The Catalan independence movement (Catalan: independentisme català;[a] Spanish: independentismo catalán; Occitan: independentisme catalan) is a social and political movement (with roots in Catalan nationalism) which seeks the independence of Catalonia from Spain.
The beginnings of
The contemporary independence movement began around 2009 after a series of events, including the
In the Parliament of Catalonia, parties explicitly supporting independence are
After the War of the Spanish Succession, based on the political position of the
It begins with secret instructions to the corregidores of the Catalan territory: "will take the utmost care to introduce the Castilian language, for which purpose he will give the most temperate and disguised measures so that the effect is achieved, without the care being noticed", and from there the actions, discreet or aggressive, are continued, and reach the last detail, such as, in 1799, the Royal Certificate prohibiting "represent, sing and dance pieces that were not in Spanish." These nationalist policies, sometimes very aggressive, and still in forces, have been and still are the seed of repeated territorial conflicts within the State.
Although since its loss there are claims to recover the Furs, the beginnings of
The first pro-independence political party in Catalonia was
A section of
Following Franco's death in 1975, Spain
In 1981, a manifesto issued by intellectuals in Catalonia claiming discrimination against the Castilian language, drew a response in the form of published letter, Crida a la Solidaritat en Defensa de la Llengua, la Cultura i la Nació Catalanes ("Call for Solidarity in Defence of the Catalan Language, Culture and Nation"), which called for a mass meeting at the University of Barcelona, out of which a popular movement arose. The Crida organised a series of protests that culminated in a massive demonstration in the Camp Nou on 24 June 1981. Beginning as a cultural organisation, the Crida soon began to demand independence. In 1982, at a time of political uncertainty in Spain, the Ley Orgánica de Armonización del Proceso Autonómico (LOAPA) was introduced in the Spanish parliament, supposedly to "harmonise" the autonomy process, but in reality to curb the power of Catalonia and the Basque region. There was a surge of popular protest against it. The Crida and others organised a huge rally against LOAPA in Barcelona on 14 March 1982. In March 1983, it was held to be ultra vires by the Spanish Constitutional Court. During the 1980s, the Crida was involved in nonviolent direct action, among other things campaigning for labelling in Catalan only, and targeting big companies. In 1983, the Crida's leader, Àngel Colom, left to join the ERC, "giving an impulse to the independentist refounding" of that party.
Second Statute of Autonomy and after
In November 2005, Omnium Cultural organized a meeting of Catalan and Madrid intellectuals in the Círculo de bellas artes in Madrid to show support for ongoing reform of Catalan Statute of Autonomy, which sought to resolve territorial tensions, and among other things better protect the Catalan language. On the Catalan side, a flight was made with one hundred representatives of the cultural, civic, intellectual, artistic and sporting world of Catalonia, but on the Spanish side, except Santiago Carrillo, a politician from the Second Republic, did not attend any more. The subsequent failure of the statutory reform with respect to its objectives opened the door to the growth of Catalan sovereignty.
During and after the court case, a series of symbolic
Mas and ERC leader
The Spanish government referred the declaration to the Spanish Constitutional Court, which ruled in March 2014 that the declaration of sovereignty was unconstitutional. The court did not, however, reject the "right to decide", arguing that that right didn't necessarily imply sovereignty or self-determination.
The following month, the CiU, the ERC, the ICV-EUiA and Candidatura d'Unitat Popular (CUP) agreed to hold the independence referendum on 9 November 2014, and that it would ask two questions: "Do you want Catalonia to become a State?" and (if yes) "Do you want this State to be independent?". A further mass demonstration, the Catalan Way 2014, took place on 11 September 2014, when protesters wearing the Catalan colours of yellow and red filled two of Barcelona's avenues to form a giant "V", to call for a vote. Following the Constitutional Court's ruling, the Catalan government changed the vote to a "process of citizen participation" and announced that it would be supervised by volunteers. The Spanish government again appealed to the Constitutional Court, which suspended the process pending the appeal, but the vote went ahead. The result was an 81% vote for yes-yes, but the turnout was only 42%, which could be seen as a majority opposed to both independence and the referendum. Criminal charges were subsequently brought against Mas and others for defying the court order.
In June 2015 the CiU broke up as a result of disagreement between its constituent parties – Convergència Democràtica de Catalunya (CDC) and Unió Democràtica de Catalunya (UDC) – over the independence process. Mas's CDC joined with the ERC and other groups to form Junts pel Sí (Together for "Yes"), which announced that it would declare independence if it won the election scheduled for September. In the September election, Junts pel Sí and the CUP between them won a majority of seats, but fell short of a majority of votes, with just under 48%. On 9 November 2015, the parliament passed a resolution declaring the start of the independence process, proposed by Junts pel Sí and the CUP. In response, Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy said that the state would "use any available judicial and political mechanism contained in the constitution and in the laws to defend the sovereignty of the Spanish people and of the general interest of Spain", a hint that he would not stop at military intervention. Following prolonged negotiations between Junts pel Sí and the CUP, Mas was replaced as president by Carles Puigdemont in January 2016. Puigdemont, on taking the oath of office, omitted the oath of loyalty to the king and the Spanish constitution, the first Catalan president to do so.
2017 Referendum, Declaration of Independence and new regional elections
In late September 2016, Puigdemont told the parliament that a binding referendum on independence would be held in the second half of September 2017, with or without the consent of the Spanish institutions. Puigdemont announced in June 2017 that the referendum would take place on 1 October, and that the question would be, "Do you want Catalonia to become an independent state in the form of a republic?" The Spanish government said in response, "that referendum will not take place because it is illegal."
A law creating an independent republic—in the event that the referendum took place and there was a majority "yes" vote, without requiring a minimum turnout—was approved by the Catalan parliament in a session on 6 September 2017. Opposition parties protested against the bill, calling it "a blow to democracy and a violation of the rights of the opposition", and staged a walkout before the vote was taken. On 7 September, the Catalan parliament passed a "transition law", to provide a legal framework pending the adoption of a new constitution, after similar protests and another walkout by opposition parties. The same day, 7 September, the Spanish Constitutional Court suspended the 6 September law while it considered an appeal from Mariano Rajoy, seeking a declaration that it was in breach of the Spanish constitution, meaning that the referendum could not legally go ahead on 1 October. The law was finally declared void on 17 October and is also illegal according to the Catalan Statutes of Autonomy which require a two-thirds majority in the Catalan parliament for any change to Catalonia's status.
The national government seized ballot papers and cell phones, threatened to fine people who manned polling stations up to €300,000, shut down web sites, and demanded that Google remove a voting location finder from the Android app store. Police were sent from the rest of Spain to suppress the vote and close polling locations, but parents scheduled events at schools (where polling places are located) over the weekend and vowed to occupy them to keep them open during the vote. Some election organizers were arrested, including Catalan cabinet officials, while demonstrations by local institutions and street protests grew larger.
The referendum took place on 1 October 2017, despite being suspended by the Constitutional Court, and despite the action of Spanish police to prevent voting in some centres. Images of violence from Spanish riot police beating Catalan voters
On 25 October 2017, after the Spanish government had threatened to suspend the Catalan autonomy through article 155 of the Spanish constitution, the UN Independent expert on the promotion of a democratic and equitable international order, Alfred de Zayas, deplored the decision to suspend Catalan autonomy, stating "This action constitutes retrogression in human rights protection, incompatible with Articles 1, 19, 25 and 27 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR). Pursuant to Articles 10(2) and 96 of the Spanish Constitution, international treaties constitute the law of the land and, therefore, Spanish law must be interpreted in conformity with international treaties."
On 27 October 2017 the Catalan Parliament voted in a secret ballot to approve a
As a result, the same day (27 October 2017) Article 155 of the
Under direct rule from Spain, elections were held in Catalonia on 21 December 2017. The three pro-independence parties retained their control of parliament with a reduced majority of 70 seats and a combined 47.5% of valid votes cast.
The trial of Catalonia independence leaders and October 2019 protests
In 2018 some of the independence leaders were sent to preventive detention without bail, accused of crimes of
Twelve people were tried by the
Clashes erupted into open violence, as protesters reacted violently at police efforts to end the demonstration, with some demonstrators setting cars on fire and throwing jars of
On 17 October, the pro-independence President of the Catalan Autonomous government, Quim Torra, called for an immediate halt to violence and disassociated himself from violent protesters, while at the same time calling for more peaceful protests. Nevertheless, the situation in Barcelona had evolved into open street battles between protesters and police, as both violent demonstrators attacked and provoked police forces, and police officers charged peaceful protesters for their proximity to violent ones.
Several reports claim that the protests and subsequent riots had been infiltrated by Neo-Nazis who used the marches as an opportunity to incite violence.
Shortly thereafter, the Catalan President attempted to rally the crowd by stating that he will push for a new independence referendum as large scale protests continued for the fourth day.
On 18 October, Barcelona became paralyzed, as tens of thousands of peaceful protesters answered the Catalan President's call and rallied in support of the jailed independence leaders. The demonstration grew quickly, with the Barcelona police counting at least 525,000 protesters in the city.
By late 18 October, minor trade unions (
As a result of the strike, trains and metro lines saw a reduction to 33% of their usual capacity, while buses saw a reduction to 25–50% of their usual capacity. The roads to the French border remained blocked and all roads leading into Barcelona were also cut. 190 flights in and out of the city were cancelled as a result of the strike. Spanish car manufacturer SEAT further announced a halt in the production of its Martorell plant and most of Barcelona's tourist sites had been closed and occupied by pro-independence demonstrators waving Estelada independence flags and posters with pro-independence slogans. The El Clásico football match between FC Barcelona and Real Madrid CF was postponed due to the strike.
By the end of the day, just like the previous days, riots developed in the centre of Barcelona. Masked individuals blocked the boulevard close to the city's police headquarters in Via Laetana. Withdrawn to the vicinity of the Plaça Urquinaona, protesters erected barricades setting trash bins in fire and hurled rubble (debris from broken paving stones) and other solid objects at riot policemen. The riot units responded with non-lethal foam and rubber bullets, tear gas and smoke grenades. The Mossos used for the first time the water cannon trunk acquired in 1994 from Israel in order to make way across the barricades. The clashes spread to cities outside Barcelona, with Spain's acting interior minister stating that 207 policemen had been injured since the start of the protests, while also noting that 128 people had been arrested by the nation's police forces. Miquel Buch, the Catalan Interior Minister, responsible for public order, and a pro-independence politician, called the violence "unprecedented" and distanced himself from the violent events, instead calling for peaceful protests to continue.
On 19 October, following a fifth consecutive night of violence, Catalan President Quim Torra called for talks between the Catalan independence movement and the
In the 2021 regional election, which saw a low turnout due to the COVID-19 pandemic, pro-independence parties won over 50% of the popular vote for the first time, and increased their representation in the parliament from 70 to 74 seats. In June 2021, the nine activists who had been jailed in 2019 were released, having been pardoned by King Felipe VI on the advice of Spanish prime minister Pedro Sánchez.
Support for independence
Recent pro-independence vote evolution
Catalan regional elections, consultation and independence referendum
|2006||282,693||14.0||5,321,274||2,908,290||54.7%||ERC (416,355)||CiU (935,756) and ICV (316,222) were pro-sovereignty|
|2010||368,379||12.1||5,363,688||3,038,645||56.7%||ERC (219,173),||CiU (1,202,830), ICV (230,824)|
|2012||687,784||19.2||5,413,868||3,582,272||66.2%||ERC–CatSí (496,292), CUP (126,435), SI (46,838), PIRATA.CAT (18,219)||CiU (1,116,259), ICV (359,705) and PSC (524,707) in favor of a referendum|
MES), CUP (337,794), PIRATA.CAT (327)
|CiU was dissolved before the regional elections, leaving CDC and UDC.|
ICV was integrated into Podem-CSQP, which favored a referendum
|2017||2,079,340||47.7||5,554,455||4,357,368||78.4%||JxCAT (948,233), ERC–CatSí (935,861), CUP (195,246)|
Podem-CatComú(326,360) in favor of a referendum
|2021||1,458,950||51.3||5,623,962||2,843,886||50.6%||ERC (605,529), JxCAT (570,733), CUP-G (189,814), PdeCAT (77,250), Primaries (6,006), FNC (5,008), PNC (4,610)||ECP–PEC (195,462) in favor of a referendum|
The parties explicitly campaigning for independence currently represented in the
Other smaller pro-independence parties or coalitions, without present representation in any parliament, are PDeCAT (formerly called
Spanish general elections in Catalonia
|Population||Valid votes[b]||Turnout[b]||Pro-independence political parties||Comments|
|2008||298,139||8||5,324,909||3,723,421||69.9%||ERC (298,139)||CiU (779,425)|
|2011||244,854||7.1||5,396,341||3,460,860||64.1%||ERC (244,854)||CiU (1,015,691)|
|2015||1,169,035||31.1||5,516,456||3,762,859||68.2%||ERC (601,782), CDC-DL (567,253)||En Comú (929,880)|
|2016||1,115,722||32.1||5,519,882||3,477,565||63.0%||ERC (632,234), CDC (483,488)||En Comú Podem (853,102) in favor of a referendum|
|April 2019||1,634,986||39.4||5,588,145||4,146,563||74.2%||ERC (1,020,392), JxCAT (500,787), Front Republicà (113,807)||En Comú Podem (615,665) in favor of a referendum|
|November 2019||1,642,063||42.5%||5,370,359||3,828,394||71.3%||ERC (869.934), JxCat (527,375), CUP (244,754)||En Comú Podem (546,733) in favor of a referendum|
Elections to the European Parliament in Catalonia
|Election||Pro-independence votes||% Pro-independence
|Population||Valid votes[b]||Turnout[b]||Pro-independence political parties||Comments|
|2004||257,482||12.2||5,329,787||2,116,962||39.7%||ERC (249,757), CUP (6,185), EC (1,540)||CiU (369,103), ICV (151,871)|
|2009||186,104||9.5||5,370,606||1,969,043||36.7%||ERC (181,213), RC (4,891)||CiU (441,810), ICV (119,755)|
|2014||595,493||23.7||5,492,297||2,513,628||45.8%||ERC (595,493), CDC (549,096)||CiU (549,096), ICV (259,152)|
|2019||1,708,396||49.8||5,645,470||3,427,549||60.7%||JxCat (981,357), ERC (727,039)|
Unofficial consultations and referendums
|Population||Valid votes[b]||% Turnout[b]||Comments|
|2014 referendum||1,861,753||80.8||6,300,000||2,305,290||36.6||Unofficial consultation|
|2017 referendum||2,044,038||90.2||5,343,358||2,266,498||42.4||Referendum declared illegal by the Supreme Court of Spain|
From around 2010, support for Catalan independence broadened from being the preserve of traditional left or far-left Catalan nationalism. Relevant examples are the
The Cercle d'Estudis Sobiranistes, a think tank led by the jurists Alfons López Tena and Hèctor López Bofill, was founded in 2007. It affiliated with Solidaritat Catalana per la Independència (Catalan Solidarity for Independence) in 2011.
At the beginning of 2021, Òmnium Cultural published a manifesto to obtain amnesty for Catalan politicians persecuted by the Spanish justice system. Among the signatories are four Nobel Peace Prize winners and several world-renowned personalities such as
Other individuals include:
- Sloan Kettering Institute.
- Pep Guardiola, Catalan former football player and manager of FC Barcelona and current manager of Manchester City.
- Manel Esteller, Catalan scientist, director of the Cancer Epigenetics and Biology Program of the Bellvitge Institute for Biomedical Research and editor-in-chief of the peer-reviewed journal Epigenetics.
- Lluís Llach, Catalan composer and songwriter
- Eduard Punset, Catalan politician, lawyer, economist, and science popularizer.
- Sister Teresa Forcades, Catalan physician and Benedictine nun
- Pilar Rahola, Catalan journalist and writer.
- Miquel Calçada, Catalan journalist
- Joel Joan, Catalan actor
- Txarango, Catalan music band
- Xavi Hernández, former Catalan footballer who previously played for and currently manages FC Barcelona.
- Beth, Catalan singer; she was a contestant at Eurovision Song Contest 2003
- Angel Rangel, former Catalan footballer, best known for playing for Swansea City.
Opposition to independence
All of the Spanish national political parties in Catalonia reject the idea of independence, except
On 8 October 2017, Societat Civil Catalana held a rally against Catalan independence; the organisers claimed that over a million people attended, while the Barcelona police force estimated the number at about 300,000. To date this event is the largest pro-Constitution and anti-independence demonstration in the history of Catalonia.
On 12 October 2017, 65,000 people, according to the Barcelona police, marched against independence in a smaller demonstration marking the
On 29 October 2017, hundreds of thousands of people demonstrated on the streets of Barcelona in favor of the unity of Spain and celebrating the Spanish government forcing new regional elections in December, in a demonstration called by Societat Civil Catalana. According to the Delegation of the Spanish government in Catalonia the turnout was of 1,000,000 people whereas according to the Barcelona police it was of 300,000 people. Societat Civil Catalana itself estimated the turnout at 1,000,000 people.
In 2017 the concept of 'Tabarnia' became popular on social media and received widespread media attention. Tabarnia is a fictional region covering urban coastal Catalonia demanding independence from the wider region, should it proceed with independence. Arguments in favor of Tabarnia satirically mirror those in favor of Catalan independence from Spain. Numerous separatists were critical of the concept and responded that the parody unfairly trivializes Catalonia's independence movement, which is based in part on Catalonia's distinct culture and identity. This proposal, from a platform created in 2011, was shown to map the electoral results of the Catalan regional election of 21 December 2017, which provoked renewed interest. The word 'Tabarnia' went viral on 26 December 2017, reaching worldwide top-trending status with over 648,000 mentions. The first major demonstration in favour of Tabarnia's autonomy from Catalonia took place in Barcelona on the 4th of February 2017, with 15,000 participants according to the Guàrdia Urbana and 200,000 according to organizers.
In these years, different figures from Catalan culture and politics have spoken out against the process, like Joan Manuel Serrat, Josep Borrell, Isabel Coixet, Pau Gasol, Mercedes Milá, Estopa, Montserrat Caballé or Núria Espert among others.
- José Luis Bonet, Catalan businessman, Chairman of Freixenet
- Juan José Brugera, Catalan businessman, Chairman of Inmobiliaria Colonial
- José Creuheras, Catalan businessman, Chairman of Planeta Group
- Javier Godó, Catalan businessman, Chairman of Grupo Godó
- Antón Costas, Catalan businessman, Founder of pharmaceutical company Almirall
- Eduardo Mendoza Garriga, Catalan novelist
- Juan Marsé, Catalan novelist, journalist and screenwriter.
- Albert Boadella, Catalan actor, director and playwright
- Mercedes Milá, Catalan television presenter and journalist
- Javier Sardà, Catalan presenter and journalist
- Jordi Évole, Catalan presenter and journalist
- Montserrat Caballé, Catalan operatic soprano
- Joan Manuel Serrat, Catalan musician, singer-songwriter, recording artist, and performer
- Estopa, Catalan rock/rumba duo
- Loquillo, Catalan rock singer
- Miguel Poveda, Catalan flamenco singer
- Núria Espert, Catalan theatre and television actress, theatre and opera director
- Javier Cárdenas Catalan singer and television and radio presenter
- Isabel Coixet, Catalan film director
- Santi Millán, Catalan actor, showman and television presenter
- Risto Mejide, Catalan publicist, author, music producer, talent show judge, TV presenter and songwriter
- Susanna Griso, Catalan presenter and journalist
- Jorge Javier Vázquez, Catalan television presenter
- Dani Pedrosa, Catalan Grand Prix motorcycle racer
This is a list of recent opinion polling on the subject. Most polls are conducted by the Centre d'Estudis d'Opinió, a research institute under the purview of the Catalan government, or the Institut de Ciencès Politiques i Socials, a part of the Autonomous University of Barcelona. However newspapers such as La Vanguardia or El Periodico also sometimes conduct polls on the subject.
Questions about a referendum are listed below if asked, however the ICPS also asked 'Do you want Catalunya to be an independent state or do you prefer to stay part of Spain?', where 'stay part of Spain' regularly performs ~10 points better than 'No' on the referendum question.
|Polling organisation/client||Sample size||Yes||No||No Answer/Don't Know||Lead||Notes|
|17 Nov–17 Dec 2021||Centre d'Estudis d'Opinió||1,200||40.8%||52.3%||6.9%||11.5%||[CEO]|
|10–12 May 2021||GAD3/La Vanguardia||800||41.5%||51.9%||6.6%||10.4%||[GAD3]|
|8–12 Feb 2021||ElectoPanel/Electomanía Archived 21 February 2021 at the Wayback Machine||2,129||47.7%||49.9%||2.4%||2.2%|
|23 Sep–9 Oct 2020||Centre d'Estudis d'Opinió||1,500||45.5%||46.3%||8.2%||0.8%||[CEO]|
|7 Sep 2020||GAD3/La Vanguardia||800||45.2%||46.7%||8.1%||1.5%||[GAD3]|
|9 Feb–3 Mar 2020||Centre d'Estudis d'Opinió||1,500||44.9%||47.1%||8.1%||2.2%||[CEO]|
|3–6 Feb 2020||GAD3/La Vanguardia||800||44%||49%||7%||5%||[GAD3]|
|25 Sep–23 Oct 2019||Institut de Ciències Politiques i Socials||1,200||46.0%||31.5%||22.5%||4.6%||[ICPS]|
|16 Sep–7 Oct 2019||Centre d'Estudis d'Opinió||1,500||40.3%||49.3%||10.4%||8.4%||[CEO]|
|4–25 Mar 2019||Centre d'Estudis d'Opinió||2,000||48.4%||44.1%||7.5%||4.3%||[CEO]|
|8 Oct–5 Nov 2018||Institut de Ciències Politiques i Socials||1,200||47.9%||31.8%||20.2%||16.1%||[ICPS]|
- Question: 'Do you want Catalunya to be an independent state?' Responses: Yes, No, Don't know, No answer
- Question: 'If tomorrow a referendum were held to decide the independence of Catalunya, what would you do?' Responses: 'I would vote in favour', 'I would vote against', 'I wouldn't vote', 'Blank or empty vote' or 'Don't know/No Response'
- Question 'In a referendum on Catalan independence, what way would you vote?' Responses: 'Yes', 'No', 'Don't know, No answer'
Under Spanish law, lawfully exiting Spain would require the Spanish parliament to amend the constitution. It may be difficult for an independent Catalonia to gain international recognition; for example, many countries fail to recognize Kosovo, despite Kosovo having a strong humanitarian claim to independence. Most of Catalonia's foreign exports go to the European Union; Catalonia would need Spain's permission if it wishes to eventually re-enter the EU following secession. Catalonia already runs its own police, schools, healthcare, transport, agriculture, environment policy, and municipal governments. Other institutions, such as a central bank and a revenue collection service would have to be rebuilt, possibly losing existing economies of scale. Accounting measures vary, but the BBC and The Washington Post cite estimates that in 2014 Catalans may have paid about 10 billion Euros (or about US$12 billion) more in taxes to the State than what it received in exchange. As of 2014, an independent Catalonia would be the 34th largest economy in the world. Should Catalonia secede from Spain, some residents of Val d'Aran (population 10,000) have stated they might break away from Catalonia, although others state that the local identity has only been recognised by the Catalan Government, something the Spanish State never did.
Opponents of Catalan independence have accused the movement of racism or elitism, and argue that the majority of the Catalan public does not support independence. In an op-ed for The Guardian Aurora Nacarino-Brabo and Jorge San Miguel Lobeto, two political scientists affiliated with the anti-independence Ciutadans Spanish nationalist party, disputed the claim that Catalonia has been oppressed or excluded from Spanish politics. They argued that the independence movement is "neither inclusive nor progressive", and criticised nationalists for excluding the Spanish speaking population of Catalonia, and resorting to what they argue are appeals to ethnicity. These criticisms of ethnic-based appeals and exclusion of Spanish speakers have been echoed by other politicians and public figures opposed to independence, such as former Spanish Prime Minister Felipe González, and the leader of Ciutadans in Catalonia Inés Arrimadas. Polls show that the wish for independence is positively correlated with having Catalonia-born parents and grandparents, families which also tend to fare better economically.
Statements by different key figures in the independence movement have sometimes contributed to this view. In 2013 Carme Forcadell, then president of the influential Assemblea Nacional Catalana and later president of the Parliament of Catalonia publicly declared that the Partido Popular and Citizens were not part of the 'Catalan people' and hence were 'enemies' to defeat. Former president of the Parliament of Catalonia Núria de Gispert has been involved in controversy over the years due to her Tweets, including comparing members of those two parties with pigs to be exported, or for revealing the address of the school where Citizens' leader Albert Rivera's daughter studied. Quim Torra, who was appointed president of the regional parliament of Catalonia in 2018, was also involved in controversy regarding past tweets suggesting "Spaniards know only how to plunder" and describing them as having "a rough patch in their DNA".
Members of the Catalan independence movement have strongly denied their movement is xenophobic or supremacist and define it as "an inclusive independence movement in which neither the origin nor the language are important". In addition, independence supporters usually allege most far-right and xenophobic groups in Catalonia support Spanish nationalism, and usually participate in unionist demonstrations.
On the part of the independence movement, the Comitès de Defensa de la República (Committees for the Defense of the Republic; CDR) were created and organised to hinder police action through passive resistance. In September 2019, seven members of the CDR, alleged to be a branch called "Equipos de Respuesta Técnica" (Tactical Response Teams), were arrested for terrorist offenses; they were said to have been found with explosive material and maps of official buildings. Three of them were released on bail in October 2019.
- 2017–18 Spanish constitutional crisis
- Anna Arqué i Solsona
- Carles Castellanos i Llorenç
- History of Catalonia
- Basque Country independence
- Galician independence movement
- National and regional identity in Spain
- List of active separatist movements in Europe
- Nation state
- Pronunciation of independentisme català in Catalan: [indəpəndənˈtizmə kətəˈla].
Eastern Catalan: [indəpəndənˈtizmə kətəˈɫa]
Western Catalan (including Valencian): [independenˈtizme kataˈla]
- Blank and null votes are subtracted from the number of voters
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- Conversi (2000), pp. 146–7
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