Prime Minister of Georgia

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Prime Minister of Georgia
საქართველოს პრემიერ-მინისტრი (
Coat of arms of Georgia
Incumbent
Irakli Kobakhidze
since 8 February 2024
Administration of the Government of Georgia
Style
Type
Georgian Democratic Republic)
DeputyFirst Deputy Prime Minister
Salary13,000 GEL/US$ 5,019 per month[1]
WebsiteOfficial website

The prime minister of Georgia (Georgian: საქართველოს პრემიერ-მინისტრი, romanized: sakartvelos p'remier-minist'ri) is the head of government and chief executive of Georgia.

In Georgia, the president is a ceremonial head of state and mainly acts as a figurehead. The executive power is vested in the Government. The prime minister organizes, directs, and controls the functions of the Government. He also signs its legal acts. They appoint and dismiss ministers in the Cabinet. The prime minister represents Georgia in foreign relations and concludes international treaties on behalf of Georgia. They are accountable for the activities of the Government before the Parliament of Georgia.[2]

The prime minister is nominated by a political party that has secured the best results in the parliamentary election. The nominee must win the Confidence vote of the Parliament. The current prime minister is Irakli Kobakhidze, who was nominated by the ruling Georgian Dream party on 2 February and his government was approved on 8 February, 2024.[3][4]

History

The office of prime minister under the name of the chairman of Government was introduced in Georgia upon its declaration of independence in May 1918. It was abolished with the Soviet takeover of the country in February 1921. The newly independent Georgia established the position of prime minister in August 1991, only to be abolished de facto in the aftermath of the January 1992 military coup and legally in the 1995 Constitution. The office was reintroduced in the February 2004 constitutional amendment and further modified as a result of series of amendments passed between 2012 and 2018.

From the office's reestablishment in 2004 and throughout the presidency of Mikheil Saakashvili, the prime minister was appointed by the President and served as his chief adviser, while the President exercised most of the executive powers. However, after the entry into force of the 2012 and 2018 constitutional amendments, that instituted Georgia as a parliamentary republic, the president's executive powers were eliminated and transferred to the prime minister.

Qualifications

The office of prime minister may not be held by a citizen of Georgia who is simultaneously the citizen of another country.[5]

Appointment

The prime minister is nominated by a political party that has secured the best results in the parliamentary election. The nominee for premiership and his ministerial candidates must win the confidence vote of the Parliament and then, within 2 days of a vote of confidence, be formally appointed by the president of Georgia. If the president does not appoint the prime minister within the established time frame, the prime minister will be appointed automatically. If the parliamentary vote of confidence is not passed within the established time frame, the president dissolves the Parliament no earlier than two weeks and no later than three weeks after the respective time frame has expired, and calls extraordinary parliamentary election.[6]

Functions

The prime minister of Georgia is the head of the Government, responsible for government activities and appointment and dismissal of ministers. They are accountable before the parliament. The prime minister signs the legal acts of the government[2] and countersigns some of the acts issued by the president of Georgia.[7]

The prime minister has the right to use the

Defense Forces without the Parliament's approval during martial law.[8] During the martial law, the prime minister becomes a member of the National Defense Council, a consultative body chaired by the president of Georgia.[9]
Although it is the president who is officially the commander-in-chief, in practice, the military is managed by the Government and prime minister.

The prime minister is also the head of the

National Security Council.

List of officeholders

Democratic Republic of Georgia (1918–1921)

Chairman of Government (1918–1921)

No. Portrait Name
(born–died)
Term of office Political party Elected Ref.
Took office Left office Time in office
1 Noe Ramishvili
(1881–1930)
26 May 1918 24 June 1918 29 days Social Democratic Party of Georgia
2 Noe Zhordania
(1868–1953)
24 June 1918 18 March 1921 2 years, 267 days Social Democratic Party of Georgia 1919

Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (1921–1991)

Chairmen of the Council of People's Commissars (1921–1946)

No. Portrait Name
(born–died)
Term of office Political party Elected Ref.
Took office Left office Time in office
1 Polikarp Mdivani
(1887–1937)
7 March 1922 19 April 1922 43 days Communist Party of Georgia
2 Sergey Kavtaradze
(1885–1971)
19 April 1922 21 January 1923 277 days Communist Party of Georgia
3 Shalva Eliava
(1883–1937)
21 January 1923 14 June 1927 4 years, 144 days Communist Party of Georgia
4 Lavrenty Kartvelishvili
(1890–1938)
14 June 1927 7 June 1929 1 year, 358 days Communist Party of Georgia
5 Filipp Makharadze
(1886–1941)
1 June 1929 20 January 1931 1 year, 233 days Communist Party of Georgia
6 Levan Sukhishvili
(?-?)
20 January 1931 22 September 1931 245 days Communist Party of Georgia
7 German Mgaloblishvili
(?–1937)
22 September 1931 9 July 1937 5 years, 290 days Communist Party of Georgia
8 Valerian Bakradze
(1901–1971)
9 July 1937 15 April 1946 8 years, 280 days Communist Party of Georgia 1938

Chairmen of the Council of Ministers (1946–1991)

No. Portrait Name
(born–died)
Term of office Political party Elected Ref.
Took office Left office Time in office
8 Valerian Bakradze
(1901–1971)
15 April 1946 26 March 1947 345 days Communist Party of Georgia
9 Zakhary Chkhubianishvili [ka]
(1903–?)
26 March 1947 6 April 1952 5 years, 11 days Communist Party of Georgia 1947
10 Zakhary Ketskhoveli
(1902–1970)
6 April 1952 16 April 1953 1 year, 10 days Communist Party of Georgia 1951
(8) Valerian Bakradze
(1901–1971)
16 April 1953 20 September 1953 157 days Communist Party of Georgia
11 Givi Javakhishvili
(1912–1985)
21 September 1953 17 December 1975 22 years, 88 days Communist Party of Georgia 1955
1959
1963
1967
1971
12 Zurab Pataridze
(1928–1982)
17 December 1975 5 June 1982 6 years, 170 days Communist Party of Georgia 1975
1980
13 Dmitry Kartvelishvili [ru]
(1927–2009)
2 July 1982 12 April 1986 3 years, 284 days Communist Party of Georgia
15 Otar Cherkezia [ru]
(1933–2004)
12 April 1986 29 March 1989 2 years, 351 days Communist Party of Georgia 1985
16 Zurab Chkheidze [ru]
(1930–2007)
29 March 1989 14 April 1989 16 days Communist Party of Georgia
17 Nodari Chitanava [ru]
(born 1935)
14 April 1989 15 November 1990 1 year, 215 days Communist Party of Georgia
18 Tengiz Sigua
(1934–2020)
15 November 1990 18 August 1991 276 days Independent 1990

Georgia (since 1991)

Prime minister (1991–1995)

No. Portrait Name
(born–died)
Term of office Political party Elected Ref.
Took office Left office Time in office
Murman Omanidze
(1938–2020)
acting
18 August 1991 23 August 1991 5 days
Independent
1 Besarion Gugushvili
(born 1945)
23 August 1991 6 January 1992[a] 136 days Round Table—Free Georgia
2 Tengiz Sigua
(1934–2020)
6 January 1992 6 August 1993 1 year, 212 days
Independent
1992
Eduard Shevardnadze
(1928–2014)
acting
6 August 1993 20 August 1993 14 days
Independent
3 Otar Patsatsia
(1929–2021)
20 August 1993 5 October 1995 2 years, 46 days
Independent

State Minister (1995–2004)

No. Portrait Name
(born–died)
Term of office Political party Ref.
Took office Left office Time in office
1 Niko Lekishvili
(born 1947)
8 December 1995 26 July 1998 2 years, 230 days Union of Citizens of Georgia
2 Vazha Lortkipanidze
(born 1949)
31 July 1998 11 May 2000 1 year, 285 days Union of Citizens of Georgia
3 Giorgi Arsenishvili
(1942–2010)
11 May 2000 21 December 2001 1 year, 224 days Union of Citizens of Georgia
4 Avtandil Jorbenadze
(born 1951)
21 December 2001 7 November 2003 1 year, 321 days Union of Citizens of Georgia
5 Zurab Zhvania
(1963–2005)
7 November 2003 17 February 2004 102 days United National Movement

Prime minister (2004–present)

No. Portrait Name
(born–died)
Term of office Political party Elected Government(s) Ref.
Took office Left office Time in office
4 Zurab Zhvania
(1963–2005)
17 February 2004 3 February 2005 352 days United National Movement 2004 Zhvania
Mikheil Saakashvili
(born 1967)
acting
3 February 2005 17 February 2005 14 days United National Movement Zhvania [10]
5
Zurab Noghaideli

(born 1964)
17 February 2005 16 November 2007 2 years, 272 days United National Movement Noghaideli
Giorgi Baramidze
(born 1968)
acting
16 November 2007 22 November 2007 6 days United National Movement Noghaideli [11]
6 Lado Gurgenidze
(born 1970)
22 November 2007 1 November 2008 345 days
Independent
Gurgenidze
7 Grigol Mgaloblishvili
(born 1973)
1 November 2008 6 February 2009 97 days
Independent
2008 Mgaloblishvili
8 Nika Gilauri
(born 1975)
6 February 2009 4 July 2012 3 years, 149 days
Independent
Gilauri
9 Vano Merabishvili
(born 1968)
4 July 2012 25 October 2012 113 days United National Movement Merabishvili
10 Bidzina Ivanishvili
(born 1956)
25 October 2012 20 November 2013 1 year, 26 days Georgian Dream 2012 Ivanishvili
11 Irakli Garibashvili
(born 1982)
20 November 2013 30 December 2015 2 years, 40 days Georgian Dream Garibashvili I
12 Giorgi Kvirikashvili
(born 1967)
30 December 2015 13 June 2018 2 years, 165 days Georgian Dream 2016 Kvirikashvili III
13 Mamuka Bakhtadze
(born 1982)
20 June 2018 2 September 2019 1 year, 74 days Georgian Dream Bakhtadze
14 Giorgi Gakharia
(born 1975)
8 September 2019 18 February 2021 1 year, 163 days Georgian Dream 2020 Gakharia III
Maya Tskitishvili
(born 1974)
18 February 2021 21 February 2021 4 days Georgian Dream Gakharia II [1]
15 Irakli Garibashvili
(born 1982)
22 February 2021 29 January 2024 2 years, 341 days Georgian Dream Garibashvili II
16

Irakli_Kobakhidze_Cropped

Irakli Kobakhidze
(born 1978)
8 February 2024 Incumbent 18 days Georgian Dream Kobakhidze

Timeline

Irakli KobakhidzeMaya TskitishviliGiorgi GakhariaMamuka BakhtadzeGiorgi KvirikashviliIrakli GaribashviliBidzina IvanishviliVano MerabishviliNika GilauriGrigol MgaloblishviliLado GurgenidzeGiorgi BaramidzeZurab NoghaideliMikheil SaakashviliZurab ZhvaniaAvtandil JorbenadzeGiorgi ArsenishviliVazha LortkipanidzeNiko LekishviliOtar PatsatsiaEduard ShevardnadzeBesarion GugushviliMurman OmanidzeTengiz SiguaNodari ChitanavaZurab ChkheidzeOtar CherkeziaDmitry KartvelishviliZurab PataridzeGivi JavakhishviliZakhary KetskhoveliZakhary ChkhubianishviliValerian BakradzeGerman MgaloblishviliLevan SukhishviliFilipp MakharadzeLavrenty KartvelishviliShalva EliavaSergey KavtaradzePolikarp MdivaniNoe ZhordaniaNoe Ramishvili

Notes

  1. ^ Prime Minister of the rebel government at Zugdidi 24 September—6 November 1993

References

  1. ^ https://www.transparency.ge/sites/default/files/labor-remuneration.pdf[bare URL PDF]
  2. ^ a b Article 55, Section 1–5 of the Constitution of Georgia (country) (2018)
  3. ^ "Ruling party congress elects outgoing PM as new Chair, nominates replacement". Agenda.ge. 1 February 2024. Retrieved 4 February 2024.
  4. ^ "Candidate for PM to present Gov't programme to Parliament". Agenda.ge. 1 February 2024. Retrieved 4 February 2024.
  5. ^ Article 25, Section 2 of the Constitution of Georgia (country) (2018)
  6. ^ Article 56, Section 1–5 of the Constitution of Georgia (country) (2018)
  7. ^ Article 53, Section 2 of the Constitution of Georgia (country) (2018)
  8. ^ Article 72, Section 1 of the Constitution of Georgia (country) (2018)
  9. ^ Article 73, Section 1 of the Constitution of Georgia (country) (2018)
  10. ^ Saakashvili took responsibilities as Prime minister (in Russian)
  11. ^ Acting Prime minister of Georgia criticized peacekeepers, CIS and Russia (in Russian) Archived 29 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine