Styrene oxide

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Styrene oxide
Preferred IUPAC name
Other names
Epoxystyrene; Styryl oxide; Phenylethylene oxide
3D model (
ECHA InfoCard
100.002.252 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 202-476-7
RTECS number
  • CZ9625000
UN number 2810 3082
  • InChI=1S/C8H8O/c1-2-4-7(5-3-1)8-6-9-8/h1-5,8H,6H2
  • c1ccccc1C2CO2
Molar mass 120.151 g·mol−1
Appearance Colorless to light yellow liquid
Density 1.052 g/mL
Melting point −37 °C (−35 °F; 236 K)
Boiling point 194 °C (381 °F; 467 K)
GHS labelling:
GHS07: Exclamation markGHS08: Health hazard
H312, H319, H350
P201, P202, P264, P280, P281, P302+P352, P305+P351+P338, P308+P313, P312, P322, P337+P313, P363, P405, P501
Safety data sheet (SDS) Oxford University MSDS
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Styrene oxide is an epoxide derived from styrene. It can be prepared by epoxidation of styrene with peroxybenzoic acid, in the Prilezhaev reaction:[1]

Styrene oxide is slightly soluble in water. A trace amount of acid in water causes hydrolysis to racemic phenylethyleneglycol via a benzylic cation. If the amount of water is not sufficient, acid-catalyzed isomerization for phenylacetaldehyde will occur.[2]

Styrene oxide in the body is metabolized to mandelic acid, phenylglyoxylic acid, benzoic acid and hippuric acid.

Hydrogenation of styrene oxide affords phenethyl alcohol.[3]

Stereospecific reactions

Since styrene oxide has a chiral center at the benzylic carbon atom, there are (R)-styrene oxide and (S)-styrene oxide. If optically pure reagent is used, only one optically pure compound will be obtained.


Styrene oxide is a main

carcinogenic from gavaging significant amounts into mice and rats.[4] Styrene oxide is subsequently hydrolyzed in vivo to styrene glycol by epoxide hydrolase.[5]

Styrene oxide has a

enantiomers. It has been reported that the two enantiomers had different toxicokinetics and toxicity[citation needed
]. It was reported that the (R)-styrene oxide was preferentially formed in mice, especially in the lung, whereas the (S)-styrene oxide was preferentially generated in rats. In human volunteers, the cumulative excretion of the (S)-enantiomer of styrene glycol and mandelic acid were higher than the R form after exposure to styrene. In human liver microsomes, cytochrome P450-mediated styrene oxidation showed the production of more S enantiomer relative to the R enantiomer. It was also found that (S)-styrene oxide was preferentially hydrolyzed than the R enantiomer in human liver microsomes. Animal studies have shown that the (R)-enantiomer of styrene oxide was more toxic than the (S)-enantiomer in mice.


  1. ^ Harold Hibbert and Pauline Burt (1941). "Styrene Oxide". Organic Syntheses.; Collective Volume, vol. 1, p. 494
  2. ^ Verfahren zur Herstellung von Phenylacetaldehyde, BASF-Patent DE3546372A1 vom 2. Juli 1987
  3. .
  4. ^ EPA Styrene Oxide evaluation
  5. ]