Johan Gottschalk Wallerius (11 July 1709 – 16 November 1785) was a Swedish chemist and mineralogist.
Wallerius was born at Stora Mellösa in Närke (now Örebro County), Sweden. He was a son of provost Erik Nilsson Wallerius and his spouse Elisabeth Tranæa . He was a younger brother to the physicist, philosopher and theologian Nils Wallerius (1706–1764). 
Johan Gottschalk entered
Wallerius is regarded as the founder of agricultural chemistry, mainly based on the significance of his widely disseminated work Agriculturae fundamenta chemica (1761, published in Swedish the same year as Åkerbrukets chemiska grunder and later translated into many other languages). He published several other studies on chemical, mineralogical and geological subjects and used his own farm Hagelstena in Alsike (south of Uppsala) as an experimental field. He spent his early retirement from the University due to poor health applying the principles of chemistry as a way to improve agriculture in his own farm, and published some of his findings in Rön, rörande landtbruket. Om svenska åkerjordartenas egenskaper och skiljemerken samt deras förbättring genom tienlig jordblanning, which was awarded the prize of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
- "Johan Gottschalk Wallerius". Nordisk familjebok. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- "Nils Wallerius". Nordisk familjebok. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- Uno Boklund, “Wallerius, Johan Gottschalk”, Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 2008.
- "Torbern Olof Bergman". Svenskt biografiskt lexikon. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- Translated into French in 1766: Elémens d'agriculture physique et chymique at Google Books
- International Plant Names Index. Wallerius.
- Nordisk familjebok, 2nd ed., vol. 31, col. 498f
- Hjalmar F. Mutual Favours: The social and scientific practice of eighteenth-century Swedish chemistry. Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2003. 225 p. (Skrifter; 30)