Volnovakha

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Volnovakha
Волноваха
Local history museum
Local history museum
Flag of Volnovakha
Official seal of Volnovakha
Volnovakha is located in Donetsk Oblast
Volnovakha
Volnovakha
Volnovakha is located in Ukraine
Volnovakha
Volnovakha
Coordinates: 47°36′08″N 37°29′31″E / 47.60222°N 37.49194°E / 47.60222; 37.49194Coordinates: 47°36′08″N 37°29′31″E / 47.60222°N 37.49194°E / 47.60222; 37.49194
CountryDisputed:
Oblast Donetsk Oblast
RaionVolnovakha Raion
Founded1881
City status1938
ControlOccupied by Donetsk People's Republic and Russia
Area
 • Total21 km2 (8 sq mi)
Elevation
271 m (889 ft)
Population
 (2021)
 • Total21,441
Websitewww.volnovaha.net (archive)

Volnovakha (Ukrainian and Russian: Волноваха) is a town in the de facto Donetsk People's Republic; de jure Donetsk Oblast, Ukraine. It served as the administrative center of Volnovakha Raion, one of the 18 districts of the Donetsk Oblast. Before the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, the population of the town was 21,441 (2021 est.).[1]

During the invasion, much of the town's infrastructure was severely damaged, with some reports describing the town as devastated.[2][3] On 12 March 2022, Governor of Donetsk Oblast Pavlo Kyrylenko stated that the town had been completely destroyed.[4]

History

World War 2

During World War II, the Soviet Union reported significant fighting in the area around Volnovka during August and September 1943.[5][6] Several units were given honorary titles after the battle in town.[7][6]

Russo–Ukrainian War

During the War in Donbas, on 13 January 2015, 12 civilians were killed and 18 injured, after an attack on a passenger bus at a checkpoint in Buhas, a town north-east of Volnovakha.[8][9][10][11][12][13][14] A monument to those killed in the attack was unveiled on 13 January 2017.[15]

During the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, Russian forces engaged in indiscriminate bombing of Volnovakha and Schastia, shelling civilian areas.[16] The terror bombing of the cities violated international law and echoed tactics Russia had previously used on civilian targets in Syria.[17] Volnovakha was reported to be on the verge of humanitarian crisis on February 28, and almost destroyed by March 1,[18][19][20] with around 90% of its buildings either damaged or destroyed.[21] Surviving residents were cut off from food, water, and electricity.[2] Following the assault, bodies lay uncollected in the streets.[17]

On 11 March, Russia claimed that forces of the Donetsk People's Republic had captured Volnovakha.[22]

On 12 March, Pavlo Kyrylenko, the governor of Donetsk Oblast, stated that the town had been completely destroyed and effectively ceased to exist, but fighting continued there to prevent a Russian encirclement.[23][24] Euronews reported that much of it had been destroyed in the fighting.[3]

Demographics

The town had 24,647 inhabitants in 2001. The town had a large Ukrainian Greek population.

Climate

Climate data for Volnovakha (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −1.2
(29.8)
−0.6
(30.9)
5.3
(41.5)
14.5
(58.1)
21.1
(70.0)
25.2
(77.4)
27.8
(82.0)
27.3
(81.1)
21.1
(70.0)
13.4
(56.1)
4.9
(40.8)
−0.1
(31.8)
13.2
(55.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −4.0
(24.8)
−4.0
(24.8)
1.1
(34.0)
9.1
(48.4)
15.4
(59.7)
19.5
(67.1)
21.9
(71.4)
21.3
(70.3)
16.4
(61.5)
8.6
(47.5)
1.6
(34.9)
−2.9
(26.8)
8.6
(47.5)
Average low °C (°F) −6.5
(20.3)
−6.8
(19.8)
−2.1
(28.2)
4.7
(40.5)
10.2
(50.4)
14.5
(58.1)
16.6
(61.9)
16.0
(60.8)
10.5
(50.9)
4.8
(40.6)
−1.0
(30.2)
−5.3
(22.5)
4.6
(40.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 52.2
(2.06)
44.0
(1.73)
49.0
(1.93)
45.0
(1.77)
52.1
(2.05)
65.4
(2.57)
55.0
(2.17)
45.8
(1.80)
42.9
(1.69)
35.4
(1.39)
49.8
(1.96)
53.8
(2.12)
590.4
(23.24)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 9.9 7.7 8.8 7.2 7.3 8.2 6.6 4.6 5.4 5.9 8.1 9.8 89.5
Average relative humidity (%) 88.4 85.4 79.3 66.3 60.9 63.6 61.1 57.9 65.7 75.6 87.4 89.7 73.4
Source: World Meteorological Organization[25]

Gallery

  • World War II liberation monument

  • Vasily Chapayev monument

  • Volnovakha train station

References

  1. ^ Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2021 / Number of Present Population of Ukraine, as of January 1, 2021 (PDF) (in Ukrainian and English). Kyiv: State Statistics Service of Ukraine.
  2. ^ a b Diana Hodali, Mariupol and Volnovakha: Besieged cities appeal for help, Deutsche Welle (March 5, 2022).
  3. ^ a b "Heavy fighting leaves much of Volnovakha in ruins". Euronews. Associated Press. March 12, 2022. Retrieved March 13, 2022.
  4. ^ "Eastern Ukrainian town of Volnovakha destroyed after Russia invasion, local governor says". Reuters. 2022-03-12.
  5. ^ Information Bulletin. Embassy of the USSR. 1943.
  6. ^ a b Loza, Dmitri? Fedorovich (1998-01-01). Fighting for the Soviet Motherland: Recollections from the Eastern Front Hero of the Soviet Union. U of Nebraska Press. ISBN 978-0-8032-2929-7.
  7. ^ Stalin, Joseph (1984). 1941-1944. Red Star Press.
  8. ^ "Ten killed, 13 injured after shell hits bus at roadblock near Volnovakha – regional administration". Interfax-Ukraine. 13 January 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  9. ^ "Shell hits bus in eastern Ukraine, 10 killed: regional spokesman". Reuters. 13 January 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  10. ^ "Ten killed, 13 injured after shell hits bus at roadblock near Volnovakha". Kyiv Post. 13 January 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  11. ^ "Расстрел под Волновахой: террористы выпустили 40 снарядов Града". Liga News. 13 January 2015. Retrieved 13 January 2015.
  12. ^ "Серед загиблих в автобусі під Волновахою - 6 жінок і 4 чоловіків..." Golos.com. 13 January 2015. Archived from the original on 13 January 2015.
  13. ^ "Кількість загиблих в результаті теракту під Волновахою збільшилася до 12, - МВС". RBK. 13 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2015.
  14. ^ "Список погибших и раненых, пострадавших в результате террористического акта на пункте пропуска под г.Волновахой" (in Russian). ГУ МВД Украины в Донецкой Области. 14 January 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-07-12. Retrieved 2015-01-15.
  15. ^ "Monument to bus passengers killed in Grad attack unveiled in Volnovakha. PHOTOS". Censor.net. 2017-01-14. Retrieved 2017-01-14. A monument to 12 bus passengers killed in a Grad attack on Jan. 13, 2015 has been inaugurated in Volnovakha.
  16. ^ Yaroslav Trofimov, Ukraine, Russia Agreement on Evacuating Mariupol Civilians Collapses, Wall Street Journal (March 5, 2022).
  17. ^ a b Emma Graham-Harrison & Isobel Koshiw, '90% of houses are damaged': Russia's Syria-honed tactics lay waste Ukraine towns, The Guardian (March 4, 2022).
  18. ^ "Russian invasion update: Volnovakha town on verge of humanitarian catastrophe". www.ukrinform.net. Retrieved 2022-03-01.
  19. ^ "Head of Donetsk Regional State Administration: Volnovakha almost destroyed". Interfax-Ukraine. Retrieved 2022-03-01.
  20. ^ Michelle Bachelet (2022-03-03). "Ukraine: High Commissioner cites "new and dangerous" threats to human rights". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights.
  21. ^ Graham-Harrison, Emma (6 March 2022). "'Nowhere to go and nowhere to go back to': Life under fire in Ukraine". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  22. ^ Reuters (2022-03-11). "Russian-backed separatists capture Ukraine's Volnovakha - RIA". Reuters. Retrieved 2022-03-11.
  23. ^ "Eastern Ukrainian town of Volnovakha destroyed after Russia invasion, local governor says". Reuters. March 12, 2022. Retrieved March 13, 2022.
  24. ^ Richard Spencer (March 13, 2022). "Putin wipes out entire Ukrainian city of Volnovakha". The Times. Retrieved March 13, 2022.
  25. ^ "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1981–2010". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 17 July 2021. Retrieved 18 July 2021.

External links

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