|Focus||Expansion of "reasonable", flexible copyright|
|Headquarters||Mountain View, California, U.S.|
|Method||Creative Commons license|
|Catherine Stihler (CEO)|
Creative Commons (CC) is an American
The organization was founded in 2001 by Lawrence Lessig, Hal Abelson, and Eric Eldred with the support of Center for the Public Domain. The first article in a general interest publication about Creative Commons, written by Hal Plotkin, was published in February 2002. The first set of copyright licenses was released in December 2002. The founding management team that developed the licenses and built the Creative Commons infrastructure as it is known today included Molly Shaffer Van Houweling, Glenn Otis Brown, Neeru Paharia, and Ben Adida.
In 2002, the Open Content Project, a 1998 precursor project by David A. Wiley, announced the Creative Commons as successor project and Wiley joined as CC director. Aaron Swartz played a role in the early stages of Creative Commons, as did Matthew Haughey.
As of 2019[update], there were "nearly 2 billion" works licensed under the various Creative Commons licenses.
Purpose and goal
Creative Commons has been an early participant in the
According to its founder Lawrence Lessig, Creative Commons' goal is to counter the dominant and increasingly restrictive permission culture that limits artistic creation to existing or powerful creators. Lessig maintains that modern culture is dominated by traditional content distributors in order to maintain and strengthen their monopolies on cultural products such as popular music and popular cinema, and that Creative Commons can provide alternatives to these restrictions.
In mid‑December 2020, Creative Commons released its strategy for the upcoming five years, which will focus more on three core of goals including advocacy, infrastructure innovation, and capacity building.
Creative Commons network
Until April 2018, Creative Commons had over 100 affiliates working in over 75 jurisdictions to support and promote CC activities around the world. In 2018 this affiliate network has been restructured into a network organisation. The network no longer relies on affiliate organisation but on individual membership organised in Chapter.
Creative Commons Hungary was the affiliated network of Creative Commons in Hungary. The non-profit organization was founded in Budapest, Hungary in 2008 and was deleted from the official registry on 6 February 2017.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (August 2019)
Creative Commons Japan (CC Japan/CCJP) is the affiliated network of Creative Commons in Japan.
In 2003, the International University GLOCOM held a meeting for the CC Japan preparation.
In March 2004, CC Japan was launched by GLOCOM University. CC Japan is the world's second CC affiliated network (the first is in America).
In March 2006, CC Japan become the NPO and be in motion. In the same month, the CC founder Lawrence Lessig came to Japan to be one of the main holders of the open ceremony. Within the same year, between May and June, different international events were held in Japan, including iSummit 06 and the first through third rounds of CCJP.
In February 2007, the ICC x ClipLife 15 second CM competition was held. In June, iSummit 07 was held. In July, the fourth CCJP was held. On July 25, Tokyo approved Nobuhiro Nakayama (中山信弘) to become the NGO chairman of CCJP.
In 2008, Taipie ACIA joined CCJP. The main theme music which was chosen by CCJP was announced.
In 2012, the 10th anniversary ceremony was held in Japan.
In 2015, Creative Commons 4.0 and Creative Commons 0 were released in Japanese language.
Creative Commons Korea (CC Korea) is the affiliated network of Creative Commons in South Korea. In March 2005, CC Korea was initiated by Jongsoo Yoon (in Korean: 윤종수), former Presiding Judge of Incheon District Court, as a project of Korea Association for Infomedia Law (KAFIL). The major Korean portal sites, including Daum and Naver, have been participating in the use of Creative Commons licences. In January 2009, the Creative Commons Korea Association was consequently founded as a non-profit incorporated association. Since then, CC Korea has been actively promoting the liberal and open culture of creation as well as leading the diffusion of Creative Common in the country.
Bassel Khartabil was a Palestinian Syrian open source software developer who served as a project lead and public affiliate for Creative Commons Syria. On March 15, 2012, he was detained by the Syrian government in Damascus at Adra Prison for no crime. On October 17, 2015, the Creative Commons Board of Directors passed a resolution calling for Bassel Khartabil's release. In 2017, Bassel's wife received confirmation that Bassel had been killed shortly after she lost contact with him in 2015.
Evolution of CC licenses
All current CC licenses (except the CC0 Public Domain Dedication tool) require attribution (attributing the authors of the original creative works), which can be inconvenient for works based on multiple other works. Critics feared that Creative Commons could erode the copyright system over time, or allow "some of our most precious resources – the creativity of individuals – to be simply tossed into the commons to be exploited by whomever has spare time and a magic marker."
Critics also worried that the lack of rewards for content producers would dissuade artists from publishing their work, and questioned whether Creative Commons would enable the commons that it aimed to create.
Creative Commons founder Lawrence Lessig countered that copyright laws have not always offered the strong and seemingly indefinite protection that today's law provides. Rather, the duration of copyright used to be limited to much shorter terms of years, and some works never gained protection because they did not follow the now-abandoned compulsory format.
The maintainers of
Kent Anderson, writing for
CC license proliferation
The Creative Commons website states, "Since each of the six CC licenses functions differently, resources placed under different licenses may not necessarily be combined with one another without violating the license terms." Works licensed under incompatible licenses may not be recombined in a derivative work without obtaining permission from the copyright owner.
Richard Stallman of the Free Software Foundation stated in 2005 that he could not support Creative Commons as an activity because "it adopted some additional licenses which do not give everyone that minimum freedom", that freedom being "the freedom to share, noncommercially, any published work". Those licenses have since been retired by Creative Commons.
Creative Commons is only a service provider for standardized license text, not a party in any agreement. No central database of Creative Commons works is controlling all licensed works and the responsibility of the Creative Commons system rests entirely with those using the licences. This situation is, however, not specific to Creative Commons. All copyright owners must individually defend their rights and no central database of copyrighted works or existing license agreements exists. The United States Copyright Office does keep a database of all works registered with it, but absence of registration does not imply absence of copyright, and CC licensed works can be registered on the same terms as unlicensed works or works licensed under any other licences.
Although Creative Commons offers multiple licenses for different uses, some critics suggested that the licenses still do not address the differences among the media or among the various concerns that different authors have.
Lessig wrote that the point of Creative Commons is to provide a middle ground between two extreme views of copyright protection – one demanding that all rights be controlled, and the other arguing that none should be controlled. Creative Commons provides a third option that allows authors to pick and choose which rights they want to control and which they want to grant to others. The multitude of licenses reflects the multitude of rights that can be passed on to subsequent creators.
Non-commercial use licenses
Various commentators have reported confusion in understanding what "noncommercial" use means. Creative Commons issued a report in 2009, "Defining noncommercial", which presented research and various perspectives. The report claimed that noncommercial to many people means "no exchange of money or any commerce". Beyond that simple statement, many people disagree on whether noncommercial use permits publishing on websites supported with advertising, sharing noncommercial media through nonprofit publishing for a fee, and many other practices in contemporary media distribution. Creative Commons has not sought to resolve the confusion, in part because of high consumer demand for the noncommercial license as is with its ambiguity.
The case hinges on privacy, the right of people not to have their likeness used in an ad without permission. So, while Mr. Wong may have given away his rights as a photographer, he did not, and could not, give away Alison's rights. In the lawsuit, which Mr. Wong is also a party to, there is an argument that Virgin did not honor all the terms of the nonrestrictive license.
On November 27, 2007, Chang voluntarily dismissed the lawsuit against Creative Commons, focusing the lawsuit only against Virgin Mobile. The case was thrown out of court due to lack of jurisdiction and subsequently Virgin Mobile did not incur any damages towards the plaintiff.
- Free-culture movement
- Free content
- Open-source license
- Public-domain-equivalent license
- List of major Creative Commons licensed works
- "CreativeCommons.org WHOIS, DNS, & Domain Info – DomainTools". WHOIS. Archived from the original on April 9, 2019. Retrieved July 11, 2019.
- "CREATIVE COMMONS CORPORATION – Full text of "Full Filing" for fiscal year ending Dec. 2018". Nonprofit Explorer. ProPublica. May 9, 2013. Archived from the original on November 20, 2020. Retrieved October 31, 2020.
- "Frequently Asked Questions". Creative Commons. August 4, 2016. Archived from the original on November 27, 2010. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
- "Creative Commons: History". Archived from the original on October 7, 2011. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
- Plotkin, Hal (February 11, 2002). "All Hail Creative Commons / Stanford professor and author Lawrence Lessig plans a legal insurrection". SFGate. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved March 8, 2011.
- "History of Creative Commons". Archived from the original on November 3, 2009. Retrieved November 8, 2009.
- Haughey, Matt (September 18, 2002). "Creative Commons Announces New Management Team". Creative Commons. Archived from the original on July 22, 2013. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
- Wiley, David A. (June 30, 2003). "OpenContent is officially closed. And that's just fine". opencontent.org. Archived from the original on August 2, 2003. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
I'm closing OpenContent because I think Creative Commons is doing a better job of providing licensing options which will stand up in court
- matt (June 23, 2003). "Creative Commons Welcomes David Wiley as Educational Use License Project Lead". creativecommons.org. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved February 21, 2016.
- Lessig, Lawrence (January 12, 2013). "Remembering Aaron Swartz". Creative Commons. Archived from the original on December 4, 2015. Retrieved May 7, 2013.
- "Matt Haughey". Creative Commons. April 4, 2005. Archived from the original on January 12, 2018. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
- "Creative Commons Annual Report 2019" (PDF). Creative Commons. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 8, 2020. Retrieved September 6, 2021.
- "Flickr: Creative Commons". Flickr. Archived from the original on February 15, 2011. Retrieved January 16, 2018.
- "State of the Commons 2017". State of the Commons 2017. Archived from the original on October 19, 2019. Retrieved September 15, 2019.
- Broussard, Sharee L. (September 2007). "The copyleft movement: creative commons licensing" (PDF). Communication Research Trends. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 1, 2016. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
- Berry, David (July 15, 2005). "On the "Creative Commons": a critique of the commons without commonalty". Free Software Magazine. Archived from the original on November 14, 2011. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
- Ermert, Monika (June 15, 2004). "Germany debuts Creative Commons". The Register. Archived from the original on August 22, 2017. Retrieved August 10, 2017.
- Lessig, Lawrence (2006). "Lawrence Lessig on Creative Commons and the Remix Culture". Talking with Talis. Archived from the original (MP3) on February 5, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2006.
- Creative Commons (December 14, 2020). Creative Commons Strategy 2021–2025. Mountain View, California, US: Creative Commons.
- Stihler, Catherine (December 16, 2020). "Announcing our new strategy: what's next for CC". Creative Commons. Archived from the original on December 30, 2020. Retrieved December 29, 2020.
- "CC Affiliate Network". Creative Commons. Archived from the original on June 10, 2015. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
- "Network Strategy". Creative Commons. Archived from the original on July 7, 2018. Retrieved July 24, 2018.
- "Egyszerűsített törlési eljárás" [Deletional process] (in Hungarian). Fővárosi Törvényszék. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017.
- 沿革 [Creative Commons Japan]. Kurieitibu Komonzu Japan クリエイティブ・コモンズ・ジャパン (in Japanese). August 29, 2009. Archived from the original on August 20, 2019. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
- "Creative Commons Korea". CCkorea.org. Archived from the original on December 25, 2011. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
- "CC Asia Conference 2010". Creative Commons. July 21, 2010. Archived from the original on December 17, 2011. Retrieved December 20, 2011.
- "Syria". Creative Commons. Archived from the original on March 1, 2014. Retrieved March 15, 2015.
- "Board of Directors approved a resolution calling for Bassel Khartabil release". Creative Commons Blog. Creative Commons. October 17, 2015. Archived from the original on December 4, 2015. Retrieved November 2, 2016.
- McKernan, Bethan (August 2, 2017). "Bassel Khartabil Safadi dead: One of Syria's most famous activists has been executed in prison, widow confirms". The Independent. Archived from the original on August 2, 2017. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
- Paley, Nina (March 4, 2010). "The Limits of Attribution". Nina Paley's Blog. Archived from the original on September 1, 2011. Retrieved January 30, 2013.
- Dvorak, John (July 2005). "Creative Commons Humbug". PC Magazine. Archived from the original on July 18, 2017. Retrieved August 26, 2017.
- Schaeffer, Maritza (2009). "Note and Comment: Contemporary Issues in the Visual Art Realm: How Useful are Creative Commons Licenses?" (PDF). Journal of Law and Policy. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 4, 2016. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
- Lessig, Lawrence (2004). "The Creative Commons". Montana Law Review. 65 Mont. L. Rev. 1. 65 (1). Archived from the original on December 20, 2019. Retrieved December 20, 2019.
- "Debian Social Contract". Debian. April 26, 2004. Archived from the original on April 17, 1999. Retrieved November 26, 2013.
- Prodromou, Evan (April 3, 2005). "Summary of Creative Commons 2.0 Licenses". debian-legal (mailing list). Archived from the original on May 19, 2006.
- Garlick, Mia (February 23, 2007). "Version 3.0 Launched". Creative Commons. Archived from the original on July 3, 2007. Retrieved July 5, 2007.
- "The DFSG and Software Licenses – Creative Commons Share-Alike (CC-SA) v3.0". Debian Wiki. Archived from the original on April 27, 2020. Retrieved March 16, 2009.
- Anderson, Kent (April 2, 2014). "Does Creative Commons Make Sense?". The Scholarly Kitchen. Society for Scholarly Publishing. Archived from the original on December 22, 2017. Retrieved December 21, 2017.
- Hill, Benjamin Mako (July 29, 2005). "Towards a Standard of Freedom: Creative Commons and the Free Software Movement". Archived from the original on June 15, 2012. Retrieved October 14, 2005.
- "Remixing OER: A guide to License Compatibility" (PDF). CC Learn Explanations. Creative Commons. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 25, 2009. Retrieved November 29, 2010.
- "Can I combine two different Creative Commons licensed works? Can I combine a Creative Commons licensed work with another non-CC licensed work?". FAQ. Creative Commons. Archived from the original on November 27, 2010. Retrieved September 16, 2009.
- "Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 3.0 Unported". Creative Commons. Archived from the original on February 22, 2011. Retrieved November 18, 2009.
- "Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share-Alike 3.0 Unported". Creative Commons. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved November 18, 2009.
- Stallman, Richard M. "Fireworks in Montreal". FSF Blogs. Archived from the original on May 13, 2010. Retrieved November 18, 2009.
- "Retired Legal Tools". Creative Commons. Archived from the original on November 14, 2017. Retrieved April 26, 2021.
- "Frequently Asked Questions - Creative Commons". creativecommons.org. Archived from the original on November 27, 2010. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
- "About The Licenses - Creative Commons". creativecommons.org. Archived from the original on July 26, 2015. Retrieved September 6, 2020.
- "Lawsuit over Virgin Mobile's use of Flickr girl blames Creative Commons". Out-law.com. September 25, 2007. Archived from the original on October 4, 2013. Retrieved May 23, 2013.
- Cohen, Noam (October 1, 2007). "Use My Photo? Not Without Permission". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 15, 2011. Retrieved July 24, 2013.
One moment, Alison Chang, a 15-year-old student from Dallas, is cheerfully goofing around at a local church-sponsored car wash, posing with a friend for a photo. Weeks later, that photo is posted online and catches the eye of an ad agency in Australia, and the altered image of Alison appears on a billboard in Adelaide as part of a Virgin Mobile advertising campaign.
- Gross, Grant (December 1, 2007). "Lawsuit Against Creative Commons Dropped". PC World. Archived from the original on May 31, 2010. Retrieved May 25, 2008.
- LaVine, Lindsay (December 20, 2012). "Use Photos in Advertisements? Take These Steps to Avoid a Lawsuit". NBC News. Archived from the original on April 3, 2015. Retrieved July 24, 2013.
- Ardito, Stephanie C. (2003). "Public-Domain Advocacy Flourishes". Information Today. 20 (7): 17, 19.
- Asschenfeldt, Christiane. "Copyright and Licensing Issues—The International Commons. Archived January 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine" In CERN Workshop Series on Innovations in Scholarly Communication: Implementing the Benefits of OAI (OAI3), February 12–14, 2004 at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland. Geneva: CERN, 2004. (video)
- Brown, Glenn Otis. "Academic Digital Rights: A Walk on the Creative Commons." Syllabus Magazine (April 2003).
- "Out of the Way: How the Next Copyright Revolution Can Help the Next Scientific Revolution. Archived August 27, 2011, at the Wayback Machine" PLoS Biology 1, no. 1 (2003): 30–31.
- Chillingworth, Mark. "Creative Commons Attracts BBC's Attention." Information World Review, June 11, 2004.
- Conhaim, Wallys W. (2002). "Creative Commons Nurtures the Public Domain". Information Today. 19 (7): 52, 54. Archived from the original on January 19, 2012. Retrieved November 29, 2011.
- "Delivering Classics Resources with TEI-XML, Open Source, and Creative Commons Licenses". Cover Pages. April 28, 2004. Archived from the original on February 8, 2005. Retrieved June 21, 2005.
- Denison, D.C. "For Creators, An Argument for Alienable Rights." Boston Globe, December 22, 2002, E2.
- Ermert, Monika (June 15, 2004). "Germany Debuts Creative Commons". The Register. Archived from the original on August 22, 2017. Retrieved August 10, 2017.
- Fitzgerald, Brian, and Ian Oi. "Free Culture: Cultivating the Creative Commons. Archived October 3, 2011, at the Wayback Machine" (2004).
- Hietanen, Herkko "The Pursuit of Efficient Copyright Licensing — How Some Rights Reserved Attempts to Solve the Problems of All Rights Reserved" (2008) PhD dissertation.
- Johnstone, Sally M. (2003). "Sharing Educational Materials Without Losing Rights". Change. 35 (6): 49–51.
- Lessig, Lawrence (2003). "The Creative Commons". Florida Law Review. 55: 763–777.
- Erik, Möller (2006). "The Case for Free Use: Reasons Not to Use a Creative Commons -NC License" (PDF). Open Source Jahrbuch. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 10, 2008. Retrieved July 21, 2020.
- Plotkin, Hal (February 11, 2002). "All Hail Creative Commons: Stanford Professor and Author Lawrence Lessig Plans a Legal Insurrection". SFGate. Archived from the original on June 24, 2005. Retrieved June 21, 2005.
- Richard, Phillip (October 2012). "Copyright Inefficiency". Music Business Journal. Berklee College of Music. Archived from the original on November 1, 2012. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- Schloman, Barbara F. (October 13, 2003). "Creative Commons: An Opportunity to Extend the Public Domain". Online Journal of Issues in Nursing. 9 (1): 16.
- Stix, Gary (March 2003). "Some Rights Reserved".
- Weitzman, Jonathan B.; Lessig, Lawrence (May 10, 2004). "Open Access and Creative Common Sense". Open Access Now. Archived from the original on May 30, 2007.
- Till Kreutzer: Open Content – A Practical Guide to Using Creative Commons Licences, Deutsche UNESCO-Kommission e. V., Hochschulbibliothekszentrum Nordrhein-Westfalen, Wikimedia Deutschland e. V. 2015.
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