University of Michigan

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University of Michigan
NCAA Division I FBS – Big Ten
  • CWPA
    University of Michigan logo.svg

    The University of Michigan (U-M, UofM, UMich, or simply Michigan) is a

    research universities and a founding member of the Association of American Universities

    The university consists of nineteen colleges and offers degree programs at

    postdoctoral levels in some 250 disciplines. Michigan has nine professional schools: the Taubman College of Architecture and Urban Planning, Ross School of Business, Medical School, Law School, Ford School of Public Policy, College of Pharmacy, School of Social Work, School of Public Health, and School of Dentistry. It affiliates with two regional universities located in Flint and Dearborn and operates a center located in Detroit. Undergraduate admission to the university is categorized as "most selective."[10] Nearly half of the students are from out of state. International students from some 130 countries account for 15 percent of the entire student body.[6]

    The university's noted alumni include eight domestic and foreign



    The University of Michigan was founded on the 26 of August, 1817,[1] as the Catholepistemiad, or the Catholepistemiad Michigania, under an act of the Michigan Territory. The corporate existence of the university had its rise in the Act of 1817, and has been continuous throughout all subsequent changes of its organic law.[15]: 11  The seven-syllable Catholepistemiad was a mish-mash of Latin and Ancient Greek, which translates to roughly "School of Universal Knowledge."[16]

    Established in 1817, the Catholepistemiad was not a university in the contemporary sense but rather a centralized system of schools, libraries, and other cultural institutions borrowing its model from the

    Napoleon I a decade earlier.[17][15]: 10  Besides carrying on the central institution, the President and Didactorium of the Catholepistemiad were also authorized to establish private colleges, academies, libraries, etc., throughout the Michigan Territory.[15]: 10  It was only after the state of Michigan entered the Union in 1837 that a new plan was adopted to focus the corporation on higher education.[17] The charter of the Catholepistemiad is an extraordinary example of the marked French influence upon American institutions which found its inception during the course of the Revolutionary War, and continued until it began to give way to German influence in the third or fourth decade of the 19th century.[15]
    : 10 

    Shortly after the passage of the Act of 1817,

    Lancasterian school taught by Lemuel Shattuck was opened in the building. These schools' tuition rates ranged from $1.00 to $3.50 per one quarter of a year.[15]
    : 12 

    On April 30, 1821, the Michigan Territory passed a new act changing materially the appearance, and slightly the nature of the existing educational organization.[15]: 13  A board of trustees was appointed to oversee the corporation; the positions of president and vice president were eliminated, and Monteith and Richard were appointed to the board.[1] University of Michigan took the place of the Catholepistemiad Michigania as the legal name of the corporation.

    Painting of a rolling green landscape with trees with a row of white buildings in the background
    University of Michigan (1855) Jasper Francis Cropsey


    After the state of Michigan entered the Union in 1837, its constitution granted the university an unusual degree of autonomy as a “coordinate branch of state government.” It delegated full powers over all university matters granted to its governing Board of Regents.

    Ann Arbor and formally accepted the proposal by the town to locate the university there.[1] The town of Ann Arbor had existed for only 13 years and had a population of about 2,000.[19] A grant of 40 acres (16 ha), obtained through the Treaty of Fort Meigs[20], formed the basis of the present Central Campus.[21]

    Since the founding period, the private sector has remained the primary provider of university financing to supplement tuition collected from students. Early benefactors of the university included businessman Dexter M. Ferry (donor of Ferry Field), Arthur Hill (regent, donor of Hill Auditorium), the Nichols family (regents, donors of the Nichols Arboretum), William E. Upjohn (donor of the Peony Garden), William P. Trowbridge, John S. Newberry, who funded the construction of Helen H. Newberry Residence, and Henry N. Walker, a politician who led a group of prominent Detroit businessmen to fund the Detroit Observatory. Clara Harrison Stranahan, a close friend of Scottish-American industrialist Andrew Carnegie, donated $25,000 to the university in 1895 as a memorial of her father, Seth Harrison. The Waterman Gymnasium was financed by donations from wealthy citizens and matched Joshua W. Waterman's pledge of $20,000. When opened, the total cost of the building was $61,876.49, to which private donors contributed $49,524.34.[15]: 67 

    Gothic Revival style. Davis himself is generally credited with coining the term "Collegiate Gothic

    In 1838, the Regents contracted with

    Gothic Revival style; but unfortunately the completion of them at that day would, as Pierce said, involve an expenditure of half a million dollars.[15]: 31  Although approving the designs, the tight budget of the fledgling university forced the Regents to ultimately abandon them and instead adopted a much less expensive plan.[22] The superintendent of construction on the first structure to be built for the university was Isaac Thompson, an associate of Davis.[23] Asa Gray was the first professor appointed to Michigan on July 17, 1837.[24] His position was also the first one devoted solely to botany at any educational institution in America.[25][26][27] The first classes in Ann Arbor were held in 1841, with six freshmen and a sophomore, taught by two professors. Eleven students graduated in the first commencement in 1845.[28]

    The years 1837–1850 disclosed serious weakness in the organization and working of the university. Regents of the university discovered that the organic act from which they derived their powers, made them too dependent upon the legislature. The subject was brought to the attention of the legislature more than once but without securing the desired action in order to achieve increased independence. By the late 1840s, the Regents achieved a strong position relative to

    clergymen and intellectual elites, since by then the state derived significant tax revenue through them. Such a situation ultimately led to a change in the organic act of the university. Remodeled, the act, which was approved April 8, 1851, emancipated the university from legislative control that would have been injudicious and harmful. The office of Regent was changed from an appointed one to an elected one, and the office of President was created, with the Regents directed to select one. As Hinsdale argued, "the independent position of the university has had much to do with its growth and prosperity. In fact, its larger growth may be dated from the time when the new sections began to take effect."[15]
    : 40 

    Michigan was the first university in the West to pursue

    chemical laboratory.[30] That laboratory was the first structure on the North American continent that was designed and equipped solely for instruction in chemistry.[30] In 1869 Michigan opened the first university hospital in the country. James Burrill Angell, who served as the university's president from 1871 to 1909, expanded the curriculum to include professional studies in dentistry, architecture, engineering, government, and medicine

    The University of Michigan conferred the degree of

    Lawrence Scientific School at Cambridge conferred the degree in 1851, for the first time in the United States, making Michigan the second institution in the country to confer the degree.[15]: 48  The degree of Bachelor of Philosophy was conferred for the first time in the university's history upon six students in 1870.[15]: 79  The degrees of Master of Philosophy and Doctor of Philosophy was first offered in 1875.[15]
    : 88 

    Methods of instruction had also undergone important changes. The seminar method of study was first introduced into the university by Charles Kendall Adams in 1871-1872, making the university the first American institution to naturalize this product of the German soil.[31][15]: 71 

    By 1866, enrollment had increased to 1,205 students. Women were first admitted in 1870,

    Jose Celso Barbosa, who in 1880 graduated as valedictorian and the first Puerto Rican to get a university degree in the United States. He returned to Puerto Rico to practice medicine and also served in high-ranking posts in the government.[34] Michigan was involved with the building of the Philippine education, legal, and public health systems during the era of the American colonization of the Philippines through the efforts of Michigan alumni that included Dean Conant Worcester and George A. Malcolm.[35]

    Throughout its history, Michigan has been one of the nation's largest universities, vying with the largest private universities such as Harvard University in Cambridge and Columbia University (then known as Columbia College) in New York during the 19th and early 20th centuries, and then holding this position of national leadership until the emergence of the statewide public university systems in the post-WWII years.[17] By the turn of the 19th century, the university was the second largest in the United States after Harvard University.[36]

    Michigan is sometimes referred to as the "Harvard of the West" (though separated by over 600 miles, Michigan is located exactly west of Harvard, at 42.278 degrees north). There are several versions regarding the origin of the analogy. Still, it is widely believed that the analogy was initially circulated among the

    Midwest. Descendants of Massachusetts founding families made up a large portion of the university population in the 19th century; among them was Regent Charles Hebard, a lineal descendant of William Bradford, a founding father of Plymouth Colony.[15]: 204  It was in the first half of the twentieth century that the analogy gained increased exposure nationally with the rise of the broadcasting industry. The idea became commonly parodied in reverse after Harvard alumnus John F. Kennedy referred to himself as "a graduate of the Michigan of the East, Harvard University" in the 1960 presidential campaign.[37]

    20th century

    From 1900 to 1920, the growth of higher education led the university to build numerous new facilities. The Martha Cook Building was constructed as an all-female residence in 1915 as the result of a gift from William Wilson Cook in honor of his mother, Martha Walford Cook.[38] Cook planned to endow a professorship of law of corporations, but eventually made possible the development of the Law Quadrangle.[39] The five buildings comprising the Law Quadrangle were constructed during the decade of 1923–33 on two city blocks purchased by the university: Lawyers Club, Dormitory Wing, John P. Cook Dormitory, William W Cook Legal Research Library, and Hutchins Hall.[39] The buildings, in the Tudor Gothic style, recalled the quadrangles of the two English ancient universities Oxford and Cambridge.[39]

    West Engineering Building, 1905

    In 1920, the university reorganized the College of Engineering and formed an advisory committee of 100 industrialists to guide academic research initiatives.

    Shortly after the war, in August 1946, Rensis Likert and his team formed the Survey Research Center at the University of Michigan. This became the Institute for Social Research (ISR) in 1949 when Dorwin Cartwright moved the Group Dynamics Research Center, the first institute devoted explicitly to group dynamics, from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to the University of Michigan.

    In 1947, the Regents appointed a War Memorial Committee to consider establishing a war memorial in honor of students and alumni who fell in World War II, and in 1948, approved a resolution to “create a war memorial center to explore the ways and means by which the potentialities of atomic energy may become a beneficent influence in the life of man, to be known as the Phoenix Project of the University of Michigan,” leading to the world's first academic program in nuclear science and engineering.[40][17] The Memorial Phoenix Project was funded by over 25,000 private contributors by individuals and corporations, such as the Ford Motor Company.[41]

    The University of Michigan has been the birthplace of some important academic movements, establishing the Michigan schools of thought and developing the Michigan Models in various fields. Several distinguished philosophers,

    Michigan model of voting.[43] In business administration, Michigan Business School developed the Michigan model of HRM in 1984; it is one of the two vying approaches to human resource management. In contrast to the Harvard model, the Michigan model is considered an example of hard HRM, while the Harvard model is viewed as an example of soft HRM. The Michigan model of leadership, developed by Robert E. Quinn, Kim Cameron
    , and other Michigan faculty, is now one of the most important management frameworks.

    During the 1960s, the university campus was the site of numerous protests against the Vietnam War and university administration. On March 24, 1965, a group of U-M faculty members and 3,000 students held the nation's first-ever faculty-led "

    Students for a Democratic Society, U-M's administration banned sit-ins. In response, 1,500 students participated in a one-hour sit-in inside the Administration Building, now known as the LSA Building. In April 1968, following the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr., a group of several dozen black students occupied the Administration Building to demand that the university make public its three-year-old commitment as a federal contractor to affirmative action and to increase its efforts with respect to recruiting more African American students, faculty and staff. At that time there were no African American coaches, for instance, in the Intercollegiate Athletics Department. The university's Spectrum Center is the oldest collegiate LGBT student center in the U.S, pre-dating Penn's.[47]

    Due to concerns over the university's financial situation there have been suggestions for the complete separation of the university and state through

    tuition funding and raising funds from private donors.[50] Considering that "the University of Michigan already has only minimal fiscal ties to the state," the legislature convened a panel in 2008 that recommended converting the University of Michigan from a public to a private institution.[51]

    Historical links

    University of Chicago Laboratory School