François Truffaut

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

François Truffaut
Truffaut in 1965
Born
François Roland Truffaut

(1932-02-06)6 February 1932
Paris, France
Died21 October 1984(1984-10-21) (aged 52)
Resting placeMontmartre Cemetery
Occupations
  • Director
  • screenwriter
  • producer
  • actor
  • film critic
Years active1955–1984
MovementFrench New Wave
Spouse
Madeleine Morgenstern
(m. 1957; div. 1965)
Partner(s)Claude Jade (1968; engaged)
Fanny Ardant (1981–1984; his death)
RelativesIgnace Morgenstern (father-in-law)

François Roland Truffaut (UK: /ˈtrf, ˈtrʊ-/ TROO-foh, TRUU-, US: /trˈf/ troo-FOH;[1][2] French: [fʁɑ̃swa ʁɔlɑ̃ tʁyfo]; 6 February 1932 – 21 October 1984) was a French filmmaker, actor, and critic. He is widely regarded as one of the founders of the French New Wave.[3] With a career of more than 25 years, he is an icon of the French film industry.

Truffaut's film

Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. His other notable films include Shoot the Piano Player (1960), Jules and Jim (1962), The Soft Skin (1964), The Wild Child (1970), Two English Girls (1971), The Last Metro (1980), and The Woman Next Door (1981). He played one of the main roles in Steven Spielberg's Close Encounters of the Third Kind
(1977).

Truffaut wrote the book Hitchcock/Truffaut (1966), based on his interviews with film director Alfred Hitchcock during the 1960s.

With his leading actress Claude Jade from three of his films he was engaged (1968) and with Fanny Ardant from his two last films François Truffaut lived together until his death. He was married from 1957 until 1964 with Madeleine Morgenstern.

Early life

Truffaut was born in Paris on 6 February 1932. His mother was Janine de Montferrand. His mother's future husband, Roland Truffaut, accepted him as an adopted son and gave him his surname. He was passed around to live with various nannies and his grandmother for a number of years. His grandmother instilled in him her love of books and music. He lived with her until her death, when Truffaut was eight years old. It was only after her death that he lived with his parents.[4] Truffaut's biological father's identity is unknown, but a private detective agency in 1968 revealed that its inquiry into the matter led to a Roland Levy, a Jewish dentist from Bayonne. Truffaut's mother's family disputed the finding but Truffaut believed and embraced it.[5]

Truffaut often stayed with friends and tried to be out of the house as much as possible. He knew Robert Lachenay from childhood, and they were lifelong best friends. Lachenay was the inspiration for the character René Bigey in The 400 Blows and worked as an assistant on some of Truffaut's films. Cinema offered Truffaut the greatest escape from an unsatisfying home life. He was eight years old when he saw his first movie, Abel Gance's Paradis Perdu (Paradise Lost, 1939), beginning his obsession. He frequently skipped school and snuck into theaters because he lacked the money for admission. After being expelled from several schools, at age 14 he decided to become self-taught. Two of his academic goals were to watch three movies a day and read three books a week.[4][6]

Truffaut frequented

Cinémathèque Française, where he was exposed to countless foreign films, becoming familiar with American cinema and directors such as John Ford, Howard Hawks and Nicholas Ray, as well as those of British director Alfred Hitchcock.[7]

Career

André Bazin

After starting his own film club in 1948, Truffaut met André Bazin, who had a great effect on his professional and personal life. Bazin was a critic and the head of another film society at the time. He became a personal friend of Truffaut's and helped him out of various financial and criminal situations during his formative years.[8]

Truffaut joined the

Cahiers du cinéma
.

Cahiers du Cinéma

Over the next few years, Truffaut became a critic (and later editor) at Cahiers, where he became notorious for his brutal, unforgiving reviews. He was called "The Gravedigger of French Cinema"

auteur theory.[10]

In 1954, Truffaut wrote an article in Cahiers du cinéma, "Une Certaine Tendance du Cinéma Français" ("A Certain Trend of French Cinema"),

. The article caused a storm of controversy, and landed Truffaut an offer to write for the nationally circulated, more widely read cultural weekly Arts-Lettres-Spectacles. Truffaut wrote more than 500 film articles for that publication over the next four years.

Truffaut later devised the

Simon and Schuster
).

Short films

After having been a critic, Truffaut decided to make films. He began with the short film Une Visite (1955) and followed it with Les Mistons (1957).

The 400 Blows

After seeing Orson Welles's Touch of Evil at the Expo 58, Truffaut made his feature film directorial debut with The 400 Blows (1959), which received considerable critical and commercial acclaim. He won the Best Director award at the 1959 Cannes Film Festival. The film follows the character of Antoine Doinel through his perilous misadventures in school, an unhappy home life and later reform school. The film is highly autobiographical. Both Truffaut and Doinel were only children of loveless marriages; they both committed petty crimes of theft and truancy from the military. Truffaut cast Jean-Pierre Léaud as Doinel. Léaud was seen as an ordinary boy of 14 who auditioned for the role after seeing a flyer, but interviews after the film's release (one is included on the Criterion DVD of the film) reveal Léaud's natural sophistication and an instinctive understanding of acting for the camera. Léaud and Truffaut collaborated on several films over the years. Their most noteworthy collaboration was the continuation of Doinel's story in a series of films called "The Antoine Doinel Cycle".

The primary focus of The 400 Blows is Doinel's life. The film follows him through his troubled adolescence. He is caught in between an unstable parental relationship and an isolated youth. From birth Truffaut was thrown into a troublesome situation. As he was born out of wedlock, his birth had to remain a secret because of the stigma of illegitimacy. He was registered as "a child born to an unknown father" in hospital records and looked after by a nurse for an extended period of time. His mother eventually married and her husband gave François his surname, Truffaut.

Although he was legally accepted as a legitimate child, his parents did not accept him. The Truffauts had another child, who died shortly after birth. This experience saddened them greatly and as a result they despised François because of the regret he represented (Knopf 4[specify]). He was an outcast from his earliest years, dismissed as an unwanted child. François was sent to live with his grandparents. When his grandmother died, his parents took him in, much to his mother's dismay. His experiences with his mother were harsh. He recalled being treated badly by her but found comfort in his father's laughter and spirit. François had a very depressing childhood after moving in with his parents. They left him at home, by himself, when they took vacations. He even recalled being alone during Christmas. Being left alone forced François into independence, often doing various tasks around the house to improve it, such as painting or changing the electric outlets. Sadly, these kind gestures often resulted in catastrophic events, causing him to get scolded by his mother. His father mostly laughed them off.

The 400 Blows marked the beginning of the French New Wave movement, which gave directors such as Jean-Luc Godard, Claude Chabrol and Jacques Rivette a wider audience. The New Wave dealt with a self-conscious rejection of traditional cinema structure. This was a topic on which Truffaut had been writing for years.

Shoot the Piano Player

Truffaut and actress Françoise Dorléac during a visit to Israel, 1963
Truffaut and actress Françoise Dorléac during a visit to Israel, 1963

Following the success of The 400 Blows, Truffaut featured disjunctive editing and seemingly random voiceovers in his next film, Shoot the Piano Player (1960), starring Charles Aznavour. Truffaut has said that in the middle of filming, he realized that he hated gangsters. But since gangsters were a main part of the story, he toned up the comical aspect of the characters and made the movie more to his liking.

Even though Shoot the Piano Player was much appreciated by critics, it performed poorly at the box office. While the film focused on two of the French New Wave's favourite elements, American film noir and themselves, Truffaut never again experimented as heavily.

Jules and Jim and The Soft Skin

Truffaut during his visit to Helsinki, Finland on 21 December 1964

In 1962, Truffaut directed his third movie, Jules and Jim, a romantic drama starring Jeanne Moreau. The film was very popular and highly influential.

In 1963, Truffaut was approached to direct the American film

David Newman and Robert Benton intended to introduce the French New Wave to Hollywood. Although he was interested enough to help in script development, Truffaut ultimately declined, but not before interesting Jean-Luc Godard and American actor and would-be producer Warren Beatty, who proceeded with the film with director Arthur Penn
.

The fourth movie Truffaut directed was The Soft Skin (1964). It was not acclaimed on its release.

Fahrenheit 451

Truffaut's first non-French film was a 1966 adaptation of Ray Bradbury's classic science fiction novel Fahrenheit 451, showcasing Truffaut's love of books. His only English-speaking film, made on location in England, was a great challenge for Truffaut, because he barely spoke English himself. Shot by cinematographer Nicolas Roeg, this was Truffaut's first film in colour. The larger-scale production was difficult for Truffaut, who had worked only with small crews and budgets. The shoot was also strained by a conflict with lead actor Oscar Werner, who was unhappy with his character and stormed off set, leaving Truffaut to shoot scenes using a body double shot from behind. The film was a commercial failure, and Truffaut never worked outside France again. The film's cult standing has steadily grown, although some critics remain dubious of it as an adaptation.[11] A 2014 consideration of the film by Charles Silver praises it.[12]

Truffaut and Claude Jade at the première of Love on the Run in Luxembourg, April 1979

Thrillers and Stolen Kisses

Stolen Kisses (1968) was a continuation of the Antoine Doinel Cycle starring Claude Jade as Antoine's fiancée and later wife Christine Darbon. During its filming Truffaut fell in love with Jade and was briefly engaged to her. It was a big hit on the international art circuit. A short time later Jade made her Hollywood debut in Hitchcock's Topaz.[13]

Truffaut worked on projects with varied subjects. The Bride Wore Black (1968), a brutal tale of revenge, is a stylish homage to the films of Alfred Hitchcock (once again starring Moreau). Mississippi Mermaid (1969), with Catherine Deneuve and Jean-Paul Belmondo, is an identity-bending romantic thriller. Both films are based on novels by Cornell Woolrich.

The Wild Child (1970) included Truffaut's acting debut in the lead role of 18th-century physician Jean Marc Gaspard Itard.

Doinel marries Christine

Bed and Board (1970) was another Antoine Doinel film, also with Jade, now Léaud's on-screen-wife.

Two English Girls (1971) is the female reflection of the same love story as "Jules et Jim". It is based on a story by Henri-Pierre Roché, who wrote Jules and Jim, about a man who falls equally in love with two sisters, and their love affair over a period of years.

Such a Gorgeous Kid Like Me
(1972) was a screwball comedy that was not well received.

Day for Night

Best Foreign Film Oscar.[14] The film is probably his most reflective work. It is the story of a film crew trying to finish a film while dealing with the personal and professional problems that accompany making a movie. Truffaut plays the director of the fictional film being made. This film features scenes from his previous films. It is considered his best film since his earliest work. Time
magazine placed it on its list of 100 Best Films of the Century (along with The 400 Blows).

In 1975, Truffaut gained more notoriety with

The Story of Adèle H.; Isabelle Adjani in the title role earned a nomination for an Academy Award for Best Actress. His 1976 film Small Change was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Foreign Language Film
.

The late 1970s and the last Doinel

The Man Who Loved Women (1977), a romantic drama, was a minor hit.

Truffaut also appeared in Steven Spielberg's 1977 Close Encounters of the Third Kind as scientist Claude Lacombe.[15]

The Green Room (1978) starred Truffaut in the lead. It was a box-office flop, so he made Love on the Run (1979) starring Léaud and Jade as the final movie of the Doinel Cycle.

The Last Metro

One of Truffaut's final films gave him an international revival.

César Award
nominations and 10 wins, including Best Director.

Final films and legacy

Truffaut's last film was shot in black and white, giving his career a sense of having bookends. Confidentially Yours is Truffaut's tribute to his favourite director, Hitchcock. It deals with numerous Hitchcockian themes, such as private guilt versus public innocence, a woman investigating a murder, and anonymous locations.

A keen reader, Truffaut adapted many literary works, including two novels by Henri-Pierre Roché, Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451, Henry James's "The Altar of the Dead", filmed as The Green Room, and several American detective novels.

Truffaut's other films were from original screenplays, often co-written by the screenwriters

César Awards
.

Known as a lifelong cinephile, Truffaut once (according to the 1993 documentary film François Truffaut: Stolen Portraits) threw a hitchhiker out of his car after learning that he didn't like films.

Many filmmakers admire Truffaut, and tributes to his work have appeared in films such as Almost Famous, Face and The Diving Bell and the Butterfly, as well as novelist Haruki Murakami's Kafka on the Shore. In conversation with Michael Ondaatje, film editor Walter Murch mentions the influence Truffaut had on him as a young man, saying he was "electrified" by the freeze-frame at the end of The 400 Blows, and that Godard's Breathless and Truffaut's Shoot the Piano Player reinforced the idea that he could make films.[16]

Roger Ebert included The 400 Blows in his canon of Great Movies, and concludes: "one of his most curious, haunting films is The Green Room (1978), based on the Henry James story 'The Altar of the Dead,' about a man and a woman who share a passion for remembering their dead loved ones. Jonathan Rosenbaum, who thinks The Green Room may be Truffaut's best film, told me he thinks of it as the director's homage to the auteur theory. That theory, created by Bazin and his disciples (Truffaut, Godard, Resnais, Chabrol, Rohmer, Malle), declared that the director was the true author of a film—not the studio, the screenwriter, the star, the genre. If the figures in the green room stand for the great directors of the past, perhaps there is a shrine there now to Truffaut. One likes to think of the ghost of Antoine Doinel lighting a candle before it."[17]

Commentary of other filmmakers

Truffaut expressed his admiration for filmmakers such as Luis Buñuel, Ingmar Bergman, Robert Bresson, Roberto Rossellini, and Alfred Hitchcock. He wrote Hitchcock/Truffaut, a book about Hitchcock, based on a lengthy series of interviews.[18]

Of Jean Renoir, he said: "I think Renoir is the only filmmaker who's practically infallible, who has never made a mistake on film. And I think if he never made mistakes, it's because he always found solutions based on simplicity—human solutions. He's one film director who never pretended. He never tried to have a style, and if you know his work—which is very comprehensive, since he dealt with all sorts of subjects—when you get stuck, especially as a young filmmaker, you can think of how Renoir would have handled the situation, and you generally find a solution".[19]

Truffaut called German filmmaker Werner Herzog "the most important film director alive."[20]

Truffaut and Jean-Luc Godard, his colleague from Les Cahiers du Cinéma, worked together closely during their start as film directors although they had different working methods. Tensions came to the surface after May 68: Godard wanted a more political, specifically Marxist cinema, Truffaut was critical of creating films for primarily political purposes.[21] In 1973, Godard wrote Truffaut a lengthy and raucous private letter peppered with accusations and insinuations, several times stating that as a filmmaker "you're a liar" and that his latest film (Day for Night) had been unsatisfying, lying and evasive: "You're a liar, because the scene between you and Jacqueline Bisset last week at Francis [a Paris restaurant] isn't included in your movie, and one also can't help wondering why the director is the only guy who isn't sleeping around in Day for Night" (Truffaut directed the film, wrote it and played the director on the film set in the film). Godard also implied that Truffaut had gone commercial and easy.[22]

Truffaut replied with an angry 20-page letter in which he accused Godard of being a radical-chic hypocrite, a man who believed everyone to be "equal" in theory only. "The Ursula Andress of militancy—like Brando—a piece of shit on a pedestal." Godard later tried to reconcile with Truffaut, but they never spoke to or saw each other again.[23] After Truffaut's death, Godard wrote the introduction to a generous selection of his correspondence, and included his own 1973 letter. He also offered a long tribute in his film Histoire(s) du cinéma.[24]

Personal life

Truffaut was married to Madeleine Morgenstern from 1957 to 1965, and they had two daughters, Laura (born 1959) and Eva (born 1961). Madeleine was the daughter of Ignace Morgenstern, managing director of one of France's largest film distribution companies, Cocinor, and was largely responsible for securing funding for Truffaut's first films.

In 1968, Truffaut was engaged to actress Claude Jade (Stolen Kisses, Bed and Board, Love on the Run); he and Fanny Ardant (The Woman Next Door, Confidentially Yours) lived together from 1981 to 1984 and had a daughter, Joséphine Truffaut (born 28 September 1983).[4][25]

Truffaut was an atheist, but had great respect for the Catholic Church and requested a Requiem Mass for his funeral.[26][27]

Death

Truffaut's grave in Montmartre Cemetery, Paris

In July 1983, following his first stroke and being diagnosed with a brain tumour,[28] Truffaut rented France Gall's and Michel Berger's house outside Honfleur, Normandy. He was expected to attend his friend Miloš Forman's Amadeus premiere[29] when he died on 21 October 1984, aged 52, at the American Hospital of Paris in Neuilly-sur-Seine in France.[30]

At the time of his death, he was said to have numerous further films in preparation. He is buried in Montmartre Cemetery.[31]

Filmography

Short film

Year Title Director Writer Notes
1955 Une Visite Yes Yes
1957 Les Mistons Yes Uncredited
1961 A Story of Water Yes Yes Co-directed with Jean-Luc Godard
1962 Antoine and Colette Yes Yes Segment from Love at Twenty

Feature film

Year Title Director Writer Producer Notes
1959 The 400 Blows Yes Yes Uncredited
1960 Breathless No Yes No
Shoot the Piano Player Yes Yes No
The Army Game Yes Yes Yes Co-directed with Claude de Givray
1962 Jules and Jim Yes Yes Uncredited
1964 The Soft Skin Yes Yes No
1966 Fahrenheit 451 Yes Yes No English debut
1968 The Bride Wore Black Yes Yes No
Stolen Kisses Yes Yes Uncredited
1969 Mississippi Mermaid Yes Yes No
1970 The Wild Child Yes Yes No
Bed and Board Yes Yes Uncredited
1971 Two English Girls Yes Yes No
1972
Such a Gorgeous Kid Like Me
Yes Yes No
1973 Day for Night Yes Yes No
1975
The Story of Adèle H.
Yes Yes No
1976 Small Change Yes Yes No
1977 The Man Who Loved Women Yes Yes Uncredited
1978 The Green Room Yes Yes Yes
1979 Love on the Run Yes Yes Yes
1980 The Last Metro Yes Yes Uncredited
1981 The Woman Next Door Yes Yes Yes
1983 Confidentially Yours Yes Yes Yes
1988 The Little Thief No Yes No Posthumous release

TV writer (Posthumous releases)

Year Title Notes
1995 Belle Époque Miniseries
2019–2022 Lire 3 episodes

Acting roles

Year Title Role Notes
1956 Fool's Mate Party guest Uncredited
La sonate à Kreutzer
1959 The 400 Blows Man in Funfair Uncredited
1963 À tout prendre Himself
1964 The Soft Skin Petrol pump attendant (Voice)
1970 The Wild Child Dr. Jean Itard
Bed and Board Newspaper vendor Voice, Uncredited
1971 Two English Girls Récitant / Narrator
1972
Such a Gorgeous Kid Like Me
Un journaliste
1973 Day for Night Ferrand, the film director
1975
The Story of Adèle H.
Officer Uncredited
1976 Small Change Martine's Father
1977 The Man Who Loved Women Man at Funeral
Close Encounters of the Third Kind Claude Lacombe
1978 The Green Room Julien Davenne Lead role
1981 The Woman Next Door Cameo Uncredited

Awards and nominations

Academy Awards

Year Title Category Result Ref.
1959 The 400 Blows Best Original Screenplay Nominated [32]
1968 Stolen Kisses
Best Foreign Language Film
Nominated [33]
1973 Day for Night Won [14]
Best Director Nominated
Best Original Screenplay Nominated
1980 The Last Metro Best Foreign Language Film Nominated [34]

BAFTA Awards

Year Title Category Result
1973 Day for Night Best Film Won
Best Direction Won
1977 Close Encounters of the Third Kind Best Actor in a Supporting Role Nominated

Berlin International Film Festival

Year Title Category Result Ref.
1976 Small Change Golden Bear Nominated [35]
1977 The Man Who Loved Women Nominated [36]
1979 Love on the Run Nominated [37]

Cannes Film Festival

Year Title Category Result
1959 The 400 Blows Palme d'Or Nominated
Best Director Won
1964 The Soft Skin Palme d'Or Nominated

César Awards

Year Title Category Result
1975
The Story of Adèle H.
Best Director Nominated
1980 The Last Metro Best Film Won
Best Director Won
Best Writing Won
1983 Confidentially Yours Best Director Nominated

Mar del Plata International Film Festival

Year Title Category Result
1962 Jules and Jim Best Film Nominated
Best Director Won

Venice International Film Festival

Year Title Category Result
1966 Fahrenheit 451 Golden Lion Nominated

Bibliography

  • Les 400 Coups (1960) with M. Moussy (English translation: The 400 Blows)
  • Le Cinéma selon Alfred Hitchcock (1967, second edition 1983) (English translation: Hitchcock and
    Helen G. Scott
    )
  • Les Aventures d'Antoine Doinel (1970) (English translation: Adventures of Antoine Doinel; translated by
    Helen G. Scott
    )
  • Jules et Jim (film script) (1971) (English translation: Jules and Jim; translated by Nicholas Fry)
  • La Nuit américaine et le Journal de Fahrenheit 451 (1974)
  • Le Plaisir des yeux (1975)
  • L'Argent de poche (1976) (English title: Small Change: A Film Novel; translated by Anselm Hollo)
  • L'Homme qui aimait les femmes (1977)
  • Les Films de ma vie (1981) (English translation: The Films in My Life, translated by Leonard Mayhew)
  • Correspondance (1988) (English translation: Correspondence, 1945–1984; translated by Gilbert Adair, released posthumously)
  • Le Cinéma selon François Truffaut (1988) edited by Anne Gillain (released posthumously)
  • Belle époque (1996) with Jean Gruault (released posthumously)

See also

References

  1. .
  2. .
  3. ^ Obituary Variety, 24 October 1984.
  4. ^ a b c "Francois Truffaut – French New Wave Director". Newwavefilm.com. Archived from the original on 6 February 2021. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  5. from the original on 21 August 2023. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  6. ^ a b "François Truffaut – Movie and Film Biography and Filmography". Allmovie.com. 21 October 1984. Archived from the original on 4 February 2010. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
  7. ^ "'Francois Truffaut' at the Cinematheque Francaise: Exhibition Review". The Hollywood Reporter. Archived from the original on 8 August 2020. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
  8. ^ Truffaut, François (1989). Correspondence, 1945–1984. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. pp. 17, 50, 57.
  9. ^ Sukhdev Sandhu (2 April 2009). "Film as an act of love". New Statesman.
  10. ^ The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica (20 July 1998). "Auteur theory Filmmaking". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  11. ^ John Brosnan and Peter Nicholls, Fahrenheit 451 Archived 6 December 2019 at the Wayback Machine, Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  12. ^ Charles Silver, Francois Truffaut's Fahrenheit 451 Archived 31 July 2020 at the Wayback Machine, Inside Out, MoMA. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  13. ^ Tino Balio, United Artists: The Company That Changed the Film Industry, University of Wisconsin Press, 1987 p. 282
  14. ^ a b "The 47th Academy Awards (1975) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
  15. ^ Aurélien Ferenczi (26 October 2014). "Qu'allait-donc faire Truffaut chez Spielberg ?". Télérama. Archived from the original on 6 January 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  16. ^ Ondaatje, Michael (2002). The Conversations: Walter Murch and the Editing of Film. pp. 24–25.
  17. Chicago Sun Times. Archived
    from the original on 26 January 2023. Retrieved 26 January 2023.
  18. ^ François Truffaut. "Hitchcock". Goodreads. Archived from the original on 5 August 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  19. ^ On Jean Renoir Truffaut's Last Interview Archived 21 August 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  20. .
  21. ^ "When Truffaut met Godard". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 10 December 2022.
  22. ^ Truffaut, Correspondance, ed. Godard.
  23. ^ Gleiberman, Owen. "Godard and Truffaut: Their spiky, complex friendship is its own great story in 'Two in the Wave". Archived from the original on 10 July 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  24. .
  25. ^ Eric Pace (22 October 1984). "Francois Truffaut, New Wave Director, Dies". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 25 December 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2013.
  26. . Yet Truffaut, an atheist, was not stumping for God with these conservative attacks.
  27. . One way of understanding Godard's approach is to contrast it with that of François Truffaut, one of his most respected New Wave colleagues. As a self-described atheist, Truffaut took special pleasure in the materiality of cinema, noting that no photographic image can be obtained without real, physical light making direct contact with a real, physical object in the immediate presence of the camera.
  28. ^ Antoine de Baecque and Serge Toubiana's Biography of François Truffaut
  29. ^ "Truffaut : un classique (1970–80)". francetv.fr. Archived from the original on 29 October 2014. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  30. ^ "Francois Truffaut, New Wave Director, Dies". The New York Times. 22 October 1984. Archived from the original on 10 April 2009. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
  31. ^ "Journées du patrimoine 2011 Paris 18ème, le programme". Le Figaro. 14 September 2011. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016. Retrieved 29 December 2016.
  32. ^ "The 32nd Academy Awards (1960) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Archived from the original on 8 September 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
  33. ^ "The 41st Academy Awards (1969) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
  34. ^ "The 53rd Academy Awards (1981) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 8 June 2013.
  35. ^ "IMDB.com: Awards for Small Change". imdb.com. Archived from the original on 8 April 2011. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
  36. ^ "IMDB.com: Awards for The Man Who Loved Women". imdb.com. Archived from the original on 22 February 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  37. ^ "IMDB.com: Awards for Love on the Run". imdb.com. Archived from the original on 15 July 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2010.
  38. ^ "François Truffaut, l'exposition". Archived from the original on 31 August 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014.

External links