University of California, Berkeley

Coordinates: 37°52′22″N 122°15′37″W / 37.8728°N 122.2602°W / 37.8728; -122.2602[7]
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University of California, Berkeley
MascotOski the Bear

The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California)

Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley, it is the state's first land-grant university and the founding campus of the University of California system. Berkeley is also a founding member of the Association of American Universities. It has been regarded as one of the top universities in the world.[13]

Berkeley is

Among Berkeley's

Pritzker Prize winner.[28] It is also a top producer of Fulbright Scholars.[29]


View from Memorial Glade of Sather Tower (the Campanile), the center of Berkeley
Sather Tower (the Campanile) looking out over San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais


Made possible by

Morrill Act in 1862, the University of California was founded in 1868 as the state's first land-grant university, inheriting the land and facilities of the private College of California and the federal-funding eligibility of a public agricultural, mining, and mechanical arts college.[30] The Organic Act states that the "University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science, literature and art, industrial and professional pursuits, and general education, and also special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions."[31][32]

Ten faculty members and forty male students made up the fledgling university when it opened in Oakland in 1869.

Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley.[34] The university began admitting women the following year.[35] In 1870, Henry Durant, founder of the College of California, became its first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students.[36][37] The first female student to graduate was in 1874, admitted in the first class to include women in 1870.[38]

Beginning in 1891,

flagship campus, many scholars and experts consider Berkeley to be its unofficial flagship. It shares this unofficial status with the University of California, Los Angeles.[39]

20th century

In 1905, the University Farm was established near

Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz established the first Naval ROTC unit at Berkeley.[44] Berkeley ROTC alumni include former Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, Army Chief of Staff Frederick C. Weyand, sixteen other general officers, ten Navy flag officers, and AFROTC alumna Captain Theresa Claiborne.[45]

In the 1930s,

J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942.[49][50] Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley founded and was then a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory (1943) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

In 1952, the

The arrest in Sproul Plaza of

Mathematical Sciences Research Institute (MSRI) was established on campus with support from the National Science Foundation and at the request of three Berkeley mathematicians—Shiing-Shen Chern, Calvin Moore, and Isadore M. Singer. The institute is now widely regarded as a leading center for collaborative mathematical research, drawing thousands of visiting researchers from around the world each year.[57][58][59]

21st century

In the current century, Berkeley has become less politically active, although more liberal.

UCSF, established the Innovative Genomics Institute to develop CRISPR gene editing, and, in 2020, an anonymous donor pledged $252 million to help fund a new center for computing and data science. For the 2020 fiscal year, Berkeley set a fundraising record, receiving over $1 billion in gifts and pledges, and two years later, it broke that record, raising over $1.2 billion.[66][63][67][68]


  • Various research ethics, human rights, and animal rights advocates have been in conflict with Berkeley.
    PETA has challenged the university's use of animals for research and argued that it may violate the Animal Welfare Act.[74][75]
  • Cal's Memorial Stadium reopened in September 2012 after renovations. The university incurred a controversial $445 million of debt for the stadium and a new $153 million student athletic center, which it financed with the sale of special stadium endowment seats.[76] The roughly $18 million interest-only annual payments on the debt consumes 20 percent of Cal's athletics' budget; principal repayment begins in 2032 and is scheduled to conclude in 2113.[77]
  • On May 1, 2014, Berkeley was named one of fifty-five higher education institutions under investigation by the
    Office of Civil Rights "for possible violations of federal law over the handling of sexual violence and harassment complaints" by the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault.[78] Investigations continued into 2016, with hundreds of pages of records released in April 2016, showing a pattern of documented sexual harassment and firings of non-tenured staff.[79]
  • On July 25, 2019, Berkeley was removed from the U.S. News Best Colleges Ranking for misreporting statistics. Berkeley had originally reported that its two-year average alumni giving rate for fiscal years 2017 and 2016 was 11.6 percent, U.S. News said. The school later told U.S. News the correct average alumni giving rate for the 2016 fiscal year was just 7.9 percent. The school incorrectly overstated its alumni giving data to U.S. News since at least 2014. The alumni giving rate accounts for five percent of the Best Colleges ranking.[80]
  • Berkeley community members have criticized UC Berkeley's increasing enrollment. Berkeley residents filed a lawsuit alleging that the university's expanding enrollment violated
    California Supreme Court also ruled in favor of the residents, saying that the university needed to freeze its admission rates at 2020–2021 levels.[85] On March 11, 2022, state legislators released a proposal to change CEQA to exempt the university from its restrictions.[86] On March 14, Gavin Newsom signed the bill into law.[87] Berkeley has continued to face a housing shortage.[88]

Organization and administration


Officially named the "University of California, Berkeley" it is often shortened to "Berkeley" in general reference or in an academic context (Berkeley Law, Berkeley Engineering, Berkeley Haas, Berkeley Public Health) and to "California" or "Cal" particularly when referring to its athletic teams (California Golden Bears).[11][12][89] In August 2022, a university task force was formed which recommended renaming the athletic identity to "Cal Berkeley" to further tie the athletic brand to academic prestige, and reduce public confusion.[90]


The University of California is governed by a twenty-six member

ex officio members, a student regent, and a non-voting student regent-designate.[91] Prior to 1952, Berkeley was the University of California, so the university president was also Berkeley's chief executive. In 1952, the university reorganized itself into a system of semi-autonomous campuses, with each campus having its own chief executive, a chancellor, who would, in turn, report to the president of the university system. Twelve vice-chancellors report directly to Berkeley's chancellor, and the deans of the fifteen colleges and schools report to the executive vice chancellor and provost, Berkeley's chief academic officer.[92] Twenty-three presidents and chancellors have led Berkeley since its founding.[93][51]




With the exception of government contracts, public support is apportioned to Berkeley and the other campuses of the University of California system through the UC Office of the President and accounts for 12 percent of Berkeley's total revenues.

Sir Li Ka-Shing, Israeli-Russian billionaire Yuri Milner, Thomas and Stacey Siebel, Sanford and Joan Weill, and professor Gordon Rausser ($50 million gift in 2020).[95] Hundreds of millions of dollars have been given anonymously.[96] The 2008–13 "Campaign for Berkeley" raised $3.13 billion from 281,855 donors, and the "Light the Way" campaign, which concluded at the end of 2023, has raised over $6.2 billion.[97]


Faculty and departments

The interior of the Hearst Mining Building, dedicated by Phoebe Hearst in honor of her late husband, George.

Berkeley is a large, primarily residential research university with a majority of its enrolment in undergraduate programs but also offering a comprehensive doctoral program.[14] The university has been accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges Senior College and University Commission since 1949.[98] The university operates on a semester calendar and awarded 8,725 bachelor's, 3,286 master's or professional and 1,272 doctoral degrees in 2018–2019.[99]

There are 1,789 full-time and 886 part-time faculty members among the university's academic enterprise which is organized into fifteen colleges and schools that comprise 180 departments and 80 interdisciplinary units offering over 350 degree programs. Colleges serve both undergraduate and graduate students, while schools are generally graduate only, though some offer undergraduate majors or minors:

Undergraduate programs

Doe Memorial Library

The four-year, full-time undergraduate program offers 107 bachelor's degrees across the Haas School of Business (1), College of Chemistry (5), College of Engineering (20), College of Environmental Design (4), College of Letters and Science (67), Rausser College of Natural Resources (10), and individual majors (2).[100] The most popular majors are electrical engineering and computer sciences, political science, molecular and cell biology, environmental science, and economics.[101]

Requirements for undergraduate degrees include an entry-level writing requirement before enrollment (typically fulfilled by minimum scores on standardized admissions exams such as the SAT or ACT), completing coursework on "American History and Institutions" before or after enrollment by taking an introductory class, passing an "American Cultures Breadth" class at Berkeley, as well as requirements for reading and composition and specific requirements declared by the department and school.[102]

Graduate and professional programs

Haas School of Business

Berkeley has a "comprehensive" graduate program, with high coexistence with the programs offered to undergraduates, and offers interdisciplinary graduate programs with the medical schools at the

Master of Public Health, and Master of Design.[14][103] The university awarded 963 doctoral degrees and 3,531 master's degrees in 2017.[16] Admission to graduate programs is decentralized; applicants apply directly to the department or degree program. Most graduate students are supported by fellowships, teaching assistantships, or research assistantships.[16]

Library system


Doe Library serves as the library system's reference, periodical, and administrative center, while most of the main collections reside in the subterranean Gardner Main Stacks and Moffitt Undergraduate Library. The Bancroft Library, which has over 400,000 printed volumes and 70 million manuscripts, pictures, and maps, maintains special collections that document the history of the western part of North America, with an emphasis on California, Mexico and Central America. The Bancroft Library also houses the Mark Twain Papers,[104] the Oral History Center,[105] the Center for the Tebtunis Papyri[106] and the University Archives.[107]



U.S. News & World Report[110]15 (tie)
Washington Monthly[111]9
U.S. News & World Report[115]4
  • The 2018–19
    Center for World University Rankings (CWUR) rated Berkeley the top public university in the nation and 4th overall based on quality of education, alumni employment, quality of faculty, publications, influence, and citations.[116]
  • For 2021, QS "World University Rankings: USA" placed Berkeley 4th among all US universities and 1st among publics.[117]
  • In its 2022 list of America's top colleges, Forbes rated Berkeley the best public school and 2nd overall.[118]
  • In the 2023–2024 U.S. News & World Report national university rankings, Berkeley was the top public school and 15th overall.[119]


  • In 2017, the Nature Index ranked the university the 9th largest contributor to papers published in 82 leading journals.[120][121]
  • For 2020–21, the Center for World University Rankings (CWUR) ranked the university 12th in the world based on quality of education, alumni employment, quality of faculty, and research performance.[122]

Past rankings

In his memoirs,

National Academies) during the 20th century. The school's first ranking in 1906 placed it among the top six schools ("Big Six") in the nation. In 1934, it ranked second, tied with Columbia and the University of Chicago, behind only Harvard; in 1957, it was ranked as the only school second to Harvard. In 1964, Berkeley was named the "best balanced distinguished university", meaning the school had not only the most top departments but also the highest percentage of top ranking departments in its school. The school in 1993 was the only remaining member of the original 1906 "Big Six", along with Harvard; in that year Berkeley ranked first.[123]


The 2010

United States National Research Council Rankings identified Berkeley as having the highest number of top-ranked doctoral programs in the nation. Berkeley doctoral programs that received a #1 ranking included English, German, Political Science, Geography, Agricultural and Resource Economics, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Genetics, Genomics, Epidemiology, Plant Biology, Computer Science, Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Civil and Environmental Engineering.[133]

Admissions and enrollment

Undergraduate demographics as of Fall 2020
Race and ethnicity[134] Total
Asian 35% 35
White 22% 22
Hispanic 19% 19
Foreign national 13% 13
Other[a] 9% 9
Black 2% 2
Economic diversity
Low-income[b] 22% 22
middle class[c]
78% 78

For Fall 2022, Berkeley's total enrollment was 45,745: 32,831 undergraduate and 12,914 graduate students, with women accounting for 56% of undergraduates and 49% of graduate and professional students. It had 128,226 freshman applicants and accepted 14,614 (11.4%). Among enrolled freshman, the average unweighted GPA was 3.90.[135]

Berkeley's enrollment of

Pell grants.[139]

Berkeley students are eligible for a variety of public and private financial aid. Inquiries are processed through the Financial Aid and Scholarships Office, although schools such as the Haas School of Business[140] and Berkeley Law,[141] have their own financial aid offices.

Fall Freshman Profile[135]
  2022 2021 2020 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015 2014
Applicants 128,226 109,597 88,076 87,398 89,621 85,057 82,571 78,923 73,794
Admits 14,614 15,852 15,448 14,676 13,308 14,552 14,429 13,332 13,338
Admit rate 11.4% 14.5% 17.5% 16.8% 14.8% 17.1% 17.5% 16.9% 18.1%
Enrolled 6,726 6,809 6,052 6,454 6,012 6,379 6,253 5,832 5,813
SAT (mid-50%) N/A* N/A* 1300–1520 1330–1520 1300–1530 1300–1540 1930–2290 1870–2250 1840–2230
ACT (average) N/A* N/A* 31 31 31 32 32 32 31
3.90 3.87 3.86 3.89 3.89 3.91 3.86 3.87 3.85
* Berkeley began test-blind admissions in 2021.

Discoveries and innovation

BSD forks

A number of significant inventions and discoveries have been made by Berkeley faculty members and researchers:[142]

Natural sciences

Computer and applied sciences

Companies and entrepreneurship


Sather Gate, connecting Sproul Plaza to the inner campus, was a center of the Free Speech Movement.

Much of the UC Berkeley campus is in the city limits of

Claremont Resort north through the Panoramic Hill neighborhood to Tilden Park.[163]

To the west of the central campus is the

field research station several miles to the north in Richmond, California

Bancroft Library
UC Botanical Garden, located in the Berkeley Hills and by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

The campus is home to several museums including the University of California Museum of Paleontology, the Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive, and the Lawrence Hall of Science. The Museum of Paleontology, found in the lobby of the Valley Life Sciences Building, showcases a variety of dinosaur fossils including a complete cast of a Tyrannosaurus Rex. The campus also offers resources for innovation and entrepreneurship, such as the Big Ideas Competition, the Sutardja Center for Entrepreneurship and Technology, and the Berkeley Haas Innovation Lab.[165] The campus is also home to the University of California Botanical Garden, with more than 12,000 individual species.

360-degree-view of the UC Berkeley campus


South Hall (1873), one of the two original buildings of the University of California, still stands on the Berkeley campus.

What is considered the historic campus today was the result of the 1898 "International Competition for the Phoebe Hearst Architectural Plan for the University of California," funded by William Randolph Hearst's mother and initially held in the Belgian city of Antwerp; eleven finalists were judged again in San Francisco in 1899.[166] The winner was Frenchman Émile Bénard, who refused to personally supervise the implementation of his plan and the task was subsequently given to architecture professor John Galen Howard. Howard designed over twenty buildings, which set the tone for the campus up until its expansion in the 1950s and 1960s.

The structures forming the "classical core" of the campus were built in the

Collegiate Gothic styles; examples of these are North Gate Hall, Dwinelle Annex, and Stephens Hall. Many of Howard's designs are recognized California Historical Landmarks[168] and are listed on the National Register of Historic Places

Built in 1873 in a

Second-Empire-style, South Hall, designed by David Farquharson, is the oldest university building in California. It, and the Frederick Law Olmsted-designed Piedmont Avenue east of the main campus, are two of the only surviving examples of the nineteenth-century campus. Other notable architects and firms whose work can be found in the campus and surrounding area are Bernard Maybeck[169] (Faculty Club); Julia Morgan (Hearst Women's Gymnasium and Julia Morgan Hall); William Wurster (Stern Hall); Moore Ruble Yudell (Haas School of Business); Tod Williams Billie Tsien Architects (C.V. Starr East Asian Library), and Diller Scofidio + Renfro
(Berkeley Art Museum and Pacific Film Archive).

Natural features

The south fork of Strawberry Creek, as seen between Dwinelle Hall and Lower Sproul Plaza.

Flowing into the main campus are two branches of Strawberry Creek. The south fork enters a culvert upstream of the recreational complex at the mouth of Strawberry Canyon and passes beneath California Memorial Stadium before appearing again in Faculty Glade. It then runs through the center of the campus before disappearing underground at the west end of campus. The north fork appears just east of University House and runs through the glade north of the Valley Life Sciences Building, the original site of the Campus Arboretum.

Trees in the area date from the founding of the university. The campus features numerous wooded areas, including:

Hayward Fault, which runs directly through California Memorial Stadium.[171]

Student life and traditions

Cal Band, with views of the stadium and the San Francisco Bay

The official university mascot is

Oski-wow-wow yell, he is cared for by the Oski Committee, whose members have exclusive knowledge of the identity of the costume-wearer.[172] The University of California Marching Band, which has served the university since 1891, performs at every home football game and at select road games as well. A smaller subset of the Cal Band, the Straw Hat Band, performs at basketball games, volleyball games, and other campus and community events.[173]

The UC Rally Committee, formed in 1901, is the official guardian of California's Spirit and Traditions. Wearing their traditional blue and gold rugbies, Rally Committee members can be seen at all major sporting and spirit events. Committee members are charged with the maintenance of the six Cal flags, the large California banner overhanging the Memorial Stadium Student Section and Haas Pavilion, the California Victory Cannon, Card Stunts and The Big "C" among other duties. The Rally Committee is also responsible for safekeeping of the Stanford Axe when it is in Cal's possession.[174]

Overlooking the main Berkeley campus from the foothills in the east, The Big "C" is an important symbol of California school spirit. The Big "C" has its roots in an early 20th-century campus event called "Rush", which pitted the freshman and sophomore classes against each other in a race up Charter Hill that often developed into a wrestling match. It was eventually decided to discontinue Rush and, in 1905, the freshman and sophomore classes banded together in a show of unity to build "the Big C."[175]

Cal students invented the college football tradition of

Big Game and consisted of two stunts: a picture of the Stanford Axe and a large blue "C" on a white background. The tradition is continued today by the Rally Committee in the Cal student section and incorporates complicated motions, for example tracing the Cal script logo on a blue background with an imaginary yellow pen.[176]

The California Victory Cannon, placed on Tightwad Hill overlooking the stadium, is fired before every football home game, after every score, and after every Cal victory. First used in the 1963 Big Game, it was originally placed on the sidelines before moving to Tightwad Hill in 1971. The only time the cannon ran out of ammunition was during a game against Pacific in 1991, when Cal scored 12 touchdowns.[177] The Cal Mic Men, a standard at home football games, has recently expanded to involve basketball and volleyball. The traditional role comes from students holding megaphones and yelling, but now includes microphones, a dedicated platform during games, and the direction of the entire student section.[178]

Student housing

Berkeley students are offered a variety of housing options, including university-owned or affiliated residences, private residences, fraternities and sororities, and cooperative housing (co-ops). Berkeley students, and those of other local schools, have the option of living in one of the twenty cooperative houses participating in the Berkeley Student Cooperative (BSC), a

nonprofit housing cooperative network consisting of 20 residences and 1250 member-owners.[179]

Fraternities and sororities

About three percent of undergraduate men and nine percent of undergraduate women—or 3,400 of total undergraduates—are active in Berkeley's Greek system.[180] University-sanctioned fraternities and sororities comprise over 60 houses affiliated with four Greek councils.[181][182]

Student-run organizations

Associated Students of the University of California (ASUC)

Wellness Room sleep pods: part of a program created by the ASUC, UC Berkeley's official student association.


student association that controls funding for student groups and organizes on-campus student events. The two main political parties are "Student Action"[183] and "CalSERVE".[184] The organization was founded in 1887 and has an annual operating budget of $1.7 million (excluding the budget of the Graduate Assembly of the ASUC), in addition to various investment assets. Its alumni include multiple State Senators, Assemblymembers, and White House Administration officials.[185]

Media and publications

Berkeley's student-run online television station,

, broadcasts on 90.7 MHz. It is run largely by volunteers, including both students and community members. Berkeley also features an assortment of student-run publications:

Student groups

Berkeley Dance Marathon
Zellerbach Hall, home of the Cal Performances theater group

There are ninety-four political student groups on campus, including MEChXA de UC Berkeley, Berkeley ACLU, Berkeley Students for Life, Campus Greens, The Sustainability Team (STEAM), the Berkeley Student Food Collective, Students for Sensible Drug Policy, Cal Berkeley Democrats, and the Berkeley College Republicans.[187] The Residence Hall Assembly (RHA) is the student-led umbrella organization that oversees event planning, legislation, sponsorships and other activities for over 7,200 on-campus undergraduate residents.[188]

Berkeley students also run a number of consulting groups, including the Berkeley Group, founded in 2003 and affiliated with the Haas School.[189] Students from various concentrations are recruited and trained to work on pro-bono consulting engagements with actual nonprofit clients. Berkeley Consulting, founded in 1996, has served over 140 companies across the high-tech, retail, banking, and non-profit sectors.[190]


Salman Khan

UC Berkeley Symphony Orchestra

Democratic Education at Cal, or DeCal, is a program that promotes the creation of professor-sponsored, student-facilitated classes.

3D animation, and bioprinting.[194]

The campus is home to several

UC Men's Octet, the California Golden Overtones, DeCadence, and Noteworthy. The University of California Men's Octet was founded in 1948. Since 1967, students and staff jazz musicians have had an opportunity to perform and study with the University of California Jazz Ensembles. For several decades it hosted the Pacific Coast Collegiate Jazz Festival, part of the American Collegiate Jazz Festival, a competitive forum for student musicians. PCCJF brought jazz artists including Hubert Laws, Sonny Rollins, Freddie Hubbard, and Ed Shaughnessy
to the Berkeley campus as performers. Berkeley also hosts other performing arts groups in comedy, dance, acting and instrumental music.

Engineering Student Teams

Given UC Berkeley's STEM education and its proximity to Silicon Valley, there are a variety of student-run engineering teams that focus on winning design and engineering competitions. Berkeley has two prominent amateur rocketry teams: Space Enterprise at Berkeley (SEB)[195] and Space Technologies and Rocketry (STAR).[196] Both have launched solid-fuel sounding rockets and are currently developing liquid propellant rockets. The university also has two Formula SAE teams: Berkeley Formula Racing[197] and Formula Electric Berkeley.[198] Both of these teams participate in Formula SAE–run competitions, with the former focusing on internal combustion engines and the latter on electric motors. Berkeley has a number of other vehicle teams, including CalSol,[199] CalSMV,[200] and Human Powered Vehicle.[201]


The base of the California Memorial Stadium
The interior of Haas Pavilion during a Cal Basketball game.

The university's athletic teams are known as the California Golden Bears, often shortened to "Cal Bears" or just "Cal," and were historically members of the NCAA Division I Pac-12 Conference (Pac-12). Cal is also a member of the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation in several sports not sponsored by the Pac-12 and the America East Conference in women's field hockey. In 2024, Cal joined the Atlantic Coast Conference (ACC).[202] The first school colors, established in 1873 by a committee of students, were Yale Blue and gold.[203][204] Yale Blue was originally chosen because many of the university's inaugural faculty were Yale graduates, including Henry Durant, its first president. Blue and gold were specified and made the official colors of the university and the state colors of California in 1955.[203][205] In 2014, the athletic department specified a darker blue.[206][207]


207 Olympic medals.[208]

California finished in first place[209] in the 2007–08 Fall U.S. Sports Academy Directors' Cup standings (Now the NACDA Directors' Cup), a competition measuring the best overall collegiate athletic programs in the country, with points awarded for national finishes in NCAA sports. Cal finished the 2007–08 competition in seventh place with 1119 points.[210] Most recently, California finished in third place in the 2010–11 NACDA Directors' Cup with 1219.50 points, finishing behind Stanford and Ohio State. This is California's highest ever finish in the Director's Cup.

the Stanford Axe. Other sporting games between these rivals have related names such as the Big Splash (water polo) or the Big Kick (soccer).[212]

Notable alumni, faculty, and staff

Faculty and staff

University of California Radiation Laboratory staff on the magnet yoke for the 60-inch cyclotron, 1938; Nobel prizewinners Ernest Lawrence, Edwin McMillan, and Luis Alvarez are shown, in addition to J. Robert Oppenheimer and Robert R. Wilson.



Berkeley alumni have served in a range of prominent government offices, both domestic and foreign, including

United States Surgeon General (Kenneth P. Moritsugu
, MPH).

Foreign alumni include the

Bruno Megret, MS); and judge of the World Court (Joan Donoghue
, JD).


Alumni have made important contributions to science. Some have concentrated their studies on the very small universe of atoms and molecules.

Rex Walheim (BS 1984) have orbited the Earth in NASA's fleet of Space Shuttles


Undergraduate alumni have founded or cofounded such companies as


Berkeley alumni have developed a number of key technologies associated with the

space tourist, blasting off on Russian Soyuz rockets to work at the International Space Station
orbiting the Earth.

In 1977, a graduate student in the computer science department named Bill Joy (MS 1982) assembled

mail transfer agent that delivers about 12 percent of the email in the world.[277]


Mosaic web browser,[280] a pioneering web browser that became Microsoft Internet Explorer

Pulitzer Prize winners

Alumni collectively have won at least twenty-five Pulitzer Prizes. Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist Marguerite Higgins (BA 1941) was a pioneering female war correspondent[281][282] who covered World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War.[283] Novelist Robert Penn Warren (MA 1927) won three Pulitzer Prizes,[284] including one for his novel All the King's Men, which was later made into an Academy Award-winning[285] movie. Pulitzer Prize–winning cartoonist Rube Goldberg (BS 1904) invented the comically complex—yet ultimately trivial—contraptions known as Rube Goldberg machines. Journalist Alexandra Berzon (MA 2006) won a Pulitzer Prize in 2009,[286] and journalist Matt Richtel (BA 1989), who also coauthors the comic strip Rudy Park under the pen name of "Theron Heir",[287] won the 2010 Pulitzer Prize for National Reporting.[288] Pulitzer Prize–winning historian Leon Litwack (BA[289] 1951, PhD 1958) taught as a professor at UC Berkeley for 43 years;[290] three other UC Berkeley professors have also received the Pulitzer Prize. Alumna and professor Susan Rasky won the Polk Award for journalism in 1991. USC Professor and Berkeley alumnus Viet Thanh Nguyen's (PhD 1997) first novel The Sympathizer won the 2016 Pulitzer Prize for Fiction.[291]

Fiction and screenwriters

Alumni have also written novels and screenplays that have attracted Oscar-caliber talent, including

Anywhere But Here, which was later made into a film of the same name starring Oscar-winning actress Susan Sarandon. Terry McMillan (BA 1986) wrote How Stella Got Her Groove Back, which was later made into a film of the same name starring Oscar-nominated actress Angela Bassett. Randi Mayem Singer (BA 1979) wrote the screenplay for Mrs. Doubtfire, which starred Oscar-winning actor Robin Williams and Oscar-winning actress Sally Field. Audrey Wells (BA 1981) wrote the screenplay The Truth About Cats & Dogs, which starred Oscar-nominated actress Uma Thurman. James Schamus (BA 1982, MA 1987, PhD 2003) has collaborated on screenplays with Oscar-winning director Ang Lee on the Academy Award-winning movies Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon and Brokeback Mountain

Academy Award winners

Collectively, alumni have won at least twenty

Charles H. Ferguson (BA 1978) have each[292][293] won an Oscar for documentary filmmaking. Mark Berger (BA 1964) has won four Oscars for sound mixing and is an adjunct professor at UC Berkeley.[294] Edith Head (BA 1918), who was nominated for 34 Oscars during her career, won eight Oscars for costume design. Joe Letteri (BA 1981[295]) has won four Oscars for Best Visual Effects in the James Cameron film Avatar and the Peter Jackson films King Kong, The Two Towers, and The Return of the King.[296]

Emmy Award winners

Alumni have collectively won at least twenty-five


Alumni have acted in classic television series that are still broadcast on TV today.


Music and entertainment

Former undergraduates have participated in the contemporary music industry, such as

People Magazine included Third Eye Blind lead singer and songwriter Stephan Jenkins (BA 1987) in the magazine's list of 50 Most Beautiful People.[307]

Kendall Ross Bean became a master piano rebuilder and concert pianist, Bean first performed on a piano he rebuilt in one of the first classical music videos to be broadcast across the United States on the A&E Network which in 1985 had 18 million cable viewers. This broadcast coincided with MTV emerging as a medium for record production companies to use music videos to promote the albums of Rock and Pop stars. The novelty of a classical music video featuring a solo pianist and the inside view of piano hammers hitting strings, contrasted to the high production rock music videos caught media attention from coast to coast. The video was titled: Kendall Ross Bean: Chopin Polonaise in A Flat. Karen Earle Lile, niece of Tony Terran became the Art Director/Executive Producer for the USPS Building Bridges Special Postal Cancellation Series and a Talk Show host for Sail Sport Talk on Sports Byline USA, a record producer [308][309] at Fantasy Studios and the historian who discovered the provenance of the Lost Lennon piano,[310] afterwards known as the Lennon-Ono-Green-Warhol piano.[311]


Alumni have also participated in the world of sports. Tennis athlete

Steve Young, Troy Aikman, and Oscar De La Hoya; Steinberg has been called the real-life inspiration[313] for the title character in the Oscar-winning[314] film Jerry Maguire (portrayed by Tom Cruise). Matt Biondi (BA 1988) won eight Olympic gold medals during his swimming career, in which he participated in three different Olympics. At the Beijing Olympics in 2008, Natalie Coughlin (BA 2005) became the first American female athlete in modern Olympic history to win six medals in one Olympics.[315]


Berkeley alumni have long been among the billionaire ranks, their largess giving rise to many of the campus' eponymous schools, pavilions, centers, institutes, and halls, and with the more prominent being

Nathaniel Simons and Laura Baxter-Simons, Elizabeth Simons and Mark Heising,[320] Oleg Tinkov, Liong Tek Kwee (BS 1968), Liong Seen Kwee (BS 1974) and Alice Schwartz
(BS 1947).

See also


  1. ^ Other consists of Multiracial Americans & those who prefer to not say.
  2. Pell grant
    intended for low-income students.
  3. ^ The percentage of students who are a part of the American middle class at the bare minimum.


  1. ^ "A brief history of the University of California". Academic Personnel and Programs. Archived from the original on October 21, 2020. Retrieved August 24, 2020.
  2. ^ As of June 30, 2022; includes assets managed by the UC Regents in the General Endowment Pool for the exclusive benefit of Berkeley. "Annual Endowment Report, Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 2022" (PDF). University of California.
  3. ^ a b "University of California 21/22 Annual Financial Report" (PDF). University of California. Retrieved February 20, 2023.
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Further reading

External links