Page semi-protected

War crimes in the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Bodies in civilian clothes, shot by Russian soldiers, lie on a street in Bucha
. The hands of one of them are tied behind their back. 3 April 2022

During the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, Russian authorities and armed forces were accused of committing war crimes by carrying out both deliberate attacks against civilian targets[1][2][3] and indiscriminate attacks in densely populated areas.[4][5][6] The Russian military allegedly exposed the civilian population to unnecessary and disproportionate harm by using cluster munitions – a type of weapon that is prohibited by 110 states[7] because of its immediate and long-term danger to civilians[8][9][10] – and by firing other explosive weapons with wide-area effects such as air-dropped bombs, missiles, heavy artillery shells and multiple launch rockets.[9] The result of the Russian forces' attacks was damage or destruction of civilian buildings including houses, hospitals, schools, kindergartens,[9] nuclear power plants,[11] historic buildings, and churches.[12][13] As of 28 April, the attacks had resulted in the death of at least 2,829 civilians and the wounding of at least 3,180.[14]

After Russian withdrawal from areas north of Kyiv there was a "mounting body of evidence" of rape, torture and summary killings by Russian forces of Ukrainian civilians.[15] There were reports of forced deportations of thousands of civilians, including children, from Russian-occupied Mariupol to Russia,[16][17] systematic and massive sexual violence, including the raping of children by Russian soldiers,[18][19] and deliberate killing of Ukrainian civilians by members of the Russian forces.[20] At the end of March, Ukrainian forces recaptured the town of Bucha, located north of Kyiv. Afterwards, evidence emerged of a massacre perpetrated by Russian troops, including torture and the deliberate killings of civilians.[21][22][23] According to Kyiv police, more than 900 bodies of civilians were found in the Kyiv region after Russian forces withdrew, most of them summarily executed,[24] and the UN Human Rights Monitoring Mission in Ukraine documented the unlawful killing of 50 civilians – mostly men, but also women and children – in Bucha.[25] In the first month of the invasion the Monitoring Mission also documented the arbitrary detention in Russian-occupied territories of journalists, activists, public officials and civil servants,[26][9][27] and expressed concern about videos depicting interrogations of Russian soldiers by Ukrainian forces following their capture.[9] Russian and Ukrainian prisoners of war have been repeatedly abused and exposed to public curiosity,[28][29] and on at least two occasions Russian prisoners have been tortured[30][31] and killed.[32]

On 2 March, the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC) opened a full investigation into past and present allegations of war crimes, crimes against humanity, or genocide committed in Ukraine by any person from 21 November 2013 onwards, set up an online method for people with evidence to initiate contact with investigators, and sent a team of investigators, lawyers, and other professionals to Ukraine to begin collecting evidence.[33][34] Neither Ukraine nor Russia are parties to the Rome Statute, the legal basis of the ICC, but Ukraine has accepted the ICC's jurisdiction by signing in 2013 and 2014 two declarations to that effect.[35] Two other independent international agencies are also investigating violations of human rights and of international humanitarian law in the area: the International Commission of Inquiry on Ukraine, established by the United Nations Human Rights Council on 4 March 2022, and the UN Human Rights Monitoring Mission in Ukraine, deployed by OHCHR. The latter started monitoring human rights violations by all parties in 2014 and employs nearly 60 UN human rights monitors. In late March, Prosecutor General of Ukraine Iryna Venediktova stated that the Ukrainian prosecutors had collected evidence for 2500 "possible war crimes cases" and "several hundred suspects."[36] On 7 April 2022, the United Nations suspended Russia from the UN Human Rights Council.[37]

Indiscriminate attacks and attacks against civilian targets

Shelling of Kharkiv regional administration
Shelled residential buildings in Kharkiv Oblast

According to human rights organisations and to the UN Human Rights Monitoring Mission in Ukraine, the invasion of Ukraine was carried out through indiscriminate attacks and strikes on civilian objects such as houses, hospitals, schools and kindergartens.[4][5][9]

On 25 February, Amnesty International stated that Russian forces had "shown a blatant disregard for civilian lives by using ballistic missiles and other explosive weapons with wide area effects in densely populated areas". In addition, Russia has falsely claimed to have only used precision-guided weapons. Amnesty International said on February 25 that the attacks on Vuhledar, Kharkiv and Uman, were likely to constitute war crimes.[4] Ukrainian prime minister Denys Shmyhal said on February 26 that Russia was committing war crimes.[38]

Russian artillery shelled a densely populated neighbourhood of Mariupol for nearly 15 hours on March 1 and 2, causing significant destruction. Deputy mayor Sergei Orlov reported that "at least hundreds of people [were] dead."[39][40]

A 3 March statement by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights said that the agency had recorded at least 1006 civilian casualties in the first week of the invasion, but that it believed that "the real figures are considerably higher."[41]

The World Health Organization released a statement on March 6 saying that it had evidence that multiple health care centres in Ukraine had been attacked, and Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus noted that "attacks on healthcare facilities or workers breach medical neutrality and are violations of international humanitarian law."[42]

On 24 March, Amnesty International accused Russia of having repeatedly violated international humanitarian law during the first month of the invasion by conducting indiscriminate attacks, including direct attacks on civilian targets. According to Amnesty International, verified reports and video footage demonstrate numerous strikes on hospitals and schools, and the use of inaccurate explosive weapons and banned weapons such as cluster bombs.[43]

While not suggesting that Ukraine is responsible for civilian casualties, human rights activists and international humanitarian law experts told the Washington Post that "Ukraine’s strategy of placing heavy military equipment and other fortifications in civilian zones could weaken Western and Ukrainian efforts to hold Russia legally culpable for possible war crimes".[44]

Use of cluster munitions

Reports on the use of cluster munitions have raised concerns about the heavy toll of immediate civilian casualties and the long-lasting danger of unexploded ordnance.[9][10] Neither the Russian Federation nor Ukraine ratified the 2008 Convention on Cluster Munitions,[7] but the use of cluster munition in populated areas may already be deemed incompatible with principles of international humanitarian law prohibiting indiscriminate and disproportionate attacks.[6]

The Vuhledar attack at 10:30 (UTC) on 24 February, was the result of a 9M79 Tochka missile, which landed next to a hospital and killed four civilians. Amnesty International describe its analysis as "irrefutable evidence of violations of international humanitarian law and international human rights law" by Russian forces.[4] Human Rights Watch (HRW) found that the Vuhledar hospital attack used an 9N123 cluster munition. The 9N123 contains fifty 9N24 individual submunitions, which each split into 316 bomblets. HRW based its analysis on contacts with the hospital and municipal administrations and multiple photographic evidence. HRW called for Russian forces to stop making "unlawful attacks with weapons that indiscriminately kill and maim."[8] The press secretary of the Russian Federation, Dmitry Peskov, denied Russian involvement, saying that this type of ammunition is used by the Armed Forces of Ukraine.[45]

On 27 February, Amnesty International stated that it had analysed evidence showing that Russian cluster munitions from a 220 mm BM-27 Uragan rocket had hit a preschool in Okhtyrka where civilians were taking shelter on 25 February, killing three, including a child. UAV film showed four hits on the roof of the preschool, three on the ground next to the school, two injured or dead civilians, and pools of blood. Amnesty International analysed 65 photos and videos of the event and interviewed local residents.[46] Bellingcat stated that remains of the 9M27K rocket were found 200 metres east of the kindergarten. Russian forces were located west of Okhtyrka. Amnesty described the rocket type as "unguided and notoriously inaccurate", and described the attack as a potential war crime that should be investigated.[46]

On 4 March, Human Rights Watch reported that on 28 February Russian forces had fired cluster munitions into at least three residential areas in Kharkiv, killing at least three civilians.[47] On 18 March, the number of civilians reportedly killed in Kharkiv exceeded 450 as consequence of the use of cluster munitions and explosive weapons in heavily populated areas of the city.[5] Cluster munitions were repeatedly used also on Mykolaiv during separate attacks on 7, 11 and 13 March, causing civilian casualties and extensive destruction of non-military objects.[48]

On either 6 or 7 March, Ukrainian forces fired cluster munition rockets at the Russian-controlled village of Husarivka, 60 miles south of Kharkiv.[49]

Preventing civilian evacuations

During the Siege of Mariupol, a number of attempts to establish a humanitarian evacuation corridor to evacuate civilians from the city have been made, but have failed due to the corridor being targeted by Russian forces.[50] On 5 March, a five-hour ceasefire was declared, but evacuations were quickly halted after shelling continued during the declared time.[51] The next day, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) announced that a second attempt to establish an evacuation corridor had failed.[52][53] On 7 March, the ICRC announced that it had found that one of the routes listed for evacuations during a ceasefire had been mined.[54]

Targeting of nuclear power plants

At 11:28pm local time on the 3 March 2022, a column of 10 Russian armored vehicles and two tanks cautiously approached the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant, Europe's largest.[55][56][57] The action commenced at 12:48am on the 4 March when Ukraine forces fired anti tank missiles and Russian forces responded with a variety of weapons, including rocket-propelled grenades.[56] During approximately two hours of heavy fighting a fire broke out in a training facility outside of the main complex, which was extinguished by 6:20am,[11][58] though other sections surrounding the plant sustained damage.[56] That evening, the Kyiv US Embassy described the Russian attack of the Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant as a war crime,[59] though the US State Department quickly retracted this claim with the circumstances of the attack being studied[60][61] and the Pentagon declining to describe the attack as a war crime.[62] On the same day, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy accused Russian President Vladimir Putin of committing "nuclear terror" by ordering the attack on the plant[63] and Ukraine regulatory authorities stated that Russian forces fired artillery shells at the plant, setting fire to the training facility.[64][65] The Russian Ambassador to the UN responded that Russian forces were fired upon by Ukrainian "saboteurs" from the training facility, which they set fire to when they left.[66] Later that day the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency confirmed that the plants' safety systems had not been effected and there had been no release of radioactive materials, however he was "...gravely concerned about the situation at Ukraine's largest nuclear power plant. The main priority was to ensure the safety and security of the plant, its power supply and the people who operate it".[67]

Attacks on nuclear power facilities are mainly governed by Article 56 of Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions,[68] which generally prohibits attacks against civilian nuclear power plants.[69][70] According to international scholars:

  • the Russian assault possibly breached Article 56[69] but probably did not constitute a war crime;[70]
  • Ukrainian forces initiating the action by firing anti tank missiles may have breached the Passive Precautions section of Article 56, paragraph 5.[70]

Attacks on cultural properties

The use of explosive weapons with wide-area effects has raised concerns about the proximity of historic monuments, works of art, churches and other cultural properties.[71][12][72][73] Russian forces damaged or destroyed the Kuindzhi Art Museum in Mariupol, the Soviet-era Shchors cinema and a Gothic revival library in Chernihiv,[74] the Babyn Yar Holocaust memorial complex in Kyiv,[75] the Soviet-era Slovo building[12] and the regional state administration building in Kharkiv, a 19th-century wooden church in Viazivka, Zhytomyr Region,[76] and the Historical and Local History Museum in Ivankiv.[77] On 1 April, UNESCO stated that at least 53 Ukrainian historical sites, religious buildings, and museums are confirmed to have sustained damage during the Russian invasion.[78]

Cultural property enjoys special protection and international humanitarian law.[79] Protocol I of the Geneva Convention and the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (both binding on Ukraine and Russia) prohibit states parties to use historic monuments in support of the military effort and to make them object of acts of hostility or reprisals.[79] Protocol II of the Hague Convention allows attacks on cultural property only in case of "imperative military necessity" provided that there is no feasible alternative. While Protocol II does not apply as such, as only Ukraine is a party and it applies only between parties,[80] the provision on imperative military necessity may be applicable if it is interpreted as informing the Convention, rather than adding to it.[79] Attacks against cultural heritage amount to war crimes and can be prosecuted before the International Criminal Court.[79]

Attacks on hospitals and medical care facilities

On 24 February, a cluster munition exploded at the Central City Hospital in Vuhledar, killing at least four civilians and injuring 10, damaging ambulances and the hospital.[9] On 8 March the newly refurbished central hospital in Izium, south of Kharkiv, was destroyed,[81][82] followed on 11 March by an attack to a psychiatric hospital of the same city.[83] On 9 March a Russian air strike destroyed Mariupol hospital No. 3, which was clearly identifiable as civilian object, resulting in injuries for 17 civilians, one of whom was a woman at a late stage of pregnancy; neither she nor her unborn child survived.[9]

As of 26 March, the UN Human Rights Monitoring Mission in Ukraine verified 74 attacks on medical facilities, 61 of them in Government-controlled territory (e.g. air strikes on hospitals in Izium, Mariupol, Ovruch, Volnovakha and Vuhledar), nine occurring in territory controlled by Russian affiliated armed groups, and four in contested settlements. Six perinatal centres, maternity hospitals, and ten children's hospitals had been hit, resulting in the complete destruction of two children's hospitals and one perinatal hospital.[9] On 26 March, AP journalists in Ukraine claimed they had gathered sufficient evidence to demonstrate that Russia was deliberately targeting Ukrainian hospitals across the country.[84]

On 30 March, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported that there had been 82 verified Russian attacks on medical care in Ukraine – including attacks on healthcare facilities, patients, and healthcare workers – since 24 February. WHO estimated at least 72 killed and 43 injured in these attacks.[85] By 8 April, WHO confirmed 91 attacks.[86]

Areas hit by indiscriminate attacks

Donetsk Oblast

On 24 February, the Russian Armed Forces, working together with pro-Russian rebels, besieged the port city of Mariupol, leading to heavy casualties as supplies were cut from the locals.[87]

Mariupol theatre airstrike

On 16 March, Russian Armed Forces bombed the Donetsk Regional Drama Theatre in Mariupol, Ukraine, which was in use as an air raid shelter; Ukrainian authorities stated it held up to 1,200 civilians during the siege of Mariupol.[88] The theatre was largely destroyed in the attack, which Ukrainian authorities described as a war crime.[89] Also the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe called the attack on the theatre "most likely an egregious violation of IHL" and a "war crime".[80] Casualty figures were initially not known; Ukrainian authorities stated that people were trapped under the burning rubble of the collapsed theatre following the attack, but ongoing shelling in the area complicated recovery efforts.[89][90] On 25 March, Mariupol City Council estimated that about 300 people had been killed as a result of the airstrike.[91] On 4 May, Associated Press published an investigation with evidence pointing to 600 dead in the airstrike.[92]

The theatre is one of a number of Ukrainian heritage and cultural sites deliberately targeted and destroyed by invading Russian forces.[90] Satellite images of the theatre taken on 14 March show the word "children" spelled out in Russian in two locations outside the theatre in an attempt to identify it to invading forces as a civilian air raid shelter containing children and not a military target.[89] Mariupol city council officials stated that the theatre was the largest single air raid shelter in the city, and at the time of the attack it contained only women and children.[90]

In response to criticisms, Russia accused the Ukraine-backed Azov Battalion of carrying out the theatre bombing, without providing any evidence.[89]

Mariupol hospital airstrike

On 9 March, Russian forces bombed a maternity and children's hospital in Mariupol.[93] Several sources in Mariupol reported that the hospital was clearly identifiable and operational at the time it was hit.[9] The hospital was destroyed,[94] and seventeen civilians, including children and pregnant women, were injured. One pregnant woman died with her baby from injuries sustained in the attack.[6] Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy called the bombing of a maternity hospital a "genocide",[95] the Minister of Foreign Affairs Dmytro Kuleba called it a "petrifying war crime",[96] and the British prime minister Boris Johnson described it as "depraved".[97]

The picture of a pregnant woman lying on a stretcher, being carried through the bombed-out courtyard by first responders,[98] circulated around the world over the internet and in newspapers. The unnamed woman was moved to another hospital and on 13 March died after her child was stillborn; she had suffered numerous injuries in the bombing, including a crushed pelvis and detached hip, which contributed to the stillbirth of her child.[99][100] The doctors operated on them by candlelight.[6]

Another pregnant woman photographed in the bombing, Marianna Vyshegirskaya, a popular blogger in Mariupol, gave birth to a daughter the following day.[101] Vyshegirskaya became the target of a disinformation campaign that started trending on Russian Telegram and was repeated in a tweet from the Russian embassy in the UK.[102] The Russian embassy claimed that Vyshegirskaya was an actress "wearing some good makeup" and that the aftermath of the attack had been staged.[103] That conspiracy theory was proved false and Twitter took down the embassy's post, but the fake news had already spread across the pro-Russia social media and blogs.[102][104] Vyshegirskaya gave an interview to the BBC in May, where she confirmed that the hospital was working and that no Ukrainian military was stationed in the maternity building.[105]

Mass shelling of residential areas in Mariupol

On 2 March, deputy mayor Sergiy Orlov reported that Russian artillery targeted a densely populated neighborhood of Mariupol, shelling it for nearly 15 hours. He said that one populated residential district on the city's left bank had been "nearly totally destroyed".[39] The city was cut off from electricity, food, gas and water. A 6-year-old girl was reported to have died from dehydration under the ruins of her home in Mariupol on 8 March.[106] Satellite photos of Mariupol taken the morning of 9 March by Maxar Technologies, a contractor for the US military, showed "extensive damage" to high-rise apartments, residential homes, grocery stores and other civilian infrastructure. This was determined by comparing before and after photos.[107] The Mariupol council made a statement that the damage to the city has been "enormous". It estimated that approximately 80% to 90% of the city's infrastructure had been significantly damaged due to shelling, of which almost 30% was destroyed beyond repair.[108] Reporting from Mariupol, Reuters reporter Pavel Klimov said that "all around are the blackened shells" of tower block dwellings.[109]

On 16 March BBC News reported that nearly constant Russian attacks had turned residential neighbourhoods into "a wasteland."[110] On the same day it reported that it had obtained drone footage showing "a vast extent of damage, with fire and smoke billowing out of apartment blocks and blackened streets in ruins."[110] A city resident told the BBC that "in the left bank area, there's no residential building intact, it's all burned to the ground." The left bank contained a densely populated residential district.[39] She also said that the city centre is "unrecognisable."[110] On the same day the Institute for the Study of War (ISW) reported that Russian forces continued to commit war crimes in Mariupol including "targeting civilian infrastructure."[111]

On 18 March, Sky News from the UK described both an aerial and a ground video as showing "apocalyptic destruction in Mariupol."[112] Sky News also reported that it had verified the locations of both videos to destroyed residential areas of Mariupol, also including some commercial properties.[112] Also on 18 March, Lieutenant General Jim Hockenhull, Chief of Defence Intelligence for the United Kingdom (UK), described "continued targeting of civilians in Mariupol".[113] Ukrainian authorities stated that about 90% of buildings in Mariupol were now damaged or destroyed.[114] On the same day, Sky News from the UK said videos showed "civilian areas left unrecognisable by the bombing."[114] Sky News also quoted the Red Cross as describing "Apocalyptic destruction in Mariupol."[114] On 19 March 2022, a Ukrainian police officer in Mariupol made a video in which he said "Children, elderly people are dying. The city is destroyed and it is wiped off the face of the earth." The video was authenticated by the Associated Press.[115]

As of 20 March local authorities have estimated that at least 2,300 people were killed during the siege.[116]

On 20 March 2022 it was announced by Ukrainian authorities that Russian troops had bombed Art School No. 12 in Mariupol where the Ukrainian authorities claimed about 400 people were taking shelter during the battles and bombings on the city.[117][118]

The government of Mariupol said on 28 March that 90% of all buildings in Mariupol had been damaged by shelling, with 40% of all structures inside the city destroyed.[119] The statistics released also counted that 90% of Mariupol's hospitals had been damaged, and that 23 schools and 28 kindergartens had been destroyed by Russian shelling.[120]

By 18 April, Ukrainian officials estimated that at least 95% of Mariupol had been destroyed in the fighting, largely as a result of the Russian bombing campaigns.[121] City officials reported that up to 20,000 civilians had been killed.[122] On the same day, the Mayor of the city reported that about 21,000 civilians had been killed.[123]

Missile attack and shelling in Donetsk

On 14 March, a OTR-21 Tochka missile hit the city of Donetsk, which a Russian investigation said had killed 23 local civilians. Russia and the DPR said that the missile was launched by the Armed Forces of Ukraine and accused Ukraine of committing war crimes; the Ukrainian government denied this accusation, claiming the missile was launched by the Russian Armed Forces as part of a false flag operation.[124][125]

On 25 March, the UN Human Rights Monitoring Mission in Ukraine declared that they were looking into allegations of indiscriminate shelling by the Ukrainian armed forces in Donetsk and in other territory controlled by the self-proclaimed republics of Donetsk and Luhansk.[6]

Missile strike on Kramatorsk railway station

On April 8, a Tochka missile struck a railway station in Kramatorsk, where up to 4,000 civilians, mostly women and children, were waiting to evacuate the city. Ukrainian officials accused Russia of carrying out the attack, and stated that between 98 and 300 civilians were wounded in the strike and at least 50 killed, including 5 children;[126] the final casualty toll was 60 civilians killed, including seven children, and 111 wounded.[127][128] The Russian Ministry of Defense denied the accusations, stating that the Tochka-U missile was only used by the Ukrainian military.[126] However, analysts say that images and videos on social media appear to show Russia using the missile.[129]

Chernihiv Oblast

Bombing of Chernihiv

On 3 March, at about 12:15 p.m. local time, Russian forces destroyed two schools and several apartment blocks in Chernihiv, killing 47 civilians and wounding 18.[6][130] Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch (HRW) reported that the attack might constitute a war crime.[131][132] HRW commented on the case, saying that they found no evidence of a "significant [military] target in or near the intersection when it was hit, ... pointing to a potentially deliberate or reckless indiscriminate attack", and called the International Criminal Court and the UN Commission of Inquiry to investigate the incident and hold to account the people responsible. The HRW investigation included telephone interviews with three witnesses and two other Chernihiv residents, and analysis of 22 videos and 12 photographs. The witnesses interviewed by HRW stated that they were unaware of military targets or operations in the neighbourhood.[132] Also Matilda Bogner, Head of the UN Human Rights Monitoring Mission in Ukraine, stated that the bombing violated the principles of distinction, of proportionality, the rule on feasible precautions and the prohibition of indiscriminate attacks.[6]

On 16 March 2022, a Russian attack killed 14 civilians in Chernihiv. Most of them were standing in line at a food store waiting for bread, when a Russian air strike with eight unguided aerial bombs hit them.[133][134]

Kyiv Oblast

Irpin shelling

On 6 March 2022, from 9:30 a.m. until 2 p.m. local time, the Russian Armed Forces repeatedly shelled an intersection in Irpin that hundreds of civilians were using to escape to Kyiv, whilst Ukrainian forces fired mortar rounds at Russian forces from a military position about 180 meters from the intersection.[135][136] Human Rights Watch accused the Russian army of carrying out an indiscriminate and disproportionate attack.[136] It was part of an assault on Irpin. Eight civilians were killed,[136][137][138] including two children killed by a mortar strike.[137][139]

Bombing of Kyiv

Ukraine's capital Kyiv, a city of some three million people, was among the targets of Russian airstrikes.[140] Kindergartens and orphanages were also shelled.[141]

Bombing of Borodianka

As Russian forces fought in and near Kyiv, Borodianka, which is on a strategically important road,[142] was targeted by numerous Russian airstrikes.[143] Most of the buildings in the town were destroyed,[144] including almost all of its main street.[145] Russian bombs struck the centers of buildings and caused them to collapse while the frames remained standing.[144][145] Oleksiy Reznikov, minister of defense, said many residents were buried alive by airstrikes and lay dying for up to a week. He further said that those who went to help them were shot at by Russian soldiers.[146] Some residents hid in caves for 38 days.[143]

Only a few hundred residents remained in Borodianka by the time the Russians withdrew, with roughly 90% of residents having fled,[145] and an unknown number dead in the rubble.[143] Borodianka's mayor estimated at least 200 dead.[147]

Shelling of Bucha

Ukrainian forensic investigations on the Bucha massacre revealed that dozens of civilians had been killed by metal darts ("fléchettes") of a kind used by Russian army. Bodies from the Bucha-Irpin region showed lesions from small nail-like objects contained in tank or field gun shells. According to witnesses, Russian artillery fired shells that spread fléchettes a few days before retreating from the area at the end of March. While fléchettes are not prohibited under international law, their use in residential areas may qualify as the war crime of indiscriminate attack.[148] The spokesperson for the Ukrainian Ground Forces stated that Ukraine's military does not use shells with fléchettes.[149]

Sumy Oblast

Bombing of Sumy

In the evening and throughout the night on 7 March Russian forces executed an airstrike on Sumy's residential neighbourhood. About 22 people were killed, including three children.[150][151] Under the procedural guidance of the Sumy District Prosecutor's Office, criminal proceedings have been instituted for violating the laws and customs of war.[152]

On 21 March 2022 during the Battle of Sumy, a Russian airstrike damaged one of the ammonia tanks at a Sumykhimprom fertilizer factory located in the suburbs of Sumy, contaminating land within a 2.5 km radius including the villages of Novoselytsya and Verkhnya Syrovatka.[153][154] The Russian Ministry of Defence claimed that Ukrainian nationalists had mined ammonia and chlorine storage "with the aim of mass poisoning of residents.[155]

Kharkiv Oblast

During the Battle of Kharkiv, extensive parts of residential areas were destroyed by Russian shelling.

On 28 February, at around 10:00 AM, Russian forces fired cluster munitions with Grad rockets into at least three different residential areas in Kharkiv,[156][157] killing at least nine civilians and injuring another 37.[156] The city’s mayor, Ihor Terekhov, said that four people were killed when they left a shelter to get water and a family of two parents and three children were burned alive in their car.[158] The locations hit were residential buildings and a playground,[159] dispersed between Industrialnyi and Shevchenkivskyi District. Explosions in the city were recorded as late as 2:23 PM.[156]

On 1 March, a shell damaged a boarding school for blind children.[160] As of 4 March, 122 civilians including five children had been killed in the Kharkiv region, according to the Kharkiv Region Police.[161] Out of an initial population of 1.8 million, only 500,000 people remained in Kharkiv by 7 March.[160] On 8 March, Russian forces bombed a hospital in Izium, which was totally destroyed.[162] This shelling has been regarded as a war crime by region authorities.[163] On 18 March, the number of civilians reportedly killed in Kharkiv exceeded 450 as consequence of the use of cluster munitions and explosive weapons in heavily populated areas of the city.[5]

Human Rights Watch investigated the attack and concluded that the Russian forces used Smerch cluster munition rockets, which disperse dozens of submunitions or bomblets in the air.[156] As there were no military targets within 400 meters of these strikes and due to the indiscriminate use of these weapons against densely populated areas, HRW described these strikes as possible war crimes.[156] On 13 May, CNN reported that newly collected evidence identified Colonel General Alexander Zhuravlyov commanding the 79th Rocket Artillery Brigade, ordered the use 17 cluster bombs, the 300mm Smerch Cluster Rocket, to be used against civilian targets in Kharkiv on 27–28 February.[164]

Mykolaiv Oblast

Mykolaiv bombing

Cluster munitions were repeatedly used also on Mykolaiv during separate attacks on 7, 11 and 13 March, causing civilian casualties and extensive destruction of non-military objects.[48] Nine civilians waiting in line on the street at a cash machine were killed in the 13 March attack.[165][166] The explosions also damaged houses and civilian buildings.[166] Human Rights Watch analysed the incident and found that the Russian forces used Smerch and Uragan cluster munition on the densely populated areas.[48] Due to the inherently indiscriminate nature of cluster munitions, Human Rights Watch described their use in Mykolaiv as a possible Russian war crime.[48]

Zhytomyr Oblast

Emergency servicemen carry a dead body found under rubble in Malyn city, Zhytomyr Oblast
, after a Russian airstrike on 8 March

On 1 March, late in the evening Russian troops hit a residential sector of the city. About 10 residential buildings on Shukhevych street and around the city hospital were damaged. A few bombs were dropped on the city. As a result, at least two Ukrainian civilians were killed and three were injured.[167] On 2 March, shells hit the regional perinatal center and some private houses.[168]

On 4 March, rockets hit the 25th Zhytomyr school destroying half of the school.[169] In the evening the "Ozerne and Zhytomyr Armored Plant" came under fire; two people were injured.[170] On 8 March, in an air assault, a dormitory was hit and the Isovat factory was damaged.[171] On 9 March, the outskirts of the city (Ozerne district) came under fire.[172]

Luhansk Oblast

Bombing and capture of Kreminna

Lyudmyla Denisova, Ukraine's human rights ombudsman, alleged that on 11 March over 50 elderly persons in a care home had been intentionally fired upon by a tank in the town of Kreminna, calling the attack a "crime against humanity" by "racist occupation forces".[173] Serhiy Haidai, governor of Luhansk region, made the same claim. Reportedly, 56 victims died while 15 survivors were taken to Svatove in "occupied territory". The allegations have not been independently verified so far.[173]

On 18 April, during the capture of Kreminna, Russian forces were accused of shooting four civilians fleeing Kreminna in their cars. Official Ukraine statistics are 200 civilians killed, however the Governor of the Luhansk region estimated many more.[174][175]

Bilohorivka school bombing

On 7 May Russian forces bombed a school in Bilohorivka where people were seeking shelter from the ongoing fighting during the Battle of Sievierodonetsk. Luhansk Oblast Governor Serhiy Haidai said that about 60 people were probably killed in the attack.[176][177]

The UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres said he was "appalled" by the deadly attack and reminded that "civilians and civilian infrastructure must always be spared in times of war".[178] British foreign secretary Liz Truss condamned the attack and said the deliberate targeting of civilians and infrastructure "amounts to war crimes".[179]

Odessa Oblast

Bombing of Odessa

At around 12:00 local time on 2 March, Russian forces shelled the village of Dachne to the north-west of Odessa, setting fire to nine houses and a garage. This was followed on 3 March by the shelling of the nearby villages of Zatoka[180] and Bilenke, killing at least one civilian in Bilenke.[181] Russian warships also shelled the Ukrainian civilian vessel Helt in the port of Odessa, sinking it.[182] On 23 April, a Russian missile strike hit two residential buildings.[183] killing eight civilians and wounding 18 or 20, according to Ukraine.[184] One missile that struck a residential building killed a three-month old baby, the mother, and the baby's maternal grandmother.[185][186]

Ill-treatment, torture and willful killing of civilians

By the Russian authorities and forces

Overt command to kill civilians

Other than prima facie evidence and witness statements testifying to war crimes, evidence includes Ukrainian government intercepts of Russian military conversations,[187][188] and Russian government contingency planning for mass graves of civilians.[189]

Killings in Kyiv region

On 15 April, Kyiv regional police force reported that 900 civilian bodies had been found in the region following Russian withdrawal, with more than 350 in Bucha. According to the police most – almost 95% of them – were "simply executed". More bodies continued to be found in mass graves and under the rubble.[190]

Bucha massacre

After Russian forces withdrew from Bucha north of Kyiv, at the end of March, videos emerged showing at least nine apparently dead bodies lying in the street in the residential area of the town. Journalists who visited the area reported seeing at least twenty corpses in civilian clothing.[191] On 1 April, AFP reported that at least twenty bodies of civilians lay in the streets of Bucha, with at least one the bodies having tied hands. The mayor of the city, Anatolu Fedoruk, said that these individuals had all been shot in the back of the head. Fedoruk also said that around 270 or 280 individuals from the city had to be buried in mass graves.[192][191] On 15 April, local police reported more than 350 bodies found in Bucha following the withdrawal of Russian forces, and said most died of gunshot wounds.[190]

A news article published by The Kyiv Independent also included a photo and information on one man and two or three naked women under a blanket whose bodies were allegedly burned by Russian soldiers on the side of a road before they fled.[193]

As reported by The Times, in one instance the Ukrainian Territorial Defense Forces said they had found 18 mutilated bodies of murdered men, women and children in a basement in Zabuchchya, a village in the Bucha district. One of the Ukrainian soldiers interviewed stated there was evidence of torture: some had their ears cut-off, others had teeth pulled out.[22] In Vorzel, west of Bucha, Russian soldiers killed a woman and her 14-year-old child after throwing smoke grenades into the basement in which they were hiding.[194]

The New York Times reported that during the Russian occupation snipers set up in high rise buildings and shot at anyone that moved. The same report also related that a Ukrainian woman was kidnapped by Russian soldiers, kept in a cellar as a sex slave and then executed. Ukraine's ombudsman for human rights, Lyudmyla Denisova, outlined the case of a group of women and girls who were locked in a basement for almost a month, and reported that nine of them had become pregnant.[195]

On 4 April, the Office of the Prosecutor General of Ukraine stated police in the Kyiv region found a "torture chamber" in a basement of a children's sanatorium in Bucha. The basement contained the bodies of five men with hands tied behind their backs. The announcement was accompanied by several photos posted on Facebook.[196][197] On 5 April, Associated Press journalists saw charred bodies on a residential street near a playground in Bucha, including one with a bullet hole in the skull, and a burned body of a child. The journalists were unable to verify their identity or the circumstances that led to their death.[198] On 6 April, Ukrainian investigators said they found a mined body and three other corpses, one beheaded, at a glass factory in town.[199] On 21 April Human Rights Watch reported they had found "extensive evidence of summary executions, other unlawful killings, enforced disappearances, and torture" in Bucha. The human rights organisation documented the details of 16 apparently unlawful killings including nine summary executions and seven indiscriminate killings of civilians.[200] On 27 April, Michelle Bachelet, Head of OHCHR, reported that the Monitoring Mission in Ukraine had documented the unlawful killing of 50 civilians – mostly men, but also women and children – in Bucha.[25]

The Kyiv Independent reported that on 4 March, Russian forces killed three unarmed Ukrainian civilians who had just delivered dog food to a dog shelter in Bucha.[201] In another incident, Russian soldiers in an armored vehicle opened fire on civilians fleeing in cars, killing a man, a woman and two children.[202] According to residents of Bucha, upon entering the town, Russian tanks and military vehicles drove down the streets shooting randomly at house windows.[203]

While Ukrainian officials called the situation "genocide", "a massacre" and "war crimes", Russia's Defense Ministry claimed that some of the footage was fake and accused Ukrainian troops of killing people by shelling the town. Numerous other countries demanded investigations and accountability, with UK prime minister Boris Johnson stating the footage in Bucha was "yet more evidence that Putin and his army are committing war crimes".[204] Several nations such as the United Kingdom, Germany, France and Spain have called for the prosecution and punishment of Russia troops for reported atrocities in the invasion.[205] On 4 April, US president Joe Biden called Putin "a war criminal". UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson said that the United Kingdom would use its resources to bring Putin to justice for atrocities being uncovered in Bucha.[206]

Amnesty International stated that the killings near Bucha constituted "extrajudicial executions and other unlawful killings, which must be investigated as likely war crimes". Agnès Callamard, the Secretary General of Amnesty International, added that "Testimonies shows that unarmed civilians in Ukraine are being killed in their homes and streets in acts of unspeakable cruelty and shocking brutality".[207]

On 19 May, New York Times released videos showing Russian soldiers leading away a group of civilians, then forcing them to the ground. The dead bodies of the men were later recorded by a drone in the spot where the video was recorded and the bodies later found after Bucha's liberation. The videos clearly show the murdered men in Russian custody minutes before their execution and confirm eyewitness accounts. The troops responsible for the murders were Russian paratroopers.[208]

Killings and torture in Borodianka

On 26 March 2022, Russia, repelled from Kyiv, progressively withdrew from the region to concentrate on Donbas.[209] Borodianka's mayor said that as the Russian convoy had moved through the town, Russian soldiers had fired through every open window. The retreating Russian troops placed mines throughout the town.[145]

Russian soldiers were accused by Iryna Venediktova, prosecutor general of Ukraine, of "murders, tortures, and beatings" of civilians in Borodianka.[210][211] The head of the Borodiansk police department said that Ukrainian civilians were tortured and killed in retaliation for a successful ambush against a column of Russian troops.[212]

Killing and torture in Makariv

The Ukrainian Defense Ministry announced the discovery of 132 bodies in Makariv, accusing the Russian forces of having tortured and murdered them.[213][214] CCTV video from 28 February showed a Russian BMP armoured vehicle blowing apart a civilian car, killing elderly couple inside.[215][216]

E40 highway shooting (Kyiv)

On 7 March, a Ukrainian Territorial Defense Forces drone operating near the E40 highway outside Kyiv filmed Russian troops shooting a civilian who had his hands up.[217] After Ukrainian forces recaptured the area four weeks later, a BBC news crew investigating the area found the bodies of the man and his wife close to their car, all of which had been burned. More dead bodies lined the highway, some of which also showed signs of burning. During the incident, a couple in that car was killed, and their son and an elder were released. The burning of bodies may have been signs that the Russian troops tried to destroy evidence of what they had done. At least ten dead were found along the road, two of them wearing recognisable Ukrainian military uniforms. The drone footage was submitted to Ukrainian authorities and London's Metropolitan Police.[217]

Shooting on passing civilian vehicles

Human Rights Watch documented three separate incidents involving the Russian forces opening fire on passing cars without any apparent effort to verify whether the occupants were civilians. The incidents took place in Kyiv and Chernihiv regions, involved four vehicles and killed six civilians and wounded three. Multiple witnesses' accounts and in loco investigations revealed that the attacks on civilians were likely deliberate and suggested that the Russian forces had also fired on other civilian cars in similar ways.[3]

On 28 February, Russian forces shot at two vehicles that were trying to flee from Hostomel, northwest of Kyiv. On 3 March, in the same area, they opened fire on a vehicle with four men who were going to negotiate delivery of humanitarian aid. In the village of Nova Basan [uk], in Chernihiv region, Russian soldiers shot at a civilian van carrying two men, injuring one of them; they pulled the second man from the van and summarily executed him, while the injured man escaped.[3]

Killings in Chernihiv region

Human Rights Watch cited reports that in Staryi Bykiv Russian forces rounded up at least six men and executed them at the beginning of the invasion.[218]

Killings and torture in Trostianets

After the town of Trostianets in Sumy Oblast was liberated from Russian control, the local doctor at the morgue reported that at least one person in town was killed by Russians after being tortured, and young people were abducted. The town's hospital was also shelled; The New York Times said it was unclear who hit the building, but the locals accused the Russians.[219]

Reporters from The Guardian visited the town after it was liberated from Russian troops and found evidence of executions, looting and torture carried out by Russian troops. According to the mayor of the town, the Russians killed between 50 and 100 civilians while they occupied the town. One local witness stated that Russian soldiers fired into the air to frighten women delivering food to the elderly while shouting "Run bitches!".[220]

In mid April 2022 The Independent obtained numerous testimonies of survivors of a Russian torture chamber in Trostyanets, Sumy oblast. According to the witnesses, at least eight civilians were held in a basement of a train station were they were tortured, starved, subject to mock executions, forced to sit in their own excrement, electrocuted, stripped, and threatened with rape and genital mutilation. At least one prisoner was beaten to death by Russian guards who told the prisoners "All Ukrainians must die". Two were still missing at the time of the report. One prisoner was given electric shocks to his head until he begged the Russian soldiers to kill him. Numerous bodies, mutilated to the point where they were unrecognizable, were discovered by investigators in the area around the town.[221]

Abduction and torture of civilians in Kherson

Dementiy Bilyi, head of the Kherson regional department of the Committee of Voters of Ukraine, claimed that the Russian security forces were "beating, torturing, and kidnapping" civilians in the Kherson Oblast of Ukraine. He added that eyewitnesses had described "dozens" of arbitrary searches and detentions, resulting in an unknown amount of abducted persons.[222] At least 400 residents had gone missing by March 16, with the mayor and deputy mayor of the town of Skadovsk being allegedly abducted by armed men.[223] An allegedly leaked letter described Russian plans to unleash a "great terror" to suppress protests occurring in Kherson, stating that people would "have to be taken from their homes in the middle of the night".[224]

Human shields

Using non-combatants to serve as human shields is prohibited by Humanitarian Law, in particular, Article 51(7) of Protocol I of the Geneva Convention.[225]

Russian forces

ABC News and The Economist reported Russian soldiers using over 300 Ukrainian civilians as human shields, who were held captive in inhumane conditions for 25 days in March in the basement of the school of Yahidne where a major Russian military camp was located. According to reports 12 elderly people died in the cellar, and local residents were subjected to torture and killings. On 5 March Russian forces had seized the village as a base to attack the nearby city of Chernihiv.[226][227]

When the Russian army pulled out of the area near Ivankiv on 1 April, BBC found "clear evidence" of Russian troops using Ukrainian civilians as human shields in Obukhovychi, near Belarussian border. Multiple witnesses report that on 14 March the Russian soldiers went door-to-door, rounded about 150 civilians and locked them up in the local school, where they were used as protection for the Russian forces.[228]

As the first witness accounts from the Bucha massacre emerged at the beginning of April, Ukraine accused Russian forces leaving the area near Kyiv of using children as human shields. Russian units withdrawing from the village of Novyi Bykiv reportedly placed coaches of Ukrainian children in front of their tanks to protect themselves. In other areas of Ukraine, there were claims that Russian forces took local children hostage and threatened their parents in case they gave away the troops' coordinates. According to the Ukrainian human rights ombudsman, cases of Russian soldiers using Ukrainian children as human shields have been recorded in Sumy, Kyiv, Chernihiv, and Zaporizhzhia oblasts.[229][230]

Ukrainian forces

Since the beginning of the invasion, Russia has repeatedly accused Ukraine of using human shields, a claim which is regarded by third party observers as baseless.[231][232] Scholars Michael N. Schmitt, Neve Gordon, and Nicola Perugini have rejected these claims as attempts to shift blame for civilian deaths to Ukraine.[233]

Rape by Russian soldiers

According to experts and Ukrainian officials, there are indications that sexual violence might be tolerated by the Russian command and used as in a systematic and deliberate way as a weapon of war.[15][234][19]

In March 2022 the UN Human Rights Monitoring Mission in Ukraine stressed the heightened risks of sexual violence and the risk of under-reporting by victims in the country.[9] After Russian withdrawal from areas north of Kyiv, according to The Guardian, there was a "mounting body of evidence" of rape, torture and summary killings by Russian forces inflicted upon Ukrainian civilians, including gang-rapes committed at gunpoint and rapes committed in front of children.[15]

In late March Ukraine's Prosecutor General opened an investigation into a case of a Russian soldier who had killed an unarmed civilian and then repeatedly raped his wife. The incident is supposed to have taken place on 9 March, in a village outside of Kyiv.[235] The victim related that two Russian soldiers raped her repeatedly after killing her husband, while her four-year-old son hid in the house's boiler room. The account was first published by The Times of London.[236][237] Russian spokesperson Dmitry Peskov dismissed the allegation as a lie.[238] Ukrainian authorities have said that numerous reports of sexual assault and rape by Russian troops have emerged since the beginning of the invasion in February 2022.[237] Ukrainian MP Maria Mezentseva said that these types of cases were underreported and that there are many other victims.[239]

In another reported incident a Russian soldier entered a school in the village of Malaya Rohan where civilians were sheltering and raped a young Ukrainian woman. Human Rights Watch reported that the woman was threatened and repeatedly raped by a Russian soldier who cut her cheek, neck and hair.[240] According to witness statements, the villagers informed Russian officers in charge of the occupation of the village of the incident, who arrested the perpetrator and told them that he would be summarily executed.[241] Ukrainian Foreign Minister Dmytro Kuleba stated that Russian soldiers had committed "numerous" rapes against Ukrainian women. According to the Sexual Violence in Armed Conflict database, sexual violence by Russian forces has been reported in three of seven years of conflict since 2014 in eastern Ukraine.[242]

Human Rights Watch received reports of other incidents of rape in Chernihiv region and Mariupol.[240] ABC News reported in April 2022 that "rapes, shootings and a senseless execution" had been alleged to have occurred in the village of Berestyanka near Kyiv, noting a specific incident where a man was claimed to have been shot by Russian soldiers on 9 March after attempting to block them from raping his wife and a female friend.[243]

In April 2022, Ukrainian ombudswoman Lyudmyla Denisova stated that about 25 girls and women between the ages of 14 to 24 were raped in Bucha, and nine became pregnant.[244] On 19 May, after Russian forces were pushed out of north of Kharkiv, she reported multiple rapes of children, some very young.[245][246] The existence of credible allegations of sexual violence against children by Russian troops was also reported by the British ambassador to the United Nations Barbara Woodward on 13 May.[247]

Chemical weapons

The Azov Regiment reported in a Telegram post that a chemical substance was dropped during a drone attack to a metal plant in Mariupol on 11 April. After an explosion at the plant, three people suffered minor injuries, including shortness of breath. The report hasn't been verified by third parties.[248]

On 11 April, Eduard Basurin, a spokesperson for Donetsk People's Republic, stated "we should ask our chemical forces to find a way to smoke these moles out of their holes" referring to the Ukrainian forces in the Azovstal iron and steel works in Mariupol.[249][250]

Deportations

According to Ukrainian officials and two witnesses, Russian forces have forcefully deported thousands of residents from Ukraine to Russia during the Siege of Mariupol.[251][252][253] On 24 March, the Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs claimed that the Russian army had forcibly deported about 6,000 Mariupol residents in order to use them as "hostages" and put more pressure on Ukraine.[254][255] The US embassy in Kyiv cited the Ukrainian foreign ministry as claiming that 2,389 Ukrainian children had been illegally removed from the self-proclaimed republics of Donetsk and Luhansk and taken to Russia.[256][257] According to the Russian ministry of defense the residents of Mariupol had a "voluntary choice" whether to evacuate to the Ukrainian- or Russian-controlled territory and that by March 20 about 60,000 Mariupol residents were "evacuated to Russia." Human Rights Watch has not been able to verify these accounts.[258]

On 24 March, Lyudmyla Denisova, Ukraine's human rights ombudsman said that over 402,000 Ukrainians had been forcefully taken to Russia, including around 84,000 children.[259][260] Russian authorities said that more than 384,000 people, including over 80,000 children, had been evacuated to Russia from Ukraine and from the self-proclaimed republics of Donetsk and Luhansk.[261]

Deportation of protected peoples such as civilians during war is prohibited by Article 49 of the Fourth Geneva Convention.[262]

Time period Deported Source
18 February 90,000[a] Ombudsman of Ukraine[263]
24 February - 24 March 2022 402,000 Ombudsman of Ukraine[264]
24 February - 11 April 2022 700,000 Ombudsman of Ukraine[263]
24 February - 28 April 2022 1,000,000 Ombudsman of Ukraine[265]

Arbitrary detention and enforced disappearance of civilians

On 22 March the non-profit organization Reporters Without Borders reported that Russian forces had captured a Ukrainian fixer and interpreter for Radio France on 5 March as he headed home to a village in Central Ukraine. He was held captive for nine days, and subjected to electric shocks, beatings with an iron bar and a mock execution.[266][267][268] On 25 March Reporters Without Borders alleged that Russian forces had threatened, kidnapped, detained and tortured several Ukrainian journalists in the occupied territories.[26][269] Torture is prohibited by both Article 32 of the Fourth Geneva Convention and Article 2 of the United Nations Convention against Torture.[270][271]

The UN Human Rights Monitoring Mission in Ukraine confirmed that in the first month of the invasion they had documented the arbitrary detention in Russian occupied territories of 21 journalists and civil society activists, nine of whom had already reportedly been released.[27][6][9] The Human Rights Monitoring Mission also verified the arrests and detention of 24 public officials and civil servants of local authorities, including three mayors, by Russian armed forces and affiliated armed groups of the self-proclaimed republics of Luhansk and Donetsk.[27][6][9]

International humanitarian law allows the internment of civilians in armed conflict only when they individually pose a security threat,[272][273] and all detained persons whose prisoners of war (PoW) status is in doubt must be treated as prisoners of war under the Geneva Convention until their status has been determined.[274] Reports of missing civilians are rampant in villages to the west of Kyiv, as Russian troops have withdrawn in the area, with a large majority of them male. One woman in Makhariv, told reporters she witnessed Russian soldiers force her son in law at gunpoint drive away from their house with the troops and he has not been seen since. Another man disappeared in Shptky, while attempting to deliver petrol to a friend with only his burned out and bullet ridden car found later by Ukrainian troops.[275]

Detention camps

Evacuees from Mariupol raised concerns about the treatment of evacuees from Mariupol by Russian troops through a Russian filtration camp, that is reportedly used to house civilians before they were evacuated. Similar camps have been compared by Ukrainian officials to the filtration camp system in Chechnya used by Russian troops in the First Chechen War and Second Chechen War. Refugees claimed that they were fingerprinted, photographed from all sides, and had their phones searched, and anyone believed to be a "Ukrainian Nazi" was taken to Donetsk for interrogation. They also told reporters there was a lack of basic necessities and a majority of the evacuations were forcing refugees towards Russia.[276][277][278][279]

Kidnapping of Ukrainian children

Russian authorities have also kidnapped more than 121,000 Ukrainian children, according to Ukrainian authorities, and deported them to Russia's eastern provinces. The parents of some of these children were killed by Russian military. The Russian state Duma has drafted a law which would formalize the kidnappings by allowing Russians to "adopt" these children.[280] The Ukrainian Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that there was a "blatant threat of illegal adoption of Ukrainian children by Russian citizens without observing all the necessary procedures determined by the legislation of Ukraine.” and called on United Nations bodies to intervene to have the children returned to Ukraine.[281]

Treatment of prisoners of war

Captured Russian soldiers during the Battle of Sumy
.

Russian prisoners of war

Humiliation of captured Russian soldiers

Since 27 February, the Ukrainian Ministry of Internal Affairs has shared on social media photos and videos of killed Russian soldiers,[282] soon followed by dozens of videos of prisoners of war under interrogation, sometimes blindfolded or bound, revealing their names and personal information, and expressing regret over their involvement in the invasion.[29][283][284] The videos have raised concerns about potential violations of Article 13 Third Geneva Convention, which states that prisoners of war should be protected "against insults and public curiosity."[285][286] On 7 March, Amnesty International released a statement saying that "it is essential that all parties to the conflict fully respect the rights of prisoners of war," and saying that filmed prisoners of war and their families could be put at risk of reprisals following repatriation to Russia.[28]

On 16 March, Human Rights Watch described the videos as intentional humiliation and shaming, and urged the Ukrainian authorities to stop posting them on social media and messaging apps.[29] Analogous concerns were expressed by various Western newspapers[287][288][289][290] A spokeswoman for the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Elizabeth Throssell, said that the videos, if genuine, were likely to be incompatible with human dignity and current international humanitarian law.[291] Interviewed by Der Spiegel, international law expert Daniel-Erasmus Khan [de] said that "letting POWs call home is actually a good thing, filming it and putting it online however is not," as it was incompatible with the Geneva Convention on the treatment of prisoners of war.[292]

Kneecapping of Russian soldiers

On 27 March a video purportedly showing Ukrainian soldiers torturing Russian prisoners by shooting them in the knees was uploaded on Telegram.[293][294] The video was likely shot in Mala Rohan, southeast of Kharkiv, in an area recently recaptured by Ukrainian troops.[294] The footage purports to depict a number of captured soldiers lying on the ground; many appear to be bleeding from leg wounds and are questioned by their captors. At one point, three prisoners are brought out of a vehicle and shot in the legs with a rifle. The accents and the uniforms of the captors are consistent with them being Ukrainians from the east of the country.[294][30] Independent journalist investigations later confirmed the location of the incident and documented that volunteers of the Ukrainian Slobozhanshchyna battalion were on site when the Russian prisoners were tortured.[31]

On 29 March the Head of the UN Human Rights Monitoring Mission in Ukraine Matilda Bogner said she was "very concerned".[294][295] She called on Russia and Ukraine to launch investigations on the alleged ill-treatment of prisoners of both sides, and reminded the two countries of their obligations to treat POWs humanely and ensure they "are not exposed to public curiosity and are treated with dignity."[296] Human Rights Watch said that the video, if confirmed, showed serious violations of international humanitarian law, and urged the Ukrainian authorities to ensure an effective investigation into actions that could qualify as war crime.[30] Oleksiy Arestovych, adviser to the Head of the Office of the President of Ukraine, said that the case is taken "very seriously" and that it will be immediately investigated, since it would be "absolutely unacceptable behavior".[297][298] The chairman of the investigative committee of the Russian Federation, Alexander Bastrykin, also said that an investigation will be launched. The Ukrainian armed forces chief, Valerii Zaluzhnyi, released a statement saying that the Russians had made fake videos in order to discredit Ukraine's defense forces.[293][297]

Execution of captured Russian soldiers

On 6 April a video apparently showing Ukrainian troops of the Georgian Legion executing captured Russian soldiers was posted on Telegram.[299] The video was verified by The New York Times and by Reuters.[300][32] A wounded Russian soldier was seemingly shot twice by a Ukrainian soldier while lying on the ground. Three dead Russian soldiers, including one with a head wound and hands tied behind his back, were shown near the soldier. The video appeared to have been filmed on a road north of the village of Dmytrivka, seven miles south of Bucha.[301]

The Georgian Legion's commander Mamouka Mamoulashvili acknowledged that that killing of Russian prisoners of war was done under his own orders by a patrol of the Georgian Legion.[302] In an interview published by the Youtube channel of the dissident Russian businessman Mikhail Khodorkovsky, he said about the treatment of Russian prisoners: "Sometimes we tie them hands and feet. I speak for the Georgian Legion, we will never take Russian prisoners."[303] Mamoulashvili justified no quarter for Russian soldiers as a response to the Bucha massacre.[304] On 7 April the head of the Russian investigative committee brought criminal charges against Mamulashvili for violations of the rules of warfare committed against Russian military personnel.[305]

Ukrainian prisoners of war

The United Nations Human Rights Monitoring Mission in Ukraine expressed worries about the treatment of Ukrainian prisoners of war held by forces of Russia and the Donetsk and Luhansk Republics.[9] On 4 April 2022, Ukrainian Ombudsman for human rights Lyudmyla Denisova said that Ukrainian prisoners of war had launched complaints about their mistreatment by Russian authorities, accusing their captors of inhumane living conditions, asserting that they had been repeatedly intimidated and threatened by their captors. Denisova stated that the prisoners "were periodically taken out one at a time: they [Russian authorities] beat them to make examples of them, fired near their ears and intimidated them."[306]

Humiliation of captured Ukrainian soldiers

Videos showing Ukrainian war prisoners being forced to sing pro-Russian songs or carrying bruises have attracted concerns about their treatment.[58] Dmytro Lubinets [uk], head of the Ukrainian parliament's human rights committee, claimed that Russians forcibly shaved heads of female Ukrainian prisoners.[307]

Captured Ukrainian soldiers with British citizenship were recorded calling for Boris Johnson to arrange for them to be freed in exchange for pro-Kremlin Ukrainian politician Viktor Medvedchuck. The videos were broadcast separately on Rossiya 24 TV channel, causing MP Robert Jenrick to call the videos a "flagrant breach" of the Third Geneva Convention. A Russian spokeswoman claimed that the Ukrainian prisoners of war with British nationality were being treated humanely, referenced a call by Boris Johnson for British prisoners to be shown mercy and said that in turn the UK should "show mercy" to the Ukrainian citizens by stopping military aid to the Ukrainian government.[308]

Another video circulated showing an interview by pro-Kremlin UK journalist Graham Phillips (former reporter of RT and Zvezda) of Ukrainian war prisoner of British nationality Aiden Aslin. Aslin had served in the Ukrainian army for four years and had been captured by the Russian army in Mariupol. In the video he appears in handcuffs with a cut on his forehead, he is repeatedly called a "mercenary" rather than an official combatant, and is told that his crime is punishable by death. The video was aired on Russian television.[309]

Executions of surrendering Ukrainian soldiers

At an Arria-formula meeting of the UN Security Council, the US ambassador-at-large for global criminal justice Beth Van Schaack said that US authorities have evidence that surrendering Ukrainian soldiers were executed by the Russian army in Donetsk.[310][311] An Ukrainian soldier who was shown among prisoners in a Russian video on 20 April, was confirmed dead days later.[312]

Intercepted conversation about killing of Ukrainian prisoners

On 20 April, the Ukrainian army released on social media an intercepted call where two Russian soldiers are speaking and one calls for the killing of Ukrainian prisoners of war: "Keep the most senior among them, and let the rest go forever. Let them go forever, damn it, so that no one will ever see them again, including relatives". NPR could not confirm the authenticity of the statement.[313]

Looting

Looting is a war crime under Article 52 of the Fourth Geneva Convention.[314] Survivors of Bucha and the Bucha massacre raised accusations that Russian soldiers looted the town, taking jewelry, electronics, kitchen appliances, clothing and vehicles of evacuees, the deceased and those still in the city.[315] Wall Street Journal journalist Yaroslav Trofimov reported hearing testimonies of Russian soldiers looting food and valuables during his visit to southern Ukraine.[316] The Guardian journalists visiting Trostianets after a month-long Russian occupation found evidence of "systematic looting".[317] Similarly, villagers in Berestyanka near Kyiv told ABC News that before the village returned to Ukrainian control, Russian soldiers looted clothes, household appliances and electronics from homes.[243]

Videos have been posted on Telegram, reportedly showing Russian soldiers sending stolen Ukrainian goods home through courier services in Belarus. Items visible in videos included air conditioning units, alcohol, car batteries, and bags from Epicentr K stores.[318] News aggregator Ukraine Alert posted video showing stolen goods found in an abandoned Russian armored personnel carrier, and an image reportedly showing a damaged Russian military truck carrying three washing machines. Intercepted telephone calls have also made mention of looting; a call by a Russian soldier released by the Security Service of Ukraine included the soldier telling his girlfriend: "I stole some cosmetics for you" to which the girlfriend responded "What Russian person doesn't steal anything?"[319] The Russian company CDEK postal service stopped live streaming its CCTV in early April. CDEK live-streams video from its delivery offices as a courtesy to customers to show them how busy the offices are, before customers visit the branches. This live stream was used by Lithuania-based exiled Belarusian dissident Anton Motolko as evidence of looting. Some of the alleged items come from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Some of these items are radioactive or contaminated with radioactivity because they were used in the nuclear power plant.[320]

There are reports of bazaars set up by Russian forces outside Ukraine to trade in looted goods in Belarus. Such items are "washing machines and dishwashers, refrigerators, jewelry, cars, bicycles, motorcycles, dishes, carpets, works of art, children's toys, cosmetics,". Russian soldiers are seeking payment in euros and US dollars however, and due to currency restrictions this is difficult for locals.[321]

Widespread claims of looting by Russian troops of cultural institutions were raised by Ukrainian officials with a majority of the accusations coming from the areas of Mariupol and Melitopol. Ukrainian officials have claimed that Russian forces have seized more than 2,000 artworks and Scythian gold from various museums and moving them into the Donbas region.[322]

Genocide

Several national parliaments, including those of Ukraine[323] as well as Canada,[324] Poland,[325] Estonia,[326] Latvia[327] and Lithuania[328] declared that the war crimes taking place in the invasion were genocide. Scholars of genocide, including Eugene Finkel,[329][330] Timothy D. Snyder[331] and Gregory Stanton,[332] and legal experts Otto Luchterhandt [de][333] and Zakhar Tropin[334] said that along with the acts required by the definition of genocide,[335] there was genocidal intent, together establishing genocide. Human rights lawyer Juan E. Méndez stated on 4 March 2022 that the genocide claim was worth investigating, but should not be presumed;[336] and genocide scholar Alexander Hinton stated on 13 April that Russian president Vladimir Putin's genocidal rhetoric would have to be linked to the war crimes in order to establish genocidal intent.[332]

Legal proceedings

Given Russia's seat on the UN Security Council, and existing complaints in international courts by Ukraine about Russian aggression in Crimea and Donbas, legal analysts initially speculated that Ukraine might experience difficulty seeking recourse for the invasion.[337]

International Criminal Court

On 25 February 2022, ICC Prosecutor Karim Ahmad Khan stated that the ICC could "exercise its jurisdiction and investigate any act of genocide, crime against humanity or war crime committed within Ukraine."[338] Khan stated on 28 February that he would launch a full ICC investigation and that he had requested his team to "explore all evidence preservation opportunities". He stated that it would be faster to officially open the investigation if an ICC member state referred the case for investigation. Lithuanian prime minister Ingrida Simonyte stated on the same day that Lithuania had requested that the ICC investigation be opened.[339]

On 2 March, 39 states had already referred the situation in Ukraine to the ICC Prosecutor, who could then open an investigation into past and present allegations of war crimes, crimes against humanity or genocide committed in Ukraine by any person from 21 November 2013 onwards.[340][341] On 11 March two additional referrals were submitted to the ICC Prosecutor, and the Prosecutor declared that investigations would begin.[34] The Prosecutor's office set up an online method for people with evidence to initiate contact with investigators,[34] and a team of investigators, lawyers and other professionals was sent to Ukraine to begin collecting evidence.[33][34]

Neither Ukraine nor Russia are parties to the Rome Statute, the legal basis of the ICC. The ICC has jurisdiction to investigate because Ukraine signed two declarations consenting to ICC jurisdiction over crimes committed in Ukraine from 21 November 2013 onwards.[35][342][343] Articles 28(a) and 28(b) of the Rome Statute define the relation between command responsibility and superior responsibility of the chain of command structures of the armed forces involved.[344]

International Court of Justice

On 27 February, Ukraine filed a petition with the International Court of Justice arguing that Russia violated the Genocide Convention using an unsubstantiated accusation of genocide in order to justify its aggression against Ukraine.[345][346]

On 1 March, the ICJ officially called on Russia to "act in such a way" that would make it possible for a decision on provisional measures to become effective.[347] Initial hearings in the case took place on 7 March 2022 at Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands—the seat of the court—to determine Ukraine's entitlement to provisional relief.[348] The Russian delegation did not appear for these proceedings,[349] but submitted a written statement.[350]

On 16 March 2022, the court ruled 13–2 that Russia must "immediately suspend the military operations" it commenced on 24 February 2022 in Ukraine,[351] with Vice-president Kirill Gevorgian of Russia and Judge Xue Hanqin of China dissenting.[352] The court also unanimously called for "[b]oth Parties [to] refrain from any action which might aggravate or extend the dispute before the Court or make it more difficult to resolve.[351]

Ukrainian chief federal prosecutor's investigation

The Ukrainian foreign minister Dmytro Kuleba stated on 25 February that Russia was committing war crimes, and that the ministry and the Prosecutor General of Ukraine were collecting evidence on events including attacks on kindergartens and orphanages, which would be "immediately transfer[red]" to the ICC.[353] On 30 March, Ukraine's chief prosecutor announced that she was building 2,500 war crimes cases against the Russian invasion.[36] On May 13 the first war crimes trial began in Kyiv, of a Russian soldier who was ordered to shoot an unarmed civilian.[354] The soldier, Vadim Shishimarin, soon pleaded guilty to this crime.[355][356] Shortly after Shishimarin pleaded guilty, two other Russian soldiers were tried on war crimes charges for firing missiles at a residential tower block in Kharkiv.[357] They also pleaded guilty.[358]

International Commission of Inquiry on Ukraine

On 4 March 2022, the United Nations Human Rights Council voted 32 in favour versus 2 against and 13 absentions to create the International Commission of Inquiry on Ukraine, an independent international committee of three human rights experts with a mandate to investigate violations of human rights and of international humanitarian law in the context of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[359][360]

UN Human Rights Monitoring Mission in Ukraine

The UN Human Rights Monitoring Mission in Ukraine (HRMMU), whose monitoring of human rights violations by all parties in Ukraine started in 2014,[361] continued its monitoring during the 2022 Russian invasion, retaining 60 monitors in Ukraine.[362] On 30 March 2022, HRMMU had recorded 24 "credible allegations" of Russian use of cluster munitions and 77 incidents of damage to medical facilities during the invasion. Michelle Bachelet stated, "The massive destruction of civilian objects and the high number of civilian casualties strongly indicate that the fundamental principles of distinction, proportionality and precaution have not been sufficiently adhered to."[362]

EU Joint Investigation Team

In the aftermath of the Bucha massacre, the EU established a Joint Investigation Team with Ukraine to investigate war crimes and crimes against humanity. Within the framework of the Join Investigation Team, a pool of investigators and legal experts by Eurojust and Europol is made available for providing assistance to the Ukrainian Prosecution Services.[363] On 6 April 2022, United States Attorney General Merrick Garland announced that the U.S. Department of Justice was assisting Eurojust and Europol prosecutors with their investigation, and that the Justice and State Departments were also making efforts to support the Ukrainian prosecutor.[364]

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

A Report released by the OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) on 12 April 2022 stated that while a detailed assessment of most allegations had not been possible, the mission had found clear patterns of war crimes by the Russian forces.[80] According to the OSCE Report, had the Russian army refrained from indiscriminate and disproportionate attacks, the number of civilians casualties would have remained much lower and fewer houses, hospitals, schools and cultural properties would have been damaged or destroyed.[80] The Report denounced the violation of international humanitarian law on military occupation and the violation of international human rights law (right to life, prohibition of torture and other inhuman and degrading treatment and punishment) mostly in the areas under direct or indirect control of Russia.[80]

International legal task force

In late March 2022, the Task Force on Accountability for Crimes Committed in Ukraine, a pro bono international group of lawyers, was created to help Ukrainian prosecutors coordinate legal cases for war crimes and other crimes related to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[365][36]

Universal jurisdiction

Several states, including Estonia, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, and Ukraine, announced in March and April 2022 that they would conduct investigations of war crimes in the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine under the universal jurisdiction principle of international humanitarian law.[366]

International reactions

During a debate in the House of Commons on 24 February 2022, UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson said that "anyone who sends a Russian into battle to kill innocent Ukrainians" could face charges, comparing Putin to Slobodan Milošević. Johnson also expressed support for the formation of an international tribunal to try the perpetrators of war crimes committed during the war.

On the 16 March, U.S. President Joe Biden called Putin a war criminal. On 23 March, U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken announced that the United States formally declared that the Russian military had committed war crimes in Ukraine, stating, "based on information currently available, the US government assesses that members of Russia's forces have committed war crimes in Ukraine."[367] A week later the US State Department issued a formal assessment that Russia has committed war crimes.[368] On 12 April 2022, Biden described Russia's war crimes in Ukraine as constituting genocide.[369] He added that Putin "is trying to wipe out the idea of being able to be Ukrainian".[370]

On 3 April 2022, French Foreign Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian described abuses by Russian forces in Ukrainian towns, particularly Bucha as possible war crimes.[371] On 7 April, French President Emmanuel Macron described the alleged killings in the Ukrainian town of Bucha were "very probably war crimes."[372]

The United Nations General Assembly voted on 7 April 2022 to suspend Russia from the United Nations Human Rights Council over "gross and systematic violations and abuses of human rights".[37]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ From DNR and LNR

References

  1. ^ "Chernihiv: Are these Russia's weapons of war?". BBC News. 9 April 2022. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  2. ^ Gall, Carlotta; Kramer, Andrew E. (3 April 2022). "In a Kyiv Suburb,'They Shot Everyone They Saw'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 3 April 2022. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  3. ^ a b c "Ukraine: Russian Forces Fired On Civilian Vehicles". Human Rights Watch. 2 May 2022. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  4. ^ a b c d "Russian military commits indiscriminate attacks during the invasion of Ukraine". Amnesty International. 25 February 2022. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  5. ^ a b c d "Ukraine: Deadly Attacks Kill, Injure Civilians, Destroy Homes". Human Rights Watch. 18 March 2022. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Bogner, Matilda (25 March 2022). "Situation in Ukraine. Statement delivered by the Head of Human Rights Monitoring Mission in Ukraine on the situation in Ukraine". Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights.
  7. ^ a b "United Nations Treaty Collection". Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  8. ^ a b "Ukraine: Russian Cluster Munition Hits Hospital – 4 Civilians Killed, 10 Wounded". Human Rights Watch. 25 February 2022. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o HRMMU Update on the human rights situation in Ukraine, 24 February – 26 March 2022 (PDF) (Report). UN Human Rights Monitoring Mission in Ukraine. 28 March 2022.
  10. ^ a b Lance, Rachel. "The Enduring Danger of Cluster Bombs". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  11. ^ a b "Ukraine nuclear power plant attack: All you need to know". Al Jazeera. 4 March 2022. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  12. ^ a b c Reid, Anna (15 March 2022). "Ukrainian heritage is under threat – and so is the truth about Soviet-era Russia". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  13. ^ "Russia Kidnaps Ukrainian Children". 23 April 2022.
  14. ^ "Ukraine: civilian casualty update 28 April 2022". OHCHR. Retrieved 28 April 2022.
  15. ^ a b c "Rape as a weapon: huge scale of sexual violence inflicted in Ukraine emerges". the Guardian. 4 April 2022. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  16. ^ "Ukraine: US condemns 'unconscionable' forced deportations of civilians from Mariupol". The Guardian. 20 March 2022. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  17. ^ Ochab, Ewelina U. (10 April 2022). "Ukrainian Children Forcibly Transferred And Subjected To Illegal Adoptions". Forbes. Retrieved 28 April 2022.
  18. ^ Engelbrecht, Cora (29 March 2022). "Reports of sexual violence involving Russian soldiers are multiplying, Ukrainian officials say". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 March 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  19. ^ a b Wamsley, Laurel (30 April 2022). "Rape has reportedly become a weapon in Ukraine. Finding justice may be difficult". NPR. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  20. ^ "War in Ukraine: Street in Bucha found strewn with dead bodies". BBC News. 2 April 2022. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  21. ^ "In Bucha, the scope of Russian barbarity is coming into focus". Washington Post. 7 April 2022. Archived from the original on 7 April 2022.
  22. ^ a b Callaghan, Louise (2 April 2022). "Bodies of mutilated children among horrors the Russians left behind". The Times. Archived from the original on 4 April 2022. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  23. ^ "Ukraine documents alleged atrocities by retreating Russians". CBS News. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  24. ^ "Police: More than 900 civilian bodies found in Kyiv region". Associated Press. 15 April 2022.
  25. ^ a b "Ensuring accountability for atrocities committed in Ukraine". OHCHR. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  26. ^ a b "Russians use abduction, hostage-taking to threaten Ukrainian journalists in occupied zones". Reporters without borders. 25 March 2022. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  27. ^ a b c "Ukraine War: Civilians abducted as Russia tries to assert control". BBC News. 25 March 2022. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  28. ^ a b "Russia/Ukraine: Prisoners of war must be protected from public curiosity under Geneva Convention". Amnesty International. 7 March 2022. Archived from the original on 8 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  29. ^ a b c "Ukraine: Respect the Rights of Prisoners of War". Human Rights Watch. 16 March 2022. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  30. ^ a b c "Ukraine: Apparent POW Abuse Would Be War Crime". Human Rights Watch. 31 March 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  31. ^ a b "Vidéo. Prisonniers russes torturés : des vidéos vérifiées par "Le Monde" mettent en cause un bataillon de volontaires ukrainiens". Le Monde (in French). 13 May 2022. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  32. ^ a b "Video appears to show Ukrainian forces killing Russian captive". Reuters. Reuters. 7 April 2022. Retrieved 15 April 2022.
  33. ^ a b "ICC prosecutor: Team leaves to investigate war crimes in Ukraine". Thomson Reuters. 3 March 2022. Archived from the original on 4 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  34. ^ a b c d "Statement of ICC Prosecutor, Karim A.A. Khan QC, on the Situation in Ukraine: Additional Referrals from Japan and North Macedonia; Contact portal launched for provision of information". www.icc-cpi.int. 11 March 2022. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  35. ^ a b "Statement of ICC Prosecutor, Karim A.A. Khan QC, on the Situation in Ukraine: "I have decided to proceed with opening an investigation."". www.icc-cpi.int. 28 February 2022. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  36. ^ a b c Farmer, Ben; Kozyreva, Tanya; Townsley, Simon (30 March 2022). "I'm building 2,500 war crimes cases against Vladimir Putin's invasion, says Ukraine's chief prosecutor". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 31 March 2022. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  37. ^ a b Nichols, Michelle (7 April 2022). "U.N. suspends Russia from human rights body, Moscow then quits". Reuters. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  38. ^ "Ukrainian prime minister accuses Russia of war crimes". www.timesofisrael.com. The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  39. ^ a b c Gunter, Joel (2 March 2022). "Ukrainian city of Mariupol 'near to humanitarian catastrophe' after bombardment". bbc.com. Archived from the original on 2 March 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  40. ^ "Hundreds feared dead from 15-hour Russian attack on Mariupol, Ukraine". New York Post. 2 March 2022. Archived from the original on 2 March 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  41. ^ "Ukraine: Civilian casualties as of 24:00 3 March 2022". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 3 March 2022. Archived from the original on 5 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  42. ^ "Ukraine health centres have been attacked, WHO chief says". Reuters. 6 March 2022. Archived from the original on 8 March 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  43. ^ ""Everything is on fire": One month since the Russian invasion of Ukraine". Amnesty International. 24 March 2022. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  44. ^ Raghavan, Sudarsan (28 March 2022). "Russia has killed civilians in Ukraine. Kyiv's defense tactics add to the danger". The Washington Post. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  45. ^ В Кремле опровергли сведения об использовании на Украине кассетных бомб [The Kremlin denied reports of the use of cluster bombs in Ukraine]. РИА Новости (in Russian). 4 March 2022. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  46. ^ a b "Ukraine: Cluster munitions kill child and two other civilians taking shelter at a preschool". Amnesty International. 27 February 2022. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  47. ^ "Ukraine: Cluster Munitions Launched Into Kharkiv Neighborhoods". Human Rights Watch. 4 March 2022. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  48. ^ a b c d "Ukraine: Cluster Munitions Repeatedly Used on Mykolaiv". Human Rights Watch. 17 March 2022. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  49. ^ "Ukraine used cluster munitions — which many countries have banned — to force Russian troops out of a village, report says". news.yahoo.com.
  50. ^ Matyas, David (8 March 2022). "Humanitarian Corridors in Ukraine: Impasse, Ploy or Narrow Passage of Hope? Humanitarian Corridors in Ukraine: Impasse, Ploy or Narrow Passage of Hope?". Just Security. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  51. ^ Gunter, Joel (5 March 2022). "Siege of Mariupol: Fresh Russian attacks throw evacuation into chaos". BBC News. Archived from the original on 6 March 2022. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  52. ^ "Ukraine: Safe passage for civilians from Mariupol halted for a second day; ICRC calls on parties to agree to specific terms". International Committee of the Red Cross. 6 March 2022. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  53. ^ "Ukraine: Second attempt to evacuate civilians from Mariupol fails — live updates | DW | 6 March 2022". Deutsche Welle. 6 March 2022. Archived from the original on 6 March 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  54. ^ Rahman, Khaleda (7 March 2022). "Evacuation Route Offered to Fleeing Ukrainians Was Mined—Red Cross". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  55. ^ "Прямая трансляция пользователя Запорізька АЕС". youtube. Запорізька АЕС. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  56. ^ a b c "Video analysis reveals Russian attack on Ukrainian nuclear plant veered near disaster". NPR. 11 March 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  57. ^ "Security Council debates Russian strike on Ukraine nuclear power plant". UN News. 4 March 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  58. ^ a b "Update on the human rights situation in Ukraine (Reporting period: 24 February – 26 March)" (PDF). United Nations Human Rights Monitoring Mission in Ukraine.
  59. ^ "UN Security Council meets after Russia seizes second Ukrainian nuclear plant". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 5 March 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  60. ^ "Feds 'Assessing' Whether Russian Attack on Nuke Plant Was a War Crime". Newsweek. 4 March 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  61. ^ "US calls attack on Ukraine nuclear plant a possible 'war crime'". France24. 4 March 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  62. ^ "Pentagon won't call attack at nuclear plant a war crime, yet". News Nation. 4 March 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  63. ^ "U.S. calls Russian attack on Ukraine nuclear power plant a "war crime"". CBS News. 4 March 2022. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  64. ^ "Updated information about Zaporizhzhia NPP (15:00)". State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  65. ^ "Zelenskiy says 'Europe must wake up' after assault sparks nuclear plant fire". The Guardian. 5 March 2022. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  66. ^ "Russia, Ukraine trade barbs at UN over nuclear plant attack". Aljazeera. 4 March 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  67. ^ "Update 11 – IAEA Director General Statement on Situation in Ukraine". International Atomic Energy Agency. 4 March 2022. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  68. ^ "Treaties, States Parties and Commentaries". International Committee of the Red Cross. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  69. ^ a b Moore, George (6 March 2022). "How international law applies to attacks on nuclear and associated facilities in Ukraine". Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  70. ^ a b c Dannenbaum, Tom (13 March 2022). "The Attack at the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Plant and Additional Protocol I". Lieber Institute West Point. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  71. ^ Pevny, Olenka Z. (9 March 2022). "Ukraine's cultural heritage faces destruction as Russian bombing continues". The Conversation. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  72. ^ "Vladimir Putin's war endangers Ukraine's cultural heritage". The Economist. 19 March 2022. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  73. ^ "Culture in the crossfire: Ukraine's key monuments and museums at risk of destruction in the war". The Art Newspaper – International art news and events. 25 March 2022. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  74. ^ "Museum building heavily damaged in Ukraine's battle-ravaged city of Chernihiv". The Art Newspaper – International art news and events. 15 March 2022. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  75. ^ "Babyn Yar: Anger as Kyiv's Holocaust memorial is damaged". BBC News. 3 March 2022. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  76. ^ "Russian invaders destroy 19th-century wooden church in Zhytomyr Region". www.ukrinform.net. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  77. ^ "Ukraine museum reportedly burns down in Russian invasion, destroying 25 works by folk artist Maria Prymachenko". The Art Newspaper – International art news and events. 28 February 2022. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  78. ^ "Over 50 landmark Ukraine sites damaged in Russian invasion: UN". France 24. 1 April 2022. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  79. ^ a b c d Hausler, Kristin; Drazewska, Berenika. "How does international law protect Ukrainian cultural heritage in war? Is it protected differently than other civilian objects?" (PDF). British Institute of International and Comparative Law.
  80. ^ a b c d e Wolfgang Benedek; Veronika Bílková; Marco Sassòli (13 April 2022). Report On Violations Of International Humanitarian And Human Rights Law, War Crimes And Crimes Against Humanity Committed In Ukraine Since 24 February 2022 (PDF) (Report). Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. ODIHR.GAL/26/22/Rev.1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 April 2022. Retrieved 14 April 2022.
  81. ^ "Ukraine war: WHO says attacks on health facilities are rising daily". BBC News. 26 March 2022. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  82. ^ "Ukraine war: Izyum hospital destroyed by shelling". Sky News. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  83. ^ "Ukraine says Russian forces hit psychiatric hospital but no one hurt". Reuters. 11 March 2022. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  84. ^ Biesecker, Michael; Kinetz, Erika; Dupuy, Beatrice (26 March 2022). "War Crimes Watch: Russia's onslaught on Ukrainian hospitals". AP NEWS. Retrieved 19 May 2022.
  85. ^ "WHO: Attacks on health care are part of Russian strategy, with Ukrainian civilians used as "chess pieces"". CNN. 30 March 2022. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  86. ^ Sanders IV, Lewis; Felden, Esther; Theise, Eugen (8 April 2022). "How Russia could get away with attacks on Ukraine hospitals". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  87. ^ Vasovic, Aleksandar (24 February 2022). "Port city of Mariupol comes under fire after Russia invades Ukraine". Reuters. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
  88. ^ Bachega, Hugo (16 March 2022). "Ukraine war: Russia attacks theatre sheltering civilians, Mariupol says". BBC News. Archived from the original on 16 March 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  89. ^ a b c d Hayes, Andy (16 March 2022). "Ukraine war: People buried under rubble after Mariupol theatre sheltering hundreds is hit by Russian bomb, officials say". Sky News. Archived from the original on 16 March 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  90. ^ a b c Lister, Tim (16 March 2022). "Russia bombs theater where hundreds sought shelter and 'children' was written on grounds". CNN. Archived from the original on 16 March 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  91. ^ "Mariupol City Officials: 300 Killed in Bombing of Theater Used as Shelter". VOA. 25 March 2022. Retrieved 19 May 2022.
  92. ^ "AP evidence points to 600 dead in Mariupol theater airstrike". AP NEWS. 4 May 2022. Retrieved 19 May 2022.
  93. ^ "Ukraine war: Maternity hospital hit by Russian air strike". BBC News. 9 March 2022. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  94. ^ "Ukraine war: Aftermath of Mariupol hospital shelling". Sky News. Archived from the original on 10 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  95. ^ "Russian bombing of maternity hospital 'genocide', says Zelenskiy". The Guardian. 9 March 2022. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
  96. ^ "Dmytro Kuleba twitter". Twitter. Archived from the original on 10 March 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  97. ^ "UK's Johnson condemns reported Mariupol hospital attack". euronews. 9 March 2022. Archived from the original on 10 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  98. ^ "Pregnant woman, baby die after Russian bombing in Mariupol | AP News". archive.ph. 15 March 2022. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
  99. ^ "Ukraine war: Pregnant woman and baby die after hospital shelled". BBC News. 14 March 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  100. ^ "Pregnant woman and her baby die after Mariupol hospital attack". euronews. 14 March 2022. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
  101. ^ "Ukraine war: Mariupol hospital attack: Pregnant woman hurt in bombing gives birth". BBC News. 14 March 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  102. ^ a b Macaluso, Nora (16 March 2022). "Social Media Posts Misrepresent Victims of Hospital Bombed in Mariupol". FactCheck.org. Annenberg Public Policy Center of the University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  103. ^ "Mariupol hospital attack: Pregnant woman hurt in bombing gives birth". BBC News. 11 March 2022. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
  104. ^ "Twitter blocks Russian claims on hospital attack". BBC News. 10 March 2022. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
  105. ^ Spring, Marianna (17 May 2022). "Marianna Vyshemirsky: 'My picture was used to spread lies about the war'". BBC News. Retrieved 17 May 2022.
  106. ^ AFP (8 March 2022). "Ukrainian Girl Dies of Thirst Under Rubble of Home: Mayor". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  107. ^ Wall, Mike (9 March 2022). "Russia-Ukraine invasion updates / Satellite photos of Mariupol, Ukraine show damage from Russian attacks: Grocery stores, homes and shopping centers have gone up in smoke". space.com. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  108. ^ Aloisi, Silvia (18 March 2022). "Shattered dreams". Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  109. ^ Klimov, Pavel; Popeski, Ron (18 March 2022). "Mariupol, on the front line of Ukraine's war". Reuters.com. Mariupol, Ukraine: Reuters. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  110. ^ a b c Bachega, Hugo; Popovych, Maksym (16 March 2022). "Ukraine war: Infection and hunger as hundreds hide in Mariupol cellar". BBÇ News. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  111. ^ Mason, Clark; Barros, George; Stepanenko, Kateryna (16 March 2022). "RUSSIAN OFFENSIVE CAMPAIGN ASSESSMENT, MARCH 16". ISW – Institute for the Study of War. ISW – Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  112. ^ a b Patel-Carstairs, Sunita (18 March 2022). "Ukraine war: Videos show apocalyptic destruction in Mariupol as Russia says it is 'tightening its encirclement'". Sky News. Sky New. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  113. ^ Boffey, Daniel; Tondo, Lorenzo (18 March 2022). "Fighting reaches central Mariupol as shelling hinders rescue attempts: Russia claims to be 'tightening noose' around south-eastern port city as thousands still stranded". The Guardian. Brussels, Belgium; Lviv, Ukraine. Archived from the original on 23 March 2022. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  114. ^ a b c "Ukraine war: Videos show apocalyptic destruction in Mariupol as Russia says it is 'tightening its encirclement'". Sky News. Retrieved 5 May 2022.
  115. ^ "Russians push deeper into port city of Mariupol as locals plead for help: "Children, elderly people are dying"". CBSNews.com. CBS News, Associated Press. 19 March 2022. Archived from the original on 23 March 2022. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  116. ^ Anna, Cara (20 March 2022). "Russia bombs Mariupol art school where 400 were sheltering, Ukraine officials say". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  117. ^ "Russian troops 'everywhere' in Mariupol as art school sheltering 400 is bombed". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  118. ^ "School where hundreds were believed to be sheltering is bombed in Mariupol as fighting rages for key port city". CNN. 20 March 2022. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  119. ^ "Ukraine retakes control of two Russian-occupied towns". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  120. ^ Lviv, Nathan Hodge, CNN and Julia Presniakova in (28 March 2022). "Mariupol mayor says Ukrainian city 'in the hands of the occupiers'". CNN. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  121. ^ Holly Ellyatt (18 April 2022). "Mariupol hasn't surrendered to Russia, PM says; at least 5 dead, 20 injured in Kharkiv attack". CNBC. Archived from the original on 18 April 2022. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  122. ^ Yuras Karmanau; Adam Schreck; Cara Anna (12 April 2022). "Mariupol mayor says siege has killed more than 10K civilians". Associated Press. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  123. ^ "Russia-Ukraine war: 21,000 civilians killed, Mayor of Mariupol estimates". The Jerusalem Post. 13 April 2022. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  124. ^ Tondo, Lorenzo (14 March 2022). "Russia accuses Kyiv of deadly missile attack on Donetsk". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  125. ^ "Russia accuses Ukraine of missile strike on Donetsk which Ukraine denies". Reuters. 15 March 2022. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  126. ^ a b Voitovych, Olga; Hodge, Nathan. "Dozens killed in train station missile strike in eastern Ukraine as civilians try to flee Russian onslaught". CNN.
  127. ^ "Bachelet urges respect for international humanitarian law amid growing evidence of war crimes in Ukraine" (Press release). Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. 22 April 2022. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  128. ^ Vakil, Caroline (14 April 2022). "Death toll in Ukraine train station bombing reaches 59, including 7 children". The Hill. Retrieved 6 May 2022.
  129. ^ "Kramatorsk station attack: What we know so far". BBC News. 8 April 2022.
  130. ^ "Footage shows aftermath of Russian shelling of Ukrainian city of Chernihiv say". Times of Israel. 4 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  131. ^ "Ukraine: Russian 'dumb bomb' air strike killed civilians in Chernihiv – new investigation and testimony". Amnesty International. 3 March 2022. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  132. ^ a b "Ukraine: Russian Air-Dropped Bombs Hit Residential Area". Human Rights Watch. 10 March 2022. Archived from the original on 11 March 2022. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  133. ^ Lister, Tim; Ochman, Oleksandra; Mezzofiore, Gianluca (16 March 2022). "People in line for bread in Ukrainian city of Chernihiv killed by Russian shelling, regional official says". CNN. Retrieved 17 March 2022.
  134. ^ Reals, Tucker (16 March 2022). "U.S. embassy says Russian troops "shot and killed 10 people standing in line for bread" in northeast Ukraine". CBS News. Retrieved 17 March 2022.
  135. ^ Addario, Lynsey (6 March 2022). "Russian forces fire on evacuees, leaving 4 people dead outside Kyiv". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  136. ^ a b c "Ukraine: Russian Assault Kills Fleeing Civilians". Human Rights Watch. 8 March 2022. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  137. ^ a b Addario, Lynsey; Kramer, Andrew E. (6 March 2022). "Ukrainian Family's Dash for Safety Ends in Death". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  138. ^ Villegas, Paulina; Stern, David L.; Cahlan, Sarah (6 March 2022). "Two Ukrainian children killed 'in front of my own eyes' while trying to evacuate, official says". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  139. ^ "Ukraine: Russian Assault Kills Fleeing Civilians". Human Rights Watch. 8 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  140. ^ Zitser, Joshua; Ankel, Sophia; Bostock, Bill; Dawson, Bethany (24 February 2022), "People in Ukraine describe the moment they awoke in a war zone as Russian forces bombed the cities where they live", Business Insider, retrieved 28 February 2022
  141. ^ Gilbody-Dickerson, Claire (25 February 2022), "Russia accused of war crimes in Ukraine after 'shelling kindergarten and orphanage' during invasion", i news, retrieved 28 February 2022
  142. ^ Pérez-Peña, Richard (5 April 2022). "In the rubble of a town near Kyiv, many are missing and feared dead". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 14 April 2022.
  143. ^ a b c "Ukraine : à Borodianka, la difficulté d'extraire les cadavres" [Ukraine: In Borodianka, the difficulty of extracting cadavers]. Europe 1 (in French). 9 April 2022. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  144. ^ a b Karazy, Sergiy (8 April 2022). "Borodianka razed: Zelenskiy says situation 'more dreadful' than Bucha". Reuters. Retrieved 14 April 2022. Few buildings remain standing in Borodianka, the ones that do have burn marks running up their walls.
  145. ^ a b c d Sullivan, Becky (7 April 2022). "Ukrainians return to Borodyanka after Russian withdrawal and find their town in ruins". NPR. Retrieved 14 April 2022.
  146. ^ Nava, Victor I. "Civilians "buried alive" in Borodyanka, "much worse" than Bucha, Zelensky says". Washington Examiner. Retrieved 8 April 2022.
  147. ^ "Guerre en Ukraine: la ville de Borodyanka dévastée par les frappes russes" [War in Ukraine: The town of Borodianka devastated by Russian strikes]. Franceinfo (in French). 6 April 2022. Retrieved 13 April 2022.
  148. ^ "Dozens of Bucha civilians were killed by metal darts from Russian artillery". The Guardian. 24 April 2022. Archived from the original on 24 April 2022. Retrieved 26 April 2022.
  149. ^ "Lethal darts were fired into a Ukrainian neighborhood by the thousands". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 18 April 2022. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  150. ^ "Sumy airstrikes: 22 killed, another child retrieved from rubble dead". Ukrayinska Pravda. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022..
  151. ^ "14-й день війни: Військові злочини ворога в Сумах та Чернігові". ФОКУС (in Ukrainian). 9 March 2022. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  152. ^ "War crimes of the Russian Federation: as a result of an air strike on the residential sector killed 21 civilians, including 2 children". Uacrisis.org. 8 March 2022. Archived from the original on 8 March 2022. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  153. ^ "Live updates: Ammonia leak contaminates area in east Ukraine". The Washington Post. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  154. ^ Nava, Victor I. (21 March 2022). "Ammonia leak reported at Ukraine chemical plant after Russian airstrike". Colorado Springs Gazette. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  155. ^ and AFP (21 March 2022). "Ukrainian town told to shelter after shelling causes ammonia leak at chemical factory". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 March 2022.
  156. ^ a b c d e "Ukraine: Cluster Munitions Launched Into Kharkiv Neighborhoods". Human Rights Watch. 4 March 2022. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  157. ^ "Several killed as Russian rockets pound Ukraine's Kharkiv". Al Jazeera. 28 February 2022. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  158. ^ Luke Harding (1 March 2022). civilian-areas-of-kharkiv "'Horrendous' rocket attack kills civilians in Kharkiv as Moscow 'adapts its tactics'". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 March 2022. {{cite news}}: Check |url= value (help)
  159. ^ David L. Stern, Miriam Berger, Sarah Cahlan, Isabelle Khurshudyan, Joyce Sohyun Lee (28 February 2022). "Dozens wounded in shelling of Kharkiv as Russia strikes buildings with suspected cluster munitions". The Washington Post. Retrieved 29 March 2022.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  160. ^ a b Gorbunova, Yulia (7 March 2022). "Under Shelling in Kharkiv: People with Disabilities Need to Evacuate Safely". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  161. ^ "188 people killed in Kharkiv region during war with Russia". www.ukrinform.net. Archived from the original on 5 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  162. ^ "Ukraine war: Izyum hospital destroyed by shelling". Sky News. Archived from the original on 8 March 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  163. ^ Gazeta.ua (3 March 2022). Російський ворог бомбардує Ізюм. Є жертви. Gazeta.ua (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 10 March 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  164. ^ "Exclusive: Russian general who oversaw atrocities in Syria led cluster bomb attacks on civilians in Ukraine". CNN News. By Nima Elbagir, Barbara Arvanitidis, Gianluca Mezzofiore, Katie Polglase, Tamara Qiblawi, Alex Platt, Victoria Butenko, Darya Tarasova and Maria Avdeeva. May 13, 2022. [1]
  165. ^ Helen Regan; Steve George; Maureen Chowdhury; Mike Hayes; Amir Vera (14 March 2022). "March 13, 2022 Russia-Ukraine news". CNN. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  166. ^ a b "Nine Killed by Bombing in Southern City of Mykolaiv: Regional Governor". The Moscow Times. AFP. 13 March 2022. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  167. ^ Російські окупанти вдарили бомбами по Житомиру. Горять житлові будинки. РБК-Украина (in Russian). Archived from the original on 10 March 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  168. ^ Окупанти обстріляли Обласний перинатальний центр в Житомирі. РБК-Украина (in Russian). Archived from the original on 8 March 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  169. ^ "РОСІЙСЬКІ ОРКИ ЗАВДАЛИ ПОТУЖНОГО УДАРУ ПО ШКОЛІ ЖИТОМИРА". Archived from the original on 6 March 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  170. ^ Цензор.НЕТ. Житомирський бронетанковий завод потрапив під російський авіаудар: двоє поранених, – голова ОВА Бунечко. ВIДЕО. Цензор.НЕТ (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 5 March 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  171. ^ Ворог наніс авіаудар по Житомиру та Київській області. Повністю зруйновано гуртожиток. РБК-Украина (in Russian). Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  172. ^ Цензор.НЕТ. Війська РФ скидають авіабомби на Житомир. ВIДЕО. Цензор.НЕТ (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 10 March 2022. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  173. ^ a b Ball, Tom (20 March 2022). "Ukraine accuses Russia of killing 56 care home residents in Luhansk". The Times.
  174. ^ "Russia takes Donbas town but Ukrainian frontline 'still holding'". The Guardian. 19 April 2022. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  175. ^ "Russian forces capture city of Kreminna, as attacks continue in country's eastern Donbas region". ABC News (Australia). 20 April 2022. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  176. ^ Reuters (8 May 2022). "Bombing of school in Ukraine kills two, dozens more feared dead, governor says". Reuters. Archived from the original on 8 May 2022. Retrieved 8 May 2022.
  177. ^ "Ukraine war: 60 people killed after bomb hits school, Zelensky says". BBC News. 8 May 2022. Retrieved 23 May 2022.
  178. ^ "Statement attributable to the Spokesperson for the Secretary-General - on Ukraine | United Nations Secretary-General". www.un.org. Retrieved 23 May 2022.
  179. ^ "Truss condemns 'war crime' after Russian bomb hits Ukrainian school". The Independent. 8 May 2022. Retrieved 23 May 2022.
  180. ^ "Ворог обстріляв курортну Затоку на Одещині". Ukrinform (in Ukrainian). 3 March 2022. Archived from the original on 30 March 2022. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  181. ^ Лотоцька, Наталка (3 March 2022). "Окупанти двічі обстріляли село Біленьке на Одещині, загинула людина". LB.ua (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 23 March 2022. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  182. ^ Касіян, Віра (3 March 2022). "Pосійські кораблі в Одеському порту потопили цивільне судно, яке не погодилося стати живим щитом (оновлено)". LB.ua (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 30 March 2022. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  183. ^ "As a result of missile attack on Odesa, military facility and two residential buildings damaged". Interfax-Ukraine.
  184. ^ CNN, By <a href="/profiles/joe-ruiz">Joe Ruiz</a>, Maureen Chowdhury, Mike Hayes, <a href="/profiles/simone-mccarthy">Simone McCarthy</a>, Amy Woodyatt, <a href="/profiles/amir-vera">Amir Vera</a>, <a href="/profiles/helen-regan">Helen Regan</a> and <a href="/profiles/andrew-raine">Andrew Raine</a> (24 April 2022). "8 dead in Russian missile strikes in Southern Ukraine, Odesa mayor says". CNN.
  185. ^ Davies, Caroline (24 April 2022). "Odesa missile attack: 'My world was destroyed by a Russian missile'". BBC. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  186. ^ Falconer, Rebecca (24 April 2022). "Baby among 8 dead in Russian missile strikes on Odessa, Ukraine says". Axios. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  187. ^ 'Kill them all, for f**k sake': Shocking intercepted audio reveals conversation between Russian soldiers - CNN Video, retrieved 9 April 2022
  188. ^ "Russian soldiers 'discussed killing civilians' in Ukraine in radio intercepts". the Guardian. 7 April 2022. Retrieved 5 May 2022.
  189. ^ "Russian state news demands 'liquidation' of Ukrainians as evidence of war crimes mounts". inews.co.uk. 5 April 2022. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  190. ^ a b "Police: More than 900 civilian bodies found in Kyiv region". AP News. 16 April 2022. Retrieved 16 April 2022.
  191. ^ a b Stern, David L.; Kelly, Meg; Parker, Claire (2 April 2022). "Bodies, rubble line the streets of Bucha following Russian retreat". Washington Post. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  192. ^ "War in Ukraine: Street in Bucha found strewn with dead bodies". BBC News. 2 April 2022. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  193. ^ Rudenko, Olga (2 April 2022). "Hundreds of murdered civilians discovered as Russians withdraw from towns near Kyiv (GRAPHIC IMAGES)".
  194. ^ "Ukraine: Apparent War Crimes in Russia-Controlled Areas". Human Rights Watch. 3 April 2022.
  195. ^ Berehulak, Daniel; Gall, Carlotta (11 April 2022). "Bucha's Month of Terror". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 11 April 2022.
  196. ^ "Ukrainian authorities discovered a 'torture chamber' in Bucha where Russian soldiers killed civilians". news.yahoo.com.
  197. ^ Singh, Samantha Lock (now); Maanvi; Oladipo, Gloria; Chao-Fong, Léonie; Belam (earlier), Martin (6 April 2022). "Zelenskiy says now is the 'crucial moment' for western leaders to impose further sanctions – as it happened". The Guardian.
  198. ^ "Associated Press journalists witness more evidence of civilian killings, torture in Bucha". CBC. 5 April 2022.
  199. ^ "In Bucha, the scope of Russian barbarity is coming into focus". Washington Post. 7 April 2022.
  200. ^ "Ukraine: Russian Forces' Trail of Death in Bucha". Human Rights Watch. 21 April 2022. Retrieved 23 May 2022.
  201. ^ Myroniuk, Anna (8 March 2022). "Russian soldiers murder volunteers helping starving animals near Kyiv". The Kyiv Independent. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
  202. ^ "'It is a war crime': two young boys among neighbours shot dead during attempted evacuation". The Guardian. 2 April 2022.
  203. ^ "Devastation and Loss in Bucha, Ukraine: Life for Civilians in a Town Encircled by Russian Forces". 30 March 2022 – via Human Rights Watch.
  204. ^ Timsit, Annabelle; Hassan, Jennifer (3 April 2022). "Signs of massacre in Bucha spark calls for war-crime probes". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 3 April 2022. Retrieved 4 April 2022.
  205. ^ McDonnell, Patrick J.; Kaleem, Jaweed (4 April 2022). "Calls grow for more sanctions on Russia after mass graves found around Kyiv". LA Times.
  206. ^ Samantha Lock, Abené Clayton, Gloria Oladipo, Léonie Chao-Fong and Martin Belam. 4 Apr 2022. The Guardian. "Russia-Ukraine war latest: Biden calls for Putin war crimes trial; Borodyanka worse than Bucha, says Ukrainian prosecutor". [2]
  207. ^ "Ukraine: Russian forces extrajudicially executing civilians in apparent war crimes – new testimony". Amnesty International. 7 April 2022. Retrieved 8 April 2022.
  208. ^ Al-Hlou, Yousur; Froliak, Masha; Hill, Evan; Browne, Malachy; Botti, David (19 May 2022). "New Evidence Shows How Russian Soldiers Executed Men in Bucha". The New York Times.
  209. ^ "Massacre de Boutcha : ce que l'on sait sur la découverte des corps de civils" [Bucha massacre: what we know about the discovery of civilian corpses]. Le Monde.fr (in French). 5 April 2022. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  210. ^ Senneville, Frédéric (8 April 2022). "Guerre en Ukraine. À Borodianka, une situation "plus horrible" qu'à Boutcha. Le point de la nuit" [Warre in Ukraine. In Borodianka, a situation "more horrible" than in Bucha. Nightly report.]. Ouest-France (in French). ISSN 1760-6306. Retrieved 8 April 2022.
  211. ^ "Під завалами будинків у Бородянці знайшли вже 26 загиблих". Focus (in Ukrainian). 2022. Retrieved 14 April 2022.
  212. ^ Hanlon, Tim (14 May 2022). "'Bodies of tortured and mutilated Ukrainians' found by war crimes investigators". mirror. Retrieved 19 May 2022.
  213. ^ "Russia-Ukraine live updates: Russia threatens to strike 'decision-making centers'". ABC News.
  214. ^ Walters, Samantha Lock; Selby, Jenn; Chao-Fong, Léonie; Skopeliti, Clea; Ratcliffe, Rebecca; Walker, Shaun (10 April 2022). "European Commission pledges €1bn to support Ukraine – as it happened". The Guardian.
  215. ^ "Russian soldiers accused of firing on civilian vehicles in Ukraine". The Guardian. 8 March 2022. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  216. ^ "Video Shows Elderly Couple Being Killed By Russian Armored Column". RFE/RL. 9 March 2022. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  217. ^ a b "Ukraine war: Gruesome evidence points to war crimes on road outside Kyiv". BBC News. 1 April 2022. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  218. ^ "Ukraine: Apparent War Crimes in Russia-Controlled Areas". Human Rights Watch. 3 April 2022. Retrieved 4 April 2022.
  219. ^ Gibbons-Neff, Thomas; Yermak, Natalia; Hicks, Tyler (3 April 2022). "'This Is True Barbarity': Life and Death Under Russian Occupation". The New York Times.
  220. ^ "'Barbarians': Russian troops leave grisly mark on town of Trostianets". The Guardian. 5 April 2022.
  221. ^ "'He never came back': Horrors of kidnap, torture, murder in Russian torture chamber". Independent.co.uk. 17 April 2022.
  222. ^ "Russian military abducts, tortures people in Kherson region". www.ukrinform.net. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  223. ^ "In A Ukrainian Region Occupied By Russian Forces, People Are Disappearing. Locals Fear It's About To Get Worse". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  224. ^ Tucker, Tom Ball, Maxim. "Russia plans kidnapping and violence in 'great terror' to end Kherson protests". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  225. ^ Bouchie´ de Belle, Ste´phanie (December 2008). "Chained to cannons or wearing targets on their T-shirts: human shields in international humanitarian law". International Review of the Red Cross. No 872.
  226. ^ "Russia's unspeakable horrors in northern Ukraine: Torture, murder and cluster bombs". ABC News. 17 April 2022. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  227. ^ "A Ukrainian village tries to make sense of Russian occupation". The Economist. 11 April 2022. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  228. ^ "Ukraine War: 'Russian soldiers held us as human shields'". BBC. 7 April 2022. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  229. ^ "Ukrainian children used as 'human shields' near Kyiv, say witness reports". the Guardian. 2 April 2022. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  230. ^ "Russian soldiers accused of growing list of atrocities". The Jerusalem Post. 3 April 2022. Retrieved 30 April 2022.
  231. ^ "Why we need to challenge Russia's human shields narrative". Al Jazeera. 3 April 2022. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  232. ^ "Nationalists use civilians as human shield in Kharkov region - Russian defense ministry". Tass. 6 May 2022. Retrieved 6 May 2022.
  233. ^ Schmitt, Michael N. (11 April 2022). "Ukraine Symposium – Weaponizing Civilians: Human Shields in Ukraine". Lieber Institute. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  234. ^ John, Tara; Ochman, Oleksandra; Sidhu, Sandi (22 April 2022). "Russian troops use rape as 'an instrument of war' in Ukraine, rights groups allege". CNN. Retrieved 7 May 2022.
  235. ^ Rai, Sarakshi (29 March 2022). "Ukraine opens first investigation into claims of rape against Russian soldiers". The Hill.
  236. ^ Philp, Catherine (28 March 2022). "'Russian soldiers raped me as my terrified son cried'". The Times. ISSN 0140-0460. Archived from the original on 31 March 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  237. ^ a b Engelbrecht, Cora (29 March 2022). "Reports of sexual violence involving Russian soldiers are multiplying, Ukrainian officials say". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 29 March 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  238. ^ "Accounts of Russian Rapes Are Growing, Officals Say". The New York Times. 29 March 2022. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  239. ^ Taylor, Harry (27 March 2022). "Russian soldiers raping and sexually assaulting women, says Ukraine MP". The Guardian.
  240. ^ a b "Ukraine: Apparent War Crimes in Russia-Controlled Areas". Human Rights Watch. 4 April 2022. Retrieved 4 April 2022.
  241. ^ Sengupta, Kim (31 March 2022). "Ukrainian mother 'raped by teenage Russian soldier' as she sheltered in school". The Independent. Archived from the original on 1 April 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  242. ^ Hallsdóttir, Esther (31 March 2022). "Are Russian troops using sexual violence as a weapon? Here's what we know". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Archived from the original on 31 March 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  243. ^ a b Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Sean; Hemingway, Phil (7 April 2022). "Ukraine thought Bucha would represent the worst of Russian atrocities. New horrors awaited them in Berestyanka". ABC News. Archived from the original on 7 April 2022. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  244. ^ "Ukraine conflict: 'Russian soldiers raped me and killed my husband'". BBC News. 11 April 2022. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  245. ^ Latza Nadeau, Barbie (20 May 2022). "Russians Accused of Raping and Killing a 1-Year-Old Child, Says Ukraine official". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 23 May 2022.
  246. ^ "Ombudsperson reports terrifying incidents of child rape by Russian soldiers". www.ukrinform.net. 23 May 2022. Retrieved 23 May 2022.
  247. ^ "U.N. told "credible" claims of sexual violence against children as Russia's war drives a third of Ukrainians from their homes". www.cbsnews.com. 13 May 2022. Retrieved 23 May 2022.
  248. ^ "U.S. cannot confirm use of chemical weapons in Ukraine, Blinken says". Reuters. 12 April 2022.
  249. ^ Sukhov, Oleg (11 April 2022). "Azov says Russia used chemical weapons in besieged Mariupol". Kyiv Independent. Archived from the original on 11 April 2022. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  250. ^ "Ukraine War: Report of Mariupol chemical attack sparks US, UK concern". BBC. 12 April 2022. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  251. ^ "Hundreds of Ukrainians forcibly deported to Russia, say Mariupol women". The Guardian. 4 April 2022.
  252. ^ "US decries 'disturbing' accounts of Ukrainians deported to Russia". www.aljazeera.com. 20 March 2022. Retrieved 22 March 2022.
  253. ^ "Ukraine: US condemns 'unconscionable' forced deportations of civilians from Mariupol". The Guardian. 20 March 2022. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  254. ^ "Statement by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine on the forced deportation of residents of Mariupol by Russia". www.kmu.gov.ua. Ukrainian Government. 24 March 2022. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  255. ^ Vinograd, Cassandra (25 March 2022). "Rumors of 'filtration camps' and mass deportation in Ukraine raise old USSR fears". NBC News. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  256. ^ "Ukraine war: Kyiv claims Moscow forcefully deporting thousands of Ukrainian children to Russia". Sky News. 22 March 2022. Retrieved 22 March 2022.
  257. ^ "Russia is kidnapping children in Ukraine, says US embassy". South China Morning Post. 23 March 2022. Retrieved 22 March 2022.
  258. ^ "Ukraine: Ensure Safe Passage, Aid for Mariupol Civilians". Human Rights Watch. 21 March 2022. Retrieved 19 April 2022.
  259. ^ Folmar, Chloe (24 March 2022). "More than 400,000 Ukrainians taken to Russia against their will, official says". The Hill. Retrieved 25 March 2022.
  260. ^ Qena, Nebi; Anna, Cara (25 March 2022). "Moscow Has Forcibly Taken More than 400,000 Ukrainians to Russia, Ukraine Says". Time. Retrieved 25 March 2022.
  261. ^ "Over 384,000 people evacuated to Russia from Ukraine, LPR, DPR – Russian Defense Ministry". Interfax. 23 March 2022. Retrieved 29 March 2022.
  262. ^ Schmitt, Michael N. (24 March 2022). "Deportation of Ukrainian Civilians to Russia: The Legal Framework". Lieber Institute West Point. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  263. ^ a b "Россия создала фильтрационные лагеря для украинцев еще до начала войны — омбудсмен Украины Людмила Денисова". The Insider.
  264. ^ "Оккупанты принудительно вывезли в РФ 402 тыс. украинцев, из которых 84 тыс. – дети, подчеркивает Денисова". Интерфакс-Украина.
  265. ^ "Денисова: росСМИ сообщили, что в рф из Украины вывезли больше миллиона людей". www.ukrinform.ru.
  266. ^ "Chilling account of Radio France fixer who was kidnapped and tortured by Russian soldiers in Ukraine | Reporters without borders". RSF. 21 March 2022. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  267. ^ Ott, Haley (22 March 2022). "Journalist reportedly kidnapped and tortured by Russian soldiers in Ukraine". CBS News. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  268. ^ "Le récit glaçant de ce fixeur ukrainien de Radio France arrêté par les Russes". Le HuffPost (in French). 21 March 2022. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  269. ^ Treisman, Rachel (25 March 2022). "Russian forces are reportedly holding Ukrainian journalists hostage". NPR. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  270. ^ "p.221 ARTICLE 32 | PROHIBITION OF CORPORAL PUNISHMENT, TORTURE, ETC". International Committee of the Red Cross. 1958.
  271. ^ "Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment". United Nations. 1984.
  272. ^ Goodman, Ryan (2009). "The Detention of Civilians in Armed Conflict". The American Journal of International Law. 103 (1): 53. doi:10.2307/20456721. ISSN 0002-9300. JSTOR 20456721. S2CID 145124847.
  273. ^ Sassòli, Marco. "Internment". Oxford Public International Law. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  274. ^ Dörr, Oliver. "Detention, Arbitrary". Oxford Public International Law. Retrieved 27 March 2022.
  275. ^ Gunter, Joel (3 May 2022). "In Ukrainian villages, a desperate wait for news of the missing". BBC News. Retrieved 3 May 2022.
  276. ^ Luckhurst, Toby; Pona, Olga (25 April 2022). "'You can't imagine the conditions' - Accounts emerge of Russian detention camps". BBC News. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  277. ^ "OSCE Envoy Says Evidence Of 'Filtration Camps' Emerging From Areas Of Ukraine Claimed By Russian Forces". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty.
  278. ^ Video shows Russian ...
  279. ^ McFall, Caitlin (5 May 2022). "Russian filtration camps are 'ghettos' of Mariupol, official says". Fox News.
  280. ^ Wilson, James (23 April 2022). "Russia Kidnaps Ukrainian Children". Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  281. ^ Schnell, Mychael (14 April 2022). "Ukraine: Deported children facing threat of 'illegal adoption' in Russia". The Hill. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  282. ^ "The gory online campaign Ukraine hopes will sow anti-Putin dissent probably violates the Geneva Conventions". The Washington Post. 3 March 2022. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 22 March 2022.
  283. ^ Harding, Luke (4 March 2022). "Demoralised Russian soldiers tell of anger at being 'duped' into war". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  284. ^ Rousseau, Daphne (7 March 2022). "Ukraine parades Russian troops captured during invasion before cameras". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
  285. ^ Kramer, Andrew E. (5 March 2022). "Russian Prisoners and Ukrainian Soldiers Describe Two Sides of the Conflict". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  286. ^ Blackburn, Tom (3 March 2022). "Prisoners of war: What the Geneva convention rules are on how they should be treated and their rights". Wales Online. Archived from the original on 8 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  287. ^ Khurshudyan, Isabelle; Westfall, Sammy (9 March 2022). "Ukraine puts captured Russians on stage. It's a powerful propaganda tool, but is it a violation of POW rights?". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286.
  288. ^ "Guerre en Ukraine : a-t-on le droit de diffuser des images de prisonniers russes ?". La Croix (in French). 8 March 2022. ISSN 0242-6056.
  289. ^ Mayeul, Aldebert (15 March 2022). "Ukraine : le témoignage de prisonniers russes est-il contraire au droit de la guerre ?". Le Figaro (in French).
  290. ^ Gensing, Patrick; Siggelkow, Pascal (4 March 2022). "Ukraine zeigt Gefangene: Verstoß gegen Genfer Abkommen?". Tagesschau (in German).
  291. ^ "Pourquoi les images de prisonniers de guerre russes peuvent constituer une violation du droit international". L'Obs (in French). 8 March 2022. Retrieved 26 March 2022.
  292. ^ Hipp, Dietmar (16 March 2022). "(S+) Ukraine-Krieg: Völkerrechtler Daniel-Erasmus Kahn über das Leid der Zivilisten". Der Spiegel (in German). ISSN 2195-1349. Retrieved 26 March 2022.
  293. ^ a b "Ukraine promises "immediate investigation" after video surfaces of soldiers shooting Russian prisoners". CNN. 27 March 2022. Archived from the original on 28 March 2022. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  294. ^ a b c d "Does video show Russian prisoners being shot?". BBC News. 30 March 2022. Archived from the original on 31 March 2022. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  295. ^ Amanpour, Christiane [@amanpour] (29 March 2022). "Video has emerged of Ukrainian soldiers shooting Russian prisoners of war in the knees. Ukrainian officials say they're investigating. Head of UN Human Rights Monitoring Mission in Ukraine Matilda Bogner tells me she's "very concerned... That's not the only video… on both sides."" (Tweet). Retrieved 31 March 2022 – via Twitter.
  296. ^ Kennedy, Niamh (28 March 2022). "UN calls on Russia and Ukraine to investigate videos of mistreated POWs". CNN. Archived from the original on 28 March 2022. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  297. ^ a b "Ukraine To Investigate Reports Of War Crimes Against Russian Troops". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 28 March 2022.
  298. ^ "Ukraine government investigates video alleged to show torture of Russian PoWs". the Guardian. 28 March 2022. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  299. ^ Shull, Abbie. "Video appears to show Ukrainian soldiers executing Russian soldier captured in an ambush outside Kyiv, New York Times reports". Business Insider. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  300. ^ Hill, Evan (6 April 2022). "Video appears to show Ukrainian troops killing captured Russian soldiers". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  301. ^ Times, The Moscow (7 April 2022). "Graphic Video Appears to Show Ukrainian Troops Killing Russian Soldiers Outside Kyiv – NYT". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  302. ^ "Così militari ucraini hanno ucciso dei prigionieri russi". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). 8 April 2022. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  303. ^ "Il comandante georgiano filo-Kiev promette crimini di guerra: "Non faremo prigionieri russi e ceceni"". Globalist.it (in Italian). 8 April 2022. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  304. ^ "Ukraine's military accused of war crimes against Russian troops". Le Monde.fr. 9 April 2022. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  305. ^ "Russia's top investigator orders to bring Georgian legion commander in Ukraine to justice". TASS. 7 April 2022. Retrieved 18 May 2022.
  306. ^ "Ukrainian POWs complain of mistreatment by Russia". Reuters. 4 April 2022. Retrieved 4 April 2022.
  307. ^ "Highlights: 410 civilian bodies recovered from Kyiv region, says Ukrainian official". Hindustan Times. 3 April 2022. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  308. ^ "British men captured in Ukraine being looked after, says Russia". BBC News. 21 April 2022. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  309. ^ Buck, Kate (20 April 2022). "YouTube blogger 'in danger of committing war crime' over propaganda interview of British POW in Ukraine". Yahoo! News.
  310. ^ Ankel, Sophia. "US has evidence that Russian troops in the Donbas are executing Ukrainians even as they surrender, official says". Business Insider. Retrieved 29 April 2022.
  311. ^ Coote, Darryl (28 April 2022). "Surrendering Ukrainians were executed by Russia, U.S. says in U.N. war crimes meeting". UPI. Retrieved 28 April 2022.
  312. ^ "Ukrainian prisoner of war confirmed dead days after Russian capture". CNN. 2 May 2022. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  313. ^ "How does Ukraine keep intercepting Russian military communications?". NPR. 26 April 2022. Retrieved 8 May 2022.
  314. ^ "Pillage is prohibited". Customary IHL Database. (ICRC)/Cambridge University Press.
  315. ^ Katz, Sam (7 April 2022). "War in Ukraine: Russia leaves behind massacres in liberated towns". The Daily Campus. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  316. ^ "'WSJ' reporter describes the looting and killing of civilians in southern Ukraine". NPR. 16 March 2022. Retrieved 6 April 2022.
  317. ^ Walker, Shaun (5 April 2022). "'Barbarians': Russian troops leave grisly mark on town of Trostianets". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 April 2022.
  318. ^ "New footage shows Russian troops sending stolen Ukrainian items home through Belarus". Meduza. 6 April 2022. Retrieved 6 April 2022.
  319. ^ Wasiura, Michael (5 April 2022). "From clothes to children's toys to washing machines: Ukraine accuses Russian soldiers of looting". Newsweek. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  320. ^ "Photos Indicate Russian Looting of Radioactive Materials from Ukraine's Chernobyl s". Voice of America. 12 April 2022. Retrieved 13 April 2022.
  321. ^ "'Bazaar' for looted Ukrainian property allegedly opened in Belarus". JPost. 4 April 2022. Retrieved 13 April 2022.
  322. ^ Kinsella, Eileen (2 May 2022). "Ukrainian Officials Accuse Russian Forces of Looting Thousands of Priceless Gold Artifacts and Works of Art". Artnet News. Retrieved 22 May 2022.
  323. ^ "Rada recognizes Russian army's actions in Ukraine as genocide of Ukrainian people". Interfax-Ukraine. Archived from the original on 23 April 2022. Retrieved 14 April 2022.
  324. ^ Treisman, Rachel (28 April 2022). "Canada's House backs a motion recognizing Russia's actions in Ukraine as genocide". NPR.
  325. ^ "Sejm określił działania Rosji w Ukrainie mianem ludobójstwa i zbrodni wojennych". Onet Wiadomości (in Polish). 23 March 2022. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  326. ^ ERR, ERR | (21 April 2022). "Estonia on Russia's actions in Ukraine: This is genocide". ERR. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  327. ^ "Saeima calls Russia's actions in Ukraine genocide and urges EU to immediately suspend Russian oil and gas imports | News | LETA". www.leta.lv. Retrieved 21 April 2022.
  328. ^ "Lithuanian lawmakers brand Russian actions in Ukraine as 'genocide', 'terrorism'". Reuters. 10 May 2022. Retrieved 11 May 2022.
  329. ^ Buncombe, Andrew (5 April 2022). "Killings in Ukraine amount to genocide, Holocaust expert says". The Independent. Archived from the original on 9 April 2022. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  330. ^ Finkel, Eugene (5 April 2022). "Opinion: What's happening in Ukraine is genocide. Period". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 12 April 2022. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  331. ^ Snyder, Timothy D. (8 April 2022). "Russia's genocide handbook". Substack. Archived from the original on 8 April 2022. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  332. ^ a b Wright, George (13 April 2022). "Ukraine war: Is Russia committing genocide?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 22 April 2022. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
  333. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Немецкий эксперт: Действия России в Мариуполе можно назвать геноцидом | DW | 24.03.2022". DW.COM (in Russian). Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  334. ^ Marson, Yaroslav Trofimov and James (14 March 2022). "Russian Forces Kill Civilians, Loot for Supplies in Occupied Ukraine, Residents Say". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  335. ^ "Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide". OHCHR. 9 December 1948. Archived from the original on 13 April 2022. Retrieved 18 April 2022.
  336. ^ Harb, Ali (6 April 2022). "Ukraine: As Russia faces 'genocide' charge, experts urge caution". Al Jazeera English. Archived from the original on 22 April 2022. Retrieved 23 April 2022.
  337. ^ Quell, Molly (24 February 2022). "Ukraine has few legal options to hold Russia accountable for invasion: : Despite the expansion of international law since World War II and the establishment of a variety of courts aimed at settling conflicts between nations, it is unlikely Russia will face legal consequences for its invasion of Ukraine". Courthouse News Service. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  338. ^ "ICC says may investigate possible war crimes after Russian invasion of Ukraine". Thomson Reuters. 25 February 2022. Archived from the original on 25 February 2022. Retrieved 25 February 2022.
  339. ^ Borger, Julian (28 February 2022). "ICC prosecutor to investigate possible war crimes in Ukraine". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 February 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  340. ^ Khan, Karim Ahmad (2 March 2022). "Statement of ICC Prosecutor, Karim A.A. Khan QC, on the Situation in Ukraine: Receipt of Referrals from 39 States Parties and the Opening of an Investigation". ICC. Archived from the original on 4 March 2022. Retrieved 4 March 2022.
  341. ^ "Ukraine: Russia faces war crimes investigation". BBC News. 3 March 2022. Archived from the original on 3 March 2022. Retrieved 3 March 2022.
  342. ^ Sullivan, Becky (28 February 2022). "The ICC says it will open an investigation into alleged war crimes in Ukraine". NPR. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  343. ^ "ICC prosecutor: Team leaves to investigate war crimes in Ukraine". Reuters. 4 March 2022. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  344. ^ "International Criminal Law Guidelines: Command Responsibility". Case Matrix Network, Centre for International Law Research and Policy. 2016. Archived from the original on 8 March 2022. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  345. ^ Deutsch, Anthony; Sterling, Toby (27 February 2022). "Ukraine rejects Russia's genocide claim, asks U.N. court to halt invasion". Reuters. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  346. ^ Milanovic, Marko (27 February 2022). "Ukraine Files ICJ Claim against Russia". EJIL: Talk!. Archived from the original on 3 March 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  347. ^ "Allegations of Genocide under the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Ukraine v. Russian Federation) – Request for the indication of provisional measures" (PDF). International Court of Justice. 1 March 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  348. ^ Wintour, Patrick (7 March 2022). "International court of justice to fast-track ruling on Russian invasion". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on 7 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  349. ^ Schnell, Mychael (7 March 2022). "Russian representatives skip UN court hearing on Ukraine". The Hill. Archived from the original on 7 March 2022. Retrieved 7 March 2022.
  350. ^ "Allegations of Genocide under the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Ukraine v. Russian Federation)". International Court of Justice. Archived from the original on 13 March 2022. Retrieved 14 March 2022.
  351. ^ a b "Allegations of Genocide under the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Ukraine v. Russian Federation): The Court indicates provisional measures" (PDF) (Press release). International Court of Justice. 16 March 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  352. ^ Quell, Molly (16 March 2022). "International Court of Justice orders Russia to cease hostilities in Ukraine". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  353. ^ Folmar, Chloe (25 February 2022). "Ukraine minister decries Russian 'war crimes' on schools, orphanages". The Hill. Archived from the original on 26 February 2022. Retrieved 26 February 2022.
  354. ^ "Ukraine begins first war crimes trial of Russian soldier". BBC. 13 May 2022. Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  355. ^ "Russian soldier pleads guilty in first Ukraine war crimes trial since invasion". the Guardian. 18 May 2022. Retrieved 19 May 2022.
  356. ^ "Russian soldier pleads guilty in first war crimes trial of Ukraine conflict". BBC News. 18 May 2022. Retrieved 19 May 2022.
  357. ^ Sokolova, Ganna (19 May 2022). ""Понимание приходит после". Двух российских военных судят за первый артиллерийский обстрел Харьковской области". Graty.
  358. ^ Binns, Daniel (20 May 2022). "More Russian soldiers plead guilty to war crimes in Ukraine". Microsoft News.
  359. ^ Johnson, Heidi (4 March 2022). "UN Human Rights Council establishes commission to investigate Russian human rights violations against Ukraine". JURIST. Archived from the original on 7 March 2022. Retrieved 25 March 2022.
  360. ^ "Human Rights Council establishes an Independent International Commission of Inquiry to investigate all alleged violations of human rights in the context of the Russian Federation's aggression against Ukraine". United Nations Human Rights Council. 4 March 2022. Archived from the original on 19 March 2022. Retrieved 25 March 2022.
  361. ^ "The UN Human Rights Monitoring Mission In Ukraine, Explained". Hromadske. 22 December 2016. Archived from the original on 30 March 2022. Retrieved 31 March 2022.
  362. ^ a b "Russia may be committing war crimes in Ukraine, UN human rights chief says". The Guardian. 30 March 2022. Archived from the original on 30 March 2022. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  363. ^ "Statement from European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen following her phone call with President Zelenskyy on the Commission's reactions to the atrocities in Bucha". European Commission – European Commission. 4 April 2022. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  364. ^ Forgey, Quint (6 April 2022). "Garland: DOJ assisting international war crimes investigations in Ukraine". Politico.
  365. ^ "Government of Ukraine Announces the Creation of a Legal Task Force on Accountability for Crimes Committed in Ukraine". Doughty Street Chambers. 29 March 2022. Archived from the original on 29 March 2022. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  366. ^ Stephenson, Heather; Dannenbaum, Tom (29 March 2022). "What are War Crimes—and Will Putin Be Tried for Them?". The Fletcher School at Tufts University. Archived from the original on 5 April 2022. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  367. ^ Hansler, Jennifer (23 March 2022). "US formally declares Russian military has committed war crimes in Ukraine". CNN. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  368. ^ "US determines Russia has committed war crimes in Ukraine". 23 March 2022.
  369. ^ "Biden says Putin committing "genocide half a world away"". CBS News. Retrieved 12 April 2022.
  370. ^ "Remarks by President Biden Before Air Force One Departure". The White House. 12 April 2022. Retrieved 13 April 2022.
  371. ^ "Russia 'must answer for crimes' in Ukraine says French president". rfi. 3 April 2022. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  372. ^ "French President Macron says killings in Bucha were 'very probably' war crimes". Yahoo news. 7 April 2022. Retrieved 7 April 2022.

External links