Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
1600 – 1000 Ma
Banded fine-grained pyrite found in the Urquhart Shale, Australia
Proposed redefinition(s)1780–850 Ma
Gradstein et al., 2012
Proposed subdivisionsRodinian Period, 1780–850 Ma
Gradstein et al., 2012
Name formalityFormal
Usage information
Celestial body
Stratigraphic unitErathem
Time span formalityFormal
Lower boundary definitionDefined Chronometrically
Lower GSSA ratified1991[1]
Upper boundary definitionDefined Chronometrically
Upper GSSA ratified1991[1]

The Mesoproterozoic Era

era that occurred from 1,600 to 1,000 million years ago. The Mesoproterozoic was the first era of Earth's history for which a fairly definitive geological record survives. Continents existed during the preceding era (the Paleoproterozoic
), but little is known about them. The continental masses of the Mesoproterozoic were more or less the same ones that exist today, although their arrangement on the Earth's surface was different.

Major events and characteristics

The major events of this era are the breakup of the Columbia supercontinent, the formation of the Rodinia supercontinent,[5] and the evolution of sexual reproduction.[6]

This era is marked by the further development of continental plates and

mountain building) that included the Kibaran orogeny in Africa;[8] the Late Ruker orogeny in Antarctica;[9] the Gothian[10] and Sveconorwegian orogenies in Europe;[11] and the Picuris and Grenville orogenies in North America.[12]

The era saw the development of sexual reproduction, which greatly increased the complexity of life to come and signified the start of development of true

stromatolites before they declined in the Neoproterozoic.[15]


The subdivisions of the Mesoproterozoic are arbitrary divisions based on time. They are not geostratigraphic or biostratigraphic units. The decision to base the Precambrian time scale on radiometric dating reflects the sparse nature of the fossil record, and Precambrian subdivisions of geologic time roughly reflect major tectonic cycles. It is possible that future revisions to the time scale will reflect more "natural" boundaries based on correlative geologic events.[16]

The Mesoproterozoic is presently divided into the Calymmian (1600 to 1400 Mya) and the Ectasian (1400 to 1200 Mya), and the Stenian (1200 to 1000 Mya). The Calymmian and Ectasian were characterized by stabilization and expansion of cratonic covers and the Stenian by formation of orogenic belts.[16]

The time period from 1780 Ma to 850 Ma, an unofficial period based on stratigraphy rather than chronometry, named the Rodinian, is described in the geological timescale review 2012 edited by Gradstein et al.,[17] but as of February 2017, this has not yet been officially adopted by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS).

See also


  1. ^ .
  2. . Retrieved 2023-08-30.
  3. ^ "Proterozoic". Dictionary.
  4. ^ There are several ways of pronouncing Mesoproterozoic, including IPA: /ˌmɛzəˌprtərəˈzɪk, ˌmɛz-, ˌmɛs-, ˌmz-, ˌm.s-, -ˌprɒt-, -ər-, -trə-, -tr-/ MEZ-ə-PROH-tər-ə-ZOH-ik, MEZ-oh-, MESS-, MEE-z-, MEE-s-, -⁠PROT-, -⁠ər-oh-, -⁠trə-, -⁠troh-.[2][3]
  5. ^ . Retrieved 14 February 2016.
  6. ^ . Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  7. . Retrieved 6 February 2016.
  8. . Retrieved 2012-06-11.
  9. .
  10. .
  11. ^ Andesson, Jenny; Bingen, Bernard; Cornell, David; Johansson, Leif; Möller, Charlotte (2008). "The Sveconorwegian orogen of southern Scandinavia: setting, petrology and geochronology of polymetamorphic high-grade terranes". 33 IGC excursion No 51, August 2 – 5.
  12. .
  13. .
  14. ^ Troppenz, Uwe-Michael; Littkowski, Sven (3 May 2019). "The Mesoproterozoic – no "boring billion"" (PDF). Iranian Journal of Earth Sciences. 11 (4): 239–243. Retrieved 25 November 2022.
  15. PMID 19515817
  16. ^ .
  17. .

External links