|Centre Georges Pompidou|
|Type||Culture and leisure|
|Architectural style||Postmodern / high-tech|
|Structural system||Steel superstructure with reinforced concrete floors|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers and Gianfranco Franchini|
The Centre Pompidou (French pronunciation: [sɑ̃tʁ pɔ̃pidu]), also known as the Pompidou Centre in English, is a complex building in the Beaubourg area of the 4th arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles, rue Montorgueil, and the Marais. It was designed in the style of high-tech architecture by the architectural team of Richard Rogers, Su Rogers, Renzo Piano, along with Gianfranco Franchini.
It houses the Bibliothèque publique d'information (Public Information Library), a vast public library; the Musée National d'Art Moderne, which is the largest museum for modern art in Europe; and IRCAM, a centre for music and acoustic research. Because of its location, the Centre is known locally as Beaubourg (IPA: [bobuʁ]). It is named after Georges Pompidou, the President of France from 1969 to 1974 who commissioned the building, and was officially opened on 31 January 1977 by President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing.
The Centre had 1.5 million visitors in 2021, up by sixty-five percent from 2020, but a considerable drop from 2019 due to closings caused by the COVID pandemic. It has had over 180 million visitors since 1977 and more than 5,209,678 visitors in 2013, including 3,746,899 for the museum.
The sculpture Horizontal by Alexander Calder, a free-standing mobile that is 7.6 m (25 ft) tall, was placed in front of the Centre Pompidou in 2012.
The idea for a multicultural complex, bringing together in one place different forms of art and literature, developed, in part, from the ideas of France's first Minister of Cultural Affairs, André Malraux, a proponent of the decentralisation of art and culture by impulse of the political power. In the 1960s, city planners decided to move the foodmarkets of Les Halles, historically significant structures long prized by Parisians, with the idea that some of the cultural institutes be built in the former market area. Hoping to renew the idea of Paris as a leading city of culture and art, it was proposed to move the Musée d'Art Moderne to this new location. Paris also needed a large, free public library, as one did not exist at this time. At first the debate concerned Les Halles, but as the controversy settled, in 1968, President Charles de Gaulle announced the Plateau Beaubourg as the new site for the library. A year later in 1969, the new president adopted the Beaubourg project and decided it to be the location of both the new library and a centre for the contemporary arts. In the process of developing the project, the IRCAM (Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique) was also housed in the complex.
The Rogers and Piano design was chosen among 681 competition entries. World-renowned architects Oscar Niemeyer, Jean Prouvé and Philip Johnson made up the jury. It was the first time in France that international architects were allowed to participate. The selection was announced in 1971 at a "memorable press conference" where the contrast between the sharply-dressed Pompidou and "hairy young crew" of architects represented a "grand bargain between radical architecture and establishment politics."
It was the first major example of an 'inside-out' building with its structural system, mechanical systems, and circulation exposed on the exterior of the building. Initially, all of the functional structural elements of the building were colour-coded: green pipes are plumbing, blue ducts are for climate control, electrical wires are encased in yellow, and circulation elements and devices for safety (e.g., fire extinguishers) are red. According to Piano, the design was meant to be “not a building but a town where you find everything – lunch, great art, a library, great music”.
National Geographic described the reaction to the design as "love at second sight." An article in Le Figaro declared "Paris has its own monster, just like the one in Loch Ness." But two decades later, while reporting on Rogers' winning the Pritzker Prize in 2007, The New York Times noted that the design of the Centre "turned the architecture world upside down" and that "Mr. Rogers earned a reputation as a high-tech iconoclast with the completion of the 1977 Pompidou Centre, with its exposed skeleton of brightly coloured tubes for mechanical systems". The Pritzker jury said the Pompidou "revolutionised museums, transforming what had once been elite monuments into popular places of social and cultural exchange, woven into the heart of the city."
The Centre was built by GTM and completed in 1977. The building cost 993 million French francs. Renovation work conducted from October 1996 to January 2000 was completed on a budget of 576 million francs. The principal engineer was the renowned Peter Rice, responsible for amongst other things the Gerberette. During the renovation, the Centre was closed to the public for 27 months, re-opening on 1 January 2000.
In September 2020, it was announced that the Centre Pompidou would begin renovations in 2023 which will require either a partial closure for seven years, or a full closure for three years. The projected cost for the upcoming renovations is $235 million. In January 2021 Roselyne Bachelot, France’s culture minister, announced that the Centre would close completely in 2023 for four years.
|Land area||2 hectares (5 acres)|
|Floor area||103,305 m2|
|Height||42 m (Rue Beaubourg side), 45.5 m (Piazza side)|
|Dimensions||Depth: 18 m; Length: 180 m; Width: 110 m|
|Reinforced concrete||50,000 m3|
|Metal framework||15,000 tonnes of steel|
|Façades, glass surfaces||11,000 m2|
|Opaque surfaces||7,000 m2|
The nearby Stravinsky Fountain (also called the Fontaine des automates), on Place Stravinsky, features 16 whimsical moving and water-spraying sculptures by Jean Tinguely and Niki de Saint-Phalle, which represent themes and works by composer Igor Stravinsky. The black-painted mechanical sculptures are by Tinguely, the coloured works by de Saint-Phalle. The fountain opened in 1983.
Place Georges Pompidou
The Place Georges Pompidou in front of the museum is noted for the presence of street performers, such as mimes and jugglers. In the spring, miniature carnivals are installed temporarily into the place in front with a wide variety of attractions: bands, caricature and sketch artists, tables set up for evening dining, and even skateboarding competitions.
By the mid-1980s, the Centre Pompidou was becoming the victim of its huge and unexpected popularity, its many activities, and a complex administrative structure. When Dominique Bozo returned to the Centre in 1981 as Director of the Musée National d'Art Moderne, he re-installed the museum, bringing out the full range of its collections and displayed the many major acquisitions that had been made. By 1992, the Centre de Création Industrielle was incorporated into the Centre Pompidou.
The Centre Pompidou was intended to handle 8,000 visitors a day. In its first two decades it attracted more than 145 million visitors, more than five times the number first predicted. As of 2006[update], more than 180 million people have visited the centre since its opening in 1977. However, until the 1997-2000 renovation, 20 percent of the centre's eight million annual visitors—predominantly foreign tourists—rode the escalators up the outside of the building to the platform for the sights.
Since re-opening in 2000 after a three-year renovation, the Centre Pompidou has improved accessibility for visitors. Now they can only access the escalators if they pay to enter the museum.
Since 2006, the global attendance of the centre is no longer calculated at the main entrance, but only the one of the Musée National d'Art Moderne and of the public library (5,209,678 visitors for both in 2013), but without the other visitors of the building (929,431 in 2004 or 928,380 in 2006, for only the panorama tickets or cinemas, festivals, lectures, bookshops, workshops, restaurants, etc.). In 2017, the museum had 3.37 million visitors. The public library had 1.37 million.
The 2013 retrospective "Dalí" broke the museum's daily attendance record: 7,364 people a day went to see the artist's work (790,000 in total).
- Marcel Duchamp (1977)
- Paul Davis (1977)
- Henri Michaux (1978)
- Dalí (1979)
- Pollock (1982)
- Bonnard (1984)
- Kandinsky (1984)
- Étienne Martin (1984)
- Paul Klee (1985)
- Cy Twombly (1988)
- Frank Stella (1988)
- Andy Warhol (1990)
- Max Ernst (1991)
- Matisse (1993)
- Joseph Beuys (1994)
- Kurt Schwitters (1994)
- Gerard Gasiorowski (1995)
- Brâncuși (1995)
- Sanejouand (1995)
- Bob Morris (1995)
- Francis Bacon (1996)
- Fernand Léger (1997)
- David Hockney (1998)
- Philip Guston (2000)
- Picasso (2000)
- Jean Dubuffet (2001)
- Roland Barthes (2002)
- Max Beckmann (2002)
- Nicolas de Staël (2003)
- Sophie Calle (2003)
- Cocteau (2003)
- Philippe Starck (2003)
- Miró (2004)
- Aurelie Nemours (2004)
- Charlotte Perriand (2005)
- Robert Rauschenberg (2006)
- Claude Closky (2006)
- Jean-Luc Godard (2006)
- Yves Klein (2006)
- Hergé (2006)
- Annette Messager (2007)
- Richard Rogers (2007)
- Samuel Beckett (2007)
- David Claerbout (2007)
- Julio González (2007)
- Alberto Giacometti (2007)
- Louise Bourgeois (2008)
- Pol Abraham (2008)
- Tatiana Trouvé (2008)
- Miroslav Tichy (2008)
- Dominique Perrault (2008)
- Jean Gourmelin (2008)
- Jacques Villeglé (2008)
- Ron Arad (2008)
- Alexander Calder (2009)
- Philippe Parreno (2009)
- Kandinski (2009)
- Pierre Soulages (2009)
- Étienne Martin (2010)
- Lucian Freud (2010)
- Arman (2010)
- François Morellet (2011)
- Edvard Munch (2011)
- Gerhard Richter (2012)
- Salvador Dalí (2013)
- Roy Lichtenstein (2013)
- Mike Kelley (2013)
- Pierre Huyghe (2013)
- Henri Cartier-Bresson (2014)
- Simon Hantaï (2014)
- Jeff Koons (2014)
- Mona Hatoum (2015)
- Wifredo Lam (2015)
- Dominique Gonzalez-Foerster (2015)
- André Derain (2017)
- Latiff Mohidin (2018)
- Vasarely (2019)
- Christo and Jeanne-Claude (2020)
- Hito Steyer (2020)
- Alice Neel (2020)
- Matisse (2020)
- Catherine Meurisse (2020-21)
- Photography as a weapon of class (2018 Group Exhibition)
- Coder le monde (2018 Group Exhibition)
- La Fabrique Du Vivant (2019 Group Exhibition)
- Jo-Ey Tang & Thomas Fougeirol - Dust. The Plates Of The Present (2020 Group Exhibition)
- Les Moyens Du Bord (2020 Group Exhibition)
- Global(e) Resistance - Pour une histoire engagée de la collection contemporaine de Jonathas de Andrade à Billie Zangewa (2020 Group Exhibition)
- NEURONS Simulated intelligence (2020 Group Exhibition)
- L’écologie des images (2021 Group Exhibition)
Expansion [needs update]
In 2010, the Centre Georges Pompidou opened a regional branch, the Centre Pompidou-Metz, in Metz a city 250 kilometres east of Paris. The new museum is part of an effort to expand the display of contemporary arts beyond Paris's large museums. The new museum's building was designed by the architect Shigeru Ban with a curving and asymmetrical pagoda-like roof topped by a spire and punctured by upper galleries. The 77 metre central spire is a nod to the year the Centre Georges Pompidou of Paris was built – 1977. The Centre Pompidou-Metz displays unique, temporary exhibitions from the collection of the Musée National d'Art Moderne, which is not on display at the main Parisian museum. Since its inauguration, the institution has become the most visited cultural venue in France outside Paris, accommodating 550,000 visitors/year.
Launched in 2011 in Chaumont, the museum for the first time went on the road to the French regions with a selection of works from the permanent collection. To do this, it designed and constructed a mobile gallery, which, in the spirit of a circus, will make camp for a few months at a time in towns throughout the country. However, in 2013, the Centre Pompidou halted its mobile-museum project because of the cost.
In 2014, plans were released for a temporary satellite of the Centre Pompidou in the northern French town of Maubeuge close to the Belgian border. The 3,000 square metre outpost, to be designed by the architects Pierre Hebbelinck and Pierre de Wit, is said to be located at the 17th-century Maubeuge Arsenal for four years. The cost of the project is €5.8 million.
In 2019, the Centre Pompidou announced plans to open a 22,000 m2 (240,000 sq ft) conservation, exhibition and storage space in Massy (Essonne) by 2025. Project backers include the Région Ile-de-France and the French state.
In 2015, approximately 70 works from the Centre Pompidou's collection went on show in a temporary glass-and-steel structure called The Cube (El Cubo) in Málaga. According to the Spanish newspaper El País, the annual €1 million cost of the five-year project will be funded by the city council. The partnership with Málaga was announced by the city's mayor but was not confirmed by Pompidou Centre president Alain Seban until 24 April 2014. Approximately 100 works from the Pompidou's 20th and 21st century collection will be installed in the 2,000 square metres (22,000 square feet) space for two years, while a smaller area will be used for temporary exhibitions. Portraiture and the influence of Picasso will be among the subjects explored in the permanent display, organised by the Pompidou's deputy director Brigitte Leal. Highlights will include works by Alberto Giacometti, René Magritte, Alexander Calder and Constantin Brâncuși, and contemporary works by Sophie Calle, Bruce Nauman and Orlan. The city of Málaga also commissioned Daniel Buren to create a large-scale installation within El Cubo.
The city of Málaga will pay the Centre Pompidou €1 million a year for the brand and the use of the collection.
In March 2018, the Centre Pompidou announced plans to open an offshoot branch in Brussels, under the name Kanal-Centre Pompidou. Housed in a former Citroën garage which was transformed by a team comprising ces noAarchitecten (Brussels), EM2N (Zurich) and Sergison Bates architects (London), the new centre brings together the 12,200 sq ft (1,130 m2) Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art, an architecture centre (CIVA Foundation) and public spaces devoted to culture, education and leisure. The Brussels-Capital region — which acquired the 16,000 sq ft (1,500 m2) Art Deco-style building in October 2015 — is the main funder project, with the conversion costing €122 million.
In a joint proposal with the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum presented in 2005, the Centre Pompidou planned to build a museum of modern and contemporary art, design and the media arts in Hong Kong's West Kowloon Cultural District.
In 2007, the then president Bruno Racine announced plans to open a museum carrying the Pompidou's name in Shanghai, with its programming to be determined by the Pompidou. The location chosen for the new museum was a former fire station in the Luwan district's Huaihai Park. However, the scheme did not materialize for several years, reportedly due to the lack of a legal framework for a non-profit foreign institution to operate in China. In 2019, the Centre Pompidou x West Bund Museum opened to the public, based in a wing of the 25,000 sq ft (2,300 m2) West Bund Art Museum designed by David Chipperfield. The inaugural exhibitions The Shape of Time, Highlights of the Centre Pompidou Collection and Observations, Highlights of the New Media Collection were curated by Marcella Lista.
In April 2014, Pompidou president Alain Seban confirmed that after Malaga (Spain), Mexico will be the next site for a pop-up Pompidou Centre. A satellite museum Centre Pompidou x Jersey City in Jersey City, New Jersey, will open in 2024, being the Pompidou's first satellite museum in North America.
There have been rumours of a pop-up Pompidou satellite museum in Brazil since Alain Seban announced the plan for these temporary locations back in 2012. At a talk on satellite museums at the Guggenheim on 24 April 2014, Alain Seban suggested that Brazil may be the third country to host a temporary satellite museum, after Spain and Mexico.
- since 2015: Serge Lasvignes
- 2007 - 2015: Alain Seban
- 2002 - 2007: Bruno Racine
- 1996 - 2002: Jean-Jacques Aillagon
- 1993 - 1996: François Barré
- 1991 - 1993: Dominique Bozo
- 1989 - 1991: Hélène Ahrweiler
- 1983 - 1989: Jean Maheu
- 1980 - 1983: Jean-Claude Groshens
- 1977 - 1980: Jean Millier
- 1976 - 1977: Robert Bordaz
- 1969 - 1977: Georges Pompidou
As a national museum, the Centre Pompidou is government-owned and subsidised by the Ministry of Culture (64.2% of its budget in 2012 : 82.8 on 129 million €), essentially for its staff. The Culture Ministry appoints its directors and controls its gestion, which is nevertheless independent, as Etablissement public à caractère administratif since its creation. In 2011, the museum earned $1.9 million from travelling exhibitions.
Established in 1977 as the institution's US philanthropic arm, the Georges Pompidou Art and Culture Foundation acquires and encourages major gifts of art and design for exhibition at the museum. Since 2006, the non-profit support group has brought in donations of 28 works, collectively valued at more than $14 million, and purchased many others. In 2013, New York-based art collectors Thea Westreich Wagner and Ethan Wagner announced their intention to donate about 300 works by 27 European and international artists to the Centre Pompidou, thereby making one of the largest gifts in the institution's history.
Use in film and television
Touche pas à la Femme Blanche Catherine Deneuve (Actor), Marcello Mastroianni (Actor), Marco Ferreri (Director)
- Gordon Matta-Clark Conical Intersect, 1975. Matta-Clark's contribution to the Paris Biennale 1975.
- Roberto Rossellini, Beaubourg, centre d'art et de culture, 1977. A documentary about the Centre which explores the building and its surroundings on its opening day. It was Rossellini's final film.
- Lewis Gilbert, Moonraker, 1979. A fifth floor room of the building featured as the office of Holly Goodhead (played by Lois Chiles), in the 1979 James Bond film Moonraker, which in the film was scripted as being part of the space complex of the villainous Hugo Drax (Michael Lonsdale).
- Electric Light Orchestra, "Calling America" music video, 1986. ELO is shown performing the song in front of the Centre.
- Claude Pinoteau, L'Étudiante, 1988.
- Richard Berry, L'Art (délicat) de la séduction, 2001.
- James Ivory, Le Divorce, 2003.
- Laurent Tirard, Mensonges et trahisons, 2004.
- Éric et Ramzy, Seuls Two, 2008.
- JJ Burnel Euroman Cometh, 1979. The album cover shows JJ Burnel standing in front of the Centre.
- Hall, Jane (Writer on architecture) (16 October 2019). Breaking ground : architecture by women. London. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-7148-7927-7. OCLC 1099690151.
- Gignoux, Sabine. Serge Lasvignes, un nouvel énarque à la tête de Beaubourg Archived 23 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine, La Croix, 4 March 15
- Bommealer, Claire. Pompidou: Serge Lasvignes s'explique, Fleur Pellerin assume Archived 23 July 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Le Figaro. 5 March 2015
- Rossellini, Roberto. Beaubourg, centre d'art et de culture, 1977 au cinéma
- "La fréquentation du Centre Pompidou (Global attendance of Pompidou Centre), 2006". Mediation. Centre Pompidou. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
- Since 2006, the calculated attendance of the centre includes only those of the Musée National d'Art Moderne and of the public library but no more those of the panorama tickets or cinemas, festivals, lectures, bookshops, workshops, restaurants, etc: 929,431 visitors in 2004 or 928,380 in 2006, which should bring the actual total attendance of the centre to more than 6 million
- "Annual report 2013". Annexes. Centre Pompidou. p. 205. Archived from the original on 21 October 2014. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
- Richard Copans, Director (2007). Le Centres Georges Pompidou (Film). France. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
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- Newman, Cathy (October 1980). "The Pompidou Center Captivates Paris". National Geographic. p. 469.
- Pogrebin, Robin (28 March 2007). "British Architect Wins 2007 Pritzker Prize". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 17 April 2009. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
- "Centre Georges Pompidou". Vinci. Archived from the original on 7 February 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
- "Architecture of the Building". Practical Information. Centre Pompidou. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 10 July 2009.
- "Pompidou Centre reopens for 2000". BBC News. 1 January 2000. Archived from the original on 30 July 2004. Retrieved 28 January 2021.
- "Centre Pompidou faces three- to seven-year renovation closure". Artforum. Archived from the original on 4 October 2020. Retrieved 10 October 2020.
- Bommelaer, Claire (25 January 2021). "Trois ans de fermeture pour le Centre Pompidou". LEFIGARO (in French). Archived from the original on 26 January 2021. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
- Hortense Lyon, La Fontaine Stravinsky, Collection Baccalaureat arts plastiques 2004, Centre national de documentation pedagogique
- Russell, John (29 April 1993), Dominique Bozo, 58, Expert on Picasso, Is Dead Archived 1 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine The New York Times
- Rockwell, John (9 March 1994), Success Takes Toll on the Pompidou Center Archived 1 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine The New York Times
- Pompidou Centre reopens for 2000 Archived 2 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine BBC News, 1 January 2000
- Riding, Alan (22 December 1999), Pompidou Unearths the Museum Within Archived 1 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine The New York Times
- Nayeri, Farah (2 November 2006), Paris's Pompidou, 30 Next Year, Courts the Young, Branches Out Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine Bloomberg
- "Paris facts". Paris Digest. 2018. Archived from the original on 8 September 2018. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
- Pes, Javier and Emily Sharpe (23 March 2012), Attendance survey 2011: Brazil’s exhibition boom puts Rio on top Archived 7 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine The Art Newspaper
- Pes, Javier and Emily Sharpe. (24 March 2014), Visitor figures 2013: Taipei takes top spot with loans from China Archived 24 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine
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- "Centre Pompidou | Institution". artfacts.net. Archived from the original on 20 April 2021. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
- "image] La Fabrique Du Vivant". Centre Pompidou. Archived from the original on 18 September 2020. Retrieved 20 April 2021.
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- "Official website of France tourism survey, 2011 Museum frequentation" (in French). Archived from the original on 9 March 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
- "Official website of Moselle tourism office, 2011 key numbers" (PDF) (in French). p. 12. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 October 2012. Retrieved 17 September 2019.
- Morrison, Lennox.(14 October 2011), Ladies and Gentlemen... Cirque Pompidou Archived 12 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine The Wall Street Journal
- Harris, Gareth (9 July 2013), Pompidou camps out in Dhahran Archived 13 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- Harris, Gareth (6 August 2014), Will Pompidou extend its northern expansion? Archived 10 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- Harris, Gareth (12 February 2015), Pompidou to pop up all over France Archived 12 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- Gareth Harris (17 October 2018), Centre Pompidou to expand and move collections to new satellite venue in southern Paris Archived 17 October 2019 at the Wayback Machine The Art Newspaper.
- Harris, Gareth (31 December 2013), Málaga’s mayor says the Pompidou is coming Archived 1 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- Deimling, Kate, "Pompidou Centre Will Launch Short-Term Satellites in Spain, Mexico, and Possibly Brazil, 2014" Archived 14 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- Rojas, Laurie (26 March 2015), Málaga’s mayor wins race to open Russian museum and pop-up Pompidou Archived 30 March 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- Harris, Gareth (26 March 2018), Centre Pompidou's Brussels satellite takes shape with announcement of winning architects Archived 26 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine The Art Newspaper.
- Vogel, Carol (28 October 2005), From 'Not Interested' to a Collaboration Archived 11 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine The New York Times
- Harris, Gareth (30 April 2012), Pompidou plans to go global: focus is Brazil, India, China Archived 13 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine The Art Newspaper
- Gareth Harris (30 September 2019), Centre Pompidou’s satellite space in Shanghai to open early November Archived 27 July 2020 at the Wayback Machine
- Moss, Alison. "The Centre Pompidou Takes Shanghai". Le Quotidien de l'Art. Archived from the original on 29 November 2020. Retrieved 2 November 2020.
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- Gordon Matta-Clark, Conical Intersect Archived 12 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine The Guggenheim Collection
- Rosselini, Robert. Filming Beaubourg, Museu d'Art Contemporani de Barcelona Archived 9 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine accessed 18 September 2019.
- "Moonraker (1979)". The Internet Movie Database. Archived from the original on 11 January 2011. Retrieved 3 May 2011.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Centre Georges-Pompidou.|
- Official website
- Bibliothèque publique d'information website
- Encyclopædia Britannica, Pompidou Centre
- Paris Pages – Musée National d'Art Moderne
- - Le Centre Pompidou et son rayonnement
- Preview of Pompidou-Metz extension at Specifier Magazine