Coordinates: 43°06′43.56″N 12°23′19.68″E / 43.1121000°N 12.3888000°E / 43.1121000; 12.3888000
Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Coat of arms of Umbria
ISO 3166 code
GDP (nominal)€22.5 billion (2018)[1]
GDP per capita€25,400 (2018)[2]
HDI (2021)0.900[3]
very high · 12th of 21

Umbria (

Trasimeno and Marmore Falls, and is crossed by the River Tiber. It is the only landlocked region on the Apennine Peninsula. The regional capital is Perugia

The region is characterized by hills, mountains, valleys and historical towns such as the university centre of

and other small cities.


Umbria is bordered by Tuscany to the west and the north, Marche to the east and Lazio to the south. Partly hilly and mountainous, and partly flat and fertile owing to the valley of the Tiber, its topography includes part of the central Apennines, with the highest point in the region at Monte Vettore on the border of the Marche, at 2,476 metres (8,123 feet); the lowest point is Attigliano, 96 metres (315 feet). It is the only Italian region having neither a coastline nor a common border with other countries. The comune of Città di Castello has an exclave named Monte Ruperto within Marche. Contained within Umbria is the hamlet of Cospaia, which was a tiny republic from 1440 to 1826, created by accident.

Umbria is crossed by two valleys: the Umbrian valley ("Valle Umbra"), stretching from Perugia to Spoleto, and the Tiber Valley ("Val Tiberina"), north and west of the first one, from Città di Castello to the border with Lazio. The Tiber River forms the approximate border with Lazio, although its source is just over the Tuscan border. The Tiber's three principal tributaries flow southward through Umbria. The

, flowing into the Tiber further south, at Terni; its valley is called the Valnerina. The upper Nera cuts ravines in the mountains; the lower, in the Tiber basin, has created a wide floodplain.

In antiquity, the plain was covered by a pair of shallow, interlocking lakes, the Lacus Clitorius and the Lacus Umber. They were drained by the

monks started the process in the 13th century, and the draining was completed by an engineer from Foligno in the 18th century.

The eastern part of the region, being crossed by many faults, has been often hit by earthquakes: the last ones have been that of 1997 (which hit Nocera Umbra, Gualdo Tadino, Assisi and Foligno) and those of 2016 (which struck Norcia and the Valnerina).[4]

In literature, Umbria is referred to as Il cuore verde d'Italia or The green heart of Italy. The phrase is taken from a poem by

Clitunno River
in Umbria.


View of Assisi
View of Norcia
East side of Carbonana Castle


The region is named for the

Osco-Umbrian group of languages, the Iguvine Tablets, written in Umbrian at the turn of the 2nd and 1st centuries BC.[7] The northern part of the region was occupied by Gallic

The Umbri probably sprang, like neighbouring peoples, from the creators of the

Terramara, and Proto-Villanovan culture in northern and central Italy, who entered north-eastern Italy at the beginning of the Bronze Age.[8]


Apennine uplands and captured 300 Umbrian towns. Nevertheless, the Umbrian population does not seem to have been eradicated in the conquered districts.[8] The border between Etruria and Umbria was the Tiber river,[9] as testified by the ancient name of Todi, Tular ("border").[10]

After the downfall of the Etruscans, Umbrians aided the Samnites in their struggle against Rome (308 BC). Later communications with Samnium were impeded by the Roman fortress of Narnia (founded 229 BC on the place of the umbrian Nequinum, conquered in 299 BC).[11][12][8] Romans defeated the Samnites and their Gallic allies in the battle of Sentinum (295 BC).[12] Allied Umbrians and Etruscans had to return home and defend each of their territories against simultaneous Roman attacks, leaving the Samnites without their help at Sentinum.

The Roman victory at Sentinum initiated a period of integration under the Roman rulers, who established some colonies, such as

second Punic war, the battle of Lake Trasimene was fought inside the borders of today's Umbria,[12]
but the local people did not aid the invader.

During the

the Regio VI of Roman Italy.[12]

Modern Umbria is different from

Sabine territory.[13]

After the collapse of the

Roman empire, Ostrogoths and Byzantines struggled for supremacy in the region, and the decisive battle of the war between these two peoples took place near modern Gualdo Tadino.[14]

Middle Ages

Soon after the end of the


In the early 14th century, the

Paul III, named after him Rocca Paolina.[19] The Papacy ruled the region uncontested until the end of the 18th century.[19]

Modern history

After the

Napoleonic Empire (1809–1814) under the name of department of Trasimène.[19]

After Napoleon's defeat, the Pope regained Umbria and ruled it until 1860.

Marmore waterfall and its secluded position.[22]

The region of Umbria at the time was somewhat larger than today, comprising Rieti to the south, now part of Lazio.[21] Rieti was detached and added to the Province of Rome (Lazio) in 1923.[21] In 1927, the region of Umbria was divided into the provinces of Perugia and Terni.[21]

During WWII, the industrial centers of the region like Terni and Foligno were heavily bombed and in 1944 became a battlefield between the allied forces and the Germans retreating towards the

Italian Republic as a region, comprising the two provinces of Perugia and Terni.[23]


The present economic structure emerged from a series of transformations which took place mainly in the 1970s and 1980s. During this period, there was rapid expansion among small and medium-sized firms and a gradual retrenchment among the large firms which had hitherto characterised the region's industrial base. This process of structural adjustment is still going on.[24]

Economically the most important region is the upper Tiber valley with Città di Castello. Terni steelworks (stainless steel, titanium, alloy steel) and processing companies (automotive, stainless steel tubes, industrial food facility) account for 20 to 25% of Umbria's GDP. In Terni there are also many multinational companies in the fields of chemistry, hydroelectric power, renewable sources of energy, and textiles (Alcantara, Cashmere). In the rest of the region the ornamental ceramics industry is much esteemed.[24]

Umbrian agriculture is noted for its tobacco,

black truffle found in Valnerina, an area that produces 45% of this product in Italy.[24]

The food industry in Umbria produces processed pork-meats, confectionery, pasta and the traditional products of Valnerina in preserved form (truffles, lentils, cheese).

The unemployment rate stood at 8.2% in 2020.[28]


CIELChuv (L, C, h)
(36, 15, 39°)
ISCC–NBS descriptorDark grayish yellowish brown
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

Umbria is the region where the Umber pigment was originally extracted.[29] The name comes from terra d'ombra, or earth of Umbria, the Italian name of the pigment. The word also may be related to the Latin word umbra, meaning "shadow".[30] Umber is a natural brown or reddish-brown earth pigment that contains iron oxide and manganese oxide.[29]

In the 20th century, natural umber pigments began to be replaced by pigments made with synthetic iron oxide and manganese oxide. Natural umber pigments are still being made, with Cyprus as a prominent source.

Government and politics

Umbria was a former stronghold of the

Red Regions".[31] Umbria was considered a stronghold of the Democratic Party and left-leaning parties for over 50 years, however in 2019 the candidate of the centre-right coalition Donatella Tesei won the region's presidential election against her centre-left rival Vincenzo Bianconi, garnering 57.5% of the vote.[32]


Historical population
1861 442,000—    
1871 479,000+8.4%
1881 497,000+3.8%
1901 579,000+16.5%
1911 614,000+6.0%
1921 658,000+7.2%
1931 696,000+5.8%
1941 723,000+3.9%
1951 804,000+11.2%
1961 795,000−1.1%
1971 776,000−2.4%
1981 808,000+4.1%
1991 812,000+0.5%
2001 826,000+1.7%
2011 883,000+6.9%
2017 888,908+0.7%

As of 2008[update], the Italian national institute of statistics ISTAT estimated that 75,631 foreign-born immigrants live in Umbria, equal to 8.5% of the total population of the region.

Administrative divisions

Umbria is divided into two provinces:

Province Area (km2) Area (sq mi) Population Density (per km2) Density (per sq mi)
Province of Perugia 6,334 2,446 660,466 104 270
Province of Terni 2,122 819 228,535 109 280


One of the most important festivals in Umbria is "the festival of the Ceri (Candles)", also known as

St. George), and S. Antonio (Anthony the Great
), and run through throngs of cheering supporters. The cerioli are clad in the distinctive colors of yellow, blue or black, according to the saint they support, with white trousers and red belts and neckbands. They travel up much of the mountain from the main square in front of the Palazzo dei Consoli to the basilica of St. Ubaldo, each team carrying a statue of their saint mounted on a wooden octagonal prism, similar to an hour-glass shape 4 metres tall and weighing about 280 kg (617 lb).

The race has strong devotional, civic, and historical overtones and is one of the best-known folklore manifestations in Italy, and therefore the Ceri were chosen as the heraldic emblem on the coat of arms of Umbria as a modern administrative region.[citation needed]

Umbria is not only known for its historical recollections such as the festival of the Ceri, Calendimaggio in Assisi and the giostra della Quintana in Foligno, but also for one of the biggest jazz music festivals called Umbria Jazz. Umbria Jazz was born as a festival in 1973 and since 2003 has been held in the Umbrian capital "Perugia" in July; it has become the fixed appointment of all jazz and good music lovers. Another important festival is the Festival dei Due Mondi (Festival of the Two Worlds), an annual summer music and opera festival which is held each June to early July in Spoleto.[citation needed]


  1. ^ "Eurostat – Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  2. ^ "Regional GDP per capita ranged from 30% to 263% of the EU average in 2018" (Press release). Retrieved 1 September 2020.
  3. ^ "Sub-national HDI – Area Database – Global Data Lab". Retrieved 5 March 2023.
  4. ^ Casalini, Simona (30 October 2016). "Terremoto in Centro Italia". Repubblica (in Italian). Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  5. ^ Roncalli (1988), p.397
  6. ^ Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, 3.6; 3.19.
  7. ^ AA. VV. (2004), p. 243
  8. ^ a b c d  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Umbria". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  9. ^ AA. VV. (2004), p. 44
  10. ^ AA. VV. (2004), p. 493
  11. ^ AA. VV. (2004), p. 550
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h AA. VV. (2004), p. 34
  13. ^ AA. VV. (2004), p. 464
  14. ^ AA. VV. (2004), p. 405
  15. ^ a b AA. VV. (2004), p. 35
  16. ^ a b AA. VV. (2004), p. 218
  17. ^ AA. VV. (2004), p. 108
  18. ^ AA. VV. (2004), p. 380
  19. ^ a b c d AA. VV. (2004), p. 39
  20. ^ AA. VV. (2004), p. 37
  21. ^ a b c d e f AA. VV. (2004), p. 41
  22. ^ AA. VV. (2004), p. 522
  23. ^ a b AA. VV. (2004), p. 43
  24. ^ a b c "Eurostat". Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2010.
  25. ^ "Sagrantino di Montefalco: From Umbria Comes The Best Red Wine You Never Tasted!". 2 July 2007.
  26. ^ "Grechetto di Todi". Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  27. ^ "Open Wineries Umbria 2019 – May 25th/26th". Retrieved 29 July 2019.
  28. ^ "Unemployment NUTS 2 regions Eurostat".
  29. ^ .
  30. .
  31. ^ "Green, White And Lots of Red: How Italy Got The West's Biggest Communist Party". International Business Times. 26 July 2013. Retrieved 22 July 2020.
  32. ^ October 29th; 2019|current-affairs; Albertazzi, Daniele; Elections; Politics, Party; Europe, government across; Comments, featured|0 (29 October 2019). "The Italian right sweeps to victory in Umbria: What now for the second Conte government?". EUROPP. Retrieved 22 July 2020.


  • Francesco Roncalli (1988). Giovanni Pugliese Carratelli (ed.). Gli Umbri. Italia: omnium terrarum alumna (in Italian). Milano: Scheiwiller.
  • AA.VV. (2004). Umbria. Guida d'Italia (in Italian). Milano: Touring Club Italiano.

External links

43°06′43.56″N 12°23′19.68″E / 43.1121000°N 12.3888000°E / 43.1121000; 12.3888000