Turkey

Coordinates: 39°55′N 32°51′E / 39.917°N 32.850°E / 39.917; 32.850
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Republic of Türkiye
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (Turkish)
Flag of Turkey
Anthem: 
İstiklal Marşı
"Independence March"
Location of Turkey
CapitalAnkara
39°55′N 32°51′E / 39.917°N 32.850°E / 39.917; 32.850
Largest cityIstanbul
41°1′N 28°57′E / 41.017°N 28.950°E / 41.017; 28.950
Official languagesTurkish[1][2]
Spoken languages
  • Predominantly Turkish[3]
presidential republic
• President
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
Cevdet Yılmaz
Numan Kurtulmuş
Kadir Özkaya
LegislatureGrand National Assembly
Establishment
c. 1299
19 May 1919
23 April 1920
1 November 1922
24 July 1923
29 October 1923
9 November 1982[5]
Area
• Total
783,562 km2 (302,535 sq mi) (36th)
• Water (%)
2.03[6]
Population
• December 2023 estimate
Neutral increase 85,372,377[7] (17th)
• Density
111[7]/km2 (287.5/sq mi) (83rd)
GDP (PPP)2024 estimate
• Total
Increase $3.832 trillion[8] (11th)
• Per capita
Increase $43,921[8] (46th)
GDP (nominal)2024 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.114 trillion[8] (18th)
• Per capita
Decrease $12,765[8] (71st)
Gini (2019)Steady 41.9[9]
medium
HDI (2022)Increase 0.855[10]
very high (45th)
CurrencyTurkish lira () (TRY)
Time zoneUTC+3 (TRT)
Calling code+90
ISO 3166 codeTR
Internet TLD.tr

Turkey,[a] officially the Republic of Türkiye,[b] is a country mainly in Anatolia in West Asia, with a smaller part called East Thrace in Southeast Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the north; Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran to the east; Iraq, Syria, and the Mediterranean Sea (and Cyprus) to the south; and the Aegean Sea, Greece, and Bulgaria to the west. Turkey is home to over 85 million people; most are ethnic Turks, while ethnic Kurds are the largest ethnic minority.[4] Officially a secular state, Turkey has a Muslim-majority population. Ankara is Turkey's capital and second-largest city. Istanbul is its largest city, and its economic and financial center, as well as the largest city in Europe. Other major cities include İzmir, Bursa and Antalya.

Late Paleolithic.[11] Home to important Neolithic sites like Göbekli Tepe and some of the earliest farming areas, present-day Turkey was inhabited by various ancient peoples.[12][13][14] Hattians were assimilated by the Anatolian peoples.[15][16] Classical Anatolia transitioned into cultural Hellenization following the conquests of Alexander the Great;[17][18] Hellenization continued during the Roman and Byzantine eras.[19][20] The Seljuk Turks began migrating into Anatolia in the 11th century, starting the Turkification process.[20][21] The Seljuk Sultanate of Rum ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into Turkish principalities.[22] Beginning in 1299, the Ottomans united the principalities and expanded; Mehmed II conquered Istanbul in 1453. During the reigns of Selim I and Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire became a global power.[23][24] From 1789 onwards, the empire saw major transformation, reforms, and centralization while its territory declined.[25][26]

In the 19th and early 20th centuries,

remained neutral during most of World War II,[31] but was involved in the Korean War. Coups in 1960 and 1980 interrupted the transition to a multi-party system.[32]

Turkey is an

.

Turkey has coastal plains, a high central plateau, and various mountain ranges; its climate is temperate with harsher conditions in the interior.[34] Home to three biodiversity hotspots,[35] Turkey is prone to frequent earthquakes and is highly vulnerable to climate change.[36][37] Turkey has universal healthcare, growing access to education,[38] and increasing innovativeness.[39] It is a leading TV content exporter.[40] With 21 UNESCO World Heritage sites, 30 UNESCO intangible cultural heritage inscriptions,[41] and a rich and diverse cuisine,[42] Turkey is the fifth most visited country in the world.

Etymology

Turchia, meaning "the land of the Turks", had begun to be used for Anatolia by 12th century's end in European texts.[43][44][45] As a word in Turkic languages, Turk may mean "strong, strength, ripe" or "flourishing, in full strength".[46] It may also mean ripe as in for a fruit or "in the prime of life, young, and vigorous" for a person.[47] As an ethnonym, the etymology is still unknown.[48] In addition to usage in languages such as Chinese in the 6th century,[45] the earliest mention of Turk (𐱅𐰇𐰺𐰜, türü̲k̲; or 𐱅𐰇𐰼𐰚, türk/tẄrk) in Turkic languages comes from the Second Turkic Khaganate.[49]

In

The Mamluk Sultanate, with its ruling elite of Turkic origin, was called the "State of the Turks" (Dawlat at-Turk, or Dawlat al-Atrāk, or Dawlat-at-Turkiyya).[52] Turkestan, also meaning the "land of the Turks", was used for a historic region in Central Asia.[53]

Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Book of the Duchess (c. 1369). The modern spelling Turkey dates back to at least 1719.[54] The name Turkey has been used in the texts of numerous international treaties to define the Ottoman Empire.[55] With the Treaty of Alexandropol, the name Türkiye entered international documents for the first time. In the treaty signed with Afghanistan in 1921, the expression Devlet-i Âliyye-i Türkiyye ("Sublime Turkish State") was used, likened to the Ottoman Empire's name.[56]

In December 2021, President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan called for expanded official usage of Türkiye, saying that Türkiye "represents and expresses the culture, civilization, and values of the Turkish nation in the best way".[57] In May 2022, the Turkish government requested the United Nations and other international organizations to use Türkiye officially in English; the UN agreed.[58][59][60]

History

Prehistory and ancient history

Some henges at Göbekli Tepe were erected as far back as 9600 BC, predating those of Stonehenge by over seven millennia.[61]
The Sphinx Gate of Hattusa, the capital of the Hittites
Lycian Way is a 760 kilometers (470 mi) long hiking path in Southwestern Turkey.[62]

Present-day Turkey has been inhabited by

Trojan war is based on historical events.[68] Troy's Late Bronze Age layers matches most with Iliad's story.[69]

Anatolia's historical records start with

clay tablets from approximately around 2000 BC that were found in modern-day Kültepe.[70] These tablets belonged to an Assyrian trade colony.[70] The languages in Anatolia at that time included Hattian, Hurrian, Hittite, Luwian, and Palaic.[71] Hattian was a language indigenous to Anatolia, with no known modern-day connections.[72] Hurrian language was used in northern Syria.[71] Hittite, Luwian, and Palaic languages were in the Anatolian sub-group of Indo-European languages,[73] with Hittite being the "oldest attested Indo-European language".[74] The origin of Indo-European languages is unknown.[75] They may be native to Anatolia[76] or non-native.[77]

Hattian rulers were gradually replaced by Hittite rulers.[70] The Hittite kingdom was a large kingdom in Central Anatolia, with its capital of Hattusa.[70] It co-existed in Anatolia with Palaians and Luwians, approximately between 1700 and 1200 BC.[70] As the Hittite kingdom was disintegrating, further waves of Indo-European peoples migrated from southeastern Europe, which was followed by warfare.[78]

Around 750 BC,

Gordium and modern-day Kayseri.[79] Phrygians spoke an Indo-European language, but it was closer to Greek, rather than Anatolian languages.[73] Phrygians shared Anatolia with Neo-Hittites and Urartu. Urartu's capital was around Lake Van.[79] Urartu was often in conflict with Assyria,[80] but fell with the attacks of Medes and Scythians in seventh century BC.[79] When Cimmerians attacked, Phrygia fell around 650 BC.[81] They were replaced by Carians, Lycians and Lydians.[81] These three cultures "can be considered a reassertion of the ancient, indigenous culture of the Hattian cities of Anatolia".[81]

Early classical antiquity

Sebasteion of Aphrodisias, a city named after Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of beauty. In 2017, it was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage Site list.[82]

Before 1200 BC, there were four Greek-speaking settlements in Anatolia, including

Doris, after the specific Greek groups that settled them.[86] Further Greek colonization in Anatolia was led by Miletus and Megara in 750–480 BC.[87] The Greek cities along the Aegean prospered with trade, and saw remarkable scientific and scholarly accomplishments.[88] Thales and Anaximander from Miletus founded the Ionian School of philosophy, thereby laying the foundations of rationalism and Western philosophy.[89]

The Library of Celsus in Ephesus was built by the Romans in 114–117.[90]

Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, were located in Anatolia.[92]

Following the victories of Alexander in

Macedonian Empire.[81] This led to increasing cultural homogeneity and Hellenization of the Anatolian interior,[14] which met resistance in some places.[17] Following Alexander's death, the Seleucids ruled large parts of Anatolia, while native Anatolian states emerged in the Marmara and Black Sea areas. In eastern Anatolia, the kingdom of Armenia appeared. In third century BC, Celts invaded central Anatolia and continued as a major ethnic group in the area for around 200 years. They were known as the Galatians.[93]

Rome and Byzantine Empire

Justinian the Great
, at its greatest extent

When Pergamon requested assistance in its conflict with the Seleucids, Rome intervened in Anatolia in the second century BC. Without an heir, Pergamum's king left the kingdom to Rome, which was annexed as province of Asia. Roman influence grew in Anatolia afterwards.[94] Following Asiatic Vespers massacre, and Mithridatic Wars with Pontus, Rome emerged victorious. Around the 1st century BC, Rome expanded into parts of Pontus and Bithynia, while turning rest of Anatolian states into Roman satellites.[95] Several conflicts with Parthians ensued, with peace and wars alternating.[96]

According to Acts of the Apostles, early Christian Church had significant growth in Anatolia because of St Paul's efforts. Letters from St. Paul in Anatolia comprise the oldest Christian literature.[97] According to extrabiblical traditions, the Assumption of Mary took place in Ephesus, where Apostle John was also present. Irenaeus writes of "the church of Ephesus, founded by Paul, with John continuing with them until the times of Trajan."[98]

Justinian the Great in 532–537.[99]

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the

Mediterranean world. The term Byzantine Empire was only coined following the empire's demise; its citizens referred to the polity as the "Roman Empire" and to themselves as Romans. Due to the imperial seat's move from Rome to Byzantium, the adoption of Christianity as the state religion, and the predominance of Greek instead of Latin, modern historians continue to make a distinction between the earlier Roman Empire and the later Byzantine Empire.[citation needed
]

In the early Byzantine Empire period, the Anatolian coastal areas were Greek speaking. In addition to natives, interior Anatolia had diverse groups such as Goths, Celts, Persians and Jews. Interior Anatolia had been "heavily Hellenized".[100] Anatolian languages eventually became extinct after Hellenization of Anatolia.[101]

Several

Iznik) in 325 (which resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene Creed), the First Council of Constantinople in 381, the Council of Ephesus in 431, and the Council of Chalcedon in 451.[102]

Seljuks and Anatolian beyliks

Çifte Minareli Medrese in Erzurum (center) and Divriği Great Mosque and Hospital (right) are among the finest examples of Seljuk architecture
.

According to historians and linguists, the

Uralic, and Yeniseian peoples.[105] During the 9th and 10th centuries CE, the Oghuz were a Turkic group that lived in the Caspian and Aral steppes.[106] Partly due to pressure from the Kipchaks, the Oghuz migrated into Iran and Transoxiana.[106] They mixed with Iranic-speaking groups in the area and converted to Islam.[106] Oghuz Turks were also known as Turkoman.[106]

A map of independent Turkish principalities in Anatolia during the 14th century

Turkish, Persian and Islamic influences".[110] In the latter half of the 11th century, the Seljuk Turks began penetrating into medieval Armenia and Anatolia.[109] At the time, Anatolia was a diverse and largely Greek-speaking region after previously being Hellenized.[18][20][100]

The Seljuk Turks defeated the Byzantines at the

Islamization of the diverse people of Anatolia.[118][119] In 13th century, there was a second significant wave of Turkic migration, as people fled Mongol expansion.[120][121] Seljuk sultanate was defeated by the Mongols at the Battle of Köse Dağ in 1243 and disappeared by the beginning of the 14th century. It was replaced by various Turkish principalities.[22][122]

Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire at its greatest European extent, in 1683, during the Battle of Vienna

Based around Söğüt, Ottoman Beylik was founded by Osman I in the early 14th century.[123] According to Ottoman chroniclers, Osman descended from the Kayı tribe of the Oghuz Turks.[124] Ottomans started annexing the nearby Turkish beyliks (principalities) in Anatolia and expanded into the Balkans.[125] Mehmed II completed Ottoman conquest of the Byzantine Empire by capturing its capital, Constantinople, on 29 May 1453.[126] Selim I united Anatolia under Ottoman rule.[23] Turkification continued as Ottomans mixed with various indigenous people in Anatolia and the Balkans.[124]

The Ottoman Empire was a global power during the reigns of

Ottoman constitution of 1876 was the first among Muslim states, but was short-lived.[128]

As the empire gradually shrank in size, military power and wealth; especially after the

rise in nationalist sentiment among its various subject peoples, leading to increased ethnic tensions which occasionally burst into violence, such as the Hamidian massacres of Armenians, which claimed up to 300,000 lives.[132]

Topkapı Palace and Dolmabahçe Palace were the primary residences of the Ottoman sultans in Istanbul between 1465 and 1856[133] and 1856 to 1922,[134] respectively.

Ottoman territories in Europe (

Mediterranean islands,[139] shifting the center of the Ottoman Empire to Anatolia.[140] In addition to a small number of Jews, the refugees were overwhelmingly Muslim; they were both Turkish and non-Turkish people, such as Circassians and Crimean Tatars.[141][142] Paul Mojzes has called the Balkan Wars an "unrecognized genocide", where multiple sides were both victims and perpetrators.[143]

Following the

Assyrians and Greeks.[151][152][153] Following the Armistice of Mudros in 1918, the victorious Allied Powers sought the partition of the Ottoman Empire through the 1920 Treaty of Sèvres.[154]

Republic of Türkiye

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder and the first President of the Turkish Republic

The occupation of Istanbul (1918) and İzmir (1919) by the Allies in the aftermath of World War I initiated the Turkish National Movement. Under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha, a military commander who had distinguished himself during the Battle of Gallipoli, the Turkish War of Independence (1919–1923) was waged with the aim of revoking the terms of the Treaty of Sèvres (1920).[155]

The Turkish Provisional Government in Ankara, which had declared itself the legitimate government of the country on 23 April 1920, started to formalize the legal transition from the old Ottoman into the new Republican political system. The Ankara Government engaged in armed and diplomatic struggle. In 1921–1923, the Armenian, Greek, French, and British armies had been expelled.[156][157][158][159] The military advance and diplomatic success of the Ankara Government resulted in the signing of the Armistice of Mudanya on 11 October 1922. The handling of the Chanak Crisis (September–October 1922) between the United Kingdom and the Ankara Government caused the collapse of David Lloyd George's Ministry on 19 October 1922[160] and political autonomy of Canada from the UK.[161] On 1 November 1922, the Turkish Parliament in Ankara formally abolished the Sultanate, thus ending 623 years of monarchical Ottoman rule.

The Treaty of Lausanne of 24 July 1923, which superseded the Treaty of Sèvres,[154][155] led to the international recognition of the sovereignty of the new Turkish state as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire. On 4 October 1923, the Allied occupation of Turkey ended with the withdrawal of the last Allied troops from Istanbul. The Turkish Republic was officially proclaimed on 29 October 1923 in Ankara, the country's new capital.[162] The Lausanne Convention stipulated a population exchange between Greece and Turkey.[163]

Anıtkabir in Ankara was completed in 1953 to become the mausoleum of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal became the republic's first

Dersim rebellion in 1937.[166]

charter member of the United Nations.[167] In 1950 Turkey became a member of the Council of Europe. After fighting as part of the UN forces in the Korean War, Turkey joined NATO in 1952, becoming a bulwark against Soviet expansion into the Mediterranean
.

Tansu Çiller, Turkey's first female prime minister, attends a European Commission meeting in January 1994

The country's transition to multi-party democracy was interrupted by military coups in 1960 and 1980, as well as by military memorandums in 1971 and 1997.[168][169] Between 1960 and the end of the 20th century, the prominent leaders in Turkish politics who achieved multiple election victories were Süleyman Demirel, Bülent Ecevit and Turgut Özal. Tansu Çiller became the first female prime minister of Turkey in 1993. Turkey entered EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with EU in 2005.[170] Customs Union had an important impact on the Turkish manufacturing sector.[171][172]

In 2014, prime minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan won Turkey's first direct presidential election.[173] On 15 July 2016, an unsuccessful coup attempt tried to oust the government.[174] With a referendum in 2017, the parliamentary republic was replaced by an executive presidential system. The office of the prime minister was abolished, and its powers and duties were transferred to the president. On the referendum day, while the voting was still underway, the Supreme Electoral Council lifted a rule that required each ballot to have an official stamp.[175] The opposition parties claimed that as many as 2.5 million ballots without a stamp were accepted as valid.[175]

Administrative divisions

Turkey has a unitary structure in terms of public administration, and the provinces are subordinate to the central government in Ankara. In province centers the government is represented by the province governors (vali) and in towns by the governors (kaymakam). Other senior public officials are also appointed by the central government, except for the mayors (belediye başkanı) who are elected by the constituents.[176] Turkish municipalities have local legislative bodies (belediye meclisi) for decision-making on municipal issues.

Turkey is subdivided into 81 provinces (il or vilayet) for administrative purposes. Each province is divided into districts (ilçe), for a total of 973 districts.[177] Turkey is also subdivided into 7 regions (bölge) and 21 subregions for geographic, demographic and economic measurements, surveys and classifications; this does not refer to an administrative division.

Government and politics

The Presidential Complex
The Presidential Complex, residence and workplace of the President of Turkey
The Court of Cassation
The Court of Cassation is the final court for reviewing verdicts given by courts of criminal and civil justice.

Turkey is a presidential republic within a multi-party system.[178] The current constitution was adopted in 1982.[179] In the Turkish unitary system, citizens are subject to three levels of government: national, provincial, and local. The local government's duties are commonly split between municipal governments and districts, in which the executive and legislative officials are elected by a plurality vote of citizens by district. The government comprises three branches: first is legislative branch, which is Grand National Assembly of Turkey;[180] second is executive branch, which is the President of Turkey;[181] and third is the judicial branch, which includes the Constitutional Court, the Court of Cassation and Court of Jurisdictional Disputes.[182][5] Turkish politics have become increasingly associated with democratic backsliding, being described as a competitive authoritarian system.[183][184]

The Parliament has 600 voting members, each representing a constituency for a five-year term. Parliamentary seats are distributed among the provinces proportionally to the population. The president is elected by direct vote and serves a five-year term. The president cannot run for re-election after two terms of five-years, unless the parliament prematurely renews the presidential elections during the second term. Elections for the Parliament and presidential elections are held on the same day. The Constitutional Court is composed of 15 members. A member is elected for a term of 12 years and cannot be re-elected. The members of the Constitutional Court are obliged to retire when they are over the age of 65.[185]

Parties and elections

President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan

Elections in Turkey are held for six functions of government: presidential elections (national), parliamentary elections (national), municipality mayors (local), district mayors (local), provincial or municipal council members (local) and muhtars (local). Apart from elections, referendums are also held occasionally. Every Turkish citizen who has turned 18 has the right to vote and stand as a candidate at elections. Universal suffrage for both sexes has been applied throughout Turkey since 1934. In Turkey, turnout rates of both local and general elections are high compared to many other countries, which usually stands higher than 80%.[186]

The Constitutional Court can strip the public financing of political parties that it deems anti-secular or having ties to terrorism, or ban their existence altogether.[187][188] The electoral threshold for political parties at national level is seven percent of the votes.[189] Smaller parties can avoid the electoral threshold by forming an alliance with other parties. Independent candidates are not subject to an electoral threshold.

On the right side of the Turkish

Democrat Party, Justice Party, Motherland Party, and Justice and Development Party became the most popular political parties in Turkey, winning numerous elections. Turkish right-wing parties are more likely to embrace the principles of political ideologies such as conservatism, nationalism or Islamism.[190] On the left side of the spectrum, parties like the Republican People's Party, Social Democratic Populist Party and Democratic Left Party once enjoyed the largest electoral success. Left-wing parties are more likely to embrace the principles of socialism, Kemalism or secularism.[191]

President

Party of Greens and the Left Future, 50 seats for the Nationalist Movement Party, 43 seats for the Good Party, 5 seats for the New Welfare Party and 4 seats for the Workers' Party of Turkey.[194]
The next parliamentary election is scheduled to take place in 2028.

Law

The Constitutional Court is the highest legal body for constitutional review in Turkey.

With the founding of the Republic, Turkey adopted a

German Penal Code and German law generally. Administrative law is based on the French equivalent and procedural law generally shows the influence of the Swiss, German and French legal systems.[195] Islamic principles do not play a part in the legal system.[196]

Law enforcement in Turkey is carried out by several agencies under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. These agencies are the General Directorate of Security, the Gendarmerie General Command and the Coast Guard Command.[197] In the years of government by the Justice and Development Party and Erdoğan, particularly since 2013, the independence and integrity of the Turkish judiciary has increasingly been said to be in doubt by institutions, parliamentarians and journalists both within and outside of Turkey, because of political interference in the promotion of judges and prosecutors and in their pursuit of public duty.[198][199][200]

Foreign relations

Turkey has been in formal accession negotiations with the European Union since 2005.[201][202]

In line with its traditional Western orientation, relations with Europe have always been a central part of Turkish foreign policy. Turkey became one of the early members of the Council of Europe in 1950. Turkey applied for full membership of the EEC in 1987, joined the European Union Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005.[201][202] In a non-binding vote on 13 March 2019, the European Parliament called on the EU governments to suspend EU accession talks with Turkey, citing violations of human rights and the rule of law; but the negotiations, effectively on hold since 2018, remain active as of 2023.[203]

The other defining aspect of Turkey's foreign policy has been the country's long-standing strategic alliance with the

OEEC for rebuilding European economies.[206]

Turkey has been a member of NATO since 1952, has its second largest army and is the host of the Allied Land Command headquarters.

The common threat posed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War led to Turkey's membership of NATO in 1952, ensuring close bilateral relations with the US. Subsequently, Turkey benefited from the United States' political, economic and diplomatic support, including in key issues such as the country's bid to join the European Union.[207] In the post–Cold War environment, Turkey's geostrategic importance shifted towards its proximity to the Middle East, the Caucasus and the Balkans.[208]

The independence of the Turkic states of the Soviet Union in 1991, with which Turkey shares a common cultural, historic and linguistic heritage, allowed Turkey to extend its economic and political relations deep into Central Asia.[209] The International Organization of Turkic Culture (TURKSOY) was established in 1993, and the Organization of Turkic States (OTS) was established in 2009.

Under the AKP government, Turkey's economy has grown rapidly and the country's influence has grown in the Middle East based on a strategic depth doctrine, also called Neo-Ottomanism.[210][211]

Members and observers of the Organization of Turkic States

Following the Arab Spring in December 2010, the choices made by the government for supporting certain political opposition groups in the affected countries have led to tensions with some Arab states, such as Turkey's neighbor Syria since the start of the Syrian civil war, and Egypt after the ousting of President Mohamed Morsi.[212][213] As of 2022, Turkey does not have an ambassador in either Syria or Egypt,[214] but relations with both countries have started to improve.[215][216][217][218][219]

Diplomatic relations with Israel were also severed after the Gaza flotilla raid in 2010 but were normalized following a deal in June 2016.[220] These political rifts have left Turkey with few allies in the East Mediterranean, where large natural gas fields have recently been discovered.[221][222] There is a dispute over Turkey's maritime boundaries with Greece and Cyprus and drilling rights in the eastern Mediterranean.[223][224]

After the

PKK)[229][230] from the enclave of Afrin.[231][232] Turkey has also conducted airstrikes in Iraqi Kurdistan which have strained Turkey-Iraq relations as the latter has criticised the strikes for violating its sovereignty and killing civilians.[233][234]

Military

The TAI TF Kaan is currently being produced by Turkish Aerospace Industries for the Turkish Air Force.[235][236][237]

The Turkish Armed Forces consist of the General Staff, the Land Forces, the Naval Forces and the Air Force. The Chief of the General Staff is appointed by the president. The president is responsible to the Parliament for matters of national security and the adequate preparation of the armed forces to defend the country. However, the authority to declare war and to deploy the Turkish Armed Forces to foreign countries or to allow foreign armed forces to be stationed in Turkey rests solely with the Parliament.[238]

The

Coast Guard Command are under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior. Every fit male Turkish citizen otherwise not barred is required to serve in the military for a period ranging from three weeks to a year, dependent on education and job location.[239] Turkey does not recognize conscientious objection and does not offer a civilian alternative to military service.[240]

UCAV designed to operate on TCG Anadolu.[241][245][246][247][248]

Turkey has the

Turkey has participated in international missions under the United Nations and NATO since the Korean War, including peacekeeping missions in Somalia, Yugoslavia and the Horn of Africa. It supported coalition forces in the First Gulf War, contributed military personnel to the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan, and remains active in Kosovo Force, Eurocorps and EU Battlegroups.[258][259] As of 2016, Turkey has assisted Peshmerga forces in northern Iraq and the Somali Armed Forces with security and training.[260][261]

Human rights

Women demonstrating and asking for non-interference with their clothing in Kadıköy, Istanbul[262]

The human rights record of Turkey has been the subject of much controversy and international condemnation. Between 1959 and 2011 the European Court of Human Rights made more than 2,400 judgements against Turkey for human rights violations on issues such as Kurdish rights, women's rights, LGBT rights, and media freedom.[263][264] Turkey's human rights record continues to be a significant obstacle to the country's membership of the EU.[265]

In the latter half of the 1970s, Turkey suffered from

A full-scale insurgency began in 1984, when the PKK announced a Kurdish uprising. With time the PKK modified its demands into equal rights for ethnic Kurds and provincial autonomy within Turkey.[272][273][274][275] Since 1980, the Turkish parliament stripped its members of immunity from prosecution, including 44 deputies most of which from the pro-Kurdish parties.[276]

In 2013,

Gezi Park but soon growing into general anti-government dissent.[277] On 20 May 2016, the Turkish parliament stripped almost a quarter of its members of immunity from prosecution, including 101 deputies from the pro-Kurdish HDP and the main opposition CHP party.[278][279] By 2020, under the pretext of responding to a failed coup attempt in 2016,[280][281] authorities had arrested or imprisoned more than 90,000 Turkish citizens.[282] According to the Committee to Protect Journalists, the AKP government has waged crackdowns on media freedom.[283][284] Many journalists have been arrested using charges of "terrorism" and "anti-state activities".[285][286] In 2020, the CPJ identified 18 jailed journalists in Turkey (including the editorial staff of Cumhuriyet, Turkey's oldest newspaper still in circulation).[287]

LGBT rights

Istanbul Pride was organized in 2003 for the first time. Since 2015, parades in Istanbul have been denied permission by the government.[288]

Homosexual activity has been decriminalized in Turkey since

civil unions instead.[297]

When the annual Istanbul Pride was inaugurated in 2003, Turkey became the first Muslim-majority country to hold a gay pride march.[298] Since 2015, parades at Taksim Square and İstiklal Avenue (where the Gezi Park protests took place) have been denied government permission, citing security concerns, but hundreds of people have defied the ban each year.[288] Critics have claimed that the bans were in fact ideological.[288]

Geography

Topographic map of Turkey

Turkey covers an area of 783,562 square kilometres (302,535 square miles).

Eastern Thrace, Turkey's European side, includes around 10% of the population and covers 3% of the surface area.[303] The country is encircled by seas on three sides: the Aegean Sea to the west, the Black Sea to the north and the Mediterranean Sea to the south.[304] Turkey is bordered by Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran to the east.[304] To the south, it's bordered by Syria and Iraq.[305] To the north, its Thracian area is bordered by Greece and Bulgaria.[304]

Turkey is divided into "seven major regions": Marmara, Aegean, Central Anatolia, Black Sea, Eastern Anatolia, Southeastern Anatolia and the Mediterranean.[304] As a general trend, the inland Anatolian Plateau becomes increasingly rugged as it progresses eastward.[306] Mountain ranges include Köroğlu and Pontic mountain ranges to the north, and the Taurus Mountains to the south. The Lakes Region contains some of the largest lakes in Turkey such as Lake Beyşehir and Lake Eğirdir.

Tectonic map of Turkey.[307] Straight lines and lines with triangles denote different types of faults, such as North Anatolian Fault and East Anatolian Fault.

Geographers have used the eastern Anatolian plateau, Iranian plateau, and

Aras. The Southeastern Anatolia Region includes the northern plains of Upper Mesopotamia
.

Earthquakes happen frequently in Turkey.[36] Almost the entire population lives in areas with varying seismic risk levels, with around 70% in highest or second-highest seismic areas.[311][312] Anatolian plate is bordered by North Anatolian Fault zone to the north; East Anatolian Fault zone and Bitlis–Zagros collision zone to the east; Hellenic and Cyprus subduction zones to the south; and Aegean extensional zone to the west.[313] After 1999 İzmit and 1999 Düzce earthquakes, North Anatolian Fault zone activity "is considered to be one of the most dangerous natural hazards in Turkey".[314] 2023 Turkey–Syria earthquakes were the deadliest in contemporary Turkish history.[315] Turkey is sometimes unfavorably compared to Chile, a country with a similar developmental level that is more successful with earthquake preparedness.[316][317][318]

Biodiversity

A white Turkish Angora cat with odd eyes (heterochromia), which is common among the Angoras

Turkey's position at the crossroads of the land, sea and air routes between the three Old World continents and the variety of the habitats across its geographical regions have produced considerable species diversity and a vibrant ecosystem.[319] Out of the 36 biodiversity hotspots in the world, Turkey includes 3 of them.[35] These are the Mediterranean, Irano-Anatolian, and Caucasus hotspots.[35] In the 21st century, threats to biodiversity include desertification from climate change in Turkey.[320]

The forests of Turkey are home to the Turkey oak. The most commonly found species of the genus Platanus (plane) is the orientalis. The Turkish pine (Pinus brutia) is mostly found in Turkey and other east Mediterranean countries. Several wild species of tulip are native to Anatolia, and the flower was first introduced to Western Europe with species taken from the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century.[321][322]

There are

Caucasian black grouse, red-fronted serin, and wallcreeper.[324]

The

Climate

Köppen climate types of Turkey for the 1980–2016 period[329]

The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas have a

temperate Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters.[330] The coastal areas bordering the Black Sea have a temperate oceanic climate with warm, wet summers and cool to cold, wet winters.[330] The Turkish Black Sea coast receives the most precipitation and is the only region of Turkey that receives high precipitation throughout the year.[330] The eastern part of the Black Sea coast averages 2,200 millimetres (87 in) annually which is the highest precipitation in the country.[330] The coastal areas bordering the Sea of Marmara, which connects the Aegean Sea and the Black Sea, have a transitional climate between a temperate Mediterranean climate and a temperate oceanic climate with warm to hot, moderately dry summers and cool to cold, wet winters.[330]

Snow falls on the coastal areas of the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea almost every winter but usually melts in no more than a few days.[330] However, snow is rare in the coastal areas of the Aegean Sea and very rare in the coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea.[330] Winters on the Anatolian plateau are especially severe. Temperatures of −30 to −40 °C (−22 to −40 °F) do occur in northeastern Anatolia, and snow may lie on the ground for at least 120 days of the year, and during the entire year on the summits of the highest mountains. In central Anatolia the temperatures can drop below −20 °C (−4 °F) with the mountains being even colder. Mountains close to the coast prevent Mediterranean influences from extending inland, giving the central Anatolian Plateau a continental climate with sharply contrasting seasons.[330]

Due to socioeconomic, climatic, and geographic factors, Turkey is highly vulnerable to climate change.[37] This applies to nine out of ten climate vulnerability dimensions, such as "average annual risk to wellbeing".[37] OECD median is two out of ten.[37] Inclusive and swift growth is needed for decreasing vulnerability.[331] Turkey aims to achieve net zero emissions by 2053.[332] Accomplishing climate goals would require large investments, but would also result in net economic benefits, broadly due to reduced imports of fuel and due to better health from lowering air pollution.[333]

Examples from some of Turkey's seven geographical regions

Economy

Turkey is expected to have fast economic growth due to demographics and rapid urbanization. The following table is from the OECD Long Term Projections.[339]

Turkey is an

newly industrialized countries. Services account for the majority of GDP, whereas industry accounts for more than 30%.[341] Agriculture contributes about 7%.[341] According to IMF estimates, Turkey's GDP per capita by PPP is $42,064 in 2023, while its nominal GDP per capita is $12,849.[8] Foreign direct investment in Turkey peaked at $22.05 billion in 2007 and dropped to $13.09 billion in 2022.[342] Potential growth is weakened by long-lasting structural and macro obstacles, such as slow rates of productivity growth and high inflation.[312]

Togg T10S sedan produced by Togg,[343] a Turkish automotive company which manufactures electric vehicles[344][345][346]

Turkey is a diversified economy; main industries include automobiles, electronics, textiles, construction, steel, mining, and food processing.

BMC and Togg. Togg is the first all-electric vehicle company of Turkey. Arçelik, Vestel, and Beko are major manufacturers of consumer electronics.[349] Arçelik is one of the largest producers of household goods in the world.[350] In 2022, Turkey ranked second in the world in terms of the number of international contractors in the top 250 list.[351] It is also the fifth largest in the world in terms of textile exports.[352] Turkish Airlines is one of the largest airlines in the world
.

Gulf of Antalya in Turkish Riviera. Antalya is the fourth most visited city in the world.[353]

Between 2007 and 2021, the share of population below the PPP-$6.85 per day international poverty threshold declined from 20% to 7.6%.[312] In 2023, 13.9% of the population was below the national at-risk-of-poverty rate.[354] In 2021, 34% of the population were at risk of poverty or social exclusion, using Eurostat definition.[355] Unemployment in Turkey was 10.4% in 2022.[356] In 2021, it was estimated that 47% of total disposable income was received by the top 20% of income earners, while the lowest 20% received only 6%.[357]

Tourism accounts for about 8% of Turkey's GDP.

Blue Flag beaches, third most in the world.[360] According to Euromonitor International report, Istanbul is the most visited city in the world, with more than 20.2 million foreign visitors in 2023.[353] Antalya has surpassed Paris and New York to become the fourth most visited city in the world, with more than 16.5 million foreign visitors.[353]

Infrastructure

Keban Dam in Elazığ Province on the Euphrates. In 2019, Turkey generated 29.2% of its electricity from hydroelectricity.[361]

Turkey is the 16th largest electricity producer in the world. Turkey's energy generation capacity increased significantly, with electricity generation from renewable sources tripling in the past decade.[362][363] It produced 43.8% of its electricity from such sources in 2019.[364] Turkey is also the fourth-largest producer of geothermal power in the world.[365] Turkey's first nuclear power station, Akkuyu, will increase diversification of its energy mix.[366] When it comes to total final consumption, fossil fuels still play a large role, accounting for 73%.[367] A major reason of Turkey's greenhouse gas emissions is the large proportion of coal in the energy system.[368] As of 2017, while the government had invested in low carbon energy transition, fossil fuels were still subsidized.[369] By 2053, Turkey aims to have net zero emissions.[332]

The main terminal of Istanbul Airport has an annual passenger capacity of 90 million and is the world's largest terminal building under a single roof.

Turkey has made security of its energy supply a top priority, given its heavy reliance on gas and oil imports.[366] Turkey's main energy supply sources are Russia, West Asia, and Central Asia.[370] Gas production began in 2023 in the recently discovered Sakarya gas field. When fully operational, it will supply about 30% of the natural gas needed domestically.[371][372] Turkey aims to become a hub for regional energy transportation.[373] Several oil and gas pipelines span the country, including the Blue Stream, TurkStream, and Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipelines.[373]

As of 2023, Turkey has 3,726 kilometers of

Çanakkale 1915 Bridge on the Dardanelles strait is the longest suspension bridge in the world.[375] Marmaray and Eurasia tunnels under the Bosporus connect both sides of Istanbul.[376] The Osman Gazi Bridge connects the northern and southern shores of the Gulf of İzmit
.

Ankara-Konya, and Ankara-Sivas routes.[378] Istanbul Metro is the largest subway network in the country with around 704 million annual ridership in 2019.[379] There are 115 airports as of 2024.[380] Istanbul Airport is one of the top 10 busiest airports in the world. Turkey aims to become a transportation hub.[381][382] It is part of various routes that connect Asia and Europe, including the Middle Corridor.[382] In 2024, Turkey, Iraq, UAE, and Qatar signed an agreement to link Iraqi port facilities to Turkey via road and rail connections.[383]

Science and technology

Göktürk-1, Göktürk-2 and Göktürk-3 are the Earth observation satellites of the Turkish Ministry of National Defense, while state-owned Türksat operates the Türksat series of communications satellites.

Turkey's spending on research and development as a share of GDP has risen from 0.47% in 2000 to 1.40% in 2021.[384] Turkey ranks 16th in the world in terms of article output in scientific and technical journals, and 35th in Nature Index.[385][386] Turkish patent office ranks 21st worldwide in overall patent applications, and 3rd in industrial design applications. Vast majority of applicants to the Turkish patent office are Turkish residents. In all patent offices globally, Turkish residents rank 21st for overall patent applications.[387] In 2023, Turkey ranked 39th in the world and 4th among its upper-middle income group in the Global Innovation Index.[388] It was one of the countries with a notable increase in the past decade.[39]

TÜBİTAK is one of the main agencies for funding and carrying out research.[389][390] Turkey's space program plans to develop a national satellite launch system, and to improve capabilities in space exploration, astronomy, and satellite communication.[390] Under the Göktürk Program, Turkish Space Systems, Integration and Test Center was built.[391] Turkey's first communication satellite manufactured domestically, Türksat 6A, will be launched in 2024.[392] As part of a planned particle accelerator center, an electron accelerator called TARLA became operational in 2024.[393][394] An Antarctic research station is planned on Horseshoe Island.[395]

Turkey is considered a significant power in

quantum technology.[399]

Demographics

Istanbul is Turkey's largest city,[400] and its economic and financial center.

According to the Address-Based Population Recording System, the country's population was 85,372,377 in 2023, excluding Syrians under temporary protection.[7] 93% lived in province and district centers.[7] People within the 15–64 and 0–14 age groups corresponded to 68.3% and 21.4% of the total population, respectively. Those aged 65 years or older made up 10.2%.[7] Between 1950 and 2020, Turkey's population more than quadrupled from 20.9 million to 83.6 million;[401] however, the population growth rate was 0.1% in 2023.[7] In 2023, the total fertility rate was 1.51 children per woman, below the replacement rate of 2.10 per woman.[402] In a 2018 health survey, the ideal children number was 2.8 children per woman, rising to 3 per married woman.[403]

Ethnicity and language

Percentage of ethnic Kurds in Turkey by region[404]

Article 66 of the

Turkish Constitution defines a Turk as anyone who is a citizen.[405] It is estimated that there are at least 47 ethnic groups represented in Turkey.[406] Reliable data on the ethnic mix of the population is not available because census figures do not include statistics on ethnicity after the 1965 Turkish census.[407] According to the World Factbook, 70-75% of the country's citizens are ethnic Turks.[4] Based on a survey, KONDA's estimation was 76% in 2006, with 78% of adult citizens self-identifying their ethnic background as Turk.[408] In 2021, 77% of adult citizens identified as such in a survey.[409]

Kurdish diaspora communities in all of the major cities in central and western Turkey. In Istanbul, there are an estimated three million Kurds, making it the city with the largest Kurdish population in the world.[414] 19% of adult citizens identified as ethnic Kurds in a survey in 2021.[409] Some people have multiple ethnic identities, such as both Turk and Kurd.[415][416] In 2006, an estimated 2.7 million ethnic Turks and Kurds were related from interethnic marriages.[417]

According to the World Factbook, non-Kurdish ethnic minorities are 7–12% of the population.

Jews[c]) and the Bulgarians.[d][421][422][423] In 2013, the Ankara 13th Circuit Administrative Court ruled that the minority provisions of the Lausanne Treaty should also apply to Assyrians in Turkey and the Syriac language.[424][425][426] Other unrecognized ethnic groups include Albanians, Bosniaks, Circassians, Georgians, Laz, Pomaks, and Roma.[427][428][429]

Areas with speakers of Turkic languages

The official language is Turkish, which is the most widely spoken Turkic language in the world.[430][431] It is spoken by 85%[432][433] to 90%[434] of the population as a first language. Kurdish speakers are the largest linguistic minority.[434] A survey estimated 13% of the population speak Kurdish or Zaza as a first language.[432] Other minority languages include Arabic, Caucasian languages, and Gagauz.[434] The linguistic rights of the officially recognized minorities are de jure recognized and protected for Armenian, Bulgarian, Greek, Hebrew,[e][418][421][422][423] and Syriac.[425][426] There are multiple endangered languages in Turkey.

 
Largest cities or towns in Turkey
TÜİK's address-based calculation from 31 December 2023 published at 7th of February 2024.
Rank
Name
Pop.
Rank
Name
Pop.
Istanbul
Istanbul
Ankara
Ankara
1 Istanbul 15,655,924 11 Mersin 1,938,389 İzmir
İzmir
Bursa
Bursa
2 Ankara 5,803,482 12 Diyarbakır 1,818,133
3 İzmir 4,479,525 13
Hatay
1,544,640
4 Bursa 3,214,571 14 Manisa 1,475,716
5 Antalya 2,696,249 15 Kayseri 1,445,683
6 Konya 2,320,241 16 Samsun 1,377,546
7 Adana 2,270,298 17 Balıkesir 1,273,519
8
Şanlıurfa
2,213,964 18 Tekirdağ 1,167,059
9 Gaziantep 2,164,134 19 Aydın 1,161,702
10 Kocaeli 2,102,907 20 Van 1,127,612

Immigration

Excluding Syrians under temporary protection, there were 1,570,543 foreign citizens in Turkey in 2023.

Turkey's migrant crisis in the 2010s and early 2020s resulted in the influx of millions of refugees and immigrants.[435] Turkey hosts the largest number of refugees in the world as of April 2020.[436] The Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency manages the refugee crisis in Turkey. Before the start of the Syrian civil war in 2011, the estimated number of Arabs in Turkey varied from 1 million to more than 2 million.[437]

In November 2020, there were 3.6 million

refugees of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine have sought refuge in Turkey.[443] In 2022, nearly 100,000 Russian citizens migrated to Turkey, becoming the first in the list of foreigners who moved to Turkey, meaning an increase of more than 218% from 2021.[444]

Religion

Left: Çamlıca Mosque in Istanbul was designed by two female architects.[445] Right: Mor Hananyo Monastery near Mardin. From 1293 to 1932, it was the headquarters of Syriac Orthodox Church.[446]

Turkey is a

Alevi are between 10% to 40% of the population.[450] KONDA's estimate was 5% in 2006.[449] 4% of adult citizens identified as Alevi in a survey in 2021, while 88% identified as Sunni.[409]

The percentage of non-Muslims in modern-day Turkey was 19.1% in 1914, but fell to 2.5% in 1927.[451] Currently, non-Muslims constitute 0.2% of the population according to the World Factbook.[4] In 2006, KONDA's estimate was 0.18% for people with non-Islam religions.[449] Some of the non-Muslim communities are Armenians, Assyrians, Bulgarian Orthodox, Catholics, Chaldeans, Greeks, Jews, and Protestants.[452] Turkey has the largest Jewish community among the Muslim-majority countries.[453] Currently, there are 439 churches and synagogues in Turkey.[454]

In 2006, KONDA's estimate was 0.47% for those with no religion.[449] According to KONDA, share of adult citizens who identified as unbeliever increased from 2% in 2011 to 6% in 2021.[409] A 2020 Gezici Araştırma poll found that 28.5% of the Generation Z identify as irreligious.[455][456]

Education

Istanbul University was restructured in 1933, after being established as a theological school in 1453.[457]

In the past 20 years, Turkey has improved quality of education and has made significant progress in increasing education access.[458] From 2011 to 2021, improvements in education access include "one of the largest increases in educational attainment for 25-34 year-olds at upper secondary non-tertiary or tertiary education", and quadrupling of pre-school institutions.[38] PISA results suggest improvements in education quality.[38] There is still a gap with OECD countries. Significant challenges include differences in student outcomes from different schools, differences between rural and urban areas, pre-primary education access, and arrival of students who are Syrian refugees.[38]

technical university.[459]

The Ministry of National Education is responsible for pre-tertiary education.[460] Compulsory education is free at public schools and lasts 12 years, divided into three parts.[461][458] There are 208 universities in Turkey.[390] Students are placed to universities based on their YKS results and their preferences, by the Measuring, Selection and Placement Center.[462] All state and private universities are under the control of the Higher Education Board (Turkish: Yükseköğretim Kurulu, YÖK). Since 2016, the president of Turkey directly appoints all rectors of all state and private universities.[463]

According to the 2024 Times Higher Education ranking, the top universities were Koç University, Middle East Technical University, Sabancı University, and Istanbul Technical University.[464] According to Academic Ranking of World Universities, the top ones were Istanbul University, University of Health Sciences (Turkey), and Hacettepe University.[465] Turkey is a member of the Erasmus+ Programme.[466] Turkey has become a hub for foreign students in recent years, with 795,962 foreign students in 2016.[467] In 2021 Türkiye Scholarships, a government-funded program, received 165,000 applications from prospective students in 178 countries.[468][469][470]

Health

Başakşehir Çam and Sakura City Hospital in Istanbul. It contains 2,068 seismic base isolation units to withstand earthquakes.[471]

The Ministry of Health has run a universal public healthcare system since 2003.[472] Known as Universal Health Insurance (Genel Sağlık Sigortası), it is funded by a tax surcharge on employers, currently at 5%.[472] Public-sector funding covers approximately 75.2% of health expenditures.[472] Despite the universal health care, total expenditure on health as a share of GDP in 2018 was the lowest among OECD countries at 6.3% of GDP, compared to the OECD average of 9.3%.[472] There are many private hospitals in the country.[473] The government planned several hospital complexes, known as city hospitals, to be constructed since 2013.[473] Turkey is one of the top 10 destinations for health tourism.[474]

Average life expectancy is 78.6 years (75.9 for males and 81.3 for females), compared with the EU average of 81 years.[472] Turkey has high rates of obesity, with 29.5% of its adult population having a body mass index (BMI) value of 30 or above.[475] Air pollution is a major cause of early death.[476]

Culture

In the 19th century, Turkish identity was debated in the Ottoman Empire, with three main views: Turkism, Islamism and Westernism.[477] In addition to Europe or Islam, Turkish culture was also influenced by Anatolia's native cultures.[478] After the establishment of the republic, Kemalism emphasized Turkish culture, attempted to make "Islam a matter of personal conviction", and pursued modernization.[479] Currently, Turkey has various local cultures. Things such as music, folk dance, or kebap variety may be used to identify a local area. Turkey also has a national culture, such as "national movie stars, rock bands, fashion trends, and soccer and basketball leagues".[480]

Visual arts

Map of Istanbul by the miniature artist Matrakçı Nasuh

Ottoman miniature is linked to the Persian miniature tradition and is likewise influenced by Chinese painting styles and techniques. The words tasvir or nakış were used to define the art of miniature painting in Ottoman Turkish. The studios the artists worked in were called nakkaşhane.[481] The understanding of perspective was different from that of the nearby European Renaissance painting tradition, and the scene depicted often included different time periods and spaces in one picture. They followed closely the context of the book they were included in, more illustrations than standalone works of art. Sixteenth-century artists Nakkaş Osman and Matrakçı Nasuh are among the most prominent artists of this era.

Hoca Ali Riza.[483]

Carpet (halı) and tapestry (kilim) weaving is a traditional Turkish art form with roots in pre-Islamic times. During its long history, the art and craft of weaving carpets and tapestries in Turkey has integrated numerous cultural traditions. Apart from the Turkic design patterns that are prevalent, traces of Persian and Byzantine patterns can also be detected. There are also similarities with the patterns used in Armenian, Caucasian and Kurdish carpet designs. The arrival of Islam in Central Asia and the development of Islamic art also influenced Turkic patterns in the medieval period. The history of the designs, motifs and ornaments used in Turkish carpets and tapestries thus reflects the political and ethnic history of the Turks and the cultural diversity of Anatolia. However, scientific attempts were unsuccessful, as yet, to attribute a particular design to a specific ethnic, regional, or even nomadic versus village tradition.[484]

Literature and theatre

Nobel-laureate Turkish novelist Orhan Pamuk and his Turkish Angora cat at his personal writing space
concert hall
.

Interaction between the Ottoman Empire and the Islamic world along with Europe contributed to a blend of Turkic, Islamic and European traditions in modern-day Turkish music and literary arts.

one-act comedy "Şair Evlenmesi" (The Poet's Marriage). Most of the roots of modern Turkish literature were formed between 1896 and 1923.[487]

The first radical step of innovation in 20th century Turkish poetry was taken by

Nâzım Hikmet, who introduced the free verse style. Another revolution in Turkish poetry came about in 1941 with the Garip movement led by Orhan Veli, Oktay Rıfat and Melih Cevdet
.

The mix of cultural influences in Turkey is dramatized, for example, in the form of the "new symbols of the clash and interlacing of cultures" enacted in the novels of Orhan Pamuk, recipient of the 2006 Nobel Prize in Literature.[488]

The origin of Turkish theater dates back to ancient pagan rituals and oral legends.[489] The dances, music and songs performed during the rituals of the inhabitants of Anatolia millennia ago are the elements from which the first shows originated. In time, the ancient rituals, myths, legends and stories evolved into theatrical shows. Starting from the 11th-century, the traditions of the Seljuk Turks blended with those of the indigenous peoples of Anatolia and the interaction between diverse cultures paved the way for new plays.[489][490] Meddah were storytellers who performed in front of audiences during the Ottoman period.[489] Karagöz and Hacivat are the lead characters of the traditional Turkish shadow play, popularized during the Ottoman period and then spread to most ethnic groups of the Ottoman Empire.

Music and dance

Barış Manço was a Turkish rock musician and one of the founders of the Anatolian rock genre.

Turkish music can be described in a variety of ways, ranging from "globally marketed pop music with a little bit of local colour thrown in" to a custom that includes thousands of years of legacy of Anatolia's various civilizations.[491]

Many Turkish cities and towns have vibrant local music scenes which, in turn, support a number of regional musical styles. Despite this however, western music styles like pop music and kanto lost popularity to arabesque in the late 1970s and 1980s. It became popular again by the beginning of the 1990s, as a result of an opening economy and society. The resurging popularity of pop music gave rise to several international Turkish pop stars such as Ajda Pekkan, Sezen Aksu, Erol Evgin, MFÖ, Tarkan, Sertab Erener, Teoman, Kenan Doğulu, Levent Yüksel and Hande Yener.[citation needed] Internationally acclaimed Turkish jazz and blues musicians and composers include Ahmet Ertegun[492] (founder and president of Atlantic Records), Nükhet Ruacan and Kerem Görsev.[citation needed]

Architecture

The Byzantine era is usually dated from 330 AD at the founding of Constantinople until the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453. Its architecture dramatically influenced the later medieval architecture throughout Europe and the Near East and became the primary progenitor of the Renaissance and Ottoman architectural traditions that followed its collapse.[494] When the Roman Empire went Christian (as well as eastwards) with Constantinople as its new capital, its architecture became more sensuous and more ambitious. This new style, which would come to be known as Byzantine architecture, with increasingly exotic domes and ever-richer mosaics, spread west to Ravenna and Venice in Italy and as far north as Moscow in Russia.[495] This influence can be seen particularly in the Venetian Gothic architecture.

The

Ottoman Sultans for approximately 400 years.[496] Mimar Sinan (c. 1489–1588) was the most important architect of the classical period in Ottoman architecture. He was the chief architect of at least 374 buildings that were constructed in various provinces in the 16th century.[497] Sedefkar Mehmed Ağa, the architect of the Blue Mosque
in Istanbul, was an apprentice of Sinan, later becoming his first assistant in charge of the office of chief architect.

Since the 18th century, Turkish architecture has been increasingly influenced by European styles, and this can be particularly seen in the Tanzimat era buildings of Istanbul like the

First National Architectural Movement
in the early 20th century sought to create a new architecture which was based on motifs from Seljuk and Ottoman architecture.

Cuisine

Turkish coffee with Turkish delight. Turkish coffee is a UNESCO-listed intangible cultural heritage of Turks.[499][500]

Persian cuisines.[501][502][503] It can be described as a fusion and refinement of Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, Central Asian, Balkan and Eastern European cuisines.[501][502] The country's position between Europe, Asia and the Mediterranean Sea helped the Turks in gaining complete control of the major trade routes, and an ideal landscape and climate allowed plants and animals to flourish. Turkish cuisine was well established by the mid-15th century, which marked the beginning of the classical age of the Ottoman Empire
.

sherbet, ayran and rakı became Turkish staples. The empire used its land and water routes to import exotic ingredients from all over the world. By the end of the 16th century, the Ottoman court housed over 1,400 live-in cooks and passed laws regulating the freshness of food. Since the establishment of the republic in 1923, foreign food such as French hollandaise sauce and Western fast food have made their way into the modern Turkish diet.[citation needed
]

Sports

Turkey at UEFA Euro 2016

The most popular sport is

Other mainstream sports such as basketball and volleyball are also popular.

Fenerbahçe reached the final of the EuroLeague in three consecutive seasons (2015–2016, 2016–2017 and 2017–2018
), becoming the European champions in 2017.

VakıfBank S.K. is one of the best women's volleyball team in the world, having won the FIVB World Championship four times and the CEV Champions Cup six times.

The final of the

Fenerbahçe, and won by Galatasaray.[510] Fenerbahçe won the 2023 FIBA Europe SuperCup Women after two consecutive Euroleague wins in the 2022–23 and 2023–24
seasons.

The

Fenerbahçe and Eczacıbaşı, have won numerous European championship titles and medals.[512]

The traditional national sport of Turkey has been

FILA such as freestyle wrestling and Greco-Roman wrestling are also popular, with many European, World and Olympic championship titles won by Turkish wrestlers both individually and as a national team.[516]

Media and cinema

Hundreds of television channels, thousands of local and national radio stations, several dozen newspapers, a productive and profitable

Radio and Television Supreme Council (RTÜK) is the government body overseeing the broadcast media.[519][520] By circulation, the most popular newspapers are Posta, Hürriyet, Sözcü, Sabah and Habertürk.[521]

Nuri Bilge Ceylan (left), Beren Saat (middle), and Türkan Şoray (right)

Filiz Akın, Fatma Girik, Hülya Koçyiğit, and Türkan Şoray represent their period of Turkish cinema.[522] Turkish directors like Metin Erksan, Nuri Bilge Ceylan, Yılmaz Güney, Zeki Demirkubuz and Ferzan Özpetek won numerous international awards such as the Palme d'Or and Golden Bear.[523] Turkish television dramas are increasingly becoming popular beyond Turkey's borders and are among the country's most vital exports, both in terms of profit and public relations.[524] After sweeping the Middle East's television market over the past decade, Turkish shows have aired in more than a dozen South and Central American countries in 2016.[525][526] Turkey is today the world's second largest exporter of television series.[527][528][529]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Turkish: Türkiye, Turkish: [ˈtyɾcije]
  2. ^ Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti, Turkish: [ˈtyɾcije dʒumˈhuːɾijeti]
  3. ^ Even though they are not explicitly mentioned in the Treaty of Lausanne.[418]
  4. ^ The Bulgarian community in Turkey is now so small that this disposition is de facto not applied.[418][419][420]
  5. ^ The Turkish government considers that, for the purpose of the Treaty of Lausanne, the language of Turkish Jews is Hebrew, even though the mother tongue of Turkish Jews was not Hebrew but historically Judaeo-Spanish (Ladino) or other Jewish languages.[422][423]

References

  1. ^ "Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Anayasası" (in Turkish). Grand National Assembly of Turkey. Archived from the original on 2 July 2020. Retrieved 1 July 2020. 3. Madde: Devletin Bütünlüğü, Resmi Dili, Bayrağı, Milli Marşı ve Başkenti: Türkiye Devleti, ülkesi ve milletiyle bölünmez bir bütündür. Dili Türkçedir. Bayrağı, şekli kanununda belirtilen, beyaz ay yıldızlı al bayraktır. Milli marşı "İstiklal Marşı" dır. Başkenti Ankara'dır.
  2. ^ "Mevzuat: Anayasa" (in Turkish). Constitutional Court of Turkey. Archived from the original on 21 June 2020. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b c d e f "Turkey (Turkiye)". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 19 May 2024.
  5. ^ a b "Turkish Constitution". Anayasa Mahkemesi. Archived from the original on 10 January 2021. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  6. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Archived
    from the original on 24 March 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g "The Results of Address Based Population Registration System, 2023". www.tuik.gov.tr. Turkish Statistical Institute. 6 February 2024. Archived from the original on 6 February 2024. Retrieved 6 February 2024.
  8. ^ a b c d e "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2024 Edition. (Türkiye)". www.imf.org. International Monetary Fund. 16 April 2024. Retrieved 16 April 2024.
  9. ^ "Gini index (World Bank estimate) – Turkey". World Bank. 2019. Archived from the original on 17 May 2019. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  10. ^ "Human Development Index (HDI)". United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on 10 June 2022. Retrieved 18 March 2024.
  11. ^ Howard 2016, p. 24
  12. ^ Leonard 2006, p. 1576: "Turkey’s diversity is derived from its central location near the world’s earliest civilizations as well as a history replete with population movements and invasions. The Hattite culture was prominent during the Bronze Age prior to 2000 BCE, but was replaced by the Indo-European Hittites who conquered Anatolia by the second millennium. Meanwhile, Turkish Thrace came to be dominated by another Indo-European group, the Thracians for whom the region is named."
  13. ^ Howard 2016, pp. 24–28: "Göbekli Tepe’s close proximity to several very early sites of grain cultivation helped lead Schmidt to the conclusion that it was the need to maintain the ritual center that first encouraged the beginnings of settled agriculture—the Neolithic Revolution"
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  17. ^ a b Howard 2016, p. 29: "The sudden disappearance of the Persian Empire and the conquest of virtually the entire Middle Eastern world from the Nile to the Indus by Alexander the Great caused tremendous political and cultural upheaval." ... "statesmen throughout the conquered regions attempted to implement a policy of Hellenization. For indigenous elites, this amounted to the forced assimilation of native religion and culture to Greek models. It met resistance in Anatolia as elsewhere, especially from priests and others who controlled temple wealth."
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    • Kaser 2011, p. 336: "The emerging Christian nation states justified the prosecution of their Muslims by arguing that they were their former “suppressors”. The historical balance: between about 1820 and 1920, millions of Muslim casualties and refugees back to the remaining Ottoman Empire had to be registered; estimations speak about 5 million casualties and the same number of displaced persons"
    • Gibney & Hansen 2005, p. 437: ‘Muslims had been the majority in Anatolia, the Crimea, the Balkans, and the Caucasus and a plurality in southern Russia and sections of Romania. Most of these lands were within or contiguous with the Ottoman Empire. By 1923, “only Anatolia, eastern Thrace, and a section of the southeastern Caucasus remained to the Muslim land....Millions of Muslims, most of them Turks, had died; millions more had fled to what is today Turkey. Between 1821 and 1922, more than five million Muslims were driven from their lands. Five and one-half million Muslims died, some of them killed in wars, others perishing as refugees from starvation and disease” (McCarthy 1995, 1). Since people in the Ottoman Empire were classified by religion, Turks, Albanians, Bosnians, and all other Muslim groups were recognized—and recognized themselves—simply as Muslims. Hence, their persecution and forced migration is of central importance to an analysis of “Muslim migration.”’
    • Karpat 2001, p. 343: "The main migrations started from Crimea in 1856 and were followed by those from the Caucasus and the Balkans in 1862 to 1878 and 1912 to 1916. These have continued to our day. The quantitative indicators cited in various sources show that during this period a total of about 7 million migrants from Crimea, the Caucasus, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean islands settled in Anatolia. These immigrants were overwhelmingly Muslim, except for a number of Jews who left their homes in the Balkans and Russia in order to live in the Ottoman lands. By the end of the century the immigrants and their descendants constituted some 30 to 40 percent of the total population of Anatolia, and in some western areas their percentage was even higher." ... "The immigrants called themselves Muslims rather than Turks, although most of those from Bulgaria, Macedonia, and eastern Serbia descended from the Turkish Anatolian stock who settled in the Balkans in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries."
    • Karpat 2004, pp. 5–6: "Migration was a major force in the social and cultural reconstruction of the Ottoman state in the nineteenth century. While some seven to nine million, mostly Muslim, refugees from lost territories in the Caucasus, Crimea, Balkans and Mediterranean islands migrated to Anatolia and Eastern Thrace, during the last quarter of the nineteenth and the early part of the twentieth centuries..."
    • Pekesen 2012: "The immigration had far-reaching social and political consequences for the Ottoman Empire and Turkey." ... "Between 1821 and 1922, some 5.3 million Muslims migrated to the Empire.50 It is estimated that in 1923, the year the republic of Turkey was founded, about 25 per cent of the population came from immigrant families.51"
    • Biondich 2011, p. 93: "The road from Berlin to Lausanne was littered with millions of casualties. In the period between 1878 and 1912, as many as two million Muslims emigrated voluntarily or involuntarily from the Balkans. When one adds those who were killed or expelled between 1912 and 1923, the number of Muslim casualties from the Balkan far exceeds three million. By 1923 fewer than one million remained in the Balkans"
    • Armour 2012, p. 213: "To top it all, the Empire was host to a steady stream of Muslim refugees. Russia between 1854 and 1876 expelled 1.4 million Crimean Tartars, and in the mid-1860s another 600,000 Circassians from the Caucasus. Their arrival produced further economic dislocation and expense."
    • Bosma, Lucassen & Oostindie 2012, p. 17: "In total, many millions of Turks (or, more precisely, Muslim immigrants, including some from the Caucasus) were involved in this ‘repatriation’ – sometimes more than once in a lifetime – the last stage of which may have been the immigration of seven hundred thousand Turks from Bulgaria between 1940 and 1990. Most of these immigrants settled in urban north-western Anatolia. Today between a third and a quarter of the Republic’s population are descendants of these Muslim immigrants, known as Muhacir or Göçmen"
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