Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating
The term computing is also
The history of computing is longer than the history of computing hardware and includes the history of methods intended for pen and paper (or for chalk and slate) with or without the aid of tables. Computing is intimately tied to the representation of numbers, though mathematical concepts necessary for computing existed before numeral systems. The earliest known tool for use in computation is the abacus, and it is thought to have been invented in Babylon circa between 2700–2300 BC. Abaci, of a more modern design, are still used as calculation tools today.
The first recorded proposal for using digital electronics in computing was the 1931 paper "The Use of Thyratrons for High Speed Automatic Counting of Physical Phenomena" by C. E. Wynn-Williams. Claude Shannon's 1938 paper "A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits" then introduced the idea of using electronics for Boolean algebraic operations.
The concept of a
A computer is a
Computer hardware includes the physical parts of a computer, including central processing unit, memory and input/output. Computational logic and computer architecture are key topics in the field of computer hardware.
Computer software, or just software, is a collection of computer programs and related
Software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only.
System software, or systems software, is computer software designed to operate and control computer hardware, and to provide a platform for running application software. System software includes
Application software, also known as an application or an app, is
Application software applies the power of a particular
A computer network, often simply referred to as a network, is a collection of hardware components and computers
Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of electrical engineering, telecommunications, computer science, information technology or computer engineering, since it relies upon the theoretical and practical application of these disciplines.
The Internet is a global system of interconnected
Computer programming is the process of writing, testing, debugging, and maintaining the source code and documentation of computer programs. This source code is written in a programming language, which is an artificial language that is often more restrictive than natural languages, but easily translated by the computer. Programming is used to invoke some desired behavior (customization) from the machine.
Writing high-quality source code requires knowledge of both the computer science domain and the domain in which the application will be used. The highest-quality software is thus often developed by a team of domain experts, each a specialist in some area of development.[
A programmer, computer programmer, or coder is a person who writes
The computer industry is made up of businesses involved in developing
The software industry includes businesses engaged in
Sub-disciplines of computing
Computer engineering is a discipline that integrates several fields of electrical engineering and computer science required to develop computer hardware and software. Computer engineers usually have training in electronic engineering (or electrical engineering), software design, and hardware-software integration, rather than just software engineering or electronic engineering. Computer engineers are involved in many hardware and software aspects of computing, from the design of individual microprocessors, personal computers, and supercomputers, to circuit design. This field of engineering includes not only the design of hardware within its own domain, but also the interactions between hardware and the context in which it operates.
Software engineering (SE) is the application of a systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approach to the design, development, operation, and maintenance of software, and the study of these approaches. That is, the application of engineering to software. It is the act of using insights to conceive, model and scale a solution to a problem. The first reference to the term is the 1968 NATO Software Engineering Conference, and was intended to provoke thought regarding the perceived software crisis at the time. Software development, a widely used and more generic term, does not necessarily subsume the engineering paradigm. The generally accepted concepts of Software Engineering as an engineering discipline have been specified in the Guide to the Software Engineering Body of Knowledge (SWEBOK). The SWEBOK has become an internationally accepted standard in ISO/IEC TR 19759:2015.
Computer science or computing science (abbreviated CS or Comp Sci) is the scientific and practical approach to computation and its applications. A computer scientist specializes in the theory of computation and the design of computational systems.
Its subfields can be divided into practical techniques for its implementation and application in
The field of cybersecurity pertains to the protection of computer systems and networks. This includes information and data privacy, preventing disruption of IT services and prevention of theft of and damage to hardware, software and data.
Information systems (IS) is the study of complementary networks of hardware and software (see
"A majority of IS [degree] programs are located in business schools; however, they may have different names such as management information systems, computer information systems, or business information systems. All IS degrees combine business and computing topics, but the emphasis between technical and organizational issues varies among programs. For example, programs differ substantially in the amount of programming required."
The study of IS bridges business and computer science, using the theoretical foundations of information and computation to study various business models and related algorithmic processes within a computer science discipline. The field of Computer Information Systems (CIS) studies computers and algorithmic processes, including their principles, their software and hardware designs, their applications, and their impact on society while IS emphasizes functionality over design.
Information technology (IT) is the application of
Research and emerging technologies
Fiber-optic and photonic (optical) devices, which already have been used to transport data over long distances, are starting to be used by data centers, along with CPU and semiconductor memory components. This allows the separation of RAM from CPU by optical interconnects. IBM has created an integrated circuit with both electronic and optical information processing in one chip. This is denoted CMOS-integrated nanophotonics (CINP). One benefit of optical interconnects is that motherboards, which formerly required a certain kind of system on a chip (SoC), can now move formerly dedicated memory and network controllers off the motherboards, spreading the controllers out onto the rack. This allows standardization of backplane interconnects and motherboards for multiple types of SoCs, which allows more timely upgrades of CPUs.
Another field of research is spintronics. Spintronics can provide computing power and storage, without heat buildup. Some research is being done on hybrid chips, which combine photonics and spintronics. There is also research ongoing on combining plasmonics, photonics, and electronics.
Cloud computing is a model that allows for the use of computing resources, such as servers or applications, without the need for interaction between the owner of these resources and the end user. It is typically offered as a service, making it an example of Software as a Service, Platforms as a Service, and Infrastructure as a Service, depending on the functionality offered. Key characteristics include on-demand access, broad network access, and the capability of rapid scaling. It allows individual users or small business to benefit from economies of scale.
One area of interest in this field is its potential to support energy efficiency. Allowing thousands of instances of computation to occur on one single machine instead of thousands of individual machines could help save energy. It could also ease the transition to renewable energy source, since it would suffice to power one server farm with renewable energy, rather than millions of homes and offices.
However, this centralized computing model poses several challenges, especially in security and privacy. Current legislation does not sufficiently protect users from companies mishandling their data on company servers. This suggests potential for further legislative regulations on cloud computing and tech companies.
Quantum computing is an area of research that brings together the disciplines of computer science, information theory, and quantum physics. While the idea of information as part of physics is relatively new, there appears to be a strong tie between information theory and quantum mechanics. Whereas traditional computing operates on a binary system of ones and zeros, quantum computing uses qubits. Qubits are capable of being in a superposition, i.e. in both states of one and zero, simultaneously. Thus, the value of the qubit is not between 1 and 0, but changes depending on when it is measured. This trait of qubits is known as quantum entanglement, and is the core idea of quantum computing that allows quantum computers to do large scale computations. Quantum computing is often used for scientific research in cases where traditional computers do not have the computing power to do the necessary calculations, such in molecular modeling. Large molecules and their reactions are far too complex for traditional computers to calculate, but the computational power of quantum computers could provide a tool to perform such calculations.
- Computational thinking
- Creative computing
- Electronic data processing
- Enthusiast computing
- Index of history of computing articles
- Instruction set architecture
- Lehmer sieve
- List of computer term etymologies
- Mobile computing
- Scientific computing
- ^ a b "Computing Classification System". Digital Library. Association for Computing Machinery.
- ^ "Computing Careers & Disciplines: A Quick Guide for Prospective Students and Career Advisors (2nd edition, ©2020)". CERIC. January 17, 2020. Retrieved 2022-07-04.
- ^ "The History of Computing". mason.gmu.edu. Retrieved 2019-04-12.
- ISBN 9781139643771. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-12-09. Retrieved 2019-09-16.
- ISBN 9783527340538.
- ^ Lavington, Simon (1998), A History of Manchester Computers (2 ed.), Swindon: The British Computer Society, pp. 34–35
- ISBN 9780470508923.
- ^ "1960 - Metal Oxide Semiconductor (MOS) Transistor Demonstrated". The Silicon Engine. Computer History Museum.
- ISBN 9783540342588.
- ^ "Who Invented the Transistor?". Computer History Museum. 4 December 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
- JSTOR 24923169.
- ISBN 9781107434493.
- ISBN 9780841228610.
The relative simplicity and low power requirements of MOSFETs have fostered today's microcomputer revolution.
- ^ "Wordreference.com: WordNet 2.0". Princeton University, Princeton, NJ. Retrieved 2007-08-19.
- ^ Rouse, Margaret (March 2019). "system software". WhatIs.com. TechTarget.
- ^ "Computer network definition". Archived from the original on 2012-01-21. Retrieved 2011-11-12.
- ^ "5 Skills Developers Need Beyond Writing Code". 23 January 2019.
- IEEE Computer Society; ACM (12 December 2004). Computer Engineering 2004: Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Degree Programs in Computer Engineering(PDF). p. iii. Retrieved 2012-12-17.
Computer System engineering has traditionally been viewed as a combination ofboth electronic engineering (EE) and computer science (CS).
- ^ Trinity College Dublin. "What is Computer System Engineering". Retrieved 2006-04-21., "Computer engineers need not only to understand how computer systems themselves work, but also how they integrate into the larger picture. Consider the car. A modern car contains many separate computer systems for controlling such things as the engine timing, the brakes and the air bags. To be able to design and implement such a car, the computer engineer needs a broad theoretical understanding of all these various subsystems & how they interact.
- ISBN 978-0-7695-2330-9.
- ^ ACM (2006). "Computing Degrees & Careers". ACM. Archived from the original on 2011-06-17. Retrieved 2010-11-23.
- ISBN 978-0-8493-7228-5. Retrieved 2011-01-21.
- ISBN 978-81-7758-530-8. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
- ^ Peter, Naur; Randell, Brian (7–11 October 1968). Software Engineering: Report of a conference sponsored by the NATO Science Committee (PDF). Garmisch, Germany: Scientific Affairs Division, NATO. Retrieved 2008-12-26.
- ^ Randell, Brian (10 August 2001). "The 1968/69 NATO Software Engineering Reports". Brian Randell's University Homepage. The School of the Computer Sciences, Newcastle University. Retrieved 2008-10-11.
The idea for the first NATO Software Engineering Conference, and in particular that of adopting the then practically unknown term software engineering as its (deliberately provocative) title, I believe came originally from Professor Fritz Bauer.
- ^ "Software Engineering -- Guide to the software engineering body of knowledge (SWEBOK)". International Organization for Standardization. ISO/IEC TR 19759:2015. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
- ^ "WordNet Search - 3.1". Wordnetweb.princeton.edu. Retrieved 2012-05-14.
- ISSN 0001-0782.
- S2CID 207595944.
- ^ "Definition of Application Landscape". Software Engineering for Business Information Systems (sebis). Jan 21, 2009. Archived from the original on March 5, 2011. Retrieved January 14, 2011.
- ^ Denning, Peter (July 1999). "COMPUTER SCIENCE: THE DISCIPLINE". Encyclopaedia of Computer Science (2000 Edition).
The Domain of Computer Science: Even though computer science addresses both human-made and natural information processes, the main effort in the discipline has been directed toward human-made processes, especially information processing systems and machines
- ^ Jessup, Leonard M.; Valacich, Joseph S. (2008). Information Systems Today (3rd ed.). Pearson Publishing. pp. –, 416.
- ^ "Computing Degrees & Careers " Information Systems". Association for Computing Machinery. Archived from the original on 6 July 2018. Retrieved 6 July 2018.
- ISBN 1-58113-798-2.
In 1999, Clemson University established a (graduate) degree program that bridges the arts and the sciences... All students in the program are required to complete graduate level work in both the arts and computer science
- S2CID 52847480.
From this we have concluded that IS is a science, i.e., a scientific discipline in contrast to purportedly non-scientific fields
- ^ "Computer Science is the study of all aspects of computer systems, from the theoretical foundations to the very practical aspects of managing large software projects". Massey University. Archived from the original on 2006-06-19.
- ISSN 1937-4771.
- ISSN 1937-4771.
In 1988, a degree program in Computer Information Systems (CIS) was launched with the objective of providing an option for students who were less inclined to become programmers and were more interested in learning to design, develop, and implement Information Systems, and solve business problems using the systems approach
- S2CID 14331332.
Computer science and engineering needs an intellectually rigorous, analytical, teachable design process to ensure development of systems we all can live with ... Though the other components' connections to the software and their role in the overall design of the system are critical, the core consideration for a software-intensive system is the software itself, and other approaches to systematizing design have yet to solve the "software problem"—which won't be solved until software design is understood scientifically.
Daintith, John, ed. (2009), "IT", A Dictionary of Physics, Oxford University Press, ISBN 9780199233991, retrieved 1 August 2012 (subscription required)
- ^ "Free on-line dictionary of computing (FOLDOC)". Archived from the original on 15 April 2013. Retrieved 9 Feb 2013.
Chandler, Daniel; Munday, Rod (January 2011), "Information technology", A Dictionary of Media and Communication (first ed.), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-956875-8, retrieved 1 August 2012 (subscription required)
- ISBN 978-1-56159-248-7. Retrieved 12 May 2013..
- S2CID 4388493.
- "Atomic antennas transmit quantum information across a microchip". ScienceDaily (Press release). February 26, 2011.
- S2CID 8155660.
- ^ "World record: Calculations with 14 quantum bits". www.nanowerk.com.
- nanometers. Access date 2010-03-31
- ^ Sebastian Anthony (Dec 10,2012), "IBM creates first commercially viable silicon nanophotonic chip", accessdate=2012-12-10
- ^ Open Compute: Does the data center have an open future? accessdate=2013-08-11
- ^ "Putting electronics in a spin". 2007-08-08. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
- ^ "Merging spintronics with photonics" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-09-06. Retrieved 2019-09-06.
- PMID 30631067.
- PMID 31819898.
- ^ "The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing" (PDF). U.S. Department of Commerce. September 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-10-09.
- ISSN 1460-2067.
- S2CID 16233643.
- S2CID 119473861.
- S2CID 59577352.