Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Figure skating

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For the correct use of figure skating terms, see Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Figure skating terminology.
Yuzuru Hanyu
List of members

The WikiProject Figure skating style guide applies to articles within the scope of

Manual of Style, while using the style guidelines presented by U.S. Figure Skating as orientation. This guide represents the consensus view of editors maintaining Wikipedia's articles about the sport of figure skating. However, if you notice any errors or disagree with certain recommendations, feel free to discuss them on this talk page
.

Figure skating is a complex sport and performing art with a

statistics tables, and the use of figure skating-specific templates
.

Note that figure skating is a niche sport with rather limited coverage by mainstream media, often lacking in-depth information about

reliable
figure skating-specific sources.

General guidelines

Figure skating terminology and style guidelines

Winter Olympics
, not being familiar with its rules and terms.

widest possible general audience
.

👍

General terminology advices

  • Use technical terms sparingly, following
    MOS:JARGON
    .
  • Use the correct official terms, following the advices in
    this list of figure skating terms
    .
  • Link to the term's respective article or section at first mention if there is one, following
    MOS:LINKING
    .
  • Spell out technical terms, especially in the prose part of articles. Example: "triple Lutz-triple loop jump combination" instead of "3Lz+3Lo".
  • Be consistent and avoid ambiguous terms. Example: Do not use "Mohawk turn" in the first and "C step" in the second sentence.
  • Use more general terms if the context allows it. Example: "sit spin element" instead of "flying sit spin with change of foot".
  • Write in descriptive style. Example: "triple Axel jump entered by a counter turn" instead of "counter triple Axel".
  • Explain all parts of a difficult compound term like "rocker-counter-loop combination", using explanatory footnotes like {{NoteTag}} if needed.

👍

General style advices

  • Capitalize only the names of governing bodies, judging systems, competitions, ice shows, pattern dances, program titles, and elements or moves that are named after people, following the advices in
    this list of figure skating terms
    .
  • Italicize only titles of books and official documents, non-recurring ice shows, and certain types of program titles, following
    these advices
    .
  • American and British English are both accepted as long as one of the two is consistently applied in the article. Make sure to add either {{Use American English}} or {{Use British English}} at the top of the article to inform other editors about the used language variation.
  • Add no-break spaces, following
    no-break spaces in figure skating terms
    .

Lead section and article structure

Figure skating articles generally follow the guidelines for article structure as per

WP:SECTIONS
.

  1. Terminology (if applicable): This section provides a concise definition and explanation of the topic, making it more accessible for casual readers.
  2. Background (if needed): This section puts the article's topic into a global context, making it more accessible for casual readers.
  3. History: This section is a chronological summary of all notable events related to the topic.
  4. Topic-specific sections
  5. Meaning or impact (if applicable): This section summarizes the topic's meaning for the sport of figure skating or beyond.
  6. Statistical lists
  7. Appendices and footers: See also – Notes and references – Further reading – External links.
  • Structure of list class articles: For figure skating lists like cumulative medal counts, highest scores statistics or skaters' career achievements, this structure may not be applicable and should be decided case-by-case in a reasonable manner.
  • Referencing the article body: Every information in the article body must be cited by reliable sources, ideally
    reliable secondary sources like history books, scientific journals, reputable magazines or newspaper articles. This goes especially for the prose part of the article. For a list of reliable figure skating-specific sources, see referencing
    .

Tables and templates

Tables in figure skating articles and lists follow the general Wikipedia Manual of Style as per

MOS:TABLE
. That includes:

  • Explanatory legend: Bulleted list of spelled-out terms and annotations placed above the table. It is recommended to place the list in a {{smalldiv}} environment. For correct usage, see examples in the sections below.
  • Table caption: Caption that names the table data and sorting key. Every data table should have a caption as per
    MOS:HEADERS
    . Example: "Total number of medals in men's singles by nation".
  • Table size: As a general rule of thumb, tables should still look "reader-friendly" at 400 pixel display width. Keep in mind that the majority of readers uses mobile view on narrow smartphone screens, with large tables being often distorted. If a table gets too bulky, consider a split into multiple tables, use appropriate abbreviations or reduce the font size to 85%. To make lists of skaters in pairs and ice dance more compact, use the template {{FS skater}}.
  • Abbreviations: To keep column headers narrow, you can use official abbreviations for figure skating terms, following
    this list
    , and add the spelled-out terms in the explanatory legend above the table. For the "References" column, use {{abbr|Ref.|References}}, which renders as Ref.
  • Accessibility: Make sure that the table is accessible with screenreaders and similar devices as per
    MOS:DTAB
    :
  1. Define row and column headers with intelligible titles, using the
    scope-parameters
    !scope=col and !scope=row.
  2. Do NOT use
    multi-column headers
    in the middle of a table to group its content. Instead, add an additional column or split the table into multiple smaller ones.
  3. Use colors only for visual support, not to add information, and use them sparingly.
  • Sorting: This tool should be utilized whenever appropriate as per
    WP:SORT
    . This goes especially for cumulative medal counts and scoring results of competitions. In sortable columns, make sure to avoid multiple entries within one table cell. Here is an overview of the most common sorting keys in figure skating:
Sorting by date or season
  • Chronological tables must be sorted from the earliest date at the top to the latest date at the bottom as per
    WP:SALORDER
    .
  • For dates, use the format "Mon DD, YYYY" like "Feb 21, 2018". If placed in the left column, add |data-sort-type=date before the "Date" column header.
  • For periods, use the format "20XX–20YY", "Mon DD – Mon DD, 20YY" or "Mon DD–DD, 20YY". Make sure to use spaced and unspaced en dashes correctly as shown here.
  • For seasons, use the link format [[20XX–YY figure skating season|20XX–YY season]]. If "20XX–YY season" is too long, use the shortened forms "20XX–YY" or "XX–YY". All variations should be written with an en dash, not a hyphen or slash.
Sorting by skater
  • To sort skaters by family name, use the template {{sortname|first|last}}.
    Example: {{sortname|Gabriella|Papadakis}} renders as Gabriella Papadakis and sorts by "Papadakis".
  • If the Wikipedia page name of the skater's biography has additions in parentheses like "(figure skater)", use {{sortname|first|last|dab=figure skater}}. For more complex cases, see {{Sortname}}.
    Example: {{sortname|Javier|Fernández|dab=figure skater}} renders as Javier Fernández and sorts by "Fernández".
  • For skaters from countries where the family name is placed first like China, you can use the usual link like [[Sui Wenjing]], which sorts by the family name "Sui".
  • In sorting tables, split pairs or ice dance teams and place the partners in separate columns like "Female partner" and "Male partner" or "Skater 1" and "Skater 2" for gender-neutral column headers.
Sorting by country, city or competition
  • For countries, use the template with the IOC country code like {{AUS}} for Australia, which renders as  Australia, or the shortened form {{flag|AUS}}, which renders as  AUS.
  • For cities and competitions, use the link to the respective article or combine it with the country flag.
    Example 1: |data-sort-value=Saitama|{{flagicon|JPN}} [[Saitama (city)|Saitama]] renders as Japan Saitama and sorts by "Saitama".
    Example 2: |data-sort-value=2021 World Championships|{{flagicon|SWE}} [[2021 World Figure Skating Championships|2021 World Championships]] renders as Sweden 2021 World Championships and sorts by "2021 World Championships".

Figure skater biographies

These articles must adhere to Wikipedia's policies about biographies (see
WP:BLP
).

Examples: Tara Lipinski Yuzuru Hanyu ( career achievements) – Nathan Chen

Biography lead and structure

The lead section is a concise summary of the article body, following the style guidelines of MOS:LEAD for biographies.

  • First sentence: It mentions the skater's full name in boldface, date of birth and death in parentheses, and the occupation as a figure skater. It must be clear from the wording if the skater is still active as a competitor or professional or has retired from skating altogether. If the skater is active as a professional, do NOT use the term "retired" at all and do not write "former competitive skater" without clarifying the status as an active professional.
  • Second sentence: It is recommended to mention the discipline(s) the skater has competed in (like men's singles), main partner(s) in pairs or ice dance, and the period of competing (from 20XX to 20YY).
  • First paragraph: It contains a compilation of the skater's most important medals and titles (with the years in parentheses), especially gold medals won at major international events (Olympics, World Championships, European or Four Continents Championships, and the Grand Prix Final) and national championships.
  • Other content: The lead can also include the number of scored world records in the ISU Judging System and other notable achievements and contributions in figure skating as well as essential information about public life and the most important awards and accolades if applicable.

Article structure
For details on the content of each section, click on "show" (prose sections highlighted in grey, list sections in purple).

Early life
This section usually includes information about the skater's birth date and place, family background (if known), and how they got into figure skating.
Competitive skating career
This section is a chronologocal summary of the skater's competitive skating career from the lowest competitive level to senior level, usually structured by seasons, using the title format "20XX–YY season". In the case of skaters with long careers, senior sections can be bundled by Olympic cycles for better overview (see: Yuzuru Hanyu). Note that figure skating seasons run from July 1 to June 30 of the following year. This section usually covers information about training, competition results (placements and total segment scores), and notable achievements like records or firsts. It is also recommended to merge information about coaches and choreographers into this section to avoid duplicate content.
Professional skating career (if applicable)
This section is a chronological summary of the skater's professional skating career, mentioning notable ice show productions or participations and other contributions as a professional. If a skater has participated in professional skating competitions, the results should be mentioned here as well.
Skating technique, style, and influences (if notable)
This section is a summary of all athletic skills and performing art skills the skater is famous for as well as innovations in skating, signature moves, skating idols, and other influences.
Post-skating career(s) (if applicable)
This section is a summary of the skater's other figure skating-related occupations like skating coach, choreographer, commentator, or otherwise publicly notable occupations like singer, actor, model, politician etc.
Public life (if notable)
This section is a summary of the skater's public presence beyond their main occupations, including endorsements and ambassadorships, philanthropy, appearances on film and television, publications like autobiographies etc.
Legacy and impact (if notable)
This section is a summary of the skater's public impact. It includes the influence of people in- and outside figure skating, the impact on competitions and notable changes in the sport as well as the skater's popularity, economic and social impact if applicable.
Personal life and education
This section is a summary of the skater's notable personal information like spouses and children, university studies or other higher education, non-public occupations like high school teacher or employee, and hobbies or social media presence if notable. Information about the skater's death also belong in this section.
Records and achievements (if applicable)
See also: Biography tables and templates § World record scores and § Firsts and other records.
This section is a list of the skater's records, firsts, and other notable achievements in figure skating.
Awards (if applicable)
This section is a list of the skater's awards and accolades with the year added in parentheses.
Programs
See also:
WP:SALORDER
. The program table should include information about the program titles, used music pieces, and choreographers.
Competitive highlights
See also: Biography tables and templates § Competitive highlights.
This section contains grids with the skater's placements at figure skating competitions of all levels.
Detailed results
See also: Biography tables and templates § Personal bests and § detailed results.
This section contains tables with the skater's personal bests and a list of total segment scores achieved at senior and junior level (lower levels should not be listed). The tables and single entries are sorted chronologically from first to last. Senior results in the current +5/-5 GOE System should be placed at the top.
Appendices and footers

See also: Biography tables and templates § Footer templates.

  • See also (if applicable): Bulleted list of links to Wikipedia articles related to the skater like List of Olympic medalists in figure skating or Ina Bauer (element).
  • Notes and references: List of explanatory footnotes, inline citations, and cited works, using the templates {{NoteFoot}} and {{Reflist}} for example.
  • Further reading (if applicable): List of additional high-quality sources about the skater that are not listed in the "notes and references" section.
  • External links: Bulleted list of official weblinks related to the skater in this order: Official website (if the skater has one), ISU profile, national federation profile, Olympics profile, Olympedia profile, Skating Scores statistics page, and other notable profiles like IMDb if applicable. Social media accounts must not be listed as per
    WP:NOSOCIAL
    .
    This section also includes links to Wikipedia sister-projects like Wikimedia Commons and other footer templates.

Biography tables and templates

Infobox
Example
Born (1998-05-04) May 4, 1998 (age 26)
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Height169 cm (5 ft 7 in)
Figure skating career
Country 
Professional
2019–present
Highest WS2nd (2013–2014)[2]
Medal record
Event Gold medal – first place Silver medal – second place Bronze medal – third place
Olympic Games 0 0 1
World Championships 0 1 2
Four Continents Championships 1 2 0
Canadian Championships 2 2 0
Medal list
Olympic Games
Bronze medal – third place 2014 Sochi
Singles
World Championships
Silver medal – second place 2014 Saitama Singles
Bronze medal – third place 2013 London Singles
Bronze medal – third place 2018 Milan Ice dance
Four Continents Championships
Gold medal – first place 2013 Osaka Singles
Silver medal – second place 2014 Taipei Singles
Silver medal – second place 2017 Gangneung Ice dance
Canadian Championships
Gold medal – first place 2013 Mississauga Singles
Gold medal – first place 2014 Ottawa Singles
Silver medal – second place 2017 Ottawa Ice dance
Silver medal – second place 2018 Vancouver Ice dance

Use the following figure skating templates: {{Infobox figure skater}} and {{Figure skating infobox medals}}.

  • Place the infobox above the lead section in the article's plain text (Wiki markup code).
  • Mandatory parameters: |country=, |discipline=, and |partner= (for pairs and ice dance).
  • Profile picture: Use the |image= parameter to add a profile picture of the skater from the Wikimedia Commons library. Make sure to add an alternative text for screenreaders with |alt= and an image caption with |caption=.
  • Coach and club: Only add the current |coach= and |skating club= for skaters who are still active at competitive level. Former coaches and clubs should be mentioned in the "competitive skating career" section in the prose part of the article, supported by reliable secondary sources.
  • Retirement: Do NOT fill out the |retired= parameter as long as the skater is still active as a
    professional
    ! Use |years_competitive= and |years_professional= to mark the periods of skating at competitive and professional level as shown in the example on the right.
  • Highest ISU world standing: Use an ordinal number in the two-letter suffix form, with the period added in parentheses.
  • For the full list of available parameters and detailed instructions, visit the template documentation.
  • Medal record: Use the |medalrecord= parameter to embed the template {{Figure skating infobox medals}} in combination with the module {{FS medal}}. For detailed instructions, including skaters who changed countries or disciplines, visit the template documentation.

Note: For skaters with other notable occupations like singer or politician, the "Infobox figure skater" can be embedded into the more general {{Infobox person}}, using the |module= parameter.

World record scores

Use the following figure skating template: {{Figure skating world records}}.

  • For competition names, follow
    these advices
    . For scores, use numbers with two decimal places like 93.10.
  • For junior records, add (J) after the segment like "Short program (J)".
  • Use the |ref= parameter to add global sources for the full table, usually the official ISU progression of highest scores tables like this bundled source.[1] Only add individual citations in the notes column.

Example

  • J – Junior record score
Chronological list of world record scores in the +5/-5 GOE System [1]
Date Score Segment Event
Mar 8, 2018 85.90 Short program (J) 2018 World Junior Championships
Nov 3, 2018 91.53 Short program 2018 Grand Prix of Helsinki
Nov 4, 2018 183.44 Free skating
Nov 4, 2018 274.97 Combined total
Nov 16, 2018 97.12 Short program 2018 Rostelecom Cup
Mar 23, 2019 186.95 Free skating 2019 World Championships
Mar 23, 2019 294.79 Combined total
Firsts and other records

Use the following precast table:

Precast table
{|class="wikitable plainrowheaders"
|+Chronological list of firsts and records in competitive skating
!scope=col width=50px|Date
!scope=col|Achievement
!scope=col width=200px|Event
!scope=col width=50px|{{abbr|Ref.|References}}
|-
!scope=row|
| || || ||
|-
!scope=row|
| || || ||
|}
  • For competition names, follow
    these advices
    .
  • Support each first or record with a reliable secondary source, adding one or more inline citations to the "References" column.
  • Only place a full stop after the achievement description if it is a full sentence.

Example: List of career achievements by Yuzuru Hanyu § Firsts and other records

Programs

Use the following figure skating templates: {{Figure skating program list}} and {{FS program}}.

  • For program titles, follow
    these advices
    .
  • The following information, if known and sourced, should be added to the list: program title (as submitted by the skater to the ISU), composers and/or performers, all tracks used in the music cut, and the choreographers of the program.
  • Use the |refx= parameter to add sources for each season, usually the skater's ISU profile page. Example: Charlene Guignard.
  • For past seasons, search the history of the skater's ISU profile page at the Wayback Machine. For exhibition programs, use reliable secondary sources like newspaper articles or the official page of the show (some have the planned programs listed), and place the reference directly as an inline citation after the program title.

Example

  • Program details mentioned at first occurrence
  • Olympic seasons highlighted in blue
  • Programs performed at the
    Winter Olympics
    highlighted in bold
Competition and exhibition programs by season 
Season Short program Free skate program Exhibition program
2020–21
[2]
Tracks used
  1. "El Tango de Roxanne" (performed by Ewan McGregor, José Feliciano, Jacek Koman)
  2. "Come What May" (performed by Nicole Kidman and Ewan McGregor)
2021–22
Olympic season
[2]
Piano Concerto No. 5
Moulin Rouge![2]
  • Performed by Queen
  • Choreo. by Jane Doe
Competitive highlights

Use the following figure skating templates: {{Figure skating competitive highlights}} and {{FS placements}}.

  • For competition names, follow
    these advices
    . For placements, use ordinals in the two-letter suffix form like 1st or 22nd.
  • Use the |ref= parameter to add global sources for the full table, usually the skater's ISU competition results page. Example: Gabriella Papadakis.
  • Do NOT add inline citations inside table cells! It messes up the coloring and other technical features of the template.
  • It is recommended to split the competitive highlights into placements at senior and lower competition levels. This keeps the tables at reasonable size, both in horizontal and vertical direction, and reduces the number empty cells to a minimum.

Example

Competition placements at senior level [2]
Season 2015–16 2016–17 2017–18 2019–20 2020–21
Winter Olympics 6th
Winter Olympics (Team) 5th
World Championships 10th 7th C TBD
Four Continents 6th WD 2nd C
Grand Prix Final 1st
GP Rostelecom Cup 5th 3rd 1st WD
CS Autumn Classic 3rd 4th 2nd
U.S. Championships 4th 1st 1st 1st
World Team Trophy
5th
(3rd)
3rd
(1st)
Personal bests

Use the following figure skating template: {{Figure skating personal bests}}.

  • For competition names, follow
    these advices
    . For scores, use numbers with two decimal places like 208.10.
  • Use the |ref= parameter to add global sources for the full table, usually the skater's ISU personal bests page. Example: Sui Wenjing.
  • Avoid adding inline citations in single table cells.

Example

  • TSS – Total segment score highlighted in bold
  • TES –
    Technical element score
  • PCS –
    Program component score
ISU personal best scores in the +5/-5 GOE System [2]
Segment Type Score Event
Total TSS 298.03 2023 World Championships
Short program TSS 102.46 2020 Four Continents
TES 54.97 2020 Four Continents
PCS 45.31 2023 Skate Canada
Free skating TSS 208.10 2023 World Championships
TES 116.22 2023 World Championships
PCS 93.94 2023 Skate Canada
Detailed results

Use the following figure skating template: {{Figure skating detailed results}}.

  • For competition names, follow
    these advices
    . For scores, use numbers with two decimal places like 208.10.
  • Only list detailed results from the season onward, when the skater has officially moved up to junior level, having competed in at least one ISU-sanctioned junior or senior competition. Seasons with results at domestic junior competitions only should not be listed here.
  • Use the |ref= parameter to add global sources for the full table, usually the skater's results page on Skating Scores. Example: Yuzuru Hanyu.
  • Do NOT add inline citations inside table cells! It messes up the coloring and other technical features of the template.
  • Use the |sourcex= parameter to link the ISU result page for each listed competition in the "Details" column. Example: 2017 World Championships.

Example

  • +3/-3 GOE System
    highlighted in bold and italic
  • Small medals for the short program (SP) and free skating (FS) segment are only awarded at ISU Championships.
  • Medals at team events are awarded for the team result only. The individual placement at the
    ISU World Team Trophy
    is listed in parentheses.
Results in the 2016–17 season[2]
Date Event SP FS Total Details
P Score P Score P Score
Oct 28–30, 2016 Canada 2016 Skate Canada International 1 91.44 2 183.92 1 275.36 Details
Nov 25–27, 2016 Japan 2016 NHK Trophy 2 95.01 3 188.84 2 283.85 Details
Dec 7–11, 2016 France 2016–17 Grand Prix Final 1 101.04 5 171.39 4 272.43 Details
Jan 14–22, 2017 United States U.S. Championships 6 70.12 2 183.92 4 254.04 Details
Mar 29 – Apr 2, 2017 Finland 2017 World Championships 3 96.54 1 208.36 2 304.90 Details
Apr 20–23, 2017 Japan 2017 World Team Trophy 5 80.91 2 194.30 3 (2) 275.21 Details
Footer templates

Figure skating competitions

For the correct use of competition-related terms, see

Figure skating terminology § Competitions and disciplines
.

Competition lead and structure

The lead section is a concise summary of the article body, following the style guidelines of MOS:LEAD. The guidelines presented in this section use the structure of the featured article about the 2018 World Snooker Championship as orientation.

  • First sentence: It mentions the competition's official name in boldface, the type of competition like "international figure skating competition", the date or period of hosting, and the venue and location. The official name must not contain any internal links (see
    MOS:BOLDLINK
    ).
  • First paragraph: It is recommended to mention the organizer, the edition of the competition like "43rd edition of the annual World Figure Skating Championships", and the events that were contested like "men's singles" or "team event". If the competition served as an important qualifying event, that should be mentioned here as well.
  • Other content: The lead can include the number of participating skaters and nations, the gold medalists in each discipline, notable records and firsts, disqualifications or controversies, and information about sponsors, broadcast, and viewership if notable and supported by reliable sources.

Article structure
For details on the content of each section, click on "show" (prose sections highlighted in grey, list sections in purple).

Overview
This section puts the competition into a global context, mentioning the type, edition, and frequency of the competition, chronology within the respective season, and defending champions of the previous edition. If it is an ISU Championship or part of the Grand Prix or Challenger Series, that should be mentioned here as well.
Host city, venue, and organization
This section is a summary of the competition's organization, naming the main governing body, host skating federation, and sponsors. It mentions the scheduled date or period of the full event and also when and how the host city was selected. It provides a brief summary on the venue, including its seating capacity for the figure skating competition and information on ticket sales if known.
Qualification and entries
This section mentions the number of participating skaters, nations, entries per discipline, and all changes to preliminary entries, either in the prose or as a bulleted list. It also mentions the qualification criteria and procedure if applicable, including required minimum technical element scores for ISU Championships.
Competition summary

This section summarizes all notable events of the competition with the following recommended sub-sections:

  • Format and rewards: This section is a brief summary of the competition format, applied judging system, and notable changes in rules and regulations to previous events if there are any. It also mentions the awarded medals (including small medals), points for world standings, and prize money for each discipline.
  • Men's singles: This section summarizes the men's event of the competition, including the date, number of participants, warm-up groups, and cut-off placement for the free skating segment. It mentions the medalists and segment winners as well as records, firsts, disqualifications, and otherwise notable events, supported by reliable secondary sources. At junior and lower levels, this event is called "boys' singles".
  • Women's singles: The content of this section is analogous to "men's singles". At junior and lower levels, this event is called "girls' singles".
  • Pair skating (or "Pairs"): The content of this section is analogous to "men's singles".
  • Ice dance: The content of this section is analogous to "men's singles".
  • Team event (if held): The content of this section is similar to "men's singles", also mentioning the participating nations and total points earned by the medalists.
  • Exhibition gala (if held): This section is a brief summary of the exhibition gala, including a list of invited skaters, sorted chronologically by their performance with the discipline added in parentheses. Make sure to cite reliable sources.
Attendance and coverage
This section mentions the number of spectators at the venue, live streams, and gives an overview of broadcasters by nation if known.
Critical reception
This section is a summary of critical responses, especially by international mainstream media, regarding single events and the competition's organization overall. It also mentions controversies regarding placements or scoring, accidents and medical treatment, doping cases, and other notable events.
Legacy and impact (if applicable)
This section is a summary of the competition's legacy in figure skating and beyond, which includes the influence of skaters and people in- and outside the sport, the impact on competition rules and the judging system as well as the economic or social impact if applicable.
Records and achievements (if applicable)
See also: Competition tables and templates § World record scores and § Firsts and other records.
This section is a list of record scores, firsts, and other notable achievements in the competition.
Medalists
See also: Competition tables and templates § Medalists.
This section is a list of medalists (and small medalists at ISU Championships) of the competition by discipline.
Detailed results
See also: Competition tables and templates § Detailed results.
This section is a list of detailed results in the competition by discipline, including placements and total segment scores.
Appendices and footers

See also: Competition tables and templates § Footer templates.

  • See also (if applicable): Bulleted list of links to Wikipedia articles related to the competition like Figure skating at the Olympic Games or World Figure Skating Championships cumulative medal count.
  • Notes and references: List of explanatory footnotes, inline citations, and cited works, using the templates {{NoteFoot}} and {{Reflist}} for example.
  • Further reading (if applicable): List of additional high-quality sources about the competition that are not listed in the "notes and references" section.
  • External links: Bulleted list of official weblinks related to the competition in this order: Official website (if there is one like helsinki2017.com), ISU calendar entry (like 2017 World Championships overview), and ISU results page (like 2017 World Championships results). Social media accounts must not be listed as per
    WP:NOSOCIAL
    . This section also includes links to Wikipedia sister-projects like Wikimedia Commons and other footer templates.

Competition tables and templates

Infobox

Use the following figure skating template: {{Infobox figure skating competition}}.

  • Place the infobox above the lead section in the article's plain text (Wiki markup code).
World record scores

Use the following figure skating template: {{Figure skating world records}}.

  • For competition names, follow
    these advices
    . For scores, use numbers with two decimal places like 93.10.
  • For junior records, add (J) after the segment like "Short program (J)".
  • Use the |ref= parameter to add global sources for the full table, usually the official ISU progression of highest scores tables like this bundled source.[1] Only add individual citations in the notes column.
Firsts and other records

Use the following precast table:

Precast table
{|class="wikitable plainrowheaders"
|+Chronological list of firsts and records at the 20XX Competition
!scope=col width=50px|Date
!scope=col width=200px|Skater or team
!scope=col|Achievement
!scope=col width=50px|{{abbr|Ref.|References}}
|-
!scope=row|
| || || ||
|-
!scope=row|
| || || ||
|}
  • For competition names, follow
    these advices
    .
  • Support each first or record with a reliable secondary source, adding one or more inline citations to the "References" column.
  • Only place a full stop after the achievement description if it is a full sentence.
Medalists
Detailed results
Footer templates

Add the following templates if applicable:

  1. Wiki sister projects: {{Commons}} or {{Sister project links}}.
  2. Navboxes: See
    competition navboxes
    .
  3. Stub templates: For articles with
    stub assessment class, use {{figure-skating-stub
    }}.

Figure skating elements and moves

Element lead and structure

The lead section is a concise summary of the article body, following the style guidelines of MOS:LEAD.

  • First sentence: It mentions the element's or move's official name in boldface, the official abbreviation in parentheses, and the parent element or skating move if it exists. Otherwise, use "figure skating element" or "figure skating move" instead.
  • First paragraph: It gives a concise definition for the element or skating move, names its inventor and first adaption in figure skating, and mentions the disciplines where the element is required or commonly performed.
  • Other content: The lead can include information about the most notable innovations and records and most popular variations.

Article structure
(prose sections highlighted in grey, list sections in purple)

Terminology
This section mentions the element's or move's official name(s) followed by the official abbreviation in parentheses, the parent element or move if it exists, and a precise yet accessible definition in accordance with the ISU Technical Panel Handbook. Make sure to limit the amount of technical terms to a minimum and clarify the meaning of terms that may not be known by casual readers. This section also includes commonly used unofficial names as well as important distinctions from other elements of similar name, abbreviation or definition. If the element or move is named after a person like its inventor or a skater who popularized it, this should be included in this section as well.
Make sure to use correct terminology, following the guidelines in the section for #Technical elements.
History
This section is a chronological summary of all notable records, milestones, and other events related to the element or move from its invention until today. It should mention the disciplines, in which this element or move is required or most commonly performed, and name all people who notably contributed to the its adaption in figure skating, development, and popularization, including important records and firsts. If the element or move is borrowed or used in other sports or performing arts, that should be included in this section as well.
Execution
This section is a summary of the element's or move's technical execution, including its physical background, mechanics, and athletic requirements, with focus on the most challenging or unique aspects. If known and supported by reliable sources, the frequency, success rate, and most common execution mistakes among skaters should be mentioned as well.
If available, the section should be supported by appropriate visuals, illustrating the correct execution of the element or skating move.
Competition rules and requirements (if applicable)
This section is a summary of the element's or move's adaption in figure skating competitions. It mentions in which disciplines and competition segments the element or move is required or permitted, and the rules that need to be followed like repetitions, required number of revolutions etc. If there have been notable changes in history (like the abolition of compulsory figures or prohibition of backflips), this should be mentioned here briefly as well.
Variations (if applicable)
This section contains a list of known variations of the element or skating move, ideally supported by an image gallery. The list entries must be supported by reliable sources.
Scoring values (if applicable)
This section contains a list of the element's main base values and factored GOE ranges in accordance with the ISU Scale of Values. If there have been notable changes in history, this should be mentioned here as well.
Records and firsts (if applicable)
This section contains a list of notable records and firsts related to the element or skating move.

Appendices and footers (See also – Notes and references – Further reading – External links)

Element tables and templates

Ice shows

Ice show lead and structure

The lead section is a concise summary of the article body, following the style guidelines of MOS:LEAD.

  • First sentence: It mentions the ice show's official name in boldface, the type of show (like "annual touring ensemble ice show"), the producer and organizer, and the country where it is held. In the case of non-recurring shows, the date or period of hosting and the venues and locations should be mentioned.
  • First paragraph: It is recommended to mention the show format (like "skating exhibitions"), cast size and number of performances, duration of a single show, and the number of shows and legs per edition.
  • Other content: The lead can include information about notable features of the show, ticket sales and view numbers, broadcast, and sponsors if supported by reliable sources. Since ice shows are very individual in their production, format, grossings, and criticial reception, it is up to the discretion of the editor to compile the most notable information in an appropriate way.

Article structure
(prose sections highlighted in grey, list sections in purple)

Section guidelines will be added here

Appendices and footers (See also – Notes and references – Further reading – External links)

Ice show tables and templates

Referencing

Reliable figure skating-specific sources

For the interest of broadness and comprehensiveness of figure skating articles, there are occasions when it is necessary to follow Wikipedia's Ignore all rules policy. This goes especially for articles about figure skating elements, judging systems, and discipline-specific rules and regulations, which require a high degree of accuracy in terminology and attention to detail that secondary sources may not provide. In such cases, it is often unavoidable to resort to self-published official documents by the International Skating Union (ISU) or other organizations that oversee the sport. Some of the best reporting on figure skating is done in-house by the ISU and national federations like U.S. Figure Skating and Skate Canada.

International Skating Union and national federations

Figure skating websites

Figure skating magazines

  • Figure Skate Life (フィギュアスケートLife), published multiple months per year by Fusosha in Tokyo, Japan (in Japanese).
  • International Figure Skating (IFS), published every two months until 2023 by Susan D. Russell in Denville Township, United States.
  • Kiss & Cry, published multiple months per year by Tokyo News in Tokyo, Japan (in Japanese).
  • Pirouette, published ten months per year by Stefan Schulze in Creglingen, Germany (in German).
  • Skating Magazine, published eight months per year by Troy Schwindt, U.S. Figure Skating, in Colorado Springs, United States.
  • World Figure Skating (ワールド·フィギュアスケート, WFS), published multiple months per year by Shinshokan in Tokyo, Japan (in Japanese).
  • Other irregular or discontinued Japanese figure skating magazines:
    • Figure Skate Days
    • Figure Skating Cultural Book
    • Figure Skating Magazine
    • Quadruple Axel

Books about figure skating history and techniques

Archiving sources

The International Skating Union often overwrites existing versions of a website or PDF document instead of creating a new page. Common expamples are figure skater biographies and various statistics pages. To make sure that the cited information does not get lost, archive a screenshot of the page at the Wayback Machine or archive.today.

To search the archive history of a specific web page for existing screenshots, enter the URL-address in the search bar of the Wayback Machine.
This example shows all screenshots of Javier Fernández' ISU biography page that were archived in 2017.

As per

citation templates of all online sources used in an article. When all online sources have been successfully archived, add the template {{Archived reflist
}} at the top of the article's talk page:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d ISU progression of men's highest scores. Lausanne: International Skating Union (April 16, 2022). Statistics by competition segment:
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Sample reference

External links