CASA/IPTN CN-235

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
CN-235
A CASA CN-235 of the Spanish Maritime Safety and Rescue Society
Role Transport aircraft / maritime patrol aircraft
National origin Spain / Indonesia
Manufacturer CASA
IPTN
First flight 11 November 1983
Introduction 1 March 1988
Status Active service
Primary users Turkish Air Force
French Air and Space Force
Indonesian Air Force
Royal Malaysian Air Force
Produced 1983–present[1]
Number built 354 ( CASA 285 [2] + IPTN 69 [3] )
Variants EADS HC-144 Ocean Sentry
Developed into EADS CASA C-295
Indonesian Aerospace N-245

The CASA/IPTN CN-235 is a medium-range twin-engined

aerial surveillance
.

Development of the CN-235 formally commenced in 1980 following the formation of the Airtech International

Paris Airshow. On 11 November 1983, the prototype CN-235 conducted its maiden flight; the first production aircraft followed on 19 August 1986. On 1 March 1988, the aircraft was put into regular service. Early on, the production of each aircraft was divided, 65% being performed by IPTN while the remainder was performed by CASA. The vast majority of CN-235s have been produced for military customers, several airlines have opted to buy limited numbers for regional services as well. In addition to the standard aircraft, specialised CN-235s have been configured into armed gunships and maritime patrol aircraft
.

While both the development and early production of the CN-235 had been performed as a joint effort, the partnership arrangement between CASA and IPTN was only applicable to the Series 10 and Series 100/110 aircraft. Some of the later versions of the CN-235 have been developed by each company independently of the other's efforts. Accordingly, both companies have produced their own derivatives of the aircraft, such as the stretched EADS CASA C-295 and the passenger-orientated Indonesian Aerospace N-245. Over 230 of all versions of CN-235 are in service, and the type has reportedly accumulated more than 500,000 flight hours. Its largest user is Turkey, which operates 59 aircraft.[4]

Design and development

Background

The CN-235 has been conceived of during the late 1970s as a twin-

Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) was keen to seek out international collaboration to develop this concept into a working programme, and promptly approach the newly formed Indonesian company IPTN (later known as Indonesian Aerospace or PT. Dirgantara Indonesia).[5] The company was offered an equal share in the venture along with technology transfer opportunities from CASA, and was presented as being mutually beneficial from an economic standpoint.[5] Coincidentally, IPTN had been independently looking into possible configurations for such an aircraft prior to CASA's approach.[5]

The presented terms being agreeable, CASA and IPTN quickly formalised the programme as a joint venture initiative; on 17 October 1979, they formed Airtech International to design, develop, manufacture, and market the new aircraft.[5] Management comprised senior members of both companies, such as Airtech's president also being the president of IPTN, while its vice president was also the president of CASA. During November 1979, the first technical team visit from IPTN was made to CASA's Madrid facilities, while the first joint meeting was held in Bandung two months later.[5] During the first half of 1980, various configurations were studied, including a stretched derivative of the CASA C-212 Aviocar, multiple clean-sheet wide-body aircraft with rectangular and circular-shaped fuselages.[5]

The selected configuration for the aircraft featured a relatively wide fuselage for its size, complete with a rear-facing ramp suitable for all-purpose transport duties.

cropdusting, and other niche roles. Many features were specifically pursued as to ensure the aircraft's value to the Indonesian market and to capture sufficient early orders there that it would allow for economies of scale to make the aircraft highly cost-competitive on the international market.[5]

During January 1980, preliminary design work commenced.

Paris Airshow.[5] In addition to the display of a mock-up, sales contracts were signed and a memorandum of understanding was signed between Airtech and General Electric for the aircraft to be powered by the latter's General Electric CT7 turboprop engine.[5]

Into flight

On 10 September 1983, the first pair of prototypes were officially rolled out simultaneously at

windtunnels, while it was also decided to only construct a pair of prototypes, decisions that constrained and protracted the later flight testing process. New testing facilities in Indonesia were established with the assistance of the German Aerospace Center.[5] Amongst other aspects, the CN-235 proved to have easy handling characteristics. Extensive weight and drag-minimisation efforts were undertaken, one benefit of which was that the subsequent production aircraft were reportedly 10% lighter than the prototypes.[5]

The third phase of development was to secure certification and to conduct the aircraft's first delivery to customers.[5] In support of this effort, static and fatigue testing was conducted by the Serpong Laboratory for Structural Testing. By September 1984, orders for several dozen aircraft had been secured at a reported unit cost of $6m; many of these early orders for the type had originated from local customers within the two partner company's home nations.[5]

Certification from both the Spanish and Indonesian authorities was received on 20 June 1986; the first flight of a production-standard aircraft was conducted on 19 August 1986.

Type certification from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) was granted on 3 December 1986, permitting the CN-235 to be operated in North America. The first deliveries to customers took place during 1987.[5]
On 1 March 1988, the CN-235 officially entered service.

By May 1989, there were 133 firm orders for the CN-235, 74 had been placed by military operators while 59 were attributed to civil operators; of these, 85 had been ordered by Indonesian customers while 22 were attributable to Spanish customers alone, and the remainder to international customers.

jet engines, a task traditionally performed by much larger aircraft.[5]

As per the early production arrangements, roughly 65% of each aircraft was produced in Bandung, while 35% was manufactured in Getafe; this workshare arrangement was the case regardless of whether rollout occurred in Spain or Indonesia.[5] While the airframe was fully produced locally by IPTN, the engines, control and communication systems were all produced in either Europe or the United States. The lower wages present in Indonesia have been a key factor in enabling the CN-235 to be economically produced at its relatively low purchase price.[5]

Both CASA and IPTN were keen to further develop the CN-235, the original prototypes were quickly adapted to serve as flying test beds to support these efforts.[5] By 1992, multiple versions had already been developed, and more were underway. These were often produced in response to specific customer requirements, such as to perform maritime reconnaissance.[5] Development of the initial versions had been carried out jointly by the two companies.[5] Perhaps the most significant derivative of the aircraft was launched in 1995 by CASA in the form of a stretched CN-235. This aircraft would be produced as the C-295.[6]

Indonesia has sought greater autonomy from Airbus (whom CASA has been integrated into) in the CN-235 manufacturing process; the Indonesian Ministry of Defence (MoD) has made this objective a part of the offset conditions should the Airbus A400M Atlas strategic transport aircraft be procured for the Indonesian Air Force.[7]

Operational history

Military sector

Amongst the first customers for the CN-235 was the

French Minister of Defence, announced the order of eight CN-235-300s from Spain.[8][9] By 2015, the service had expanded its fleet to 27 aircraft.[4] During mid-2020, a French CN-235 was amongst those assets deployed to Mauritius to assist in pollution control efforts after the MV Wakashio oil spill.[10]

Indonesian Air Force Airtech CN-235 MPA, July 2005

Several sizable early orders from the Indonesian armed forces made it the largest customer for the CN-235 early on. By May 1989, the Indonesian Air Force alone had ordered 32 aircraft while the Indonesian Navy had ordered 18 CN-235s, six of which in a maritime surveillance configuration.[5] During December 2009, the Indonesian Navy ordered its first batch of three CN-235 MPAs; the first of these aircraft, based at Juanda Naval base in Surabaya, East Java, were declared operational in October 2013.[11] In November 2016, the Indonesian Air Force also commenced operations with the latest generation of CN-235 MPAs, equipped with winglets and new electronic support apparatus.[12]

The Spanish armed forces also placed modest early orders for the type, by May 1989, two

Spanish Air Force.[5] In 2000, the Future Medium Transport Aircraft II (FATAM II) program was launched, under which a batch of nine C-295s was ordered for the Spanish Air Force to take the place of eight CN-235s that were converted from a general transport configuration into maritime patrol and search-and-rescue aircraft, while between four and six CN-235s were assigned to training operations, their reassignment having noticeably depleted the service's medium transport fleet.[13] In December 2007, Spain ordered a pair of CN-235 MPA for the Guardia Civil, making it the first fixed-wing aircraft to be operated by the agency.[14]

Irish Defence Forces parachutists exiting from a CN-235, December 2013

During the early 1990s, the Irish Air Corps became interested in the type, initially opting to lease a single aircraft directly from CASA in 1992.[15] Two years later, a pair of CN-235s configured for maritime surveillance operations were delivered to the Air Corps.[16] During 2021, amid the Fall of Kabul and the US withdrawal from Afghanistan, one of the CN-235s was flown to the nation to assist with the evacuation.[17] In 2022, Irish CN-235s have been deployed to provide humanitarian aid to, as well as evacuate wounded civilians from, Ukraine.[18]

In December 2002, the Colombian Navy ordered two CN-235 configured for maritime patrol and anti-drug trafficking missions. During July 2010, a third MPA-configured aircraft was delivered.[19] In April 2012, Colombia awarded a contract to Telephonics to replace the original radars of the two older CN-235s with the APS-143 OceanEye marine surveillance Radar.[20]

In April 2005, Venezuela ordered two CN-235 maritime surveillance aircraft along with ten transport planes.[21][22] However, during the following year, the transaction was halted due to the refusal of the United States government to allow the transfer of what they deemed to be US technology in the aircraft's avionics.[23]

In January 2006, Thailand came to a tentative bartering arrangement with Indonesian Aerospace for ten aircraft, six of which were for the Ministry of Defence and the remaining four for the Ministry of Agriculture.[24] An additional aircraft was ordered on 19 September 2014.[25]

During July 2008, the Mexican Navy announced that it would purchase six CN-235s.[26] In November 2011, the first aircraft was accepted by the service; it was configured to conduct search and rescue, disaster relief, and drug interdiction missions.[27][28] During May 2012, the final of four CN-235 MPAs was delivered to the Mexican Navy.[29]

South Korean Air Force
, April 2011

In December 2008, South Korea announced that Indonesian Aerospace's bid had triumphed over four rival submissions, and thus it would order four CN-235-110 MPAs to equip the

South Korean Coast Guard with; these aircraft, delivered in 2011, had a reported per unit cost of $23 million.[30][31]

On behalf of the

Turkey has become the largest operator of the CN-235,

sea mines and aided in de-mining efforts.[36]

The Royal Malaysian Air Force has operated a fleet of CN-235 transports. During early 2020, it was announced that several Malaysian aircraft would be converted into a maritime surveillance configuration using financial assistance from the United States.[37] On 17 June 2022, the Royal Malaysian Air Force receive the first of three such modified CN235-220M MSA as part of the Malaysian Maritime Security Initiative program.[38][39]

Between 2010 and 2012, the Senegalese Air Force acquired two CN-235s at a reported cost of $13 million. In 2013, the service declared it planned to buy two more aircraft for VIP and cargo duties, and that it was also interested in the MPA version as well.[40] During 2018, Senegal ordered two MPA-configured CN-235s, the first of which was received in 2021.[41]

On January 10, 2024, Indonesian President Joko Widodo offered the CN-235 ASW of PT Dirgantara Indonesia for the Philippine Navy during his visit to Manila.[42][43]

Commercial airliner

A CN-235 of Merpati Nusantara Airlines in Indonesia

Although the CN-235 has been initially designed as a military transport, it has also been offered to civil operators, usually as a commercial airliner. It has not achieved substantial sales in this role compared to competing 50-seat commuter aircraft such as the

Binter Mediterraneo, operated the type between 1989 and 1997, opting to procure several larger ATR 72s to replace it.[45]

Numerous Indonesian operators had placed early orders for the CN-235; by 1992, there were internal routes served by the type between most of the major cities in the country.[5] The Indonesian operator Merpati Nusantara Airlines emerged as the largest civilian operator of the CN-235, at one point having 15 examples in its fleet alone.[45] In April 1995, the company decided to proceed with a leasing arrangement to operate additional aircraft.[46]

During 1992,

Asian Spirit operated a lone CN-235-220 in the Philippines.[citation needed
]

During 2015, Indonesian Aerospace announced that they were in the early stages of developing a new variant of the CN-235, the N-245, which has been specifically designed to perform civil operations and is able to carry up to 60 passengers. Alternatively also referred to as the CN-235NG, this variant is planned to be fully launched following the completion of the Indonesian Aerospace N-219 project, at one point, it was expected to be fully certified sometime in 2019. A further derivative has been envisioned, referred to as the N-270, it is a stretched version of the N-245 and is planned to be able to carry up to 70–90 passengers; the original timeframe for development was set between 2019 and 2024.[48][49]

Variants

Spanish Air Force
CN-235-10
Initial production version (15 built by each company), with GE CT7-7A engines.
CN-235-100/110
Generally as series 10, but with GE CT7-9C engines in new composites nacelles; replaced Series 10 in 1988 from 31st production aircraft. Series 100 is Spanish-built, series 110 Indonesian-built, with improved electrical, warning and environmental systems.[50]
CN-235-200/220
Improved version. Structural reinforcements to cater for higher operating weights, aerodynamic improvements to wing leading-edges and rudder, reduced field length requirements and much-increased range with maximum payload. Series 200 is Spanish-built, Series 220 Indonesian-built. Series 220 still in production.
CN-235-200M of the Royal Thai Police
CN-235-300
CASA modification of 200/220 series, with the Honeywell International Corp. avionics suite. Other features include improved pressurization and provision for optional twin-nosewheel installation.
CN-235-330 Phoenix
Modification of Series 200/220, offered by IPTN with new Honeywell avionics, ARL-2002 EW system and 16,800 kg/37,037 lb MTOW, to the Royal Australian Air Force to meet Project Air 5190 tactical airlift requirement,[51] but was forced by financial constraints to withdraw in 1998.[52]
CN-235 MPA
Maritime patrol version with 6 hardpoints to carry AM-39 Exocet-Missiles or Mk.46-Torpedoes.[53]
HC-144 Ocean Sentry
HU-25 Guardian business-style jets. As of 2019
, eighteen had been delivered.
AC-235
A light gunship modified with integrated weapons pylons to carry

Operators

Military operators

CN235 world operators:
  Military operators
  Only government operators
  Former operators
 Azerbaijan
  • Azerbaijani Air and Air Defence Force operates four CN235.[56]
 Botswana
 Brunei
 Burkina Faso
  • The
    Military of Burkina Faso operates one CN235.[58]
 Cameroon
 Chile
 Colombia
  • The
    Colombian National Navy operate a total of five CN235 aircraft.[4][63]
 Ecuador
 France
 Gabon
 Indonesia
A CASA CN235-MPA of the Indonesian Air Force
 Ireland
  • The Irish Air Corps operates two CN235-100 employed as maritime patrol aircraft, delivery took place in 1994.[15]
 Malaysia
 Mauritania
 Mexico
 Morocco
A Royal Moroccan Air Force's CN235-100M
  • The
    Moroccan Air Force operates five aircraft.[4][66]
 Nepal
  • The
    Nepalese Army's Aviation Brigade signed a deal on 16 June 2017 to purchase its first CN235-220, and began negotiations in February 2018 to purchase a second from Indonesian Aerospace.[71][72]
 Oman
 Pakistan
 Papua New Guinea
 Saudi Arabia
 Senegal
 Republic of Korea
 Spain
 Turkey
Turkish Coast Guard

 United Arab Emirates

  • The
    Military of the United Arab Emirates operates six aircraft.[4]
 United States
US Air Force CN235-100M QC

Former military operators

 Austria
 Bophuthatswana
 Jordan
 Madagascar
 Panama
  • Panamanian Air Force / National Air Service (until 1995)[78]
 South Africa
 Yemen
  • Yemen Air Force[89] (1x CN235-300) The only aircraft of the type, registration number 2211, factory number 168988, serial number 188, was destroyed in a Saudi airstrike on 25 March 2015.[90]

Government and paramilitary operators

 Mexico
 Oman
 Spain
Spanish Maritime Safety Agency
  • Sociedad de Salvamento y Seguridad Marítima
    (Spanish Maritime Safety Agency) (3x CN235-MPA)
 Thailand

Civil operators

Binter Mediterraneo CN235
 Argentina
 Indonesia
 Madagascar
 Namibia
 South Africa
  • Safair had two CN235s, sold in 2006 and 2008
 Spain
Presidential Airways CN235, formerly belonging to Binter Mediterráneo.
  • Iberia
    , operated four and five respectively from 1989 to 1997
 United States
  • Prescott Support Company Inc, operating two CASA CN235
  • Flight International and Flight Turbo AC with one each
  • L-3 Communication Systems
    acquired two aircraft
  • Presidential Airways, operates one former Binter Canarias
 Venezuela

Notable accidents

On 18 October 1992,

Flight 5601 crashed in Garut, Indonesia, killing all 31 people on board [92]

On 19 January 2001, a Turkish Air Force CN-235 training mission crashed near Kayseri after entering a spin from which recovery was not possible, killing all three people on board[93][94]

On 16 May 2001, a Turkish Air Force CN-235 crashed after the pilot lost control, killing all 34 people on board.[94][95]

On 18 May 2001, a

Turkish Navy CN-235 crashed after the pilot lost control after reaching an altitude of just 100 feet, killing all 4 people on board.[94][96]

On 29 August 2001, Binter Mediterráneo Flight 8261 (Registration EC-FBC) crash-landed at Málaga, Spain, killing four of the 47 passengers and crew aboard.[97] The aircraft was scrapped.[98]

On 11 February 2013, a CN-235 crashed into a forest 45 km south of

Guinea army chief.[99][100][101]

On 1 August 2015 a CN-235-200M operated by the

Colombian Air Force crashed in Cesar province, Colombia due to engine failure, killing 11 people.[102]

On 26 February 2016, a CN-235 operated by the Royal Malaysian Air Force crashed in a swamp in Kuala Selangor. Although there were no casualties amongst the occupants, a local fisherman drowned during the rescue effort.[103]

On 17 January 2018, a Turkish Air Force CN-235 on a training mission crashed with two pilots and a technician on board near Isparta. All on board were killed.[104]

Aircraft on display

  • SAAF 8026 (cn: P3)
    Bophutatswana Air Force before service with the SAAF.[citation needed
    ]

Specifications (CN235)

Data from Airbus Military[105]

General characteristics

  • Crew: two, pilot and co-pilot
  • Capacity: 51 passengers, 35 paratroops, 18 stretchers or four HCU-6/E pallets including one on the ramp and 6,000 kg (13,100 lb)
  • Length: 21.40 m (70 ft 2.5 in)
  • Wingspan: 25.81 m (84 ft 8 in)
  • Height: 8.18 m (26 ft 10 in)
  • Wing area: 59.10 m2 (636.1 sq ft)
  • Aspect ratio: 11.27:1
  • Airfoil: NACA 653-218
  • Empty weight: 9,800 kg (21,605 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 16,100 kg (35,420 lb)
  • Powerplant: 2 × General Electric CT7-9C3 turboprops, 1,305 kW (1,750 hp) each (take-off)
  • Propellers: 4-bladed Hamilton Sundstrand 14RF Propeller

Performance

  • Cruise speed: 450 km/h (286 mph, 248 kn) at 4,575 m (15,000 ft)
  • Stall speed: 156 km/h (97 mph, 84 kn) (flaps down)
  • Range: 4,355 km (2,706 mi, 2,350 nmi)
  • Service ceiling: 7,620 m (25,000 ft)
  • Rate of climb: 7.8 m/s (1,780 ft/min)

See also

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

References

Citations

  1. ^ Liputan6.com (8 January 2017). "Pesawat CN-235 Buatan Indonesia Pesanan Senegal Tiba di Dakar". Archived from the original on 27 February 2017. Retrieved 26 February 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  2. ^ "Orders, Deliveries, In Operation Military aircraft by Country - Worldwide" (PDF). Airbus. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  3. ^ "Kisah PT DI Rumahkan 12.000 Karyawannya di Balik Kesuksesan Pesawat CN235". beritatrans.com.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w "Orders, Deliveries, In Operation Military aircraft by Country – Worldwide" (PDF). Airbus Space and Defence. Airbus Space and Defence. 31 August 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 November 2015. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae Habibie, B. J.; de Guzman, E. (1992). "Spanish-Indonesian cooperation in the development, production, certification and marketing of CN-235 commuter aircraft" (PDF). ICAS and AIAA.
  6. ^ a b Pocock, Chris (18 February 2016). "Adaptations Bring CN235/C295 Sales Rewards For Airbus". ainonline.com.
  7. ^ Rahmat, Ridzwan (25 October 2021). "Indonesia seeks more autonomy on CN235 production in offset talks for A400M". janes.com.
  8. ^ "Francia compra a EADS ocho aviones CN-135-300 por 250 millones de euros". Libertad Digital. 4 April 2010. Archived from the original on 7 April 2010. Retrieved 2 October 2011.
  9. ^ Hoyle, Craig (5 December 2011). "PICTURE: France receives first of eight new CN-235 transports". flightglobal.com.
  10. ^ Vavasseur, Xavier (10 August 2020). "French Navy Vessel 'Champlain' to Assist with MV Wakashio Oil Spill in Mauritius". navalnews.com.
  11. ^ "Indonesian navy officially commences operations of CN235 MPA aircraft". antaranews.com. 2 October 2013.
  12. ^ Stevenson, Beth (15 November 2016). "Indonesian air force's new CN235 MPA unveiled". flightglobal.com.
  13. ^ Jennings, G. (July 2007). "Spain looks to EADS CASA for medium transport aircraft".
  14. ^ Jennings, G. (December 2007). "Spain buys maritime patrol aircraft".
  15. ^ a b "CASA CN235". Defence Forces Ireland. 2014. Archived from the original on 24 October 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2014.
  16. ^ "Outgoing Irish Coast Guard Head Says Air Corps Has to be Available "24/7" if it Wants to Return to Search & Rescue". afloat.ie. 8 August 2021.
  17. ^ O'Toole, Michael (23 August 2021). "Army's elite special forces being sent to rescue dozens of Irish citizens trapped in Afghanistan". irishmirror.ie.
  18. ^ Fletcher, Laura (26 March 2022). "Air Corps flies Ukrainian girl to Ireland for treatment". rte.ie.
  19. ^ Hoyle, Craig (30 July 2010). "PICTURE: Colombia receives new CN-235 maritime patrol aircraft". Flight International.
  20. ^ "Telephonics' Technical Support Services Center in Elizabeth City, NC awarded contract to upgrade 2 Colombian Navy CN-235s". Telephonics. 2 April 2012.
  21. ^ "Venezuela Buys Military Equipment". CBS News. 28 November 2005. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  22. ^ "EADS Casa defies US to sell C-235s to Venezuela". Flight International. 14 December 2005.
  23. ^ Tremlett, Giles (19 October 2006). "US stops Venezuela planes deal". theguardian.com.
  24. ^ "Thailand seeks CN-235 barter deal". Flight International. 10 January 2010.
  25. ^ Dipa, Arya (25 November 2016). "Dirgantara delivers CN-235 plane to Royal Thai Air Force". thejakartapost.com.
  26. ^ SusoRail (4 July 2008). "Seis CN-235-300 Persuader para la Armada de México" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 17 July 2008.
  27. ^ Hoyle, Craig (17 November 2011). "PICTURE: Mexican navy accepts new CN-235". flightglobal.com.
  28. S2CID 159395424
    .
  29. ^ "Final CN235 delivered to Mexico". shephardmedia.com. 17 May 2012.
  30. ^ Sung-ki, Jung (30 December 2008). "S. Korea to Buy 4 Patrol Aircraft From Indonesia". The Korea Times.
  31. ^ "RI seeks to exchange planes with South Korea". The Jakarta Post. 20 May 2011. Archived from the original on 27 August 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2011.
  32. ^ "Jordan takes delivery of AC235 gunship". flightglobal.com. 7 May 2014. Archived from the original on 19 February 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  33. ^ "AC-235c Fact Sheet" (PDF). orbitalatk.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 June 2015. Retrieved 4 May 2015.
  34. ^ "Turkey boosts order for CN-235". flightglobal.com. 21 October 1998.
  35. ^ Hoyle, Craig (13 July 2007). "Modified CN-235 makes flight debut for Turkish coastguard". flightglobal.com.
  36. ^ Ozberk, Tayfun (6 April 2022). "Turkish MPA detects the 3rd sea mine off Turkey Coast in the Black Sea". navalnews.com.
  37. ^ "Malaysia taps American fund to convert transport planes for maritime surveillance role". defensenews.com. 13 February 2020.
  38. ^ "Usai 2 Tahun Lamanya, Pesawat yang Dimodifikasi CN235-220M (MSA) oleh PT DI Telah Dikerahkan ke Malaysia". Zona Jakarta - Halaman all.
  39. ^ "Royal Malaysian Air Force Receives First CN-235 Maritime Surveillance Aircraft". militaryleak.com. 22 June 2022.
  40. ^ "Senegal: MoD plans to acquire two additional CN235s, including MPA versions". Dmilt.com. 30 August 2013. Archived from the original on 27 March 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  41. ^ García, José Mª Navarro (1 April 2021). "La Fuerza Aérea de Senegal recibe un tercer CN-235, lo destinará a patrulla marítima". Defensa.com. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  42. ^ "Indonesia president Widodo offers CN-235 ASW aircraft to Philippine Navy". Navy Naval News Navy Recognition. 2024-01-11. Archived from the original on 2024-02-01. Retrieved 2024-02-01.
  43. ^ "Indonesian President Offers Sale of Anti-submarine Warefare Aircraft to Philippine Navy". Military Leak. 10 January 2024. Archived from the original on 1 February 2024. Retrieved 1 February 2024.
  44. ^ a b c d e "CASA/IPTN CN-235/C-295 - Archived 8/2007". Forecast International. July 2006. Retrieved 9 March 2020.
  45. ^ a b c Cross, Lee (11 November 2021). "Today in Aviation: The CASA/IPTN CN-235". airwaysmag.com.
  46. ^ Lewis, Paul (15 November 1995). "New Merpati president will go ahead with CN-235 lease plan". flightglobal.com.
  47. ^ Flight International, 3–9 October 2006.
  48. ^ "RI Gencar Bikin Pesawat, Setelah N219 Ada N245 dan N270". finance.detik.com. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
  49. ^ Pocock, Chris (21 February 2017). "Indonesia Makes Mixed Progress with Airliner Programs". ainonline.com.
  50. ^ "IPTN receives European approval for CN-235-110". flightglobal.com. 9 August 1995.
  51. ^ "Australia opens competition door to admit CN235 Phoenix". flightglobal.com. 11 February 1998.
  52. ^ "Australia insists on deadline and raises CN235-330 partners ire". flightglobal.com. 15 July 1998.
  53. ^ "CN-235 Persuader Maritime Patrol Aircraft". Airforce Technology. Archived from the original on 15 July 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  54. ^ "USCG: Acquisition Programs & Projects". US Coast Guard. Archived from the original on 1 December 2010. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
  55. ^ "AC-235 Light Gunship". Northrop Grumman. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
  56. ^ "Azərbaycan və Türkiyə Hərbi Hava Qüvvələrinin birgə təlimləri keçiriləcək". mod.gov.az (in Azerbaijani). Retrieved 20 July 2020.
  57. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 46.
  58. ^ a b Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 47.
  59. ^ "Berita Parajurit, vol 9 – Air Capability static display – participating squadrons" (PDF). MinDef.gov.bn. Bolkiah Garrison, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei: Defence Information Technology Unit, Ministry of Defence, Brunei Darussalam. 31 May 2023. p. 8. Retrieved 8 January 2024.
  60. ^ Hoyle, Craig (6 June 2012). "Cameroon signs deal for CN235 transport". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 19 April 2013. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
  61. ^ "Military Aircraft Airbus DS – Press Center". Airbus Military. Archived from the original on 14 April 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  62. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 48.
  63. ^ a b Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 49.
  64. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 50.
  65. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 52.
  66. ^ a b Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 55.
  67. ^ "RMAF CN235 Ditched, Crew Survived - Malaysian Defence". www.malaysiandefence.com. Archived from the original on 23 June 2018. Retrieved 23 June 2018.
  68. ^ Binnie, Jeremy (23 May 2019). "Mauritania receives CN-235 transport aircraft from UAE". Jane's 360. London. Archived from the original on 23 May 2019. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
  69. ^ "Defence Security Report". Janes.com. 3 December 2008. Archived from the original on 2 June 2010. Retrieved 2 October 2011.
  70. ^ "seg und o i n forme d e labore s" (PDF) (in Portuguese). secretaría de marina. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 March 2009. Retrieved 20 June 2009.
  71. ^ "Nepalese Army buying Military Transport aircraft from Indonesia, can "even" carry "a small vehicle"". southasia.com.au. 20 June 2017. Archived from the original on 9 October 2017. Retrieved 21 June 2017.
  72. ^ Rahmat, Ridzwan (7 February 2018). "Singapore Airshow 2018: Nepal begins negotiations for second CN-235 with PT Dirgantara". IHS Jane's 360. Singapore. Archived from the original on 7 February 2018. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  73. ^ John Pike. "Pakistan Air Force Equipment". Globalsecurity.org. Archived from the original on 21 February 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2011.
  74. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 57.
  75. ^ "Saudi Arabia orders four Airbus C295W military aircraft". arabianbusiness.com. 16 June 2015.
  76. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 59.
  77. ^ Rahmat, Ridzwan (29 December 2016). "Senegal Air Force's CN-235 departs Bandung for Dakar". IHS Jane's Defence Weekly. Archived from the original on 3 October 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2017 – via Jane's 360.
  78. ^ , p. 207.
  79. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 60.
  80. ^ "Turkish Army Current Order of Battle". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  81. ^ a b Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 61.
  82. ^ "CASA CN-235 Aircraft".
  83. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 63.
  84. ^ "All-Time Aircraft Used List Austrian Air Force – Aeroflight". Aeroflight.co.uk. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  85. ^ "Announcement of sale of CN-235 aircraft" (in Arabic). Royal Jordanian Air Force. 24 December 2018. Archived from the original on 7 January 2019. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
  86. ^ Donald, David (5 January 2019). "Gunships for Sale as Part of Mass Jordanian Sell-off". Aviation International News. Archived from the original on 5 January 2019. Retrieved 6 January 2019.
  87. ISSN 0306-5634
    .
  88. ^ Caramel, Laurence (16 September 2021). "Mauvais payeur, Madagascar perd son seul avion de transport militaire" [Bad payer, Madagascar loses its only military transport plane]. Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 17 September 2021.
  89. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 64.
  90. ^ "CASA CN-235M-300". Aviation Safety Network. 26 March 2015.
  91. ^ "Mexican national guard Aviation". jetphoto. Archived from the original on 12 June 2011. Retrieved 21 October 2010.
  92. ^ Ranter, Harro (18 October 1992). "ASN Aircraft accident IPTN/CASA CN-235-10 PK-MNN Garut". Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  93. Aviation Safety Network. Archived
    from the original on 13 August 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
  94. ^ a b c "Military cargo plane crashes, four die". Hürriyet Daily News. 19 May 2001. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
  95. Aviation Safety Network. Archived
    from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
  96. from the original on 13 August 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2014.
  97. ^ "Aircraft accidents photos – Binter Mediterraneo – Malaga, Spain – CASA 235-200". 1001 Crash. 28 August 2001. Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2011.
  98. ^ Ranter, Harro (29 August 2001). "ASN Aircraft accident CASA CN-235-200 EC-FBC Málaga Airport (AGP)". Archived from the original on 12 June 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  99. ^ "Guinea military head killed in Liberia plane crash". BBC News. 11 February 2013. Archived from the original on 22 January 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
  100. ^ "Guinean Army Chief, Several Killed...Pres. Sirleaf Declares Day Of Mourning; Defense Cancels Recepti". 12 February 2013. Archived from the original on 13 April 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
  101. ^ "Guinea army chief dies in Liberia air crash". 11 February 2013. Retrieved 14 February 2013.
  102. ^ "Airbus CN235 military transport crashes in Colombia, killing 11". Flightglobal. August 2015. Archived from the original on 4 August 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  103. ^ Cheng, Nicholas; Mutiah, Wani. "RMAF plane crashes in Kuala Selangor, rescuer believed drowned". Nation – The Star Online. Archived from the original on 28 February 2016. Retrieved 26 February 2016.
  104. ^ "3 soldiers die after Turkish military training aircraft crashes in Isparta". dailysabah.com. 17 January 2018.
  105. ^ "Military Aircraft Airbus DS – CN235". Archived from the original on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 5 July 2015.

Bibliography

  • Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International, Vol. 182 No. 5370. 11–17 December 2012. pp. 40–64.
  • Lambert, Mark. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1993–1994. Coulsden, UK:Jane's Data Division, 1993. .

External links