United States Geological Survey
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Flag of the United States Geological Survey
|Formed||March 3, 1879(as Geological Survey)|
|Headquarters||John W. Powell National Center|
Reston, Virginia, U.S.
38°56′49″N 77°22′03″W / 38.9470°N 77.3675°WCoordinates: 38°56′49″N 77°22′03″W / 38.9470°N 77.3675°W
|Annual budget||$1.497 billion (FY2023) |
|Parent agency||United States Department of the Interior|
The United States Geological Survey (USGS), formerly simply known as the Geological Survey, is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, and the natural hazards that threaten it. The organization's work spans the disciplines of biology, geography, geology, and hydrology. The USGS is a fact-finding research organization with no regulatory responsibility. The agency was founded on March 3, 1879. It is now chaired by David Applegate.
The USGS is a bureau of the United States Department of the Interior; it is that department's sole scientific agency. The USGS employs approximately 8,670 people and is headquartered in Reston, Virginia. The USGS also has major offices near Lakewood, Colorado, at the Denver Federal Center, and Menlo Park, California.
The current motto of the USGS, in use since August 1997, is "science for a changing world". The agency's previous slogan, adopted on the occasion of its hundredth anniversary, was "Earth Science in the Public Service".
Since 2012, the USGS science focus has been directed at topical "Mission Areas" that have continued to evolve iteratively over time. Further organizational structure includes headquarters functions, geographic regions, science and support programs, science centers, labs, and other facilities.
The USGS regional organization aligns with the U.S. Department of the Interior Unified Interior Regions:
- Region 1: North Atlantic-Appalachian
- Region 2: South Atlantic-Gulf
- Region 3: Great Lakes
- Region 4: Mississippi Basin
- Region 5: Missouri Basin
- Region 6: Arkansas-Rio Grande-Texas-Gulf
- Region 7: Upper Colorado Basin
- Region 8: Lower Colorado Basin
- Region 9: Columbia-Pacific Northwest
- Region 10: California-Great Basin
- Region 11: Alaska
- Region 12: Pacific Islands
Science programs, facilities, and other organizations
USGS operates and organizes within a number of specific science programs, facilities, and other organizational units:
Earthquake Hazards Program
Volcano Early Warning Systems
As of 2005, the agency is working to create a National Volcano Early Warning System by improving the instrumentation monitoring the 169 volcanoes in U.S. territory and by establishing methods for measuring the relative threats posed at each site.
Coastal and Marine Science Center
The USGS Coastal and Marine Science Center (formerly the USGS Center for Coastal Geology) has three sites, one for the Atlantic Ocean (located in Woods Hole, Massachusetts), one for the Pacific Ocean (located in Santa Cruz, California) and one for the Gulf of Mexico (located on the University of South Florida's St. Petersburg campus). The goal of this department is to conduct research in geology, mapping, hydrology, biology, and related sciences; evaluate hazards associated with floods, droughts, hurricanes, subsidence, human activity, and climate change; map the onshore and offshore geologic framework; assess mineral resources and develop techniques for their discovery; assess water resources and develop an understanding of the impact of human activities and natural phenomena on hydrologic systems; assess links between biodiversity, habitat condition, ecosystem processes and health; and develop new technologies for collection and interpretation of earth science data.
National Geomagnetism Program
The USGS National Geomagnetism Program monitors the magnetic field at magnetic observatories and distributes magnetometer data in real time.
North American Environmental Atlas
The USGS collaborates with Canadian and Mexican government scientists, along with the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, to produce the North American Environmental Atlas, which is used to depict and track environmental issues for a continental perspective.
The USGS operates the
Water Resources Research Institute
As part of the Water Resources Research Act of 1984, the State Water Resources Research Act Program created a Water Resources Research Institute (WRRI) in each state, along with Washington DC, Puerto Rico, the US Virgin Islands, and Guam. Together, these institutes make up the National Institutes for Water Resources (NIWR). The institutes focus on water-related issues through research, training and collaboration.
Climate Adaptation Science Centers
The National and regional Climate Adaptation Science Centers (CASCs) is a partnership-driven program that teams scientific researchers with natural and cultural resource managers to help fish, wildlife, waters, and lands across the country adapt to climate change. The National CASC (NCASC), based at USGS headquarters in Reston, Virginia, serves as the national office for the CASC network, while eight regional CASCs made up of federal-university consortiums located across the U.S., U.S. Pacific Islands, and U.S. Caribbean deliver science that addresses resource management priorities of the states within their footprints.
Since 1962, the
In collaboration with Stanford University, the USGS also operates the USGS-Stanford Ion Microprobe Laboratory, a world-class analytical facility for U-(Th)-Pb geochronology and trace element analyses of minerals and other earth materials.
National Streamflow Information Program
USGS operates a number of water-related programs, notably the National Streamflow Information Program and National Water-Quality Assessment Program. USGS Water data is publicly available from their National Water Information System database.
National Wildlife Health Center
The USGS also operates the
The USGS is investigating collaboration with the social networking site Twitter to allow for more rapid construction of ShakeMaps. ShakeMaps are an interactive tool allowing users to visually observe the distribution and severity of Shaking resulting from Earthquakes.
The USGS produces several national series of
An older series of maps, the 15-minute series, was once used to map the contiguous 48 states at a scale of 1:62,500 for maps covering the continental United States, but was discontinued during the last quarter of the twentieth century. Each map was bounded by two parallels and two meridians spaced 15 minutes apart—the same area covered by four maps in the 7.5-minute series. The 15-minute series, at a scale of 1:63,360 (one inch representing one mile), remains the primary topographic quadrangle for the state of Alaska (and only for that particular state). Nearly 3,000 maps cover 97% of the state. The United States remains virtually the only developed country in the world without a standardized civilian topographic map series in the standard 1:25,000 or 1:50,000 metric scales, making coordination difficult in border regions (the U.S. military does issue 1:50,000 scale topo maps of the continental United States, though only for use by members of its defense forces).
The next-smallest topographic series, in terms of scale, is the 1:100,000 series. These maps are bounded by two lines of longitude and two lines of latitude. However, in this series, the lines of latitude are spaced 30 minutes apart and the lines of longitude are spaced 60 minutes, which is the source of another name for these maps; the 30 x 60-minute quadrangle series. Each of these quadrangles covers the area contained within 32 maps in the 7.5-minute series. The 1:100,000 scale series is unusual in that it primarily employs the
The final regular quadrangle series produced by the USGS is the 1:250,000 scale topographic series. Each of these quadrangles in the conterminous United States measures 1 degree of latitude by 2 degrees of longitude. This series was produced by the U.S. Army Map Service in the 1950s, prior to the maps in the larger-scale series, and consists of 489 sheets, each covering an area ranging from 8,218 square miles (21,285 km2) at 30° north to 6,222 square miles (16,115 km2) at 49° north. Hawaii is mapped at this scale in quadrangles measuring 1° by 1°.
USGS topographic quadrangle maps are marked with grid lines and tics around the map collar which make it possible to identify locations on the map by several methods, including the
Other specialty maps have been produced by the USGS at a variety of scales. These include
A number of Internet sites have made these maps available on the web for affordable commercial and professional use. Because works of the U.S. government are in the
In 2015, the USGS unveiled the topoView website, a new way to view their entire digitized collection of over 178,000 maps from 1884 to 2006. The site is an interactive map of the United States that allows users to search or move around the map to find the USGS collection of maps for a specific area. Users may then view the maps in great detail and download them if desired.
The National Map and U.S. Topo
In 2008 the USGS abandoned traditional methods of surveying, revising, and updating topographic maps based on aerial photography and field checks. Today's U.S. Topo quadrangle (1:24,000) maps are mass-produced, using automated and semiautomated processes, with cartographic content supplied from the National GIS Database. In the two years from June 2009 to May 2011, the USGS produced nearly 40,000 maps, more than 80 maps per work day. Only about two hours of interactive work are spent on each map, mostly on text placement and final inspection; there are essentially no field checks or field inspections to confirm map details.
While much less expensive to compile and produce, the revised digital U.S. topo maps have been criticized for a lack of accuracy and detail in comparison to older generation maps based on aerial photo surveys and field checks. As the digital databases were not designed for producing general-purpose maps, data integration can be a problem when retrieved from sources with different resolutions and collection dates. Man-made features once recorded by direct field observation are not in any public domain national database and are frequently omitted from the newest generation digital topo maps, including windmills, mines and mineshafts, water tanks, fence lines, survey marks, parks, recreational trails, buildings, boundaries, pipelines, telephone lines, power transmission lines, and even railroads. Additionally, the digital map's use of existing software may not properly integrate different feature classes or prioritize and organize text in areas of crowded features, obscuring important geographic details. As a result, some have noted that the U.S. Topo maps currently fall short of traditional topographic map presentation standards achieved in maps drawn from 1945 to 1992.
USGS Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility
The Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) has four sections within its organizational structure; the Field Services Section which includes the warehouse, repair shop, and Engineering Unit; the Testing Section which includes the Hydraulic Laboratory, testing chambers, and Water Quality Laboratory; the Information Technology Section which includes computer support and the Drafting Unit; and the Administrative Section.
The HIF was given national responsibility for the design, testing, evaluation, repair, calibration, warehousing, and distribution of hydrologic instrumentation. Distribution is accomplished by direct sales and through a rental program. The HIF supports data collection activities through centralized warehouse and laboratory facilities. The HIF warehouse provides hydrologic instruments, equipment, and supplies for USGS as well as Other Federal Agencies (OFA) and USGS Cooperators. The HIF also tests, evaluates, repairs, calibrates, and develops hydrologic equipment and instruments. The HIF Hydraulic Laboratory facilities include a towing tank, jet tank, pipe flow facility, and tilting flume. In addition, the HIF provides training and technical support for the equipment it stocks.
The Engineering Group seeks out new technology and designs for instrumentation that can work more efficiently, be more accurate, and or be produced at a lower cost than existing instrumentation. HIF works directly with vendors to help them produce products that will meet the mission needs of the USGS. For instrument needs not currently met by a vendor, the Engineering Group designs, tests, and issues contracts to have HIF-designed equipment made. Sometimes HIF will patent a new design in the hope that instrument vendors will buy the rights and mass-produce the instrument at a lower cost to everyone.
USGS researchers publish the results of their science in a variety of ways, including peer-reviewed scientific journals as well as in one of a variety of USGS Report Series that include preliminary results, maps, data, and final results. A complete catalog of all USGS publications is available from the USGS Publications Warehouse.
Prompted by a report from the National Academy of Sciences, the USGS was created, by a last-minute amendment, to an act of Congress on March 3, 1879. It was charged with the "classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain". This task was driven by the need to inventory the vast lands added to the United States by the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 and the Mexican–American War in 1848.
The legislation also provided that the Hayden, Powell, and Wheeler surveys be discontinued as of June 30, 1879.
Clarence King, the first director of USGS, assembled the new organization from disparate regional survey agencies. After a short tenure, King was succeeded in the director's chair by John Wesley Powell.
List of USGS directors
- 1879–1881: Clarence King
- 1881–1894: John Wesley Powell
- 1894–1907: Charles Doolittle Walcott
- 1907–1930: George Otis Smith
- 1930–1943: Walter Curran Mendenhall
- 1943–1956: William Embry Wrather
- 1956–1965: Thomas Brennan Nolan
- 1965–1971: William Thomas Pecora
- 1971–1978: Vincent Ellis McKelvey
- 1978–1981: Henry William Menard
- 1981–1993: Dallas Lynn Peck
- 1994–1997: Gordon P. Eaton
- 1998–2005: Charles G. Groat
- 2006–2009: Mark Myers
- 2009–2013: Marcia McNutt
- 2014–2017: Suzette Kimball
- 2018–2021: James F. Reilly
- 2022–present: David Applegate
- Alaska Volcano Observatory
- California earthquake forecast
- Cascades Volcano Observatory
- Core Research Center
- Geographic Names Information System
- Hawaiian Volcano Observatory
- List of national mapping agencies
- National Lidar Dataset (United States)
- Timeline of environmental history
- Variscale ruler
- Volcano Disaster Assistance Program
- Water Resource Region
- ^ H.R. 2617
- ^ "Dave Applegate, Ph.D." United States Geological Survey. Retrieved March 11, 2021.
- ^ "Who We Are". US Geological Survey. Archived from the original on August 4, 2022. Retrieved August 3, 2022.
- ^ "Monterey Aquarium's McNutt new USGS Director". The Seattle Times. Associated Press. October 23, 2009. Retrieved October 25, 2009.
- ^ FY 1997 Annual Financial Report Archived September 21, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, U.S. Geological Survey.
- ^ "USGS Visual Identity System". United States Geological Survey. July 27, 2006. Archived from the original on January 30, 2009. Retrieved December 29, 2008.
- ^ Suggestions to Authors of the Reports of the United States Geological Survey Archived June 21, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, U.S. Geological Survey (7th ed. 1991), pp. 247–248.
- ^ "USGS Mission Areas". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
- ^ "USGS.gov | Science for a changing world". www.usgs.gov. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
- ^ "Unified Interior Regional Boundaries". www.doi.gov. February 22, 2018. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
- ^ "USGS Earthquake Hazards Program". Usgs.gov. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- ^ "ANSS – Advanced National Seismic System". earthquake.usgs.gov.
- ^ "What We Do". www.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on April 14, 2021. Retrieved November 28, 2020.
- ^ "USGS WaterWatch – Streamflow conditions". Waterwatch.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- ^ "The United States Geological Survey Water Resources Research Act Program". water.usgs.gov. Retrieved October 18, 2019.
- ^ "NIWR & USGS: A Model Partnership" (PDF). Retrieved October 18, 2019.
- ^ "Climate Adaptation Science Centers". www.usgs.gov/ecosystems/climate-adaptation-science-centers. Retrieved February 4, 2020.
- ^ "Home – SHRIMP-RG Lab". Shrimprg.stanford.edu. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- ^  Archived July 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Streamgages, USGS – U.S. Geological Survey Federal Priority. "USGS Federal Priority Streamgages (FPS)". Water.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on April 27, 2017. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- ^ "USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program". Water.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- ^ "Water Resources: USGS Water Data Discovery". Water.usgs.gov. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- ^ "National Wildlife Health Center". Nwhc.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on December 12, 2007. Retrieved December 27, 2007.
- ^ Mahalia Miller, Lynne Burks, and Reza Bosagh Zadeh Rapid Estimate of Ground Shaking Intensity by Combining Simple Earthquake Characteristics with Tweets Archived January 18, 2021, at the Wayback Machine, Tenth U.S. National Conference on Earthquake Engineering
- ^ Reza Bosagh Zadeh Using Twitter to measure earthquake impact in almost real time Archived December 23, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, Twitter Engineering
- doi:10.5066/f7d21vpq. Retrieved November 15, 2022.
- ^ a b c Missouri, USGS Rolla. "USGS – Topographic Maps". Topomaps.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on April 12, 2009. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- ^ "USGS Maps Booklet". erg.usgs.gov. Archived from the original on June 2, 2008. Retrieved April 30, 2017.
- ^ Moore, Larry (December 2000). "The U.S. Geological Survey's Revision Program for 7.5-Minute Topographic Maps" (PDF). United States Geological Survey. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 13, 2013. Retrieved June 17, 2010.
- ^ "topoView – USGS". USGS Topoview.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Moore, Larry (May 16, 2011). "US Topo: A New National Map Series". Directions Magazine. Retrieved April 18, 2012.
- ^ USGS. "History of the HIF". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved October 9, 2015.
- ^ "USGS Series definitions- USGS Publications Warehouse". pubs.er.usgs.gov. Retrieved July 30, 2020.
- ^ "Establishment of the U.S. Geological Survey, USGS Circular 1050". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved February 5, 2014.
- USGS official website
- USGS in the Federal Register
- Open-File reports online
- Works by or about United States Geological Survey at Internet Archive
- Mytopo historical maps hosts historical USGS topos in the northeast U.S.
- U.S. Geological Survey Documents at Texas Tech University 1873–2015
- Historic technical reports from USGS (and other Federal agencies) are available in the Technical Report Archive and Image Library (TRAIL)
- Historic American Buildings Survey(HABS) documentation, filed under 2255 North Gemini Drive, Flagstaff, Coconino County, AZ:
- HABS No. AZ-215-A, "U.S. Geological Survey Center of Astrogeology, Building No. 1", 3 photos, 13 data pages, 1 photo caption page
- HABS No. AZ-224, "U.S. Geological Survey Center of Astrogeology, Photolab", 1 measured drawing, 73 data pages
- Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) No. CA-173, "U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA", 36 photos, 2 measured drawings, 25 data pages, 4 photo caption pages
- United States Geological Survey
- Geography organizations
- Geological surveys
- Geography of the United States
- Geology of the United States
- Climatological research
- Exploration of North America
- Maps of the United States
- Scientific organizations based in the United States
- United States Department of the Interior agencies
- Government agencies established in 1879
- Scientific organizations established in 1879
- 1879 establishments in Virginia
- Environmental organizations based in California
- San Mateo County, California
- Environmental organizations based in Virginia
- Reston, Virginia