Deaths in December 1993

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

The following is a list of notable deaths in December 1993.

Entries for each day are listed alphabetically by surname. A typical entry lists information in the following sequence:

  • Name, age, country of citizenship at birth, subsequent country of citizenship (if applicable), reason for notability, cause of death (if known), and reference.

December 1993

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31

References

  1. ^ Dyrud, PJ (February 23, 2020). "Lynette Davies, the Unforgettable". Den lille mann. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  2. ^ "JAKE E. LEE: RAY GILLEN 'Never Told Me' He Had AIDS". Blabbermouth.net. January 23, 2019. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  3. ^ Hylton, Jane (2017). "Hele, Sir Ivor Henry (1912–1993)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. National Centre of Biography, Australian National University. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  4. ^ "Scott Kolk - Broadway Cast & Staff - IBDB". ibdb.com. Retrieved April 8, 2022.
  5. ^ McGuinness, Brian (December 16, 1993). "Obituary: Mary Lobel". The Independent. Retrieved April 8, 2022.
  6. ^ "Paal Brekke". catalogue.bnf.fr (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved April 8, 2022.
  7. ^ Greenwood, Norman Neill (November 1, 1996). "Harry Julius Emeléus, C. B. E., 22 June 1903 - 2 December 1993". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. The Royal Society. 42: 125–150. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1996.0009. ISSN 1748-8494. Retrieved October 21, 2021.
  8. ^ McFadden, Robert D. (December 3, 1993). "Head of Medellin Cocaine Cartel Is Killed by Troops in Colombia". The New York Times. Retrieved April 8, 2022.
  9. ^ a b The Associated Press (December 16, 1993). "Notable Sports Deaths in 1993". Retrieved May 11, 2022.
  10. ^ Borah, Woodrow; Hanff, Peter E. (1994). "George P. Hammond, History: Berkeley". University of California: In Memoriam 1994. University of California. pp. 113–116. Retrieved April 10, 2022.
  11. ^ "Witold Majchrzycki". Olympedia. OlyMADMen. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  12. ^ "Multi Agency Effort to Bring Two Violent Gang members to Justice". Los Angeles Police Foundation and the LAPD. July 10, 2008. Retrieved October 17, 2021.
  13. ^ Marilyn Berger (December 4, 1993). "Lewis Thomas, Whose Essays Clarified the Mysteries of Biology, Is Dead at 80". The New York Times. p. 1 28. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  14. ^ "Marcel Jean". data.bnf.fr (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved April 10, 2022.
  15. ^ Kennedy, Shawn G. (December 6, 1993). "Margaret Landon Is Dead at 90; Wrote of Court Life in Old Siam". The New York Times. p. D 9. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  16. ^ "Police chief dies after suffering arrest injury". The Independent. December 6, 1993. Retrieved November 9, 2021.
  17. ^ "Roy Vernon". worldfootball.net. Retrieved April 10, 2022.
  18. ^ Fricke, David (January 28, 1994). "Frank Zappa: 1940-1993". rollingstone.com. Retrieved April 10, 2022.
  19. ^ "Mike Dowdle Stats - Pro-Football-Reference.com". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved April 10, 2022.
  20. ^ "Yevgeny Gabrilovich, Soviet Film Writer, 94". The New York Times. December 8, 1993. p. B 8. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  21. ^ Baird, Robert (February 10, 1994). "Ex-Blossom dies". Rolling Stone. (675):15
  22. ^ Zúñia, J. F. (April 26, 2009). "Su suicidio fue su único escándalo" [Her suicide was her only scandal] (in Spanish). Mexico City, Mexico: El Universal. Retrieved May 17, 2015.
  23. ^ "Vince Mazza Stats - Pro-Football-Reference.com". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved April 10, 2022.
  24. ^ "Alexandre Trauner". britannica.com. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved April 10, 2022.
  25. ^ Peter B. Flint (December 8, 1993). "Don Ameche Is Dead at 85; Oscar Winner for 'Cocoon'". The New York Times. p. B 8. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  26. ^ "Olympedia – Anna Hřebřinová". olympedia.org. OlyMADMen. Retrieved April 10, 2022.
  27. ^ "Olympedia - Henk Ooms". olympedia.org. OlyMADMen. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  28. ^ "Paul-Louis Weiller". data.bnf.fr (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved April 10, 2022.
  29. ^ Kelly, Jon (December 6, 2013). "Nicky Crane: The secret double life of a gay neo-Nazi". BBC News. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  30. ^ "Former fascist organizer dies". Capital Gay. December 1988., cited in "Nicky Crane | Searchlight case study" (PDF). Political Extremism & Radicalism: Far-Right and Left Political Groups in US, Europe and Australia. Gale. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  31. ^ "Abidin Dino". Biyografi.info (in Turkish). Tüm Hakları Saklıdır. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  32. ^ "Félix Houphouët-Boigny". data.bnf.fr (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved April 10, 2022.
  33. ^ "Blaže Koneski". data.bnf.fr (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved April 10, 2022.
  34. ^ Craig R. Whitney (December 9, 1993). "Dr. Wolfgang Paul, 80, Is Dead; German Winner of Physics Nobel". The New York Times. p. D 23. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  35. ^ "Robert Taft, Jr. - Social Networks and Archival Context". snaccooperative.org. Retrieved April 10, 2022.
  36. ^ "Olympedia – Yevgeny Minayev". olympedia.org. OlyMADMen. Retrieved April 29, 2022.
  37. ^ "Carlotta Monti - Social Networks and Archival Context". snaccooperative.org. Retrieved April 10, 2022.
  38. ^ "PRADAYROL Philippe Louis". deces.matchid.io (in French). Retrieved April 10, 2022.
  39. ^ "Olympedia – Mieczysław Wilczewski". olympedia.org. OlyMADMen. Retrieved April 10, 2022.
  40. ^ Froggatt, Richard. "Danny Blanchflower (1926 - 1993): Footballer and journalist". The Dictionary of Ulster Biography. Ulster History Circle. Retrieved October 15, 2021.
  41. ^ "Herbert Grevenius". data.bnf.fr (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved April 10, 2022.
  42. ^ "Matt Guokas Stats - Basketball-Reference.com". basketball-reference.com. Retrieved April 10, 2022.
  43. ^ "Carter Jefferson". data.bnf.fr (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved April 10, 2022.
  44. ^ "John Wisdom". data.bnf.fr (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved April 10, 2022.
  45. ^ "Olympedia – Jerzy Juskowiak". olympedia.org. OlyMADMen. Retrieved April 10, 2022.
  46. ^ "Fernand Mithouard". procyclingstats.com. Retrieved April 10, 2022.
  47. ^ "Alice Tully - Social Networks and Archival Context". snaccooperative.org. Retrieved April 10, 2022.
  48. ^ Kalisher, Lester (August 1, 1994). "Alan E. Zimmer". Radiology. 192 (2): 586. doi:10.1148/radiology.192.2.586-b.
  49. ^ "Olympedia – Bohdan Likszo". olympedia.org. OlyMADMen. Retrieved April 17, 2022.
  50. ^ Knight, Lindsay. "Bill Mumm #507". Match Centre. allblacks.com. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  51. ^ Eric Pace (December 14, 1993). "Steve Nelson, Ex-Communist Tied To Ruling on Sedition, Dies at 90". The New York Times. p. B 8. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  52. ^ "Phil Perlo Stats - Pro-Football-Reference.com". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved April 17, 2022.
  53. ^ "Elvira Popescu - filmportal.de". filmportal.de (in German). Retrieved April 17, 2022.
  54. ^ "József Antall". britannica.com. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved April 17, 2022.
  55. ^ Knight, Lindsay. "Ned Barry #397". Match Centre. allblacks.com. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  56. ^ "Joan Cross". data.bnf.fr (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved April 17, 2022.
  57. ^ "Bob Taylor Stats - Hockey-Reference.com". hockey-reference.com. Retrieved April 17, 2022.
  58. ^ "Ken Anderson". data.bnf.fr (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved April 17, 2022.
  59. ^ "Larry Cameron". Wrestlers Database. CAGEMATCH - The Internet Wrestling Database. Philip Kreikenbohm. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  60. ^ a b "Jean-Pierre Imbrohoris (auteur de Joy)" [Jean-Pierre Imbrohoris (author of Joy)] (in French). Babelio. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  61. ^ "Vanessa Duriès". data.bnf.fr (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved April 17, 2022.
  62. ^ "Billy Shantz Stats - Baseball-Reference.com". baseball-reference.com. Retrieved April 17, 2022.
  63. ^ "Jeff Alm Stats - Pro-Football-Reference.com". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved April 17, 2022.
  64. ^ "Highway 17 accident victim was noted UCSC professor". Santa Cruz Sentinel. Vol. 136, no. 345. December 16, 1993. p. 5. Retrieved October 21, 2021 – via California Digital Newspaper Collection.
  65. ^ "Frank Fuller Stats - Pro-Football-Reference.com". pro-football-reference.com. Retrieved April 17, 2022.
  66. ^ Lloyd, Thomas (October 23, 2011). "Obituary: Major Francis Jones". People. The Independent. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  67. ^ "Myrna Loy". britannica.com. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved April 17, 2022.
  68. ^ "Silvina Ocampo". data.bnf.fr (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved April 17, 2022.
  69. ^ Carbajal, Jorge (February 13, 2001). "Mareros asesinan a entrenador" [Mareros assassinate coach]. Deportes. El Diario de Hoy (in Spanish). Archived from the original on October 4, 2012. Retrieved October 15, 2021.
  70. ^ "Raúl Esnal". National Football Teams. Retrieved October 15, 2021.
  71. ^ "Penaia Ganilau, 75, Fiji Leader Who Became the First President". The New York Times. December 17, 1993. p. B13. Retrieved April 17, 2022.
  72. ^ Shulman, Robert G. (2000). "William D. Phillips 1925–1993" (PDF). Biographical Memoirs. Vol. 78. Washington, D.C.: The National Academy Press. pp. 165–181. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  73. ^ "Olympedia – Marcel Vandernotte". olympedia.org. OlyMADMen. Retrieved April 17, 2022.
  74. ^ "Stones Throw Records (Peanut Butter Wolf Interview)". February 2002. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  75. ^ "Moses Gunn - Broadway Cast & Staff - IBDB". ibdb.com. Retrieved April 19, 2022.
  76. ^ "Jed Johnson, Jr. - Social Networks and Archival Context". snaccooperative.org. Retrieved April 19, 2022.
  77. ^ "Charles Moore - Social Networks and Archival Context". snaccooperative.org. Retrieved April 19, 2022.
  78. ^ "Kakuei Tanaka". britannica.com. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved April 19, 2022.
  79. ^ "Bobby Davidson, international football referee". eu-football.info. Retrieved April 29, 2022.
  80. ^ "Len Julians". worldfootball.net. Retrieved April 19, 2022.
  81. ^ "Janet Margolin, Film And TV Actress, 50". The New York Times. December 19, 1993. p. 1 62. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  82. ^ Richard D. Lyons (December 22, 1993). "Joseph H. Ball, 88, Republican Senator And U.N. Advocate". The New York Times. p. B 8. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  83. ^ "Georges Bégué SOE F-Section". campx.ca. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  84. ^ "Helm Glockler". OldRacingCars.com. Allen Brown. December 13, 2015. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  85. ^ "Steve James". data.bnf.fr (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  86. ^ "Tony Kappen Stats - Basketball-Reference.com". basketball-reference.com. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  87. ^ "Sam Wanamaker, Actor, 74, Who Led New Globe Theater". The New York Times. December 19, 1993. p. 1 62. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  88. ^ "Wallace F. Bennett - Social Networks and Archival Context". snaccooperative.org. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  89. ^ "Obituaries : Michael Clarke; Drummer With the Byrds Rock Group". Los Angeles Times. December 21, 1993. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  90. ^ "Iichiro Hatoyama; Ex-Foreign Minister, 75". The New York Times. Reuters. December 19, 1993. p. 11. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  91. ^ "Hans Rohrbach". data.bnf.fr (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  92. ^ Stanley, Jeanie R. (September 9, 2020). "Davis, Gussie Nell (1906–1993)". Handbook of Texas. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved October 15, 2021.
  93. ^ "Hubert Deltour". procyclingstats.com. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  94. ^ "W. Edwards Deming". britannica.com. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  95. ^ Giraudet, Jean-Paul (February 7, 2016). "Nazife Güran". The Classical Composers Database. Musicalics. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  96. ^ "Charles Herman Helmsing - Social Networks and Archival Context". snaccooperative.org. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  97. ^ "Felix Mackiewicz Stats - Baseball-Reference.com". baseball-reference.com. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  98. ^ Wolfgang Saxon (December 24, 1993). "Sir Philip Christison; General, 100, Took Japanese Surrender". The New York Times. p. B 7. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  99. ^ "Guy des Cars". data.bnf.fr (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  100. ^ "rederick Harlfinger Dies". The Washington Post. December 29, 1993. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  101. ^ "Ivan Kozlovskyi". data.bnf.fr (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  102. ^ "Zack Mosley, Creator Of 'Smilin' Jack,' 87". The New York Times. December 25, 1993. p. 1 37. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  103. ^ "Olympedia – Pekka Niemi". olympedia.org. OlyMADMen. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  104. ^ "Olympedia - MargaritaNikolayeva". olympedia.org. OlyMADMen. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  105. ^ "Mario Amendola - filmportal.de". filmportal.de (in German). Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  106. ^ Hunt, Jamer Kennedy (April 1995). "Absence to Presence: The Life History of Sylvia [Bataille] Lacan (France)". Rice University. pp. ii, 105, 107, 188–191. Retrieved October 18, 2021 – via Rice Digital Scholarship Archive.
  107. ^ "Sylvia Bataille". Cinémathèque française (in French). Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  108. ^ "Marion Burns". data.bnf.fr (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  109. ^ "Don DeFore - Broadway Cast & Staff - IBDB". ibdb.com. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  110. ^ William Grimes (December 24, 1993). "Alexander Mackendrick, Director Of Guinness Comedies, Dies at 81". The New York Times. p. B 7. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  111. ^ "Adel Imam's position .. The story of the death of Salah Zulfikar before filming the scene". Newsy Today. January 20, 2021. Retrieved October 15, 2021.
  112. ^ Richard D. Lyons (December 29, 1993). "Gertrude Blom, 92, Long a Chronicler Of Mayan Cultures". The New York Times. p. D 19. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  113. ^ "Lauchlin Currie, 91; New Deal Economist Was Roosevelt Aide". The New York Times. December 30, 1993. p. B 6. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  114. ^ "James Ellison". data.bnf.fr (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  115. ^ "Luigi Giuliano". worldfootball.net. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  116. ^ "Jean Maréchal". procyclingstats.com. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  117. ^ "Marcello Neri". Olympedia. OlyMADMen. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  118. ^ "Pierre Victor Auger". data.bnf.fr (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  119. ^ "Yen Chia-kan (5th term)". Presidents since 1947. Office of the President Republic of China (Taiwan). Retrieved October 15, 2021.
  120. ^ "Anita Dorris - filmportal.de". filmportal.de (in German). Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  121. ^ "Ralph Downes". data.bnf.fr (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  122. ^ "Olympedia – Ivano Fontana". olympedia.org. OlyMADMen. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  123. ^ Twentyman, Maryanne (May 4, 2012). "Veteran has roast duck in his sights as season starts". Waikato Times. Stuff. Stuff Limited. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  124. ^ George Vecsey (December 26, 1993). "Norman Vincent Peale, Preacher of Gospel Optimism, Dies at 95". The New York Times. p. 1 40. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  125. ^ "J. Wayne Reitz, 84; Headed U. of Florida". The New York Times. December 30, 1993. p. B 6. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  126. ^ "Blandine Ebinger - filmportal.de". filmportal.de (in German). Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  127. ^ "Manonmoney "Ama" Naidoo". South African History Online. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  128. ^ "Hell On Wheels". San Francisco Bay Guardian. May 1994. Retrieved October 19, 2021 – via DansWORLD Skateboarding.
  129. ^ "Ann Ronell; Songwriter, 85". The New York Times. December 29, 1993. p. D 19. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  130. ^ "Olympedia – Marian Suski". olympedia.org. OlyMADMen. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  131. ^ "Nikolai Timkov - Social Networks and Archival Context". snaccooperative.org. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  132. ^ Ronald Sullivan (December 28, 1993). "Dave Beck, 99, Teamsters Chief, Convicted of Corruption, Is Dead". The New York Times. p. D 20. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  133. ^ "Jeff Morrow, Actor, 86". The New York Times. December 28, 1993. p. D 20. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  134. ^ David W. Dunlap (December 29, 1993). "Michael Callen, Singer and Expert On Coping With AIDS, Dies at 38". The New York Times. p. D 19. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  135. ^ "Kibbermann, Feliks". ESBL (in Estonian). Spordikoolituse ja -Teabe Sihtasutus. October 22, 2017. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  136. ^ "Nina Lugovskaya". catalogue.bnf.fr (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  137. ^ "Evald Mikson". National Football Teams. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  138. ^ "WIESENTHAL CENTER WELCOMES ESTONIAN HISTORICAL COMMISSION FINDINGS WHICH CONFIRM HOLOCAUST CRIMES OF EVALD MIKSON". Simon Wiesenthal Center. June 21, 2001. Archived from the original on February 14, 2018. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
  139. ^ "Andre Pilette". OldRacingCars.com. Allen Brown. June 14, 2015. Retrieved October 18, 2021.
  140. ^ "Alfonso Balcázar - DB~e". dbe.rah.es (in Spanish). Real Academia de la Historia. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  141. ^ "Actor Howard Caine dies of heart attack at 67". The Tuscaloosa News. The Associated Press. December 30, 1993. p. 4A. Retrieved October 18, 2021 – via Google News.
  142. ^ "Howard Caine - Broadway Cast & Staff". Internet Broadway Database. The Broadway League. Retrieved October 16, 2021.
  143. ^ "Augie Galan Stats - Baseball-Reference.com". baseball-reference.com. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  144. ^ "John Kemp profile and biography, stats, records, averages, photos and videos". ESPNcricinfo. ESPN Sports Media Ltd. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  145. ^ Mitgang, Herbert (December 29, 1993). "William L. Shirer, Author, Is Dead at 89". The New York Times. p. D 18. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  146. ^ "Axel Corti". data.bnf.fr (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  147. ^ "Yvonne Desportes". data.bnf.fr (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  148. ^ "Olympedia – Karl Endres". olympedia.org. OlyMADMen. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  149. ^ "Marie Kean - filmportal.de". filmportal.de (in German). Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  150. ^ "Фрунзик Мкртчян / Phrunzik Mkrchyan" (in Russian). Retrieved October 15, 2021.
  151. ^ "Mack David, 81, a Composer and Lyricist". The New York Times. January 1, 1994. p. 1 9. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  152. ^ Peter B. Flint (January 1, 1994). "Irving (Swifty) Lazar, 86, Dies; Dynamic Agent and a Star Himself". The New York Times. p. 1 9. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  153. ^ "Giuseppe Occhialini - Social Networks and Archival Context". snaccooperative.org. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  154. ^ "George Stone Stats - Basketball-Reference.com". basketball-reference.com. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  155. ^ "İhsan Sabri Çağlayangil (1908)". biyografi.net (in Turkish). Retrieved October 16, 2021.
  156. ^ Eric Pace (January 3, 1994). "Henry Byroade, 80, Ambassador To Egypt and 5 Other Countries". The New York Times. p. A 24. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  157. ^ "Arthur Dreifuss". data.bnf.fr (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  158. ^ "Mikhail Dudin". data.bnf.fr (in French). Bibliothèque nationale de France. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  159. ^ "Zviad Gamsakhurdia - Social Networks and Archival Context". snaccooperative.org. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  160. ^ Richard D. Lyons (January 2, 1994). "Alexander H. Girard Dies at 86; Architect and Interior Designer". The New York Times. p. 1 28. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  161. ^ Colin Larkin, ed. (2003). The Virgin Encyclopedia of Eighties Music (Third ed.). Virgin Books. p. 62. ISBN 1-85227-969-9.
  162. ^ "Olympedia – Guy Lefrant". olympedia.org. OlyMADMen. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  163. ^ "Lauriston Sharp - Social Networks and Archival Context". snaccooperative.org. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  164. ^ "Samuel Steward, 84, A Writer About Stein". The New York Times. January 20, 1994. p. B 8. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  165. ^ "Brandon Teena". britannica.com. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
  166. ^ "Thomas Watson". britannica.com. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved April 20, 2022.