Wikipedia:Contents/Philosophy and thinking

Page semi-protected
Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Wikipedia's contents: Philosophy and thinking

The Thinker, a statue by Auguste Rodin, is often used to represent philosophy.
Philosophy has almost as many definitions as there have been philosophers, both as a subject matter and an activity, and no simple definition can do it justice. The issue of the definition of philosophy is thus a controversial subject that is nowadays tackled by Metaphilosophy (or the philosophy of philosophy). The word is derived from the ancient Greek words philo-, to love or to befriend, and -sophia, wisdom. Modern usage of the term is much broader; the concept of philosophy encompasses all of knowledge and all that can be known, including the means by which such knowledge can be acquired. However, in the contemporary English-speaking academic world, the term is often used implicitly to refer to analytic philosophy and, in non-English speaking countries, it often refers implicitly to a different, European strain, continental philosophy. The ancient Greeks organized the subject into five basic categories: metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, politics and aesthetics. This organization of the subject is still largely in use in Western philosophy

. Thinking is a higher
cognitive function and the analysis of thinking processes is part of cognitive psychology

Unsolved problems in philosophy
By region – Eastern philosophy • Western philosophy
Branches of philosophy – Aesthetics • Ethics • Epistemology • Logic • Metaphysics
Subdisciplines of philosophy –
Philosophy • Physics • Politics • Psychology • Religion • Science • Social science • Technology  • War
Schools of philosophy
Eastern – Mīmāṃsā • Nyaya • Samkhya • Vaisheshika • Vedanta • Yoga
Western –
Poststructuralism • Pragmatism • Presocratic • Rationalism • Reformational • Relativism • Scholasticism • Skepticism • Stoicism • Structuralism • Thomism  • Transhumanism  • Utilitarianism

Qualities of thought –
Thinking errors – Cognitive bias • Cognitive distortion • Error • Fallacy • Fallacies of definition • Logical fallacy • Target fixation
Related –
High IQ society • Mensa • Nootropics • Philomath • Polymath
Philosophy – The study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
  • Branches of philosophy
    • Aesthetics – The study of the nature of beauty, art, and taste, and with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
    • Epistemology – The study of knowledge and belief.
    • Ethics – The study of the right, the good, and the valuable. Includes study of applied ethics.
      • Sexual ethics – The study of sexual relations rooted in particular behaviors and standards.
    • Logic – The study of good reasoning, by examining the validity of arguments and documenting their fallacies.
    • Metaphysics – traditional branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the fundamental nature of being and the world that encompasses it, although the term is not easily defined.
  • Philosophies

Thought – mental or intellectual activity involving an individual's subjective consciousness. It can refer either to the act of thinking or the resulting ideas or arrangements of ideas.

  • Neuroscience – scientific study of the nervous system.
  • Psychology – science of behavior and mental processes.


Philosophy list templates –
History of Western Philosophy
Philosophical timelines  –
Philosophers → Eastern & Western