founding member of the

D-8 (1997),[191] the G20 (1999),[192] and the OTS (2009). Turkey was a member of the United Nations Security Council in 1951–1952, 1954–1955, 1961 and 2009–2010.[193] In 2012 Turkey became a dialogue partner of the SCO, and in 2013 became a member of the ACD.[194][195]

In line with its traditional Western orientation, relations with Europe have always been a central part of Turkish foreign policy. Turkey became one of the early members of the Council of Europe in 1950, applied for associate membership of the EEC (predecessor of the European Union) in 1959 and became an associate member in 1963. After decades of political negotiations, Turkey applied for full membership of the EEC in 1987, became an associate member of the Western European Union in 1992, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and has been in formal accession negotiations with the European Union since 2005.[152][153]

Turkey has been in formal accession negotiations with the European Union since 2005.[152][153]

Turkey's support for

Annan Plan for the island's reunification was approved by the majority of Turkish Cypriots, but rejected by the majority of Greek Cypriots, in separate referendums on April 24, 2004. The Republic of Cyprus was admitted to the EU a week later, on May 1, 2004. According to the 1960 Treaty of Guarantee, the United Kingdom, Greece and Turkey are the three guarantor states on the island.[197]

The other defining aspect of Turkey's foreign policy has been the country's long-standing strategic alliance with the

OEEC for rebuilding European economies.[200]

The common threat posed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War led to Turkey's membership of NATO in 1952, ensuring close bilateral relations with the US. Subsequently, Turkey benefited from the United States' political, economic and diplomatic support, including in key issues such as the country's bid to join the European Union.[201] In the post–Cold War environment, Turkey's geostrategic importance shifted towards its proximity to the Middle East, the Caucasus and the Balkans.[202]

The Turkish Armed Forces collectively rank as the second-largest standing military force in NATO.[203]

The independence of the

Turkic states of the Soviet Union in 1991, with which Turkey shares a common cultural, historic and linguistic heritage, allowed Turkey to extend its economic and political relations deep into Central Asia.[204] The International Organization of Turkic Culture (TURKSOY) was established in 1993, and the Organization of Turkic States (OTS) was established in 2009. The Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline, a multi-billion-dollar oil and natural gas pipeline that extends from Baku in Azerbaijan to the port of Ceyhan in Turkey, forms part of Turkey's foreign policy strategy to become an energy conduit from the Caspian Sea basin to Europe. Turkey sealed its land border with Armenia in a gesture of support to Azerbaijan (a Turkic state in the Caucasus region) during the First (1993) and Second (2020) Nagorno-Karabakh Wars, and it remains closed.[205] Armenia and Turkey started diplomatic talks in order to normalize the relationship between the two countries. The discussions include opening the closed borders and starting trade. Turkey and Armenia have also restarted commercial flights between the two countries.[206]

Members and observers of the Organization of Turkic States

Following the Arab Spring in December 2010, the choices made by the AKP government for supporting certain political opposition groups in the affected countries have led to tensions with some Arab states, such as Turkey's neighbor Syria since the start of the Syrian civil war, and Egypt after the ousting of President Mohamed Morsi.[207][208] As of 2022, Turkey does not have an ambassador in either Syria or Egypt,[209] but relations with both countries have started to improve.[210][211][212][213][214] Diplomatic relations with Israel were also severed after the Gaza flotilla raid in 2010, but were normalized following a deal in June 2016.[215] These political rifts have left Turkey with few allies in the East Mediterranean, where large natural gas fields have recently been discovered.[216][217] There is a dispute over Turkey's maritime boundaries with Greece and Cyprus and drilling rights in the eastern Mediterranean.[218][219]

After the

PKK)[224][225] from the enclave of Afrin.[226][227]


TAI TF-X, a twin-engine fifth generation air superiority fighter, is currently being produced by Turkish Aerospace Industries for the Turkish Air Force. [228][229][230][231][232] The taxiing and ground running tests of the prototype began on March 16, 2023. [233][234]

The Turkish Armed Forces consist of the General Staff, the Land Forces, the Naval Forces and the Air Force. The Chief of the General Staff is appointed by the President. The President is responsible to the Parliament for matters of national security and the adequate preparation of the armed forces to defend the country. However, the authority to declare war and to deploy the Turkish Armed Forces to foreign countries or to allow foreign armed forces to be stationed in Turkey rests solely with the Parliament.[235]


Coast Guard Command are law enforcement agencies with military organization (ranks, structure, etc.) and under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior. In wartime, the president
can order certain units of the Gendarmerie General Command and the Coast Guard Command to operate under the Land Forces Command and Naval Forces Commands respectively. The remaining parts of the Gendarmerie and the Coast Guard continue to carry out their law enforcement missions under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Interior.

Every fit male Turkish citizen otherwise not barred is required to serve in the military for a period ranging from three weeks to a year, dependent on education and job location.[236] Turkey does not recognize conscientious objection and does not offer a civilian alternative to military service.[237]

Turkey has the second-largest standing military force in NATO, after the United States, with an estimated strength of 890,700 military personnel as of February 2022.[238]

UCAV designed to operate on TCG Anadolu. [239][240][241] Its maiden flight was successfully completed on December 14, 2022. [239][242][243][244]

Turkey is one of five NATO member states which are part of the nuclear sharing policy of the alliance, together with Belgium, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands.[245] A total of 90 B61 nuclear bombs are hosted at the Incirlik Air Base, 40 of which are allocated for use by the Turkish Air Force in case of a nuclear conflict, but their use requires the approval of NATO.[246]

Turkey has participated in international missions under the United Nations and NATO

First Gulf War, contributed military personnel to the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan, and remains active in Kosovo Force, Eurocorps and EU Battlegroups.[247][248] In recent years, Turkey has assisted Peshmerga forces in northern Iraq and the Somali Armed Forces with security and training.[249][250]

The Turkish Armed Forces have a relatively substantial military presence abroad,

Human rights


media freedom.[257][258] Turkey's human rights record continues to be a significant obstacle to the country's membership of the EU.[259]

In the latter half of the 1970s, Turkey suffered from political violence between far-left and far-right militant groups, which culminated in the military coup of 1980.[260] The Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK, designated a terrorist organization by Turkey, the United States,[261] and the European Union[262]) was founded in 1978 by a group of Kurdish militants led by Abdullah Öcalan, seeking the foundation of an independent Kurdish state based on Marxist-Leninist ideology.[263] The initial reason given by the PKK for this was the oppression of Kurds in Turkey.[264][265] A full-scale insurgency began in 1984, when the PKK announced a Kurdish uprising. With time the PKK modified its demands into equal rights for ethnic Kurds and provincial autonomy within Turkey.[266][267][268][269] Since 1980, the Turkish parliament stripped its members of immunity from prosecution, including 44 deputies most of which from the pro-Kurdish parties.[270]

In 2013,

Gezi Park but soon growing into general anti-government dissent.[271]

On 20 May 2016, the Turkish parliament stripped almost a quarter of its members of

media freedom.[277][278] Many journalists have been arrested using charges of "terrorism" and "anti-state activities".[279][280] In 2020, the CPJ identified 18 jailed journalists in Turkey (including the editorial staff of Cumhuriyet, Turkey's oldest newspaper still in circulation).[281]

LGBT rights

Istanbul Pride was organized in 2003 for the first time. Since 2015, parades in Istanbul have been denied permission by the government.[282]

When the annual Istanbul Pride was inaugurated in 2003, Turkey became the first Muslim-majority country to hold a gay pride march.[292] Since 2015, all types of parades at Taksim Square and İstiklal Avenue (where, in 2013, the Gezi Park protests took place) have been denied permission by the AKP government, citing security concerns, but hundreds of people have defied the ban each year.[282] Critics have claimed that the bans were in fact ideological.[282]


Turkey is a

Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles. European Turkey comprises only 3 percent of the country's territory.[293] Turkey covers an area of 783,562 square kilometres (302,535 square miles),[294] of which 755,688 square kilometres (291,773 square miles) is in Asia and 23,764 square kilometres (9,175 square miles) is in Europe.[295] The country is encircled by seas on three sides: the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Turkey also contains the Sea of Marmara in the northwest.[296] The geographical centre of all land surfaces on Earth is at 39°00′N 34°00′E / 39.000°N 34.000°E / 39.000; 34.000 (Geographical center of all land surfaces on Earth (Woods 1973)), in Kırşehir Province, Turkey.[297]

Turkey is divided into seven geographical regions:

Mediterranean. The uneven north Anatolian terrain running along the Black Sea resembles a long, narrow belt. This region comprises approximately one-sixth of Turkey's total land area. As a general trend, the inland Anatolian plateau becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward.[296]
hot springs. The area is famous for a carbonate mineral left by the flowing of thermal spring water.[298][299] It is located in Turkey's Inner Aegean region, in the River Menderes (Meander) valley, which has a temperate climate for most of the year. It was added as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988 with Hierapolis

East Thrace, the European portion of Turkey, is located at the easternmost edge the Balkans. It forms the border between Turkey and its neighbors Greece and Bulgaria. The Asian part of the country mostly consists of the peninsula of Anatolia, which consists of a high central plateau with narrow coastal plains, between the Köroğlu and Pontic mountain ranges to the north and the Taurus Mountains to the south.


Aras. The Southeastern Anatolia Region includes the northern plains of Upper Mesopotamia


Lake Manyas, Lake Sapanca, Lake Salda, Lake Meke and Lake Uzungöl are among other renowned lakes in Turkey. The rocks along the shoreline of Lake Salda were formed over time by microbes that trap minerals and sediments in the water.[303][304] These so-called microbialites were once a major form of life on Earth and provide some of the oldest known fossilized records of life on our planet.[303][304] NASA's Mars 2020 mission Perseverance rover searches for signs of ancient life on the surface of Mars.[303][304] Studying these microbial fossils from Lake Salda has helped scientists prepare for the mission.[303][304] In 2021, NASA reported that its Mars surface-exploring rover Perseverance showed that "the minerals and rock deposits at Lake Salda are the nearest match on Earth to those around the Jezero Crater where the spacecraft landed."[305]

Far from the coast the climate of Turkey tends to be continental but elsewhere temperate, and has become hotter, and drier in parts. There are many species of plants and animals.

Most of Turkey is vulnerable to

earthquakes.[306] A large portion of the country's landmass is on the Anatolian Plate, which is separated from the Eurasian Plate by the North Anatolian Fault, and from the Arabian Plate by the East Anatolian Fault


Turkey's extraordinary

its flora. The number of animal species in the whole of Europe is around 60,000, while in Turkey there are over 80,000 (over 100,000 counting the subspecies).[308]


Euxine-Colchic deciduous forests, which contain some of the world's few temperate rainforests.[310] The Turkish pine (Pinus brutia) is mostly found in Turkey and other east Mediterranean countries. The forests of Turkey have other species of Pinus (pine), the Turkey oak and numerous other species of oak. The most commonly found species of the genus Platanus (plane) is the orientalis. Several wild species of tulip are native to Anatolia, and the flower was first introduced to Western Europe with species taken from the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century.[311][312]

There are

Ölüdeniz Nature Park and Polonezköy Nature Park.[313] In the 21st century, threats to biodiversity include desertification due to climate change in Turkey.[314]


Anatolian leopard is still found in very small numbers in the northeastern and southeastern regions of Turkey.[315][316] The Eurasian lynx, the European wildcat and the Caracal are other felid species which are currently found in the forests of Turkey. The Caspian tiger, now extinct, lived in the easternmost regions of Turkey until the latter half of the 20th century.[315][317]

Renowned domestic animals from


The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the

precipitation and is the only region of Turkey that receives high precipitation throughout the year.[319] The eastern part of the Black Sea coast averages 2,200 millimetres (87 in) annually which is the highest precipitation in the country.[319] The coastal areas bordering the Sea of Marmara, which connects the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea, have a transitional climate between a temperate Mediterranean climate and a temperate oceanic climate with warm to hot, moderately dry summers and cool to cold, wet winters.[319] Snow falls on the coastal areas of the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea almost every winter, but usually melts in no more than a few days.[319] However, snow is rare in the coastal areas of the Aegean Sea and very rare in the coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea.[319]
Winters on the Anatolian plateau are especially severe. Temperatures of −30 to −40 °C (−22 to −40 °F) do occur in northeastern Anatolia, and snow may lie on the ground for at least 120 days of the year, and during the entire year on the summits of the highest mountains. In central Anatolia the temperatures can drop below −20 °C (−4 °F) with the mountains being even colder.

Mountains close to the coast prevent Mediterranean influences from extending inland, giving the central Anatolian


Türkiye İş Bankası, Yapı Kredi, QNB Finansbank and Garanti BBVA are among the Turkish banks headquartered in Levent, Istanbul

Turkey is a

Emerging 7 countries. According to IMF estimates, Turkey's GDP per capita by PPP is $40,883 in 2023[8] and approximately 11.7% of Turks are at risk of poverty or social exclusion as of 2019.[320] Unemployment in Turkey was 13.6% in 2019,[321] and the middle class population in Turkey rose from 18% to 41% of the population between 1993 and 2010 according to the World Bank.[322]

As of September 2021[update], the foreign currency reserves of the Turkish Central Bank were $74.9 billion (an 8.1% increase compared to the previous month), its gold reserves were $38.5 billion (a 5.1% decrease compared to the previous month), while its official reserve assets stood at $121.3 billion.[323] As of October 2021, the foreign currency deposits of the citizens and residents in Turkish banks stood at $234 billion, equivalent to around half of all deposits.[324][325]


EU–Turkey Customs Union in 1995 led to an extensive liberalization of tariff rates, and forms one of the most important pillars of Turkey's foreign trade policy.[326] Foreign direct investment (FDI) in Turkey reached 22.05 billion USD in 2007 and 19.26 billion USD in 2015, but has declined in recent years.[327]

Togg C-SUV[328] produced by Togg,[329] a Turkish automotive company established in 2018 for producing EVs[330][331][328]