List of threatened rays

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

CITES Appendix II species, which gives them some international protection.[2]

IUCN) ranks threatened species in three categories:[4]

Vulnerable species
Endangered species
Critically endangered species

The term threatened strictly refers to these three categories (critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable), while vulnerable is used to refer to the least at risk of these categories.

red-listed species, as they are listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[5]

Together

bony fishes have skeletons made of bone. Because rays and sharks are closely related, they are often studied together. In 2010 a global IUCN study of vertebrates found that of 1,044 cartilaginous (ray and shark) species examined, 345 or 33% were threatened with extinction.[6][7]

There are four

K-strategists which grow slowly, mature late sexually and produce few offspring. They cannot recover as rapidly as many faster growing fish can if their populations are depleted.[8] As with sharks, rays are increasingly becoming vulnerable because of commercial and recreational fishing pressures, the impact of non-ray fisheries on the seabed and ray prey species, and other habitat alterations such as damage and loss from coastal development and marine pollution.[9] Most particularly, the continuing decline of threatened rays and sharks is the consequence of unregulated fishing,[10] as illustrated by a recent international survey which listed only 38 species of skates and rays still subsisting in the highly impacted Mediterranean Sea.[11]

giant manta ray, are being caught and killed purely for their gill rakers. A fisheries study in Sri Lanka estimated that over a thousand of these were being sold in the country's fish markets each year.[19]

In 2011, manta rays became strictly protected in international waters thanks to their recent inclusion in the

CITES Appendix II species. This means that the international trade of manta rays will now be monitored and regulated.[2][21]

Appendix I. This is CITES highest protection level, and means that all international trade of the species is banned.[26][27]

According to a 2021 study published in the journal

fishing pressure in the oceans has increased by a factor of 18 since 1970.[28] This overfishing has resulted in the number of oceanic sharks and rays declining globally by 71%, and has increased the global extinction risk to the point where three-quarters of these species are now threatened with extinction. Precautionary science-based catch limits and strict prohibitions are now needed urgently if population collapse is to be avoided,[29][30] if the disruption of ecological functions is to be averted,[31] and if a start is to be made on rebuilding global fisheries.[32][28]

List

Order Image Scientific name Common name Population trend
IUCN status
Fish
Base
FAO
Comment
Stingray
Aetobatus flagellum
Longheaded eagle ray decreasing Endangered[33] [34]
Stingray
Aetomylaeus maculatus
Mottled eagle ray decreasing Endangered[33] [35]
Stingray
Aetomylaeus nichofii
Banded eagle ray decreasing Vulnerable[36] [37]
Stingray
Aetomylaeus vespertilio
Ornate eagle ray decreasing Endangered[38] [39]
Skate
Amblyraja radiata
Thorny skate decreasing Vulnerable[40] [41]
Sawfish
Anoxypristis cuspidata
Knifetooth sawfish decreasing Endangered[42] [43]
Stingray
Aptychotrema timorensis
Spotted shovelnose ray unknown Vulnerable[44] [45]
Skate
Atlantoraja castelnaui
Spotback skate decreasing Endangered[46] [47]
Skate
Atlantoraja cyclophora
Eyespot skate decreasing Vulnerable[48] [49]
Skate
Atlantoraja platana
La Plata skate decreasing Vulnerable[50] [51]
Skate
Bathyraja griseocauda
Graytail skate decreasing Endangered[52] [53]
Electric ray
Benthobatis kreffti
Brazilian blind electric ray unknown Vulnerable[54] [55]
Stingray
Dasyatis colarensis
Colares stingray unknown Vulnerable[56] [57]
Stingray
Dasyatis fluviorum
Estuary stingaree
decreasing Vulnerable[58] [59]
Stingray
Dasyatis garouaensis
Smooth freshwater stingray
decreasing Vulnerable[60] [61] freshwater
Stingray
Dasyatis laosensis
Mekong freshwater stingray decreasing Endangered[62] [63] freshwater
Stingray
Dasyatis margarita
Daisy stingray decreasing Endangered[64] [65]
Stingray
Dasyatis ukpam
Daisy stingray unknown Endangered[66] [67] freshwater
Electric ray
Diplobatis colombiensis
Colombian electric ray unknown Vulnerable[68] [69]
Electric ray
Diplobatis guamachensis
Brownband numbfish unknown Vulnerable[70] [71]
Electric ray
Diplobatis ommata
Ocellated electric ray unknown Vulnerable[72] [73]
Electric ray
Diplobatis pictus
Variegated electric ray
unknown Vulnerable[74] [75]
Skate Dipturus australis Sydney skate unknown Vulnerable[76] [77]
Skate
Dipturus batis
Blue skate
decreasing Critically endangered[78] [79]
Skate
Dipturus crosnieri
Madagascar skate unknown Vulnerable[80] [81]
Skate
Dipturus laevis
Barndoor skate stable Endangered[82] [83]
Skate Dipturus mennii South Brazilian skate unknown Vulnerable[84] [85]
Skate Dipturus trachydermus Roughskin skate decreasing Vulnerable[86] [87]
Skate
Glaucostegus granulatus
Sharpnose guitarfish decreasing Vulnerable[88] [89]
Skate
Glaucostegus thouin
Clubnose guitarfish unknown Vulnerable[90] [91]
Skate
Glaucostegus typus
Common shovelnose ray decreasing Vulnerable[92] [93]
Skate
Gurgesiella dorsalifera
Onefin skate decreasing Vulnerable[94]
Stingray
Gymnura altavela
Spiny butterfly ray decreasing Vulnerable[95] [96]
Stingray
Gymnura zonura
Zonetail butterfly ray decreasing Vulnerable[97] [98]
Electric ray
Heteronarce garmani
Natal electric ray unknown Vulnerable[99] [100]
Stingray
Himantura gerrardi
Whitespotted whipray unknown Vulnerable[101] [102] freshwater
Stingray
Himantura hortlei
Hortle's whipray decreasing Vulnerable[103] [104] freshwater
Stingray
Himantura kittipongi
Roughback whipray unknown Endangered[105] [106] freshwater
Stingray
Himantura leoparda
Leopard whipray decreasing Vulnerable[107] [108] freshwater
Stingray
Himantura lobistoma
Tubemouth whipray decreasing Vulnerable[109] [110] freshwater
Stingray
Himantura oxyrhyncha
Longnose marbled whipray
unknown Endangered[111] [112] freshwater
Stingray
Himantura pastinacoides
Round whipray decreasing Vulnerable[113] [114] freshwater
Stingray
Urogymnus polylepis
Giant freshwater stingray decreasing Endangered[115] [116] freshwater
Stingray
Himantura signifer
White-edge freshwater whipray unknown Endangered[117] [118] freshwater
Stingray
Himantura uarnacoides
Bleeker's whipray
decreasing Vulnerable[119] [120] freshwater
Stingray
Himantura uarnak
Reticulate whipray decreasing Vulnerable[121] [122]
Stingray
Himantura undulata
Bleeker's variegated whipray
decreasing Vulnerable[123] [124]
Skate
Leucoraja circularis
Sandy ray unknown Vulnerable[125] [126]
Skate
Leucoraja melitensis
Maltese skate decreasing Critically endangered[127] [128]
Skate
Leucoraja ocellata
Winter skate decreasing Endangered[129] [130]
Stingray
Myliobatis hamlyni
Purple eagle ray decreasing Endangered[131] [132]
Skate Malacoraja senta Smooth skate decreasing Endangered[133] [134]
Stingray
Manta alfredi
Reef manta ray decreasing Vulnerable[135]
Stingray
Manta birostris
Giant manta ray
decreasing Endangered[1] [136]
Stingray
Mobula mobular
Giant devil ray
decreasing Endangered[137] [138]
Stingray Mobula rochebrunei
Lesser Guinean devil ray
unknown Vulnerable[139] [140]
Electric ray
Narcine brevilabiata
Shortlip electric ray unknown Vulnerable[141] [142]
Electric ray
Narke japonica
Japanese sleeper ray unknown Vulnerable[143] [144]
Skate
Okamejei pita
Pita skate unknown Critically endangered[145] [146]
Stingray
Pastinachus solocirostris
Roughnose stingray unknown Endangered[147] [148]
Stingray
Platyrhina sinensis
Fanray unknown Vulnerable[149] [150]
Sawfish
Pristis clavata
Queensland sawfish
decreasing Critically endangered[151] [152]
Sawfish
Pristis pectinata
Smalltooth sawfish decreasing Critically endangered[153] [154]
Sawfish
Pristis pristis
Common sawfish
decreasing Critically endangered[155] [156]
Sawfish
Pristis zijsron
Narrowsnout sawfish
decreasing Critically endangered[157] [158]
Skate
Raja pulchra
Mottled skate decreasing Vulnerable[159] [160]
Skate
Raja undulata
Undulate ray decreasing Endangered[161] [162]
Sawfish Rhina ancylostoma
Bowmouth guitarfish
decreasing Critically endangered[163] [164]
Sawfish
Rhinobatos albomaculatus
White-spotted guitarfish decreasing Vulnerable[165] [166]
Sawfish
Rhinobatos cemiculus
Blackchin guitarfish decreasing Endangered[167] [168]
Sawfish
Rhinobatos formosensis
Taiwan guitarfish
unknown Vulnerable[169] [170]
Sawfish
Rhinobatos horkelii
Brazilian guitarfish decreasing Critically endangered[171] [172]
Sawfish Rhinobatos irvinei Spineback guitarfish decreasing Vulnerable[173] [174]
Sawfish Rhinobatos jimbaranensis Jimbaran shovelnose ray decreasing Vulnerable[175] [176]
Sawfish
Rhinobatos obtusus
Widenose guitarfish decreasing Vulnerable[177] [178]
Sawfish Rhinobatos penggali Indonesian shovelnose ray decreasing Vulnerable[179]
Sawfish
Rhinobatos rhinobatos
Common guitarfish decreasing Endangered[180]
Stingray
Rhinoptera brasiliensis
Brazilian cownose ray decreasing Endangered[181] [182]
Stingray
Rhinoptera javanica
Javanese cownose ray
unknown Vulnerable[183] [184]
Skate Rhinoraja albomaculata White-dotted skate unknown Vulnerable[185] [186]
Sawfish Rhynchobatus australiae White-spotted guitarfish decreasing Vulnerable[187] [188]
Sawfish
Rhynchobatus djiddensis
Giant guitarfish decreasing Vulnerable[189] [190]
Sawfish
Rhynchobatus laevis
Smoothnose wedgefish unknown Vulnerable[191] [192]
Sawfish
Rhynchobatus luebberti
Lubbert's guitarfish
decreasing Endangered[193] [194]
Sawfish
Rhynchobatus sp. nov. A
Roughnose wedgefish decreasing Vulnerable[195] [196]
Sawfish
Rhynchobatus springeri
Broadnose wedgefish decreasing Vulnerable[197] [198]
Skate
Rioraja agassizii
Rio skate unknown Vulnerable[199] [200]
Skate
Rostroraja alba
Bottlenose skate decreasing Endangered[201] [202]
Skate
Spiniraja whitleyi
Melbourne skate unknown Vulnerable[203]
Skate
Sympterygia acuta
Bignose fanskate decreasing Vulnerable[204] [205]
Stingray
Taeniura meyeni
Round ribbontail ray unknown Vulnerable[206] [207]
Electric ray
Temera hardwickii
Finless sleeper ray unknown Vulnerable[208] [209]
Sawfish
Trygonorrhina melaleuca
Magpie fiddler ray
unknown Endangered[210] [211]
Stingray
Urogymnus asperrimus
Porcupine ray unknown Vulnerable[212] [213]
Stingray
Urogymnus ukpam
Pincushion ray unknown Endangered[214] [215]
Stingray
Urolophus bucculentus
Sandyback stingaree decreasing Vulnerable[216] [217]
Stingray
Urolophus orarius
Coastal stingaree unknown Endangered[218] [219]
Stingray
Urolophus sufflavus
Yellowback stingaree decreasing Vulnerable[220] [221]
Stingray
Urolophus viridis
Greenback stingaree decreasing Vulnerable[222] [223]
Stingray Urotrygon reticulata Reticulate round stingray unknown Vulnerable[224] [225]
Stingray Urotrygon simulatrix Fake round ray unknown Vulnerable[226] [227]
Sawfish
Zapteryx brevirostris
Shortnose guitarfish decreasing Vulnerable[228] [229]
Skate Zearaja chilensis Yellownose skate decreasing Vulnerable[230] [231]
Skate
Zearaja maugeana
Maugean skate unknown Endangered[232] [233]

See also

References

  1. ^ . Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  2. ^ a b Proposal 46: Genus Manta CITES, Sixteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties Bangkok (Thailand), 3–14 March 2013.
  3. ^ The fight to save threatened sharks and rays WWF, 6 March 2013.
  4. ^
    IUCN. August 2010. Archived from the original
    (PDF) on 21 February 2011. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
  5. ^ "Red List Overview". IUCN Red List. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Archived from the original on 27 May 2012.
  6. ^ Third of Shark and Ray Species Are Threatened, Study Suggests Science News, 27 October 2010.
  7. ^ Conservation of Sharks CITES AC18 Inf. 1, 2002.
  8. ^ "The Greatest Threats to Sharks". Oceana. 2007. Archived from the original on 3 June 2009. Retrieved 29 August 2009.
  9. ^ The Future of Sharks: A Review of Action and Inaction Archived 2013-05-12 at the Wayback Machine CITES AC25 Inf. 6, 2011.
  10. ^ Guide of Mediterranean Skates and Rays. Mendez L., Bacquet A. and F. Briand. Oct. 2022.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/364309239_Guide_of_Mediterranean_Skates_and_Rays
  11. ^ a b c Black, Richard (11 June 2007). "Sawfish protection acquires teeth". BBC News.
  12. ^ a b Glider of the sea threatened by 'traditional' medicine New Scientist, 25 March 2013.
  13. .
  14. ^ Wassener, Bettina (12 March 2013). "No species is safe from burgeoning wildlife trade". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  15. ^ Manta Rays Endangered by Sudden Demand from Chinese Medicine ScientificAmerican, 17 January 2012.
  16. ^ "The global threat to manta and mobula rays" WildAid and Shark Savers. 2011 report.
  17. ^ "Manta Fisheries". The Manta Trust. 2011. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  18. ^ "Sri Lanka Manta Project". The Manta Trust. 2011. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  19. ^ "COP10 Outcome: Migratory Manta Ray under CMS Protection". Convention on Migratory Species. UNEP; CMS. 25 November 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
  20. ^ CITES conference takes decisive action to halt decline of tropical timber, sharks, manta rays and a wide range of other plants and animals
  21. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2011). "Pristis microdon" in FishBase. February 2011 version.
  22. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2011). "Pristis perotteti" in FishBase. February 2011 version.
  23. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2011). "Pristis pristis" in FishBase. February 2011 version.
  24. ^ Sawfish Is First Sea Fish on U.S. Endangered List National Geographic News, 4 June 2003.
  25. ^ Proposal 45: Pristis microdon CITES, Sixteenth meeting of the Conference of the Parties Bangkok (Thailand), 3–14 March 2013.
  26. ^ "CITES Appendices I, II and III". Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Retrieved 7 March 2013.
  27. ^
    S2CID 231723355
    .
  28. .
  29. .
  30. .
  31. .
  32. ^ . Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  33. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Aetobatus flagellum" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  34. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Aetomylaeus maculatus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  35. ]
  36. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Aetomylaeus nichofii" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  37. . Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  38. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Aetomylaeus vespertilio" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  39. . Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  40. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Amblyraja radiata" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  41. . Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  42. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Anoxypristis cuspidata" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  43. . Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  44. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Aptychotrema timorensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  45. . Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  46. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Atlantoraja castelnaui" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  47. . Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  48. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Atlantoraja cyclophora" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  49. . Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  50. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Atlantoraja platana" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  51. . Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  52. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Graytail griseocauda" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  53. . Retrieved 17 January 2020.
  54. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Benthobatis kreffti" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  55. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  56. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Dasyatis colarensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  57. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  58. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Dasyatis fluviorum" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  59. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  60. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Dasyatis garouaensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  61. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  62. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Dasyatis laosensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  63. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  64. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Dasyatis margarita" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  65. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  66. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Dasyatis ukpam" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  67. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  68. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Diplobatis colombiensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  69. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  70. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Diplobatis guamachensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  71. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  72. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Diplobatis ommata" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  73. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  74. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Diplobatis pictus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  75. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  76. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Dipturus australis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  77. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  78. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Dipturus batis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  79. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  80. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Dipturus crosnieri" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  81. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  82. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Dipturus laevis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  83. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  84. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Dipturus mennii" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  85. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  86. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Dipturus trachydermus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  87. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  88. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Glaucostegus granulatus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  89. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  90. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Glaucostegus thouin" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  91. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2019-2.RLTS.T104061138A68623995.en. Retrieved 12 November 2021.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)[dead link
    ]
  92. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Glaucostegus typus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  93. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  94. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  95. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Gymnura altavela" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  96. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  97. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Gymnura zonura" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  98. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  99. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Heteronarce garmani" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  100. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  101. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Himantura gerrardi" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  102. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  103. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Himantura hortlei" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  104. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  105. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Himantura kittipongi" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  106. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  107. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Himantura leoparda" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  108. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  109. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Himantura lobistoma" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  110. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  111. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Himantura oxyrhyncha" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  112. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  113. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Himantura pastinacoides" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  114. . Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  115. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Himantura polylepis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  116. . Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  117. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Himantura signifer" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  118. . Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  119. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Himantura uarnacoides" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  120. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  121. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Himantura uarnak" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  122. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  123. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Himantura undulata" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  124. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  125. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Leucoraja circularis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  126. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  127. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Leucoraja melitensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  128. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  129. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Leucoraja ocellata" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  130. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  131. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Myliobatis hamlyni" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  132. . Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  133. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Malacoraja senta" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  134. . Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  135. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Manta birostris" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  136. ]
  137. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Mobula mobular" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  138. ^ Valenti, S.V. & Kyne, P.M. (2009). "Mobula rochebrunei". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2013.[dead link]
  139. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Mobula rochebrunei" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  140. . Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  141. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Narcine brevilabiata" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  142. . Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  143. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Narke japonica" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  144. . Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  145. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Okamejei pita" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  146. . Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  147. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Pastinachus solocirostris" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  148. . Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  149. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Platyrhina sinensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  150. . Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  151. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Pristis clavata" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  152. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  153. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Pristis pectinata" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  154. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  155. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Pristis pristis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  156. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  157. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Pristis zijsron" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  158. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  159. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Raja pulchra" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  160. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  161. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Raja undulata" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  162. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  163. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhina ancylostoma" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  164. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  165. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhinobatos albomaculatus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  166. ^ Notarbartolo di Sciara, G.; Bradai, M.N.; Morey, G.; Brahim, K.; Camara L.; Litvinov; F., Dulvy; N. Doumbouya, F.; Ducrocq, M.; Heenan, A.; et al. (2007). "Rhinobatos cemiculus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2007. Retrieved 10 March 2013.[dead link]
  167. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhinobatos cemiculus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  168. ^ Compagno, L.J.V.; Ishihara, H. & Marshall, A.D. (2006). "Rhinobatos formosensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2006. Retrieved 10 March 2013.[dead link]
  169. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhinobatos formosensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  170. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  171. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhinobatos horkelii" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  172. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  173. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhinobatos irvinei" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  174. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  175. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhinobatos jimbaranensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  176. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  177. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhinobatos obtusus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  178. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  179. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  180. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  181. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhinoptera brasiliensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  182. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  183. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhinoptera javanica" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  184. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  185. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhinoraja albomaculata" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  186. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  187. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhynchobatus australiae" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  188. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  189. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhynchobatus djiddensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  190. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  191. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhynchobatus laevis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  192. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  193. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhynchobatus luebberti" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  194. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  195. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhynchobatus palpebratus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  196. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  197. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rhynchobatus springeri" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  198. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  199. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rioraja agassizii" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  200. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  201. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Rostroraja alba" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  202. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  203. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  204. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Sympterygia acuta" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  205. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  206. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Taeniurops meyeni" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  207. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  208. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Temera hardwickii" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  209. ^ Stevens, J.D. (2009). "Trygonorrhina melaleuca". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2009. Retrieved 10 March 2013.[dead link]
  210. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Trygonorrhina melaleuca" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  211. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  212. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Urogymnus asperrimus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  213. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  214. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Urogymnus ukpam" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  215. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  216. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Urolophus bucculentus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  217. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  218. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Urolophus orarius" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  219. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  220. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Urolophus sufflavus" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  221. . Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  222. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Urolophus viridis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  223. . Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  224. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Urotrygon reticulata" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  225. . Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  226. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Urotrygon simulatrix" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  227. . Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  228. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Zapteryx brevirostris" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  229. . Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  230. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Zearaja chilensis" in FishBase. March 2013 version.
  231. . Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  232. ^ Froese, Rainer; Pauly, Daniel (eds.) (2013). "Zearaja maugeana" in FishBase. March 2013 version.

Further reading

External links