Land development is the alteration of landscape in any number of ways such as:
- lots, typically for the purpose of building homes
- Real estate development or changing its purpose, for example by converting an unused factory complex into a condominium.
In an economic context, land development is also sometimes advertised as land improvement or land amelioration. It refers to
- Road construction
- land levelling
- Land preparation (development) for gardens
- Setup of fences and, to a lesser degree, hedges
- Service connections to municipal services and public utilities
- Drainage, canal systems
- External lighting (street lampsetc.)
Development analysis puts development prospects and the development process itself under the microscope, identifying where enhancements and improvements can be introduced. These improvements aim to align with best design practice, political sensitivities, and the inevitable social requirements of a project, with the overarching objective of increasing
Development analysis can add significantly to the value of land and development, and as such is a crucial tool for landowners and developers. It is an essential step in Kevin A. Lynch's 1960 book The Image of the City, and is considered to be essential to realizing the value potential of land. The landowner can share in additional planning gain (significant value uplift) via an awareness of the land's development potential. This is done via a residual development appraisal or residual valuation. The residual appraisal calculates the sale value of the end product (the gross development value or GDV) and hypothetically deducts costs, including planning and construction costs, finance costs and developer's profit. The "residue", or leftover proportion, represents the land value. Therefore, in maximising the GDV (that which one could build on the land), land value is concurrently enhanced.
Land value is highly sensitive to supply and demand (for the end product), build costs, planning and affordable housing contributions, and so on. Understanding the intricacies of the development system and the effect of "value drivers" can result in massive differences in the landowner's sale value.
Conversion of landforms
Land development puts more emphasis on the expected
Conversion to building land
Conversion to building land is as a rule associated with
Construction activity often effectively seals off a larger part of the soil from
With the notable exception of attempts at
Conversion to farmland
New creation of
- Hydrological measures (land levelling, drainage, irrigation, sometimes landslide and flood control)
- fertilization, establishment of a productive chemical balance).
- Road construction
Because the newly created farmland is more prone to
Massive land conversion without proper consideration of
- General soil degradation
- Habitat lossfor the wildlife.
While deleterious effects can be particularly visible when land is developed for industrial or mining usage, agro-industrial and settlement use can also have a massive and sometimes irreversible
The environmental impact of land use and development is a substantial consideration for land development projects. On the local level an environmental impact report (EIR) may be necessary.[
In most cases, the land development project will be allowed to proceed if mitigation requirements are met. Mitigation banking is the most prevalent example, and necessitates that the habitat will have to be replaced at a greater rate than it is removed. This increase in total area helps to establish the new ecosystem, though it will require time to reach maturity.
The extent, and type of land use directly affects
Deforestation is also the reason for loss of a
- Agricultural expansion
- Built-up area
- Developed environments
- Environmental impact statement
- Illegal construction
- Land consumption
- Land development bank
- Land grabbing
- Land management
- Land reclamation
- Land recycling
- Landscape ecology
- Land-use conflict
- Leopold matrix
- Mitigation banking
- Ocean development
- Political action committee
- Real estate development
- Subdivision (land)
- Subsurface drainage
- Sustainable agriculture
- Urban planning
- Urban renewal
- Watertable control
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- C. Michael Hogan. 2009. Painted Hunting Dog: Lycaon pictus, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg Archived 2010-12-09 at the Wayback Machine
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- R.J. Oosterbaan, International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement, Wageningen, The Netherlands. "Improvement of waterlogged and saline soils." Free downloads of software and articles on land drainage.
- Kone, D. Linda (2006). Land Development (10th ed.). Washington, D.C.: National Association of Home Builders. ISBN 9780867186093.
- Dewberry & Davis (2008). Land Development Handbook (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 9780071640930.
- Colley, Barbara C. (2005). Practical Manual of Land Development (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0071448667.