# False (logic)

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In

symbol .^{}[3]

^{[4]}

Another approach is used for several

^{[5]}

^{[6]}

^{[7]}It can be treated as an absurd proposition, and is often called absurdity.

## In classical logic and Boolean logic

In

In a classical propositional calculus, each proposition will be assigned a truth value of either true or false. Some systems of classical logic include dedicated symbols for false (0 or ), while others instead rely upon formulas such as p ∧ ¬p and ¬(p → p).

In both Boolean logic and Classical logic systems, true and false are opposite with respect to negation; the negation of false gives true, and the negation of true gives false.

true | false |
---|---|

false | true |

The negation of false is equivalent to the truth not only in classical logic and Boolean logic, but also in most other logical systems, as explained below.

## False, negation and contradiction

In most logical systems, negation, material conditional and false are related as:

- ¬p ⇔ (p → ⊥)

In fact, this is the definition of negation in some systems,^{[8]} such as intuitionistic logic, and can be proven in propositional calculi where negation is a fundamental connective. Because p → p is usually a theorem or axiom, a consequence is that the negation of false (¬ ⊥) is true.

A

*falsum*being used in English to denote either, but false is one specific proposition

Logical systems may or may not contain the principle of explosion (*ex falso quodlibet* in Latin), ⊥ ⊢ φ for all φ. By that principle, contradictions and false are equivalent, since each entails the other.

## Consistency

A formal theory using the "" connective is defined to be consistent, if and only if the false is not among its theorems. In the absence of propositional constants, some substitutes (such as the ones described above) may be used instead to define consistency.

## See also

*.*

**Falsehood**- Contradiction
- Logical truth
- Tautology (logic) (for symbolism of logical truth)
- Truth table

## References

**^**Its noun form is falsity.- ISBN 0-495-00888-5, p. 17.
**^**"Truth-value | logic".*Encyclopedia Britannica*. Retrieved 2020-08-15.**^**George Edward Hughes and D.E. Londey,*The Elements of Formal Logic*, Methuen, 1965, p. 151.- ISBN 1-4411-5423-X, p. 199.