Libwww

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libwww
Original author(s)Tim Berners-Lee,[6]
Jean-François Groff,[7][6]
Henrik Frystyk Nielsen[6][8]
Developer(s)José Kahan
Initial release1.0, November 1992; 31 years ago (1992-11)[9]
Stable release
5.4.2[10] Edit this on Wikidata
/ 24 June 2017; 7 years ago (24 June 2017)
Repository
Written in
TypeLibrary for web browsers, servers, and other protocols
LicenseW3C Software Notice and License
Websitewww.w3.org/Library

Libwww is an early World Wide Web software library providing core functions for web browsers, implementing HTML, HTTP, and other technologies. Tim Berners-Lee, at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), released libwww (then also called the Common Library) in late 1992, comprising reusable code from the first browsers (WorldWideWeb and Line Mode Browser).

Libwww was relied upon by the then popular browser

Mosaic.[12] By 1997, interest in libwww declined, and the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), which took over from CERN, reduced its commitment to the project.[13] Later, the purpose of libwww was redefined to be "a testbed for protocol experiments";[6] in that role it was maintained for the benefit of the W3C's web standards-promoting browser Amaya.[14] Active development of libwww stopped in 2000.[9][15]

History

In 1991 and 1992,

web browsers.[19] He initially considered releasing the software under the GNU General Public License, rather than into the public domain, but decided against it due to concerns that large corporations such as IBM would be deterred from using it by the restrictions of the GPL.[16][20] The rapid early development of the library caused Robert Cailliau problems when integrating it into his MacWWW browser.[12]

From February 1994 to July 1999 (versions 2.17 to 5.2.8), Henrik Frystyk Nielsen was responsible for libwww, first as a graduate student at CERN and later at the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).[6][8][21] On 21 March 1995, with the release of version 3.0, CERN transferred responsibility for libwww to the W3C.[9] From 1995 onwards, the Line Mode Browser was no longer released separately, but part of the libwww package.[22]

On 2 March 1997, Nielsen announced that Libwww 5.1 was expected to be the last release.[13] Later that year, on 24 Dec 1997, Nielsen put out an unsuccessful call for another party outside W3C to take over maintenance of the library.[23]

Nielsen left the W3C in July 1999, and the project was thereafter headed by José Kahan as the only W3C employee involved with the project.[21][14]

On 2 September 2003 the W3C (re-)stated that development had stopped, citing a lack of resources.[24] On 29 January 2004, the W3C once again confirmed that it would not continue development, and was seeking open source community maintainers.[25]

The first (and only) "community supported maintenance release" was made in 2005, after a gap of 3 years.[15] After a further lapse of 12 years, a security patch was released in 2017.[26]

Features

In 2003, Kahan claimed that "libwww is the only library that has a full implementation of the HTTP specification, including caching and pipelining."[24]

Libwww supports following protocols:

Other features include:

Libwww supports plug-ins.[36]

Applications using libwww

It has been used for applications of varying sizes, including web browsers, editors, Internet bots, and batch tools. Pluggable modules provided with libwww add support for HTTP/1.1 with caching, pipelining, POST, Digest Authentication, and deflate.

The W3C created the

Amaya.[38]

According to a survey conducted in September 2003, at least 19 applications used libwww.[25]

Integrated applications in libwww are:

  • Command Line Tool, an application which shows how to use libwww to build simple batch mode tools to access the Web.[36][56]
  • Line Mode Browser, a Spartan web browser.[57]
  • Webbot, a simple application showing how to use libwww to build robots.[36][58]
  • Mini Server, a small application showing how to implement a server or a proxy using libwww.[36]

Criticism

The developers of

libcurl nor libwww are lightweight enough for some projects.[60]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Berners-Lee, Tim (3 November 1992). "Common Library". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 3 June 2010.
  2. ^ Nielsen, Henrik Frystyk (17 June 1994). "CERN Common World-Wide Web Library Version 2.16pre1 Available". [email protected] (Mailing list). CERN. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  3. . Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  4. ^ Nielsen, Henrik Frystyk, ed. (22 June 1995). "W3C Reference Library". 1.8. World Wide Web Consortium.
  5. ^ Nielsen, Henrik Frystyk, ed. (18 February 1997). "Libwww - the W3C Sample Code Library". 1.67. World Wide Web Consortium.
  6. ^ a b c d e f Kahan, José, ed. (2 September 2003). "Libwww – the W3C Protocol Library". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  7. ^ "Web History Day: Pioneering Software and Sites". The World Wide Web History Project. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
  8. ^ a b Nielsen, Henrik Frystyk (10 August 1994). The Hypertext Transfer Protocol in the World-Wide Web Library of common code (Master's thesis). Aalborg University. p. i. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Kahan, José, ed. (7 June 2002). "Change History of libwww". 1.41. World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  10. ^ http://www.w3.org/Library/Distribution/. {{cite web}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)
  11. ^ a b c d e "W3C libwww libraries". PhysioNet. Cambridge, MA: University of São Paulo. 19 March 2008. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 30 May 2010.
  12. ^ a b c Petrie, Charles; Cailliau, Robert (November 1997). "Interview Robert Cailliau on the WWW Proposal: "How It Really Happened."". Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Archived from the original on 6 January 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
  13. ^ a b Nielsen, Henrik Frystyk (22 March 1997). "ANNOUNCEMENT: Libwww 5.1a Available". www-lib (Mailing list). World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  14. ^ a b Kahan, José (22 September 2000). "Starting a libwww survey". www-lib (Mailing list). World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  15. ^ a b Kahan, José (21 October 2005). "Release Notes for Libwww". World Wide Web Consortium.
  16. ^ (PDF) from the original on 20 January 2010. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  17. ^ "How the web began". CERN. 2008. Retrieved 25 July 2010.
  18. ^ Crémel, Nicole (5 April 2001). "A Little History of the World Wide Web". CERN. Archived from the original on 19 December 2007. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
  19. ^ Berners-Lee, Tim (May 1993). "May World-Wide Web News". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 7 June 2010.
  20. ^ Berners-Lee, Tim. "Policy". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 1 September 2010.
  21. ^ a b Nielsen, Henrik Frystyk (1 August 1999). "Change of my status wrt libwww". www-lib (Mailing list). World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  22. ^ Kreutzmann, Dr. Helge (6 January 2010). "WWW-Browsers for Linux". Retrieved 3 June 2010.
  23. ^ "Libwww News and Event Timeline". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  24. ^ a b Kahan, José (2 September 2003). "Future of Libwww Survey". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  25. ^ a b Kahan, José (29 January 2004). "Results of the future of libwww survey". www-lib (Mailing list). World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  26. ^ "libwww 5.4.2 release". GitHub. 26 June 2017. Retrieved 17 October 2022.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g Nielsen, Henrik Frystyk (12 July 2000). "W3C Library Packages and Interfaces". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
  28. ^ "W3C Sample Code Library libwww SSL Transport Wrapper". World Wide Web Consortium. 9 June 2000. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  29. ^ "W3C Sample Code Library libwww ZLib Streams". World Wide Web Consortium. 24 May 1998. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  30. ^ "Simple HTML Parser With Text Object Converter". World Wide Web Consortium. 6 January 1999. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  31. ^ "Declaration of W3C Sample Code HTML MODULE". World Wide Web Consortium. 22 February 1999. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  32. ^ a b "Declaration of W3C Sample Code XML/RDF Module". World Wide Web Consortium. 18 April 1999. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  33. ^ "SGML Parser". World Wide Web Consortium. 2 April 1999. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  34. ^ "Stylesheet Manager". World Wide Web Consortium. 6 January 1999. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  35. ^ "W3C Sample Code Library libwww SQL Interface". World Wide Web Consortium. 24 May 1998. Retrieved 28 June 2010.
  36. ^ a b c d Nielsen, Henrik Frystyk (14 May 1998). "W3C Reference Library [position paper]". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
  37. ^ Lie, Håkon Wium (15 June 1996). "Arena: Frequently Answered Questions". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
  38. ^ Lafon, Yves; Lie, Håkon Wium (16 September 1996). "Welcome to Arena beta-3". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
  39. ^ Secret, Arthur (12 November 1996). "Agora". World Wide Web Consortium. Archived from the original on 6 June 1997. Retrieved 20 June 2010.
  40. ^ a b Nielsen, Henrik Frystyk (7 June 2002). "Libwww Hackers". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 29 May 2010.
  41. ^ a b c d e Kahan, José (5 August 1999). "Why Libwww?". Retrieved 15 June 2010.
  42. ^ Quint, Vincent (10 December 2009). "Amaya Release history". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 29 May 2010.
  43. ^ "HTTP Request fields". Protocols. World Wide Web Consortium. 3 May 1994. Retrieved 28 March 2010.
  44. ^ Nielsen, Henrik Frystyk (1 December 1998). "www-lib". Yahoo! Groups. Archived from the original on 18 April 2001. Retrieved 15 June 2010.
  45. ^ Kahan, José (5 August 1999). "Libwww – the W3C Sample Code Library". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 15 June 2010.
  46. ^ Gallagher, James (10 May 2002). "libwww replacement". OPeNDAP. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  47. ^ Gallagher, James (19 June 2002). "libwww v versus libcurl". OPeNDAP. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  48. ^ Paoli, Jean (11–14 December 1995). Rules for extending a WWW client: The Symposia API (Report). World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 15 August 2010.
  49. ^ Luotonen, Ari. "Ari Luotonen". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 15 August 2010.
  50. ^ Berners-Lee, Tim (3 November 1992). "Macintosh Browser". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
  51. ^ "libwww - ROS Wiki". Robot Operating System (ROS). Archived from the original on 25 June 2010. Retrieved 2 June 2010.
  52. ^ Ball, Steve (10–13 July 1996). SurfIt! – A WWW Browser (PostScript). Monterey, CA: USENIX. Retrieved 28 November 2010. {{cite book}}: |work= ignored (help)
  53. ^ Wang, Joseph (1 May 1993). "tkWWW Version 0.7 alpha". Retrieved 16 November 2010.
  54. ^ "WorldWideWeb Source Files". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
  55. ^ "Readme". evolt.org. Retrieved 5 July 2010.
  56. ^ Nielsen, Henrik Frystyk (4 May 1999). "WebCon: the Libwww Command Line Tool". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
  57. ^ Krol, Ed (September 1992). The Whole Internet User's Guide and Catalog, 3rd printing (February 1993). O'Reilly & Associates. p. 227.
  58. ^ Nielsen, Henrik Frystyk (4 May 1999). "Webbot – the Libwww Robot". World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved 27 June 2010.
  59. ^ Stenberg, Daniel (1 May 2010). "Notes About Libwww compared to libcurl". Haxx. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
  60. ^ Smith, Timothy B. (11 September 2007). "Simple HTTP Client without 'libcurl' or 'libwww'". μClinux. Archived from the original on 27 October 2007. Retrieved 1 June 2010.
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