Arts and Crafts movement
The Arts and Crafts movement was an international trend in the
Initiated in reaction against the perceived impoverishment of the decorative arts and the conditions in which they were produced, the movement flourished in Europe and North America between about 1880 and 1920. It is the root of the Modern Style, the British expression of what later came to be called the Art Nouveau movement, which it strongly influenced.  In Japan, it emerged in the 1920s as the Mingei movement. It stood for traditional craftsmanship, and often used medieval, romantic, or folk styles of decoration. It advocated economic and social reform and was anti-industrial in its orientation. It had a strong influence on the arts in Europe until it was displaced by Modernism in the 1930s, and its influence continued among craft makers, designers, and town planners long afterwards.
The term was first used by T. J. Cobden-Sanderson at a meeting of the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society in 1887, although the principles and style on which it was based had been developing in England for at least 20 years. It was inspired by the ideas of historian Thomas Carlyle, art critic John Ruskin, and designer William Morris. In Scotland, it is associated with key figures such as Charles Rennie Mackintosh.
Origins and influences
The Arts and Crafts movement emerged from the attempt to reform design and decoration in mid-19th century Britain. It was a reaction against a perceived decline in standards that the reformers associated with machinery and factory production. Their critique was sharpened by the items that they saw in
Jones declared that ornament "must be secondary to the thing decorated", that there must be "fitness in the ornament to the thing ornamented", and that wallpapers and carpets must not have any patterns "suggestive of anything but a level or plain". A fabric or wallpaper in the Great Exhibition might be decorated with a natural motif made to look as real as possible, whereas these writers advocated flat and simplified natural motifs. Redgrave insisted that "style" demanded sound construction before ornamentation, and a proper awareness of the quality of materials used. "Utility must have precedence over ornamentation."
However, the design reformers of the mid-19th century did not go as far as the designers of the Arts and Crafts movement. They were more concerned with ornamentation than construction, they had an incomplete understanding of methods of manufacture, and they did not criticise industrial methods as such. By contrast, the Arts and Crafts movement was as much a movement of social reform as design reform, and its leading practitioners did not separate the two.
A. W. N. Pugin
Some of the ideas of the movement were anticipated by
The Arts and Crafts philosophy was derived in large measure from
Morris began experimenting with various crafts and designing furniture and interiors. He was personally involved in manufacture as well as design, which was the hallmark of the Arts and Crafts movement. Ruskin had argued that the separation of the intellectual act of design from the manual act of physical creation was both socially and aesthetically damaging. Morris further developed this idea, insisting that no work should be carried out in his workshops before he had personally mastered the appropriate techniques and materials, arguing that "without dignified, creative human occupation people became disconnected from life".
In 1861, Morris began making furniture and decorative objects commercially, modelling his designs on medieval styles and using bold forms and strong colours. His patterns were based on flora and fauna, and his products were inspired by the vernacular or domestic traditions of the British countryside. Some were deliberately left unfinished in order to display the beauty of the materials and the work of the craftsman, thus creating a rustic appearance. Morris strove to unite all the arts within the decoration of the home, emphasizing nature and simplicity of form.
Social and design principles
Unlike their counterparts in the United States, most Arts and Crafts practitioners in Britain had strong, slightly incoherent, negative feelings about machinery. They thought of 'the craftsman' as free, creative, and working with his hands, 'the machine' as soulless, repetitive, and inhuman. These contrasting images derive in part from John Ruskin's (1819–1900) The Stones of Venice, an architectural history of Venice that contains a powerful denunciation of modern industrialism to which Arts and Crafts designers returned again and again. Distrust for the machine lay behind the many little workshops that turned their backs on the industrial world around 1900, using preindustrial techniques to create what they called 'crafts.'
— Alan Crawford, "W. A. S. Benson, Machinery, and the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain"
Critique of industry
William Morris shared Ruskin's critique of industrial society and at one time or another attacked the modern factory, the use of machinery, the division of labour, capitalism and the loss of traditional craft methods. But his attitude to machinery was inconsistent. He said at one point that production by machinery was "altogether an evil", but at others times, he was willing to commission work from manufacturers who were able to meet his standards with the aid of machines. Morris said that in a "true society", where neither luxuries nor cheap trash were made, machinery could be improved and used to reduce the hours of labour. Fiona MacCarthy says that "unlike later zealots like Gandhi, William Morris had no practical objections to the use of machinery per se so long as the machines produced the quality he needed."
Morris insisted that the artist should be a craftsman-designer working by hand and advocated a society of free craftspeople, such as he believed had existed during the Middle Ages. "Because craftsmen took pleasure in their work", he wrote, "the Middle Ages was a period of greatness in the art of the common people. ... The treasures in our museums now are only the common utensils used in households of that age, when hundreds of medieval churches – each one a masterpiece – were built by unsophisticated peasants." Medieval art was the model for much of Arts and Crafts design, and medieval life, literature and building was idealised by the movement.
Morris's followers also had differing views about machinery and the factory system. For example, C. R. Ashbee, a central figure in the Arts and Crafts movement, said in 1888, that, "We do not reject the machine, we welcome it. But we would desire to see it mastered." After unsuccessfully pitting his Guild and School of Handicraft guild against modern methods of manufacture, he acknowledged that "Modern civilisation rests on machinery", but he continued to criticise the deleterious effects of what he called "mechanism", saying that "the production of certain mechanical commodities is as bad for the national health as is the production of slave-grown cane or child-sweated wares." William Arthur Smith Benson, on the other hand, had no qualms about adapting the Arts and Crafts style to metalwork produced under industrial conditions. (See quotation box.)
Morris and his followers believed the division of labour on which modern industry depended was undesirable, but the extent to which every design should be carried out by the designer was a matter for debate and disagreement. Not all Arts and Crafts artists carried out every stage in the making of goods themselves, and it was only in the twentieth century that that became essential to the definition of craftsmanship. Although Morris was famous for getting hands-on experience himself of many crafts (including weaving, dying, printing, calligraphy and embroidery), he did not regard the separation of designer and executant in his factory as problematic. Walter Crane, a close political associate of Morris's, took an unsympathetic view of the division of labour on both moral and artistic grounds, and strongly advocated that designing and making should come from the same hand. Lewis Foreman Day, a friend and contemporary of Crane's, as unstinting as Crane in his admiration of Morris, disagreed strongly with Crane. He thought that the separation of design and execution was not only inevitable in the modern world, but also that only that sort of specialisation allowed the best in design and the best in making.
Many of the Arts and Crafts movement designers were socialists, including Morris,
Association with other reform movements
In Britain, the movement was associated with
Morris's designs quickly became popular, attracting interest when his company's work was exhibited at the
The spread of Arts and Crafts ideas during the late 19th and early 20th centuries resulted in the establishment of many associations and craft communities, although Morris had little to do with them because of his preoccupation with socialism at the time. A hundred and thirty Arts and Crafts organisations were formed in Britain, most between 1895 and 1905.
In 1881, Eglantyne Louisa Jebb, Mary Fraser Tytler and others initiated the Home Arts and Industries Association to encourage the working classes, especially those in rural areas, to take up handicrafts under supervision, not for profit, but in order to provide them with useful occupations and to improve their taste. By 1889 it had 450 classes, 1,000 teachers and 5,000 students.
In 1882, architect
In 1884, the
The London department store
In 1887 the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society, which gave its name to the movement, was formed with Walter Crane as president, holding its first exhibition in the New Gallery, London, in November 1888. It was the first show of contemporary decorative arts in London since the Grosvenor Gallery's Winter Exhibition of 1881. Morris & Co. was well represented in the exhibition with furniture, fabrics, carpets and embroideries. Edward Burne-Jones observed, "here for the first time one can measure a bit the change that has happened in the last twenty years". The society still exists as the Society of Designer Craftsmen.
In 1888, C.R.Ashbee, a major late practitioner of the style in England, founded the Guild and School of Handicraft in the East End of London. The guild was a craft co-operative modelled on the medieval guilds and intended to give working men satisfaction in their craftsmanship. Skilled craftsmen, working on the principles of Ruskin and Morris, were to produce hand-crafted goods and manage a school for apprentices. The idea was greeted with enthusiasm by almost everyone except Morris, who was by now involved with promoting socialism and thought Ashbee's scheme trivial. From 1888 to 1902 the guild prospered, employing about 50 men. In 1902 Ashbee relocated the guild out of London to begin an experimental community in Chipping Campden in the Cotswolds. The guild's work is characterised by plain surfaces of hammered silver, flowing wirework and colored stones in simple settings. Ashbee designed jewellery and silver tableware. The guild flourished at Chipping Camden but did not prosper and was liquidated in 1908. Some craftsmen stayed, contributing to the tradition of modern craftsmanship in the area.
Morris's thought influenced the distributism of G. K. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc.
By the end of the nineteenth century, Arts and Crafts ideals had influenced architecture, painting, sculpture, graphics, illustration, book making and photography, domestic design and the decorative arts, including furniture and woodwork, stained glass, leatherwork, lacemaking, embroidery, rug making and weaving, jewelry and metalwork, enameling and ceramics. By 1910, there was a fashion for "Arts and Crafts" and all things hand-made. There was a proliferation of amateur handicrafts of variable quality and of incompetent imitators who caused the public to regard Arts and Crafts as "something less, instead of more, competent and fit for purpose than an ordinary mass produced article."
The Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society held eleven exhibitions between 1888 and 1916. By the outbreak of war in 1914 it was in decline and faced a crisis. Its 1912 exhibition had been a financial failure.
The British artist potter
The British Isles
The beginnings of the Arts and Crafts movement in Scotland were in the stained glass revival of the 1850s, pioneered by
The situation in Wales was different than elsewhere in the UK. Insofar as craftsmanship was concerned, Arts and Crafts was a revivalist campaign. But in Wales, at least until World War I, a genuine craft tradition still existed. Local materials, stone or clay, continued to be used as a matter of course.
Scotland become known in the Arts and Crafts movement for its stained glass; Wales would become known for its pottery. By the mid 19th century, the heavy, salt glazes used for generations by local craftsmen had gone out of fashion, not least as mass-produced ceramics undercut prices. But the Arts and Crafts Movement brought new appreciation to their work. Horace W Elliot, an English gallerist, visited the Ewenny Pottery (which dated back to the 17th century) in 1885, to both find local pieces and encourage a style compatible with the movement. The pieces he brought back to London for the next twenty years revivified interest in Welsh pottery work.
A key promoter of the Arts and Crafts movement in Wales was Owen Morgan Edwards. Edwards was a reforming politician dedicated to renewing Welsh pride by exposing its people to their own language and history. For Edwards, "There is nothing that Wales requires more than an education in the arts and crafts." – though Edwards was more inclined to resurrecting Welsh Nationalism than admiring glazes or rustic integrity.
In architecture, Clough Williams-Ellis sought to renew interest in ancient building, reviving "rammed earth" or pisé construction in Britain.
The movement spread to Ireland, representing an important time for the nation's cultural development, a visual counterpart to the literary revival of the same time and was a publication of Irish nationalism. The Arts and Crafts use of stained glass was popular in Ireland, with Harry Clarke the best-known artist and also with Evie Hone. The architecture of the style is represented by the Honan Chapel (1916) in Cork city in the grounds of University College Cork. Other architects practicing in Ireland included Sir Edwin Lutyens (Heywood House in Co. Laois, Lambay Island and the Irish National War Memorial Gardens in Dublin) and Frederick 'Pa' Hicks (Malahide Castle estate buildings and round tower). Irish Celtic motifs were popular with the movement in silvercraft, carpet design, book illustrations and hand-carved furniture.
In continental Europe, the revival and preservation of national styles was an important motive of Arts and Crafts designers; for example, in Germany, after unification in 1871 under the encouragement of the Bund für Heimatschutz (1897) and the Vereinigte Werkstätten für Kunst im Handwerk founded in 1898 by Karl Schmidt; and in Hungary Károly Kós revived the vernacular style of Transylvanian building. In central Europe, where several diverse nationalities lived under powerful empires (Germany, Austria-Hungary and Russia), the discovery of the vernacular was associated with the assertion of national pride and the striving for independence, and, whereas for Arts and Crafts practitioners in Britain the ideal style was to be found in the medieval, in central Europe it was sought in remote peasant villages.
Widely exhibited in Europe, the Arts and Crafts style's simplicity inspired designers like Henry van de Velde and styles such as Art Nouveau, the Dutch De Stijl group, Vienna Secession, and eventually the Bauhaus style. Pevsner regarded the style as a prelude to Modernism, which used simple forms without ornamentation.
The earliest Arts and Crafts activity in continental Europe was in
Arts and Crafts products were admired in Austria and Germany in the early 20th century, and under their inspiration design moved rapidly forward while it stagnated in Britain. The Wiener Werkstätte, founded in 1903 by Josef Hoffmann and Koloman Moser, was influenced by the Arts and Crafts principles of the "unity of the arts" and the hand-made. The Deutscher Werkbund (German Association of Craftsmen) was formed in 1907 as an association of artists, architects, designers, and industrialists to improve the global competitiveness of German businesses and became an important element in the development of modern architecture and industrial design through its advocacy of standardized production. However, its leading members, van de Velde and Hermann Muthesius, had conflicting opinions about standardization. Muthesius believed that it was essential were Germany to become a leading nation in trade and culture. Van de Velde, representing a more traditional Arts and Crafts attitude, believed that artists would forever "protest against the imposition of orders or standardization," and that "The artist ... will never, of his own accord, submit to a discipline which imposes on him a canon or a type." 
In Finland, an idealistic artists' colony in
In Russia, Viktor Hartmann, Viktor Vasnetsov, Yelena Polenova and other artists associated with Abramtsevo Colony sought to revive the quality of medieval Russian decorative arts quite independently from the movement in Great Britain.
In Iceland, Sölvi Helgason's work shows Arts and Crafts influence.
In the United States, the Arts and Crafts style initiated a variety of attempts to reinterpret European Arts and Crafts ideals for Americans. These included the "Craftsman"-style architecture, furniture, and other decorative arts such as designs promoted by
While the Europeans tried to recreate the virtuous crafts being replaced by industrialisation, Americans tried to establish a new type of virtue to replace heroic craft production: well-decorated middle-class homes. They claimed that the simple but refined aesthetics of Arts and Crafts decorative arts would ennoble the new experience of industrial consumerism, making individuals more rational and society more harmonious. The American Arts and Crafts movement was the aesthetic counterpart of its contemporary political philosophy,
Arts and Crafts ideals disseminated in America through journal and newspaper writing were supplemented by societies that sponsored lectures. The first was organized in Boston in the late 1890s, when a group of influential architects, designers, and educators determined to bring to America the design reforms begun in Britain by William Morris; they met to organize an exhibition of contemporary craft objects. The first meeting was held on January 4, 1897, at the Museum of Fine Arts (MFA) in Boston to organize an exhibition of contemporary crafts. When craftsmen, consumers, and manufacturers realised the aesthetic and technical potential of the applied arts, the process of design reform in Boston started. Present at this meeting were General Charles Loring, Chairman of the Trustees of the MFA; William Sturgis Bigelow and Denman Ross, collectors, writers and MFA trustees; Ross Turner, painter; Sylvester Baxter, art critic for the Boston Transcript; Howard Baker, A.W. Longfellow Jr.; and Ralph Clipson Sturgis, architect.
The first American Arts and Crafts Exhibition began on April 5, 1897, at
This Society was incorporated for the purpose of promoting artistic work in all branches of handicraft. It hopes to bring Designers and Workmen into mutually helpful relations, and to encourage workmen to execute designs of their own. It endeavors to stimulate in workmen an appreciation of the dignity and value of good design; to counteract the popular impatience of Law and Form, and the desire for over-ornamentation and specious originality. It will insist upon the necessity of sobriety and restraint, or ordered arrangement, of due regard for the relation between the form of an object and its use, and of harmony and fitness in the decoration put upon it.
Built in 1913–14 by the Boston architect J. Williams Beal in the Ossipee Mountains of New Hampshire, Tom and Olive Plant's mountaintop estate, Castle in the Clouds also known as Lucknow, is an excellent example of the American Craftsman style in New England.
Also influential were the
Architecture and art
As theoreticians, educators, and prolific artists in mediums from printmaking to pottery and pastel, two of the most influential figures were Arthur Wesley Dow (1857–1922) on the East Coast and Pedro Joseph de Lemos (1882–1954) in California. Dow, who taught at Columbia University and founded the Ipswich Summer School of Art, published in 1899 his landmark Composition, which distilled into a distinctly American approach the essence of Japanese composition, combining into a decorative harmonious amalgam three elements: simplicity of line, "notan" (the balance of light and dark areas), and symmetry of color. His purpose was to create objects that were finely crafted and beautifully rendered. His student de Lemos, who became head of the San Francisco Art Institute, Director of the Stanford University Museum and Art Gallery, and Editor-in-Chief of the School Arts Magazine, expanded and substantially revised Dow's ideas in over 150 monographs and articles for art schools in the United States and Britain. Among his many unorthodox teachings was his belief that manufactured products could express "the sublime beauty" and that great insight was to be found in the abstract "design forms" of pre-Columbian civilizations.
The Museum of the American Arts and Crafts Movement in St. Petersburg, Florida, opened its doors in 2021.
In Japan, Yanagi Sōetsu, creator of the Mingei movement which promoted folk art from the 1920s onwards, was influenced by the writings of Morris and Ruskin. Like the Arts and Crafts movement in Europe, Mingei sought to preserve traditional crafts in the face of modernising industry.
The movement ... represents in some sense a revolt against the hard mechanical conventional life and its insensibility to beauty (quite another thing to ornament). It is a protest against that so-called industrial progress which produces shoddy wares, the cheapness of which is paid for by the lives of their producers and the degradation of their users. It is a protest against the turning of men into machines, against artificial distinctions in art, and against making the immediate market value, or possibility of profit, the chief test of artistic merit. It also advances the claim of all and each to the common possession of beauty in things common and familiar, and would awaken the sense of this beauty, deadened and depressed as it now too often is, either on the one hand by luxurious superfluities, or on the other by the absence of the commonest necessities and the gnawing anxiety for the means of livelihood; not to speak of the everyday uglinesses to which we have accustomed our eyes, confused by the flood of false taste, or darkened by the hurried life of modern towns in which huge aggregations of humanity exist, equally removed from both art and nature and their kindly and refining influences.
-- Walter Crane, "Of The Revival of Design and Handicraft", in Arts and Crafts Essays, by Members of the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society, 1893
Many of the leaders of the Arts and Crafts movement were trained as architects (e.g. William Morris, A. H. Mackmurdo, C. R. Ashbee, W. R. Lethaby) and it was on building that the movement had its most visible and lasting influence.
Red House, in Bexleyheath, London, designed for Morris in 1859 by architect Philip Webb, exemplifies the early Arts and Crafts style, with its well-proportioned solid forms, wide porches, steep roof, pointed window arches, brick fireplaces and wooden fittings. Webb rejected classical and other revivals of historical styles based on grand buildings, and based his design on British vernacular architecture, expressing the texture of ordinary materials, such as stone and tiles, with an asymmetrical and picturesque building composition.
The London suburb of
- Red House – Bexleyheath, Kent – 1859
- David Parr House – Cambridge, England – 1886–1926
- Wightwick Manor – Wolverhampton, England – 1887–93
- Inglewood – Leicester, England – 1892
- Standen – East Grinstead, England – 1894
- Swedenborgian Church – San Francisco, California – 1895
- Mary Ward House – Bloomsbury, London – 1896–98
- Blackwell – Lake District, England – 1898
- Derwent House – Chislehurst, Kent – 1899
- Stoneywell – Ulverscroft, Leicestershire – 1899
- The Arts & Crafts Church (Long Street Methodist Church and School) – Manchester, England – 1900
- Spade House – Sandgate, Kent – 1900
- Caledonian Estate – Islington, London – 1900–1907
- Horniman Museum – Forest Hill, London – 1901
- All Saints' Church, Brockhampton – 1901–02
- Shaw's Corner – Ayot St Lawrence, Hertfordshire – 1902
- Pierre P. Ferry House – Seattle, Washington – 1903–1906
- Winterbourne House – Birmingham, England – 1904
- The Black Friar– Blackfriars, London – 1905
- Marston House – San Diego, California – 1905
- Edgar Wood Centre – Manchester, England – 1905
- Debenham House – Holland Park, London – 1905–07
- Belrock - Greater Sudbury, Ontario - 1907
- Robert R. Blacker House – Pasadena, California – 1907
- Stotfold, Bickley, Kent – 1907
- Gamble House – Pasadena, California – 1908
- Oregon Public Library – Oregon, Illinois – 1909
- Thorsen House – Berkeley, California – 1909
- Rodmarton Manor – Rodmarton, near Cirencester, Gloucestershire – 1909–29
- Whare Ra – Havelock North, New Zealand – 1912
- Sutton Garden Suburb – Benhilton, Sutton, London – 1912–14
- Castle in the Clouds – Ossipee Mountains at Lake Winnipesaukee, New Hampshire – 1913-4
- Honan Chapel – University College Cork, Ireland – c.1916
- St Francis Xavier's Cathedral– Geraldton Western Australia 1916–1938
- Bedales School Memorial Library – near Petersfield, Hampshire – 1919–21
Morris's ideas were adopted by the
Arts and Crafts practitioners in Britain were critical of the government system of art education based on design in the abstract with little teaching of practical craft. This lack of craft training also caused concern in industrial and official circles, and in 1884 a Royal Commission (accepting the advice of William Morris) recommended that art education should pay more attention to the suitability of design to the material in which it was to be executed.
Other local authority schools also began to introduce more practical teaching of crafts, and by the 1890s Arts and Crafts ideals were being disseminated by members of the Art Workers Guild into art schools throughout the country. Members of the Guild held influential positions: Walter Crane was director of the
As head of the Royal College of Art in 1898, Crane tried to reform it along more practical lines, but resigned after a year, defeated by the bureaucracy of the
- Charles Robert Ashbee
- William Swinden Barber
- Barnsley brothers
- Detmar Blow
- Herbert Tudor Buckland
- Rowland Wilfred William Carter
- T. J. Cobden-Sanderson
- Walter Crane
- Nelson Dawson
- Lewis Foreman Day
- Christopher Dresser
- Dirk van Erp
- Thomas Phillips Figgis
- Eric Gill
- Ernest Gimson
- Greene & Greene
- Elbert Hubbard
- Norman Jewson
- Ralph Johonnot
- Florence Koehler
- Frederick Leach
- William Lethaby
- Edwin Lutyens
- Charles Rennie Mackintosh
- Samuel Maclure
- George Washington Maher
- Bernard Maybeck
- Henry Chapman Mercer
- Julia Morgan
- William De Morgan
- William Morris
- Karl Parsons
- Alfred Hoare Powell
- Edward Schroeder Prior
- Hugh C. Robertson
- William Robinson
- Baillie Scott
- Norman Shaw
- Ellen Gates Starr
- Gustav Stickley
- Phoebe Anna Traquair
- C.F.A. Voysey
- Philip Webb
- Margaret Ely Webb
- Christopher Whall
- Edgar Wood
- Charles Rohlfs
Decorative arts gallery
Gustav Stickley. Dropfront Desk, ca. 1903 Brooklyn Museum
William Morris. Wallpaper Sample, Compton 323, c. 1917. Brooklyn Museum
Newcomb Pottery. Vase, 1902–1904. Brooklyn Museum
Mueller Mosaic Company. Tile, ca. 1910 Brooklyn Museum
- Modern Style (British Art Nouveau style)
- Philip Clissett
- The English House
- Charles Prendergast
- William Morris wallpaper designs
- William Morris textile designs
- ^ ISBN 978-0-19-518948-3.
- ^ Wendy Kaplan and Alan Crawford, The Arts & Crafts movement in Europe & America: Design for the Modern World, Los Angeles County Museum of Art
- ^ a b Brenda M. King, Silk and Empire
- ^ "Arts and Crafts movement | British and international movement". Encyclopedia Britannica.
- ^ Moses N. Ikiugu and Elizabeth A. Ciaravino, Psychosocial Conceptual Practice models in Occupational Therapy; "Arts and Crafts Style Guide". British Galleries. Victoria and Albert Museum. Retrieved 17 July 2007.
- ^ ISBN 978 185514 484 2
- ^ ISBN 0-300-10939-3
- ^ Triggs, Oscar Lovell (1902). Chapters in the History of the Arts and Crafts Movement. Bohemia Guild of the Industrial Art League.
- ISBN 978-1-5104-7422-2.
- ^ ISBN 0-300-10571-1
- ^ "V&A, "Wallpaper Design Reform"".
- ^ a b c d Naylor 1971, p. 21.
- ^ a b Naylor 1971, p. 20.
- ^ Quoted in Nikolaus Pevsner, Pioneers of Modern Design
- ^ a b Naylor 1971, p. 22.
- ^ a b c d "Victoria and Albert Museum". Vam.ac.uk. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
- ^ a b Rosemary Hill, God's Architect: Pugin and the Building of Romantic Britain, London: Allen Lane, 2007
- OCLC 1147708297.
- ^ "John Ruskin – Artist Philosopher Writer – Arts & Crafts Leader". www.arts-crafts.com. Archived from the original on 18 December 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
- ^ a b Jacqueline Sarsby" Alfred Powell: Idealism and Realism in the Cotswolds", Journal of Design History, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 375–397
- ^ David Pye, The Nature and Art of Workmanship, Cambridge University Press, 1968
- ^ Naylor 1971, pp. 96–97.
- ISBN 978-0-486-28793-5.
- ^ Wildman 1998, p. 49.
- ^ Naylor 1971, p. 97.
- ^ "National Trust, "Iconic Arts and Crafts home of William Morris"".
- ^ a b c MacCarthy 2009.
- ^ "The Arts and Crafts Movement in America". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2019. Retrieved 16 March 2019.
- ^ Alan Crawford, "W. A. S. Benson, Machinery, and the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain", The Journal of Decorative and Propaganda Arts, Vol. 24, Design, Culture, Identity: The Wolfsonian Collection (2002), pp. 94–117
- ISBN 0-14-020521-7
- ISBN 0-14-020521-7
- ^ MacCarthy 1994, p. 351.
- ^ a b Elisabeth Frolet, Nick Pearce, Soetsu Yanagi and Sori Yanagi, Mingei: The Living Tradition in Japanese Arts, Japan Folk Crafts Museum/Glasgow Museums, Japan: Kodashani International, 1991
- ^ Ashbee, C. R., A Few Chapters on Workshop Construction and Citizenship, London, 1894.
- ^ "C. R. Ashbee, Should We Stop Teaching Art?, New York and London: Garland, 1978, p.12 (Facsimile of the 1911 edition)
- ^ "Designer and Executant: An Argument Between Walter Crane and Lewis Foreman Day". 19 June 2017.
- ^ a b Peter Floud, "The crafts then and now", The Studio, 1953, p.127
- ^ Naylor 1971, p. 109.
- ^ MacCarthy 1994, p. 640-663.
- ^ "V&A, "Victorian Dress at the V&A"". 14 January 2011.
- ^ Fiona McCarthy. The Simple Life, Lund Humphries, 1981
- ^ "Arts and Crafts movement". Retrieved 5 July 2019.
- ^ MacCarthy 1994, p. 602.
- ^ Naylor 1971, p. 120.
- ^ MacCarthy 1994, p. 591.
- ^ Naylor 1971, p. 115.
- ^ MacCarthy 1994, p. 593.
- ISBN 0-517-69260-0
- ^ "Crane, Walter, "Of the Arts and Crafts Movement", in Ideals In Art: Papers Theoretical Practical Critical, George Bell & Sons, 1905". Chestofbooks.com. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
- ^ MacCarthy 1994, p. 596.
- ^ "Society of Designer Craftsmen". Society of Designer Craftsmen. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
- ^ "Utopia Britannica". Utopia Britannica. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
- ^ "Court Barn Museum". Courtbarn.org.uk. Archived from the original on 29 January 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
- ^ Letter, Joseph Nuttgens, London Review of Books, 13 May 2010 p 4
- ISBN 978-0-300-20970-9.
- ^ a b Nicola Gordon Bowe and Elizabeth Cumming, The Arts And Crafts Movements in Dublin and Edinburgh
- ^ "Arts and Crafts", Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, Vol. 56, No. 2918, 23 October 1908, pp. 1023–1024
- ^ Noel Rooke, "The Craftsman and Education for Industry", in Four Papers Read by Members of the Arts & Crafts Exhibition Society, London: Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society, 1935
- ^ ISBN 0-300-07780-7
- ^ Designing Britain Archived May 15, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ a b MacCarthy 1994, p. 603.
- ISBN 0-500-20333-4, p. 151.
- ISBN 1-85149-455-3.
- ISBN 978-1-78683-285-6. 'Arts and Crafts' to Early Modernism, 1900 to 1939
- ISBN 978-0-7475-8872-6.
- ISBN 978-0-7083-0997-1. Sec. 3
- ISBN 978-0-7083-1886-7.
- ^ "CHS Vol" (PDF). 2 May 2012. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 December 2015.
- ^ Nicola Gordon Bowe, The Irish Arts and Crafts Movement (1886–1925), Irish Arts Review Yearbook, 1990–91, pp. 172–185
- ^ Teehan & Heckett 2005, p. 163.
- ^ Ákos Moravánszky, Competing visions: aesthetic invention and social imagination in Central European Architecture 1867–1918, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1998
- ^ Andrej Szczerski, "Central Europe", in Karen Livingstone and Linda Parry (eds.), International Arts and Crafts, London: V&A Publications, 2005
- ^ Naylor 1971, p. 183.
- ^ Naylor 1971, p. 189.
- ^ Széleky András, Kós Károly, Budapest, 1979
- ^ "Metropolitan Museum of Art: Monica Obniski, "The Arts and Crafts Movement in America"". Metmuseum.org. 20 February 1972. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
- ^ a b Obniski.
- ^ "The Arts & Crafts Movement – Concepts & Styles". The Art Story. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
- ^ Brandt, Beverly Kay. The Craftsman and the Critic: Defining Usefulness and Beauty in the Arts and Crafts-era Boston. University of Massachusetts Press, 2009. p. 113.
- MSN.comwebsite. Retrieved April 29, 2019.
- ISBN 0-8109-4217-8.
- ISBN 978-1-61528-405-4.
- ^ "Construction Begins on $40 Million Museum of the American Arts & Crafts in Florida". ARTFIX Daily. 18 February 2015. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- ^ Nichols, Steve (18 February 2015). "New, bigger, art museum coming to St. Pete". FOX 13 Pinellas Bureau Reporter. Archived from the original on 21 February 2015. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
- ^ George Orwell, The Road to Wigan Pier
- ^ Tankard, Judith B. and Martin A. Wood. Gertrude Jekyll at Munstead Wood. Bramley Books, 1998.
- ^ Historic England. "Bishopsbarns (1256793)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
- ^ "The Art of Design" (PDF). www.nationaltrust.org.uk. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 August 2016. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- ^ Historic England. "Castle Drogo park and garden (1000452)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- ^ "The Gardens at Goddards". www.nationaltrust.org.uk. Retrieved 26 June 2016.
- ^ "The Garden at Hidcote". www.nationaltrust.org.uk. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
- ^ Charles Harvey and Jon Press, "William Morris and the Royal Commission on Technical Instruction", Journal of the William Morris Society 11.1, August 1994, pp. 31–34 Archived 2015-01-05 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ ""Birmingham Institute of Art and Design" fineart.ac.uk".
- ^ Everitt, Sian. "Keeper of Archives". Birmingham Institute of Art and Design. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- ^ ISBN 0 340 09420 6
- ^ Naylor 1971, p. 179.
- ^ Report of the Departmental Committee on the Royal College of Art, HMSO, 1911
- ^ C.R.Ashbee, Should We Stop Teaching Art?, 1911
Bibliography and further reading
- Ayers, Dianne (2002). American Arts and Crafts Textiles. New York: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-0434-9.
- Blakesley, Rosalind P. The arts and crafts movement (Phaidon, 2006).
- Boris, Eileen (1986). Art and Labor. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN 0-87722-384-X.
- Carruthers, Annette. The Arts and Crafts Movement in Scotland: A History (2013) online review
- Cathers, David M. (1981). Furniture of the American Arts and Crafts Movement. The New American Library, Inc. ISBN 0-453-00397-4.
- Cathers, David M. (2014). So Various Are The Forms It Assumes: American Arts & Crafts Furniture from the Two Red Roses Foundation. Marquand Books. ISBN 978-0-692-21348-3.
- Cathers, David M. (20 February 2017). These Humbler Metals: Arts and Crafts Metalwork from the Two Red Roses Foundation Collection. Marquand Books. ISBN 978-0-615-98869-6.
- Cormack, Peter. Arts & crafts stained glass (Yale UP, 2015).
- Cumming, Elizabeth; Kaplan, Wendy (1991). Arts & Crafts Movement. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-20248-6.
- Cumming, Elizabeth (2006). Hand, Heart and Soul: The Arts and Crafts Movement in Scotland. Birlinn. ISBN 978-1-84158-419-5.
- Danahay, Martin. "Arts and Crafts as a Transatlantic Movement: CR Ashbee in the United States, 1896–1915." Journal of Victorian Culture 20.1 (2015): 65–86.
- Greensted, Mary. The arts and crafts movement in Britain (Shire, 2010).
- Johnson, Bruce (2012). Arts & Crafts Shopmarks. Fletcher, NC: Knock On Wood Publications. ISBN 978-1-4507-9024-6.
- Kaplan, Wendy (1987). The Art that Is Life: The Arts & Crafts Movement in America 1875-1920. New York: Little, Brown and Company.
- Kreisman, Lawrence, and Glenn Mason. The Arts & Craft Movement in the Pacific Northwest (Timber Press, 2007).
- Krugh, Michele. "Joy in labour: The politicization of craft from the arts and crafts movement to Etsy." Canadian Review of American Studies 44.2 (2014): 281–301. online
- Luckman, Susan. "Precarious labour then and now: The British arts and crafts movement and cultural work revisited." Theorizing Cultural Work (Routledge, 2014) pp. 33–43 online[dead link].
- MacCarthy, Fiona (2009). "Morris, William (1834–1896), designer, author, and visionary socialist". doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/19322. (Subscription or UK public library membershiprequired.)
- MacCarthy, Fiona (1994). William Morris. Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-17495-7.
- Mascia-Lees, Frances E. "American Beauty: The Middle Class Arts and Crafts Revival in the United States." in Critical Craft (Routledge, 2020) pp. 57–77.
- Meister, Maureen. Arts and Crafts Architecture: History and Heritage in New England (UP of New England, 2014).
- Naylor, Gillian (1971). The Arts and Crafts Movement: a study of its sources, ideals and influence on design theory. London: Studio Vista. ISBN 0-289-79580-X.
- Parry, Linda (2005). Textiles of the Arts and Crafts Movement. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-28536-5.
- Penick, Monica, Christopher Long, and Harry Ransom Center, eds. The rise of everyday design: The arts and crafts movement in Britain and America (Yale UP, 2019).
- Richardson, Margaret. Architects of the arts and crafts movement (1983)
- Tankard, Judith B. Gardens of the Arts and Crafts Movement (Timber Press, 2018)
- Teehan, Virginia; Heckett, Elizabeth (2005). The Honan Chapel: A Golden Vision. Cork: Cork University Press. ISBN 978-1-85918-346-5.
- Thomas, Zoë. "Between Art and Commerce: Women, Business Ownership, and the Arts and Crafts Movement." Past & Present 247.1 (2020): 151–196. online
- Triggs, Oscar Lovell. The arts & crafts movement (Parkstone International, 2014).
- Wildman, Stephen (1998). Edward Burne-Jones, Victorian artist-dreamer. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 978-0-87099-858-4. Retrieved 26 December 2013.
- Fiona MacCarthy, "The old romantics", The Guardian, Saturday 5 March 2005 01.25 GMT
- Furniture makers of America and Canada during the Arts & Crafts Movement
- The first public museum exclusively dedicated to the American Arts & Crafts movement
- Catalog lists with images of the major American Arts & Crafts furniture makers Archived 2017-06-21 at the Wayback Machine