UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods
The UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods are contained in the UN Model Regulations prepared by the Subcommittee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods of the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). They cover the transport of dangerous goods by all modes of transport except by bulk tanker. They are not obligatory or legally binding on individual countries, but have gained a wide degree of international acceptance: they form the basis of several international agreements and many national laws.
"Dangerous goods" (also known as "hazardous materials" or "HAZMAT" in the United States) may be a pure
The UN Recommendations do not cover the manufacture, use or disposal of dangerous goods.
History and principles
The first version of the Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods was produced by the ECOSOC in 1956. From 1996, the Recommendations were effectively split into two parts: the Model Regulations, which form a suggested drafting for laws and regulations on the transport of dangerous goods; and the Manual of Tests and Criteria, which contains technical information about methods of testing products to ascertain their hazards. The 22nd edition of the Recommendations was published in 2021.
The container requirements include some material and construction requirements but also performance testing is required. The package testing is based on the packing group (hazard level) of the contents, the quantity of material, and the type of container.
The UN recommendations are implemented by regulatory bodies in each country: Transport Canada, United States Department of Transportation, etc. Some carriers have additional requirements.
- Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)
- Australian Dangerous Goods Code
- European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road(ADR) – On transport of hazardous materials
- International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea)
- Annex 18 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation– International treaty that established the ICAO ("Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air")
- International Air Transport Association – International trade association for airlines
- ^ ST/ECA/43-E/CN.2/170
- ^ Umstead, S L (May 2003). "Performance-Oriented Packaging". Army Sustainment. Retrieved July 22, 2010.
- ^ "How to Comply with Federal Hazardous Materials Regulations". US DoT. Archived from the original on 2014-03-12. Retrieved 2010-07-23.
- UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. Manual of Tests and Criteria (Fourth revised ed.), New York and Geneva: United Nations, 2002, ISBN 92-1-139087-7, ST/SG/AC.10/11/Rev.4
- UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. Model Regulations (Fifteenth ed.), New York and Geneva: United Nations, 2007, ISBN 978-92-1-139120-6, ST/SG/AC.10/1/Rev.15
- ASTM D4919- Standard Specification for Testing of Hazardous Materials Packaging
- ASTM D7387- Standard Test Method for Vibration Testing of Intermediate Bulk Containers (IBCs) Used for Shipping Liquid Hazardous Materials (Dangerous Goods)
- ISO 16104 - 2003 Packaging - Transport packaging for dangerous goods - Test methods
- Soroka, W, "Fundamentals of Packaging Technology", IoPP, 2002, ISBN 1-930268-25-4
- Yam, K. L., "Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology", John Wiley & Sons, 2009, ISBN 978-0-470-08704-6
- Dangerous Goods at the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
- Performance tests of selected plastic drums, National Research Council Canada, February 2005. TP 14396E, Transport Canada
- Drop tests of selected steel drums, InNOVAcorp, 2003. TP 14093E, Transport Canada
- Bulk Bags (FIBC - Flexible Intermediate Bulk Containers) and The UN Code