1942 Ecuador earthquake
|UTC time||1942-05-14 02:13:27|
|Local date||13 May 1942|
|Local time||21:13 ECT|
|Total damage||$40 million (2021 rate)|
|Max. intensity||IX (Violent)|
The 1942 Ecuador earthquake or the Guayaquil earthquake occurred on 13 May at 9:06 or 9:13 pm
The earthquake struck with a hypocenter depth of 20 km, and an epicenter about 15 km west of Pedernales at 02:13 a.m. local time. The capital Quito was located some 165 km from the epicenter of the quake. It was one of the largest in the country. The approximate epicentral location of the 1942 quake is calculated at the northern flanks of the Carnegie Ridge. In a period of 22 seconds, the seismic moment of the rupture was released in one simple event. Based on the relocation of the aftershocks, and examining the distribution, the earthquake had ruptured a 200 km by 90 km section of the subduction zone.
It is the first event in a sequence of large earthquakes that would re-rupture the
The earthquakes of 1942 and 2016 are part of a cycle of repeated events with an average recurrence interval period of 74 years, indicating the next event may occur in 2090.
Ecuador's largest city Guayaquil suffered the worst during the earthquake despite being at least 250 km from the epicenter. More than 100 lives lost, and numerous high-rise collapses. Damage was also observed in Manabí, Guayas, Los Ríos, Esmeraldas, Bolívar and Imbabura.
In general, moderate damage was reported in the Guayaquil; much of the city experienced intensity VI–VII (Strong–Very strong) shaking on the Modified Mercalli intensity scale. However, in the city center, a post-disaster survey found heavy damage to reinforced concrete structures that corresponded to intensity VIII–IX (Severe–Violent). Countless buildings including cinemas and theaters were destroyed or damaged. In this zone of high intensity, one reinforced concrete building completely collapsed while another was almost completely destroyed. Three tall reinforced concrete structures and a number of buildings single or double story-tall suffered a complete collapse. One building that housed a clinic on the first floor crumbled to the ground, killing 29 individuals. Three additional structures had beams on their first floors so badly rendered that supports had to be installed immediately before they could be repaired or demolished. The location where the strongest intensity was felt in Guayaquil is just west of the Guayas River, and south of Cerro Del Carmen. The reason for the sudden violent shaking in this part of the city was attributed to its local geology;the city is built on water-saturated clay and alluvium deposited by the Guayas River. This local geological setting amplified seismic waves as it propagated which worsened the strength of strong ground motion in the city.
Further heavy damage was reported in the cities of Chone, Portoviejo, Manta, Junín, Calcetan and Pedernales. In the Naranjal Canton, large fissures formed in the ground which allowed a "foamy liquid" to erupt. Many homes and buildings situated along the coast were seriously damaged or destroyed. Shaking was felt as far as the Oriente region in the east, and the border towns of Colombia in the north.
After the mainshock, two strong
- "Seismic Hazard Assessment for Guayaquil City (Ecuador): Insights from Quaternary Geological Data" (PDF). Final Meeting of the Dark Nature Project: 55–56.
- "Sismo de 7,8 también dejó dolor y muerte en 1942". El Diario. 16 August 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
- Pararas-Carayannis, G. (2012). "Potential of tsunami generation along the Colombia/Ecuador subduction margin and the Dolores-Guayaquil mega-thrust" (PDF). Science of Tsunami Hazards. 31 (3): 209–230. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
- "CUATRO AÑOS DESPUÉS DEL TERREMOTO DE PEDERNALES: UN TESTIMONIO SOBRE EL PELIGRO SÍSMICO EN EL ECUADOR". Instituto Geofisico. 16 April 2020. Archived from the original on 2020-05-12. Retrieved 19 January 2021.
- Lingling Ye; Hiroo Kanamori; Jean-Philippe Avouac; Linyan Li; Kwok Fai Cheung; Thorne Lay (2016). "The 16 April 2016, MW 7.8 (MS 7.5) Ecuador earthquake: A quasi-repeat of the 1942 MS 7.5 earthquake and partial re-rupture of the 1906 MS 8.6 Colombia–Ecuador earthquake" (PDF). Earth and Planetary Science Letters.
- "M 7.2 - near the coast of Ecuador". USGS-ANSS. Archived from the original on 2021-01-27. Retrieved 19 January 2021.
- Moncayo Theurer, M; Velasco, G.; Mora, Carlos; Montenegro, M; Cordova, J (2017). "Terremotos mayores a 6.5 en escala Richter ocurridos en Ecuador desde 1900 hasta 1970" [Earthquakes greater than 6.5 on the Richter scale that occurred in Ecuador from 1900 to 1970] (PDF). Ingeniería (in Spanish). Mérida, México: Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán. 21 (2): 55–64. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
- "Catálogo de Terremotos del Ecuador" (PDF). Retrieved 16 July 2021.
- González Mora; Iván Eduardo (2012). "Actualización de la evaluación del riesgo sísmico en edificios de hormigón armado en los sectores con mayor riesgo sísmico de Guayaquil" [Update of the seismic risk assessment in reinforced concrete buildings in the sectors with the highest seismic risk in Guayaquil]. Degree Works - Civil Engineering Career (in Spanish). UNIVERSIDAD CATOLICA DE SANTIAGO DE GUAYAQUIL. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
- Soloviev, L.; Go, N. (1975). Catalogue of Tsunamis on the Eastern Shore of the Pacific Ocean. Nauka Publishing House. p. 204.