Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

259.51 ± 0.21 – 251.902 ± 0.024 Ma

The Lopingian is the uppermost

epoch of the Permian.[4] It is the last epoch of the Paleozoic. The Lopingian was preceded by the Guadalupian and followed by the Early Triassic

The Lopingian is often synonymous with the informal terms late Permian or upper Permian.

The name was introduced by

ages. The earlier is the Wuchiapingian and the later is the Changhsingian.[6]


International Chronostratigraphic Chart (v2018/07)[4] provides a numerical age of 259.1 ±0.5 Ma. If a Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) has been approved, the lower boundary of the earliest stage determines numerical age of an epoch. The GSSP for the Wuchiapingian has a numerical age of 259.8 ± 0.4 Ma.[7][8]

Evidence from Milankovitch cycles suggests that the length of an Earth day during this epoch was approximately 22 hours.[9]


During the Lopingian, most of the earth was in the supercontinent

Microcontinent Cathaysia; And the Cimmerian superterrane, which divided the Tethys Ocean realm into the Paleo-Tethys Ocean and the slowly expanding Neotethys Ocean


The Lopingian ended with the


The series follows the

ammonoids and other groups went extinct.[10]

Conodonts would reach their all-time low during this period, despite this, they are recovered from most marine Permian localities.[11] Common conodonts from the Lopingian include the genera Clarkina and Hindeodus

The Lopingian would see the decline of the Paleozoic ammonoid orders (Goniatitida and Prolecanitida) and the rise of the order Ceratitida, especially within the superfamily Xenodiscoidea.[12]

Only seven

trilobites are known from the Lopingian, with only five by the end of the epoch. One of the last members of this clade was Kathwaia capitorosa.[13]

Eurypterids were nearly extinct by this point, consisting of the possibly Lopingian Campylocephalus permicus of Russia; and the Changhsingian Woodwardopterus? freemanorum of Australia.[14]

A member of the extant

Limulidae; Guangyuanolimulus appears at the end of the period.[15]

On land,


Fossil gallery

See also


  1. ^ "Chart/Time Scale". www.stratigraphy.org. International Commission on Stratigraphy.
  2. . Retrieved 13 December 2020.
  3. . Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  4. ^ a b International Commission on Stratigraphy. "Chart". Retrieved 10 July 2018.
  5. .
  6. .
  7. ^ International Commission on Stratigraphy. "GSSPs". Retrieved 10 July 2018.
  8. .
  9. .
  10. .
  11. .
  12. .
  13. ^ "The last Trilobites". www.Trilobites.info.
  14. .
  15. .