Austria

Coordinates: 47°20′N 13°20′E / 47.333°N 13.333°E / 47.333; 13.333
Page semi-protected
Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Republic of Austria
Republik Österreich (German)
Anthem: "Bundeshymne der Republik Österreich"
"National Anthem of the Republic of Austria"
Ethnic groups
(2020)[3]
Religion
(2021)[4]
  • 26.4% no religion
  • 8.3% Islam
  • 1.2% other
Demonym(s)Austrian
GovernmentFederal semi-presidential republic[5][d]
• President
Alexander Van der Bellen
Karl Nehammer
LegislatureParliament
Federal Council
National Council
Formation
• Name
1 November 996
• Duchy
17 September 1156
• Archduchy
6 January 1453
• Empire
11 August 1804
30 March 1867
12 November 1918
10 September 1919
1 May 1934
• Anschluss
13 March 1938
27 April 1945
27 July 1955
1 January 1995
Area
• Total
83,879[6] km2 (32,386 sq mi) (113th)
• Water (%)
0.84 (2015)[7]
Population
• April 2022 estimate
Neutral increase 9,027,999[8] (98th)
• Density
107.6/km2 (278.7/sq mi) (106th)
GDP (PPP)2024 estimate
• Total
Increase $634.362 billion[9] (43rd)
• Per capita
Increase $69,460[9] (14th)
GDP (nominal)2024 estimate
• Total
Increase $540.887 billion[9] (33rd)
• Per capita
Increase $59,225[9] (17th)
Gini (2021)Positive decrease 26.7[10]
low
HDI (2022)Increase 0.926[11]
very high (22nd)
CurrencyEuro () (EUR)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+43
ISO 3166 codeAT
Internet TLD.at

Austria,

most populous city and federal state. Austria is bordered by Germany to the northwest, the Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia to the northeast, Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The country occupies an area of 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi) and has a population of around 9 million.[14]

The area of today's Austria had been inhabited since at least the

Germanic tribes during the Migration Period.[15] Austria, as a unified state, emerged from the remnants of the Eastern and Hungarian March at the end of the first millennium, first as a frontier march of the Holy Roman Empire, it then developed into a duchy in 1156, and was made an Archduchy in 1453. Being the heartland of the Habsburg monarchy since the late 13th century, Austria was a major imperial power in Central Europe for centuries and from the 16th century, Vienna was also serving as the Holy Roman Empire's administrative capital.[16] Before the dissolution of the empire two years later, in 1804, Austria established its own empire, which became a great power and one of the largest states in Europe during its whole existence. The empire's defeat in wars and the loss of territories in the 1860s paved the way for the establishment of Austria-Hungary in 1867.[17]

After the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in 1914, Emperor Franz Joseph declared war on Serbia, which ultimately escalated into World War I. The empire's defeat and subsequent collapse led to the proclamation of the Republic of German-Austria in 1918 and the First Austrian Republic in 1919. During the interwar period, anti-parliamentarian sentiments culminated in the formation of an Austrofascist dictatorship under Engelbert Dollfuss in 1934. A year before the outbreak of World War II, Austria was annexed into Nazi Germany by Adolf Hitler, and it became a sub-national division. After its liberation in 1945 and a decade of Allied occupation, the country regained its sovereignty and declared its perpetual neutrality in 1955.

Austria is a

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Interpol.[20] It also signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995,[21] and adopted the euro currency in 1999.[22]

Etymology

The native name for Austria, Österreich, derives from the

Marchia orientalis
into a local (Bavarian) dialect.

Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976. The word "Austria" is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century.[25] At the time, the Danube basin of Austria (Upper and Lower Austria) was the easternmost extent of Bavaria.

History

Antiquity

Museum of Natural History Vienna

The area that is now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various

Celtic tribes, having been the core of the Hallstatt culture by the 6th century BC.[26] The city of Hallstatt, in fact, has the oldest archaeological evidence of the Celts in Europe.[27]

The Celtic

Present-day Petronell-Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Pannonia Superior. Carnuntum was home for 50,000 people for nearly 400 years.[31]

Middle Ages

After the

Kingdom of Italy. By 493, it was conquered by the Germanic Ostrogoths which created their own kingdom, the Ostrogothic Kingdom.[33] Following the Kingdom's fall the area was invaded by the Alemanni, Baiuvarii, Slavs, and Avars.[34][35]

The first record showing the name Austria is from 996, where it is written as

Frederick II in 1246, the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished.[37]

As a result,

Habsburgs
.

In the 14th and 15th centuries, the

Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund
. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception.

The Habsburgs began also to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. In 1477, Archduke

Joanna the Mad, the heiress of Castile and Aragon, thus acquiring Spain and its Italian, African, Asian, and New World appendages for the Habsburgs.[39][40]

In 1526, following the

Long War of 1593 to 1606. The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times,[42] of which some are cited as "burning, pillaging, and taking thousands of slaves".[43] In late September 1529, Suleiman the Magnificent launched the first siege of Vienna
, which unsuccessfully ended, according to Ottoman historians, with the snowfalls of an early beginning winter.

17th and 18th centuries

The Battle of Vienna in 1683 broke the advance of the Ottoman Empire into Europe.

During the long reign of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor following the successful defence of Vienna against the Turks in 1683, under the command of the King of Poland John III Sobieski,[44] the Great Turkish War resulted in most of Hungary being controlled by Austria. This arrangement was formalized in the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699.

Emperor

Austria–Prussia rivalry began in Germany. Austria participated, together with Prussia and Russia, in the first and the third of the three Partitions of Poland
in 1772 and 1795 respectively.

From that time, Austria became the birthplace of classical music and played host to different composers including Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, and Franz Schubert.

19th century

The Congress of Vienna met in 1814–15. The objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire

Austria later became engaged in a war with

Napoleon Bonaparte, meaning the end of the old Holy Roman Empire in 1806. Two years earlier,[45] the Empire of Austria was founded. From 1792 to 1801, the Austrians had suffered 754,700 casualties.[46] In 1814, Austria was part of the Allied forces that invaded France and brought to an end the Napoleonic Wars
.

It emerged from the

1848 revolutions aiming to create a unified Germany.[47]

Map of the German Confederation with its 39 member sovereign states

The various different possibilities for a united Germany were: a

Schleswig and Holstein. As they could not agree on how the two duchies should be administered, though, they fought the Austro-Prussian War in 1866. Defeated by Prussia in the Battle of Königgrätz,[47] Austria had to leave the German Confederation and no longer took part in German politics.[48][49]

After the defeated Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Ausgleich, provided for a dual sovereignty, the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary, under Franz Joseph I.[50] The Austrian-Hungarian rule of this diverse empire included various groups, including Germans, Hungarians, Croats, Czechs, Poles, Rusyns, Serbs, Slovaks, Slovenes, and Ukrainians, as well as large Italian and Romanian communities.

As a result, ruling Austria-Hungary became increasingly difficult in an age of emerging nationalist movements, requiring considerable reliance on an expanded secret police. Yet, the government of Austria tried its best to be accommodating in some respects: for example, the Reichsgesetzblatt, publishing the laws and ordinances of Cisleithania, was issued in eight languages; and all national groups were entitled to schools in their own language and to the use of their mother tongue at state offices.

An ethnic map of Austria-Hungary, 1910

Many Austrians of all different social circles such as Georg Ritter von Schönerer promoted strong pan-Germanism in hope of reinforcing an ethnic German identity and the annexation of Austria to Germany.[51] Some Austrians such as Karl Lueger also used pan-Germanism as a form of populism to further their own political goals. Although Bismarck's policies excluded Austria and the German Austrians from Germany, many Austrian pan-Germans idolised him and wore blue cornflowers, known to be the favourite flower of German Emperor William I, in their buttonholes, along with cockades in the German national colours (black, red, and yellow), although they were both temporarily banned in Austrian schools, as a way to show discontent towards the multi-ethnic empire.[52]

Austria's exclusion from Germany caused many Austrians a problem with their national identity and prompted the Social Democratic Leader Otto Bauer to state that it was "the conflict between our Austrian and German character".[53] The Austro-Hungarian Empire caused ethnic tension between the German Austrians and the other ethnic groups. Many Austrians, especially those involved with the pan-German movements, desired a reinforcement of an ethnic German identity and hoped that the empire would collapse, which would allow an annexation of Austria by Germany.[54]

A lot of Austrian pan-German nationalists protested passionately against minister-president

Away from Rome movement, which was initiated by supporters of Schönerer and called on "German" Christians to leave the Roman Catholic Church.[55]

Early 20th century

As the

assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo in 1914 by Bosnian Serb Gavrilo Princip[57] was used by leading Austrian politicians and generals to persuade the emperor to declare war on Serbia, thereby risking and prompting the outbreak of World War I, which eventually led to the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Over one million Austro-Hungarian soldiers died in World War I.[58]

German-Austria
in 1918: The border of the subsequent Second Republic of Austria is outlined in red

On 21 October 1918 the elected German members of the Reichsrat (parliament of Imperial Austria) met in Vienna as the Provisional National Assembly for German Austria (Provisorische Nationalversammlung für Deutschösterreich). On 30 October the assembly founded the Republic of German-Austria by appointing a government, called Staatsrat. This new government was invited by the Emperor to take part in the decision on the planned armistice with Italy, but refrained from this business.[59]

This left the responsibility for the end of the war, on 3 November 1918, solely to the emperor and his government. On 11 November, the emperor, advised by ministers of the old and the new governments, declared he would not take part in state business any more; on 12 November, German-Austria, by law, declared itself to be a democratic republic and part of the new German republic. The constitution, renaming the Staatsrat as Bundesregierung (federal government) and Nationalversammlung as Nationalrat (national council) was passed on 10 November 1920.[60]

The

Treaty of Saint-Germain of 1919 (for Hungary the Treaty of Trianon of 1920) confirmed and consolidated the new order of Central Europe which to a great extent had been established in November 1918, creating new states and altering others. The German-speaking parts of Austria which had been part of Austria-Hungary were reduced to a rump state named the Republic of German-Austria (German: Republik Deutschösterreich), though excluding the predominantly German-speaking South Tyrol.[61][62][63] The desire for the annexation of Austria to Germany was a popular opinion shared by all social circles in both Austria and Germany.[64] On 12 November, German-Austria was declared a republic, and named Social Democrat Karl Renner as provisional chancellor. On the same day it drafted a provisional constitution that stated that "German-Austria is a democratic republic" (Article 1) and "German-Austria is an integral part of the German reich" (Article 2).[65] The Treaty of Saint Germain and the Treaty of Versailles explicitly forbade union between Austria and Germany.[66][67] The treaties also forced German-Austria to rename itself as "Republic of Austria" which consequently led to the first Austrian Republic.[68][69]

Over three million German-speaking Austrians found themselves living outside the new Austrian Republic as minorities in the newly formed or enlarged states of

German Bohemia. The status of German Bohemia and Sudetenland later played a role in World War II.[71]

The border between Austria and the

Karavanke
mountain range, with many Slovenes remaining in Austria.

Interwar period and World War II

After the war, inflation began to devalue the Krone, which was still Austria's currency. In autumn 1922, Austria was granted an international loan supervised by the League of Nations.[72] The purpose of the loan was to avert bankruptcy, stabilise the currency, and improve Austria's general economic condition. The loan meant that Austria passed from an independent state to the control exercised by the League of Nations. In 1925, the Austrian schilling was introduced, replacing the Krone at a rate of 10,000:1. Later, it was nicknamed the "Alpine dollar" due to its stability. From 1925 to 1929 the economy enjoyed a short high before nearly crashing after Black Tuesday.

The

"self-switch-off of Parliament", established an autocratic regime tending towards Italian fascism.[73][74] The two big parties at this time, the Social Democrats and the Conservatives, had paramilitary armies;[75] the Social Democrats' Republikanischer Schutzbund was now declared illegal, but was still operative[75] as the 12–15 February 1934 Austrian Civil War broke out.[73][74][76]

In February 1934, several members of the Schutzbund were executed,

Adolf Hitler speaking at Heldenplatz, Vienna, 1938

His successor Kurt Schuschnigg acknowledged the fact that Austria was a "German state" and he also believed that Austrians were "better Germans" but he wished that Austria would remain independent.[80] He announced a referendum on 9 March 1938, to be held on 13 March, concerning Austria's independence from Germany.

Nazi rule

On 12 March 1938, Austrian Nazis took over the government, while German troops occupied the country, which prevented Schuschnigg's referendum from taking place.[81] On 13 March 1938, the Anschluss (lit.'joining' or 'connection') of Austria was officially declared. Two days later, Austrian-born Adolf Hitler announced what he called the "reunification" of his home country with the "rest of the German Reich" on Vienna's Heldenplatz. He established a referendum which confirmed the union with Germany in April 1938.

Parliamentary elections were held in Germany (including recently annexed Austria) on 10 April 1938. They were the final elections to the Reichstag during Nazi rule, and they took the form of a single-question referendum asking whether voters approved of a single Nazi-party list for the 813-member Reichstag, as well as the recent annexation of Austria (the Anschluss). Jews, Roma and Sinti were not allowed to vote.[82] Turnout in the election was officially 99.5%, with 98.9% voting "yes". In the case of Austria, Adolf Hitler's native soil, 99.71% of an electorate of 4,484,475 officially went to the ballots, with a positive tally of 99.73 percent.[83] Although most Austrians favored the Anschluss, in certain parts of Austria, the German soldiers were not always welcomed with flowers and joy, especially in Vienna, which had Austria's largest Jewish population.[84] Nevertheless, despite the propaganda and the manipulation and rigging which surrounded the ballot box result, there was massive genuine support for Hitler for fulfilling the Anschluss,[85] since many Germans from both Austria and Germany saw it as completing the long overdue unification of all Germans into one state.[86]

Austria in 1941 when it was known as the "Ostmark"

On 13 March 1938, Austria was annexed by the

Aryanisation of the wealth of Jewish Austrians started immediately in mid-March, with a so-called "wild" (i.e. extra-legal) phase, but it was soon structured legally and bureaucratically so the assets which Jewish citizens possessed could be stripped from them. At that time, Adolf Eichmann, who grew up in Austria, was transferred to Vienna and ordered to persecute the Jews. During the November pogrom in 1938 ("Reichskristallnacht"), Jews and Jewish institutions such as synagogues were subjected to violent attacks in Vienna, Klagenfurt, Linz, Graz, Salzburg, Innsbruck and several cities in Lower Austria.[87][88][89][90][91] Otto von Habsburg, a vehement opponent of the Nazis, the last Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary, an honorary citizen of hundreds of places in Austria and partly envisaged by Schuschnigg as a monarchical option, was in Belgium at the time. He spoke out against the Anschluss and was then wanted by the Nazi regime and his property would have been expropriated and he would have been shot immediately if he were caught.[92] In 1938, the Nazis renamed Austria the "Ostmark",[81] a name which it had until 1942, when it was renamed the "Alpine and Danubian Gaue" (Alpen-und Donau-Reichsgaue).[93][94]

Though Austrians made up only 8% of the population of the Third Reich,

Reichsgau, besides the main camp KZ-Mauthausen, there were numerous sub-camps in all provinces where Jews and other prisoners were killed, tortured and exploited.[97] At this time, because the territory was outside the operational radius of Allied aircraft, the armaments industry was greatly expanded through the forced labor of concentration camp prisoners, this was especially the case with regard to the manufacture of fighter planes, tanks and missiles.[98][99][100]

Most of the resistance groups were soon crushed by the Gestapo. While the plans of the group around Karl Burian to blow up the Gestapo's headquarters in Vienna were uncovered,[101] the important group around the later executed priest Heinrich Maier managed to contact the Allies. This so-called Maier-Messner group was able to send the Allies information about armaments factories where V-1 flying bombs, V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks, and aircraft (Messerschmitt Bf 109, Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet, etc.) were manufactured, information which was important to the success of Operation Crossbow and Operation Hydra, both of which were preliminary missions before the launch of Operation Overlord. This resistance group, which was in contact with the American secret service (OSS), soon provided information about mass executions and concentration camps such as Auschwitz. The group's aim was to cause Nazi Germany to lose the war as quickly as possible and re-establish an independent Austria.[102][103][104]

The liberation of Mauthausen concentration camp, 1945

Allied occupation

Vienna fell on 13 April 1945, during the Soviet Vienna offensive, just before the total collapse of the Third Reich. The invading Allied powers, in particular the Americans, planned for the supposed "Alpine Fortress Operation" of a national redoubt, that was largely to have taken place on Austrian soil in the mountains of the Eastern Alps. However, it never materialised because of the rapid collapse of the Reich.

United Nations Office in Vienna

Moscow Declaration of 1943 a subtle difference was seen in the treatment of Austria by the Allies.[105]

The Austrian government, consisting of Social Democrats, Conservatives, and Communists resided in Vienna, which was surrounded by the Soviet zone. This Austrian government was recognised by the allies of World War II in October 1945 despite concerns that Karl Renner could be Stalin's puppet.[109] On 26 July 1946 the Austrian Parliament passed its first nationalization law and approximately 70 mining and manufacturing companies were seized by the Austrian state. The Ministry of Property Protection and Economic Planning (Ministerium für Vermögenssicherung und Wirtschaftsplanung) was responsible for directing the nationalized industries under the directorship of Minister Peter Krauland (party ÖVP).[110]

Independence

On 15 May 1955, after talks which lasted for years and were influenced by the

National Day, a public holiday.[112]

The status of Tyrol is a lingering problem between Austria and Italy. To this day, there are 20 different squares in Austrian cities called "Südtiroler Platz" (South Tyrolean Square) in memory of the supposed loss of the Austrian territories. Riots by the South Tyrolean independence movement have been documented in the 1950s and 1960s. A great degree of autonomy was granted to Tyrol by the Italian national government.

Lisbon Treaty
in 2007

The political system of the

Second Republic is based on the constitution of 1920 and 1929, which was reintroduced in 1945. The system came to be characterised by Proporz, whereby most posts of political importance were split proportionately between members of the Social Democratic Party of Austria (SPÖ) and the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP).[113] Interest group "chambers" with mandatory membership (e.g. for workers, business people, farmers) grew to considerable importance and were usually consulted in the legislative process, so hardly any legislation was passed that did not reflect widespread consensus.[114]

Since 1945, governing via a single-party government has occurred twice: 1966–1970 (ÖVP) and 1970-1983 (SPÖ). During all other legislative periods, either a grand coalition of SPÖ and ÖVP or a "small coalition" (one of these two and a smaller party) ruled the country.

accused of war crimes.[115]

Following a referendum in 1994, at which consent reached a majority of two-thirds, the country became a member of the European Union on 1 January 1995.[116]

The major parties SPÖ and ÖVP have contrary opinions about the future status of Austria's military nonalignment: While the SPÖ in public supports a neutral role, the ÖVP argues for stronger integration into the EU's security policy; even a future NATO membership is not ruled out by some ÖVP politicians (ex. Werner Fasslabend (ÖVP) in 1997).[citation needed] In reality, Austria is taking part in the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy, participates in peacekeeping and peace creating tasks, and has become a member of NATO's "Partnership for Peace"; the constitution has been amended accordingly.[117] Since Liechtenstein joined the Schengen Area in 2011, none of Austria's neighbouring countries performs border controls towards it anymore.[118]

Government and politics

The Austrian Parliament Building in Vienna

The

Parliament of Austria is located in Vienna, the country's capital and most populous city. Austria became a federal, representative democratic republic through the Federal Constitutional Law of 1920. The political system of the Second Republic with its nine federal states is based on the constitution of 1920, amended in 1929, which was re-enacted on 1 May 1945.[119]

The president of Austria is the head of state. The president is directly elected by popular majority vote, with a run-off between the top-scoring candidates if necessary. The chancellor of Austria is head of the government. The chancellor is selected by the president and tasked with forming a government based on the partisan composition of the lower house of parliament.

The government can be removed from office by either a presidential decree or by

Nationalrat. Voting for the president and for the parliament used to be compulsory in Austria. The compulsion was abolished in steps from 1982 to 2004.[120]

Austria's parliament consists of two chambers. The composition of the Nationalrat (183 seats) is determined every five years (or whenever the Nationalrat has been dissolved by the federal president on a motion by the federal chancellor, or by Nationalrat itself) by a general election in which every citizen over the age of 16 has the right to vote. The voting age was lowered from 18 in 2007.[121]

While there is a general threshold of 4% of the vote for all parties in federal elections (Nationalratswahlen) to participate in the proportional allocation of seats, there remains the possibility of being elected to a seat directly in one of the 43 regional electoral districts (Direktmandat).

The Nationalrat is the dominant chamber in the legislative process in Austria. However, the upper house of parliament, the

Bundesrat, has a limited right of veto (the Nationalrat can—in almost all cases—ultimately pass the respective bill by voting a second time; this is referred to as a Beharrungsbeschluss, lit. "vote of persistence"). A constitutional convention, called the Österreich -Konvent[122]
was convened on 30 June 2003 to consider reforms to the constitution, but failed to produce a proposal that would command a two-thirds majority in the Nationalrat, the margin necessary for constitutional amendments or reform.

While the bicameral Parliament and the Government constitute the legislative and executive branches, respectively, the courts are the third branch of Austrian state powers. The Constitutional Court (Verfassungsgerichtshof) exerts considerable influence on the political system because of its power to invalidate legislation and ordinances that are not in compliance with the constitution. Since 1995, the European Court of Justice may overrule Austrian decisions in all matters defined in laws of the European Union. Austria also implements the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights, since the European Convention on Human Rights is part of the Austrian constitution.

Since 2006

The Federal Chancellery on Ballhausplatz

After general elections held in October 2006, the Social Democratic Party (SPÖ) emerged as the strongest party, and the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) came in second, having lost about 8% of its previous polling.[123][124] Political realities prohibited any of the two major parties from forming a coalition with smaller parties. In January 2007 the People's Party and SPÖ formed a grand coalition with the social democrat Alfred Gusenbauer as Chancellor. This coalition broke up in June 2008.

Elections in September 2008 further weakened both major parties (SPÖ and ÖVP) but together they still held 70% of the votes, with the Social Democrats holding slightly more than the other party. They formed a coalition with Werner Faymann from the Social Democrats as Chancellor. The Green Party came in third with 11% of the vote. The FPÖ and the deceased Jörg Haider's new party Alliance for the Future of Austria, both on the political right, were strengthened during the election but taken together received less than 20% of the vote. On 11 October 2008, Jörg Haider died in a car accident.[125]

In the legislative elections of 2013, the Social Democratic Party received 27% of the vote and 52 seats; People's Party 24% and 47 seats, thus controlling together the majority of the seats. The Freedom Party received 40 seats and 21% of the votes, while the Greens received 12% and 24 seats. Two new parties, Stronach and the NEOS, received less than 10% of the vote, and 11 and nine seats respectively.[126]

On 17 May 2016, Christian Kern from Social Democrats (SPÖ) was sworn in as new chancellor. He continued governing in a "grand coalition" with the conservative People's Party (ÖVP). He took the office after former chancellor, also from SPÖ, Werner Faymann's resignation.[127]

On 26 January 2017, Alexander Van der Bellen was sworn in as the mostly ceremonial – but symbolically significant – role of Austrian president.[128]

After the Grand Coalition broke in Spring 2017 a snap election was proclaimed for October 2017. The Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) with its new young leader Sebastian Kurz emerged as the largest party in the National Council, winning 31.5% of votes and 62 of the 183 seats. The Social Democratic Party (SPÖ) finished second with 52 seats and 26.9% votes, slightly ahead of the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ), which received 51 seats and 26 percent. NEOS finished fourth with 10 seats (5.3% of votes), and PILZ (which split from the Green Party at the start of the campaign) entered parliament for the first time and came in fifth place with 8 seats and 4.4% The Green Party failed with 3.8% to cross the 4% threshold and was ejected from parliament, losing all of its 24 seats.[129] The ÖVP decided to form a coalition with the FPÖ. The new government between the centre-right wing and the right-wing populist party under the new chancellor Sebastian Kurz was sworn in on 18 December 2017,[130] but the coalition government later collapsed in the wake of the "Ibiza" corruption scandal[131] and new elections were called for 29 September 2019. The elections lead to another landslide victory (37.5 percent) of the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) who formed a coalition-government with the reinvigorated (13.9 percent) Greens, which was sworn in with Kurz as chancellor on 7 January 2020.[132]

On 11 October 2021, Chancellor Sebastian Kurz resigned, after pressure triggered by a corruption scandal. Foreign Minister Alexander Schallenberg of ÖVP succeeded him as chancellor.[133] Following a corruption scandal involving the ruling People's Party, Austria got its third conservative chancellor in two months after Karl Nehammer was sworn into office on 6 December 2021. His predecessor Alexander Schallenberg had left the office after less than two months. ÖVP and the Greens continued to govern together.[134]

A year after Karl Nehammer was sworn into office, Austria disagreed to Bulgaria's and Romania's accession to the Schengen Area.[135] In the two countries, the Austrian veto caused a considerable outrage. Because of the controversial vote, Romania withdrew its ambassador from Vienna.[136] Citizens of Romania were advised by the government not to travel to Austria for skiing, and a boycott against Austrian companies like OMV and Raiffeisen is still ongoing.[137]

Foreign relations

The European Parliament: Austria is one of the 27 EU members.

The 1955

Federal Assembly
passed a constitutional article in which "Austria declares of her own free will her perpetual neutrality." The second section of this law stated that "in all future times Austria will not join any military alliances and will not permit the establishment of any foreign military bases on her territory." Since then, Austria has shaped its foreign policy on the basis of neutrality, but rather different from the neutrality of Switzerland.

Austria began to reassess its definition of neutrality following the fall of the Soviet Union, granting overflight rights for the UN-sanctioned action against Iraq in 1991, and since 1995, it has developed participation in the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy. Also in 1995, it joined NATO's Partnership for Peace (although it was careful to do so only after Russia joined) and subsequently participated in peacekeeping missions in Bosnia. Meanwhile, the only part of the Constitutional Law on Neutrality of 1955 still fully valid is not to allow foreign military bases in Austria.[138] Austria signed the UN's Nuclear Weapon Ban Treaty,[139] which was opposed by all NATO members.[140]

Austria attaches great importance to participation in the

U.S. Helsinki Commission
.

Military

The manpower of the Austrian Armed Forces (Austrian German: Bundesheer) mainly relies on conscription.[141] All males who have reached the age of eighteen and are found fit have to serve a six months compulsory military service, followed by an eight-year reserve obligation. Both males and females at the age of sixteen are eligible for voluntary service.[19] Conscientious objection is legally acceptable and those who claim this right are obliged to serve an institutionalised nine months civilian service instead. Since 1998, women volunteers have been allowed to become professional soldiers.

The main sectors of the Bundesheer are Joint Forces (Streitkräfteführungskommando, SKFüKdo) which consist of Land Forces (Landstreitkräfte), Air Forces (Luftstreitkräfte), International Missions (Internationale Einsätze) and Special Forces (Spezialeinsatzkräfte), next to Joint Mission Support Command (Kommando Einsatzunterstützung; KdoEU) and Joint Command Support Centre (Führungsunterstützungszentrum; FüUZ). Austria is a landlocked country and has no navy.

Austrian Air Force Eurofighter Typhoon fighter aircraft

In 2012, Austria's defence expenditures corresponded to approximately 0.8% of its GDP. The Army currently has about 26,000[142] soldiers, of whom about 12,000 are conscripts. As head of state, the Austrian president is nominally the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. Command of the Austrian Armed Forces is exercised by the minister of defence, as of May 2020: Klaudia Tanner.

Since the end of the Cold War, and more importantly the removal of the former heavily guarded "Iron Curtain" separating Austria and its Eastern Bloc neighbours (Hungary and former Czechoslovakia), the Austrian military has been assisting Austrian border guards in trying to prevent border crossings by illegal immigrants. This assistance came to an end when Hungary and Slovakia joined the EU Schengen Area in 2008, for all intents and purposes abolishing "internal" border controls between treaty states. Some politicians have called for a prolongation of this mission, but the legality of this is heavily disputed. In accordance with the Austrian constitution, armed forces may only be deployed in a limited number of cases, mainly to defend the country and aid in cases of national emergency, such as in the wake of natural disasters.[143] They may only exceptionally be used as auxiliary police forces.

Within its self-declared status of permanent neutrality, Austria has a tradition of engaging in UN-led peacekeeping and other humanitarian missions. The Austrian Forces Disaster Relief Unit (AFDRU), in particular, an all-volunteer unit with close ties to civilian specialists (e.g. rescue dog handlers) enjoys a reputation as a quick (standard deployment time is 10 hours) and efficient SAR unit. Currently, larger contingents of Austrian forces are deployed in Bosnia and Kosovo.[citation needed]

Administrative divisions

Austria is a

Statutarstädte). Districts are subdivided into municipalities
(Gemeinden). Statutory Cities have the competencies otherwise granted to both districts and municipalities. Vienna is unique in that it is both a city and a federal state. The European Commission's Directorate-General for Translation calls the federal states provinces.

Federal state
Capital Area
(sq km)
Population
(1 Jan 2017)
Density
per km2
GDP (billion euros)
(2012 Eurostat)
GDP per
capita
Burgenland Burgenland Eisenstadt 3,965 291,942 73.6 7.311 25,600
Carinthia
Klagenfurt
9,536 561,077 58.8 17.62 31,700
Lower Austria Lower Austria Sankt Pölten 19,178 1,665,753 86.9 49.75 30,800
Salzburg (federal state) Salzburg Salzburg 7,154 549,263 76.8 23.585 44,500
Styria Styria Graz 16,401 1,237,298 75.4 40.696 33,600
Tyrol (federal state) Tyrol Innsbruck 12,648 746,153 59.0 28.052 39,400
Upper Austria Upper Austria Linz 11,982 1,465,045 122.3 53.863 38,000
Vienna Vienna 415 1,867,582 4,500 81.772 47,300
Vorarlberg Vorarlberg Bregenz 2,601 388,752 149.5 14.463 38,900
[144][145]

Geography

A topographic map of Austria showing cities with over 100,000 inhabitants
A glacial region in winter, close to the valley Ötztal in Tyrolia. The highest peak is the Wildspitze (3,768 metres (12,362 ft)), the second highest mountain in Austria.

Austria is a largely mountainous country because of its location in the Alps.[146] The Central Eastern Alps, Northern Limestone Alps, and Southern Limestone Alps are all partly in Austria. Of the total area of Austria (83,871 km2 or 32,383 sq mi), only about a quarter can be considered low lying, and only 32% of the country is below 500 metres (1,640 ft). The Alps of western Austria give way somewhat into low lands and plains in the eastern part of the country.

Austria lies between latitudes 46° and 49° N, and longitudes and 18° E.

It can be divided into five areas, the biggest being the

Vienna basin makes up the remaining 4%.[147]

Phytogeographically, Austria belongs to the Central European province of the Circumboreal Region within the Boreal Kingdom. According to the WWF, the territory of Austria can be subdivided into four ecoregions: the Central European mixed forests, Pannonian mixed forests, Alps conifer and mixed forests, and Western European broadleaf forests.[148] Austria had a 2018 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 3.55/10, ranking it 149th globally out of 172 countries.[149]

Climate

Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Austria[150]

The greater part of Austria lies in the cool/temperate

Pannonian Plain and along the Danube valley—the climate shows continental features with less rain than the alpine areas. Although Austria is cold in the winter (−10 to 0 °C), summer temperatures can be relatively high,[151] with average temperatures in the mid-20s and a highest temperature of 40.5 °C (105 °F) in August 2013.[152]

According to the

Köppen Climate Classification Austria has the following climate types: Oceanic (Cfb), Cool/Warm-summer humid continental (Dfb), Subarctic/Subalpine (Dfc), Tundra/Alpine (ET), and Ice-Cap (EF). It is important to note though that Austria may experience very cold, severe winters, but most of the time they are only around as cold as those in somewhat comparable climate zones, for example Southern Scandinavia or Eastern Europe. As well, at higher altitudes, summers are usually considerably cooler than in the valleys/lower altitudes. The subarctic and tundra climates seen around the Alps are much warmer in winter than what is normal elsewhere due in part to the Oceanic influence on this part of Europe.[152][153][154]

Economy

Kitzbühel, a famous winter tourist destination in Austria

Austria consistently ranks high in terms of

privatisation has reduced state holdings to a level comparable to other European economies. Labour movements are particularly influential, exercising large influence on labour politics and decisions related to the expansion of the economy. Next to a highly developed industry, international tourism is the most important part of the economy of Austria
.

Germany has historically been the main trading partner of Austria, making it vulnerable to rapid changes in the

German economy. Since Austria became a member state of the European Union, it has gained closer ties to other EU economies. Membership of the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market and proximity to the aspiring economies of the European Union. Growth in GDP reached 3.3% in 2006.[156] At least 67% of Austria's imports come from other European Union member states.[157]

EU single market
.

The

BayernLB. As of February 2014, the HGAA situation was unresolved,[158] causing Chancellor Werner Faymann to warn that its failure would be comparable to the 1931 Creditanstalt event.[159]

Austria indicated on 16 November 2010 that it would withhold the December installment of its contribution to the EU bailout of Greece, citing the material worsening of the Greek debt situation and the apparent inability of Greece to collect the level of tax receipts it had previously promised.[160]

Since the

Austrian companies have been quite active players and consolidators in Eastern Europe. Between 1995 and 2010, 4,868 mergers and acquisitions with a total known value of 163 billion EUR with the involvement of Austrian firms have been announced.[161] The largest transactions with involvement of Austrian companies[162] have been: the acquisition of Bank Austria by HypoVereinsbank for 7.8 billion EUR in 2000, the acquisition of Porsche Holding Salzburg by Volkswagen Group for 3.6 billion EUR in 2009,[163] and the acquisition of Banca Comercială Română by Erste Group for 3.7 billion EUR in 2005.[164]

Tourism in Austria accounts for almost 9% of its gross domestic product.[165] In 2007, Austria ranked 9th worldwide in international tourism receipts, with 18.9 billion US$.[166] In international tourist arrivals, Austria ranked 12th with 20.8 million tourists.[166]

Infrastructure and natural resources

Carinthia

In 1972 the country began construction of a nuclear power plant to produce electricity at Zwentendorf on the River Danube, following a unanimous vote in parliament. However, in 1978 a referendum voted approximately 50.5% against nuclear power, 49.5% for,[167] and parliament subsequently unanimously passed a law forbidding the use of nuclear power to generate electricity although the nuclear power plant had already finished.

Austria currently produces more than half of its electricity by hydropower.[168] Together with other renewable energy sources such as wind power, solar power, and biomass, the electricity supply from renewable energy amounts to 62.89 percent.[169]

Compared to most European countries, Austria is ecologically well endowed. Its biocapacity (or biological natural capital) is more than double of the world average: In 2016 Austria had 3.8 global hectares[170] of biocapacity per person within its territory, compared to the world average of 1.6 global hectares per person. By contrast, in 2016 they used 6.0 global hectares of biocapacity which amounts to Austria's ecological footprint of consumption. This means that Austrians use about 60% more biocapacity than Austria contains. As a result, Austria is running a biocapacity deficit.[170]

Demographics

Children in Austria, near Au, Vorarlberg

Austria's population was estimated to be nearly 9 million (8.9) in 2020 by

Statistik Austria.[171] The population of the capital, Vienna, exceeds 1.9 million[172]
(2.6 million, including the suburbs), representing about a quarter of the country's population. It is known for its cultural offerings and high standard of living.

Vienna is by far the country's largest city.

Klagenfurt
(101,303). All other cities have fewer than 100,000 inhabitants.

According to Eurostat, in 2018 there were 1.69 million foreign-born residents in Austria, corresponding to 19.2% of the total population; 928,700 (10.5%) were born outside the EU and 762,000 (8.6%) were born in another EU member state.[173] There are more than 483,100 descendants of foreign-born immigrants.[174]

Turks form one of the largest ethnic groups in Austria, numbering around 350,000.[175] 13,000 Turks were naturalised in 2003 and an unknown number have arrived in Austria at the same time. While 2,000 Turks left Austria in the same year, 10,000 immigrated to the country, confirming a strong trend of growth.[176] Together, Serbs, Croats, Bosniaks, Macedonians, and Slovenes make up about 5.1% of Austria's total population. The Council of Europe estimates that approximately 25,000 Romani people live in Austria.[177]

The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2017 was estimated at 1.52 children born per woman,[178] below the replacement rate of 2.1, it remains considerably below the high of 4.83 children born per woman in 1873.[179] In 2015, 42.1% of births were to unmarried women.[180] Austria had the 14th oldest population in the world in 2020, with the average age of 44.5 years.[181] The life expectancy in 2016 was estimated at 81.5 years (78.9 years male, 84.3 years female).[182]

Statistics Austria estimates that the population will grow to 10.55 million people by 2080 due to immigration.[183]

Largest cities

 
 
Largest cities or towns in Austria
Statistik Austria 1 January 2014
Rank
Name
Federal state Municipal pop. Rank
Name
Federal state Municipal pop.
Vienna
Vienna
Graz
Graz
1 Vienna Vienna 1,812,605 11 Wiener Neustadt Lower Austria 42,273 Linz
Linz
Salzburg
Salzburg
2 Graz Styria 269,997 12 Steyr Upper Austria 38,120
3 Linz Upper Austria 193,814 13 Feldkirch Vorarlberg 31,428
4 Salzburg Salzburg 146,631 14 Bregenz Vorarlberg 28,412
5 Innsbruck Tyrol 124,579 15 Leonding Upper Austria 26,174
6
Klagenfurt
Carinthia
96,640 16 Klosterneuburg Lower Austria 26,395
7 Villach
Carinthia
60,004 17 Baden Lower Austria 25,229
8 Wels Upper Austria 59,339 18 Wolfsberg
Carinthia
24,993
9 Sankt Pölten Lower Austria 52,145 19 Leoben Styria 24,466
10 Dornbirn Vorarlberg 46,883 20 Krems Lower Austria 24,085

Language

The school version of the 43rd edition of the Österreichisches Wörterbuch for Austrian language, 2018

The official language of current Austrian state has been

Standard High German) is usually written in Austria and Italian South Tyrol, it has been standardized in Austria since the Ministry of Education, Science and Research published the Österreichisches Wörterbuch in 1951, though used primarily just in education, publications, announcements, and websites. However, the de facto common spoken languages of Austria are not Austrian German taught in schools but Bavarian and Alemannic dialects: Two Upper German local languages or collection of dialects with varying degrees of difficulty being understood by each other as well as by speakers of non-Austrian German dialects. Taken as a collective whole, German languages or dialects are thus spoken natively by 88.6% of the population, which includes the 2.5% German-born citizens who reside in Austria, followed by Turkish (2.28%), Serbian (2.21%), Croatian (1.63%), English (0.73%), Hungarian (0.51%), Bosnian (0.43%), Polish (0.35%), Albanian (0.35%), Slovenian (0.31%), Czech (0.22%), Arabic (0.22%), and Romanian (0.21%).[185]

The Austrian federal states

Slovene are also recognized as official languages beside German in parts of Carinthia and Burgenland.[1][2]

Bilingual sign of Oberwart (in Hungarian Felsőőr) in Burgenland

According to census information published by

Statistik Austria for 2001[185] there were a total of 710,926 foreign nationals living in Austria. Of these, the largest by far are 283,334 foreign nationals from the former Yugoslavia (of whom 135,336 speak Serbian; 105,487 Croatian; 31,591 Bosnian–i.e. 272,414 Austrian resident native speakers in total, plus 6,902 Slovenian and 4,018 Macedonian
speakers).

Ethnic groups

Historically, before 1945,

Austro-Prussian war in 1866, which resulted in the dissolution of the German Confederation and the creation of the North German Confederation led by Prussia and excluding Austria. In 1871, Germany was founded as a nation-state, Austria was not a part of it. After World War I and the breakup of the Austrian monarchy, politicians of the new republic declared its name to be "Deutschösterreich" (Republic of German-Austria) and that it was part of the German Republic. A unification of the two countries was forbidden by the 1919 Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye as one of the conditions imposed by the victorious Allies of World War I upon the vanquished nation, to prevent the creation of a territorially extensive German state. In 1938, Austria became part of Nazi Germany. After the events of World War II and Nazism, Austria declared independence from Germany on 27 April 1945 and Austrian national identity has been popular in Austria since then, and nowadays Austrians do not consider themselves as Germans but as ethnic Austrians.[189]

Austrians today may be described either as a

ethnic group,[190] that is closely related to neighbouring Germans, Liechtensteiners, and German-speaking Swiss.[191] Today 91.1% of the population are regarded as ethnic Austrians.[192]

The birthplaces of foreign-born naturalised residents of Austria

The

Austro-Hungarian Empire, when Vojvodina was under Imperial control. Following World War II the number of Serbs expanded again, and today the community is very large. The Austrian Serbian Society was founded in 1936. Today, Serbs in Austria are mainly found in Vienna, Salzburg, and Graz
.

Of the remaining number of Austria's people who are of non-Austrian descent, many come from surrounding countries, especially from the former

Yugoslav wars and other conflicts, also form an important minority group in Austria. Since 1994 the Romani people and Sinti
have been an officially recognised ethnic minority in Austria.

An estimated 13,000 to 40,000

Carinthia (the Carinthian Slovenes) as well as Croats (around 30,000)[198] and Hungarians in Burgenland were recognised as a minority and have had special rights following the Austrian State Treaty (Staatsvertrag) of 1955.[111] The Slovenes in the Austrian federal state Styria (estimated at a number between 1,600 and 5,000) are not recognised as a minority and do not have special rights, although the State Treaty of 27 July 1955 states otherwise.[199]

Religion

Religion in Austria (2021)[200]

  Roman Catholicism (55.2%)
  Protestantism (3.8%)
  Old Catholicism (0.1%)
  Other Christians (4.2%)
  Islam (8.3%)
  Buddhism (0.3%)
  Hinduism (0.1%)
  Judaism (0.1%)
  Other religions (0.7%)
  Unaffiliated (22.4%)

Austria was historically a strongly Roman Catholic country as the centre of the

Protestant Reformation (begun in 1517) spread across Europe, the Habsburgs enacted measures of Counter-Reformation as early as 1527 and harshly repressed Austrian evangelicalism; only a minority of Austrians remained Protestant.[201] At least since the 1970s, a few decades after the fall of the Habsburg monarchy and the transformation of Austria into a federal republic, there has been a continuous decline of Christianity (with the exception of Orthodox churches) and a proliferation of other religions, a process which has been particularly pronounced in Vienna, with its large foreign and immigrant populations.[202]

In 2001, about 74% of Austria's population were registered as Roman Catholic,

Protestants.[203] Austrian Christians, both Roman Catholic and Protestant,[g]
are obliged to pay a mandatory membership fee (calculated by income — about 1%) to their churches; this payment is called the Kirchenbeitrag ("ecclesiastical contribution").

From the second half of the 20th century, the number of adherents and churchgoers has declined. Data for 2018 from the Austrian Roman Catholic Church list 5,050,000 members, or 56.9% of the total Austrian population, yet Sunday church attendance was only 605,828, or 7% of the total Austrian population in 2015.[204] Additionally, the Lutheran church recorded a loss of 74,421 adherents between 2001 and 2016.

The 2001 census reported that about 12% of the population declared themselves

Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Kosovo;[203] the number of Muslims doubled in the fifteen years to 2016, to 700,000,[206] and reached 745,600 in 2021.[200] In 2021, another 436,700 residents of Austria (mostly Serbs) were members of Eastern Orthodox Churches, 26,600 were Buddhists, 10,100 were Hindus, about 21,800 were active Jehovah's Witnesses, and 5,400 were Jews.[200][207]

According to the Eurobarometer 2010,[208]

  • 44% of Austrian citizens "believe there is a God";
  • 38% "believe there is some sort of spirit or life force"; and
  • 12% "do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force".

Education

Stiftsgymnasium Melk is the oldest Austrian school.

Education in Austria is entrusted partly to the Austrian federal states and partly to the national government. School attendance is compulsory for nine years, i.e. usually to the age of fifteen.

Pre-school
education (called Kindergarten in Austrian German), free in most federal states, is provided for all children between the ages of three and six years and, whilst optional, is considered a normal part of a child's education due to its high takeup rate. Maximum class size is around 30, each class normally being cared for by one qualified teacher and one assistant.

Primary education, or

streaming
.

Standard attendance times are 8 am to 12 pm or 1 pm, with hourly five- or ten-minute breaks. Children are given homework daily from the first year. Historically there has been no lunch hour, with children returning home to eat. However, due to a rise in the number of mothers in work, primary schools are increasingly offering pre-lesson and afternoon care.

The University of Vienna
The campus of the Vienna University of Economics and Business
Science Park of the University of Linz (JKU)

Secondary education consists of two main types of schools, attendance at which is based on a pupil's ability as determined by grades from the primary school. The Gymnasium caters for the more able children, in the final year of which the Matura examination is taken, which is a requirement for access to university. The Hauptschule prepares pupils for vocational education but also for various types of further education (Höhere Technische Lehranstalt HTL = institution of higher technical education; HAK = commercial academy; HBLA = institution of higher education for economic business; etc.). Attendance at one of these further education institutes also leads to the Matura. Some schools aim to combine the education available at the Gymnasium and the Hauptschule, and are known as Gesamtschulen. In addition, a recognition of the importance of learning English has led some Gymnasiums to offer a bilingual stream, in which pupils deemed able in languages follow a modified curriculum, a portion of the lesson time being conducted in English.

As at primary school, lessons at Gymnasium begin at 8 am and continue with short intervals until lunchtime or early afternoon, with children returning home to a late lunch. Older pupils often attend further lessons after a break for lunch, generally eaten at school. As at primary level, all pupils follow the same plan of work. Great emphasis is placed on homework and frequent testing. Satisfactory marks in the end-of-the-year report ("Zeugnis") are a prerequisite for moving up ("aufsteigen") to the next class. Pupils who do not meet the required standard re-sit their tests at the end of the summer holidays; those whose marks are still not satisfactory are required to re-sit the year ("sitzenbleiben").

It is not uncommon for a pupil to re-sit more than one year of school. After completing the first two years, pupils choose between one of two strands, known as "Gymnasium" (slightly more emphasis on arts) or "Realgymnasium" (slightly more emphasis on science). Whilst many schools offer both strands, some do not, and as a result, some children move schools for a second time at age 12. At age 14, pupils may choose to remain in one of these two strands, or to change to a vocational course, possibly with a further change of school. The Austrian university system had been open to any student who passed the Matura examination until recently. A 2006 bill allowed the introduction of entrance exams for studies such as Medicine. In 2001, an obligatory tuition fee ("Studienbeitrag") of €363.36 per term was introduced for all public universities. Since 2008, for all EU students the studies have been free of charge, as long as a certain time-limit is not exceeded (the expected duration of the study plus usually two terms tolerance).[209] When the time-limit is exceeded, the fee of around €363.36 per term is charged. Some further exceptions to the fee apply, e.g. for students with a year's salary of more than about €5000. In all cases, an obligatory fee of €20.20 is charged for the student union and insurance.[210]

Health

Life Expectancy in Austria over time
Life Expectancy in Austria over time

Even though Austria has a 0.9 health index and a life expectancy of 81 years,[211] the country still faces numerous problems when it comes to health, one example being that 2 in 5 Austrians have a chronic condition. Cancer is a big problem in the country, as about 21,500 people died of this condition in 2019, having lung cancer as the primary cause of cancer deaths, probably linked to several risk factors in the country's population, as it is estimated that 40% of deaths in the country are caused by smoking, dietary risks, alcohol, low physical activity, and air pollution. One of the most costly health services in the EU is located in Austria. In 2019, health spending per capita ranked third in the EU. Health-related out-of-pocket expenditures are higher than the EU average.[212]

Medical personnel

With 5.2 physician per 1,000 inhabitants Austria has among the highest physician density in OECD countries. Overall, the country has 271 hospitals with a total of 45,596 physicians (data from 2017), about 54% of which work (also or primarily) in hospitals. Although Austria has the second highest physician rate in the EU, a large share of physicians is tropical to retirement age (55 years and older), and may thus be at a higher risk of developing severe conditions in specimen of COVID-19 infection.

The number of nurses in Austria has been subject to debate in recent years with regard to definitions of qualifications and their interpretation in cross-country comparisons. A new mandatory health professional's registry was set up in 2018. However, for the elapsing of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020, compulsory registration has been suspended. This implies that professional activities in long-term superintendency are moreover possible without registration until the end of the pandemic by late spring 2022 (Transition without the pandemic is still to be defined).[213]

Culture

Music

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Austria's past as a European power and its cultural environment generated a broad contribution to various forms of art, most notably among them music.

Johann Strauss Jr., as well as members of the Second Viennese School such as Arnold Schoenberg,[220] Anton Webern,[221] and Alban Berg. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart[222] was born in Salzburg, then an independent Church Principality of the Holy Roman Empire, which later became part of Austria, and much of Mozart's career was spent in Vienna.[223]

Vienna was for a long time an important centre of musical innovation. 18th- and 19th-century composers were drawn to the city due to the patronage of the Habsburgs, and made Vienna the European capital of classical music. During the

Baroque period, Slavic and Hungarian folk forms influenced Austrian music.[223]

The Vienna State Opera

Vienna's status began its rise as a cultural centre in the early 16th century, and was focused around instruments, including the lute. Ludwig van Beethoven spent the better part of his life in Vienna. Austria's current national anthem, attributed to Mozart, was chosen after World War II to replace the traditional Austrian anthem by Joseph Haydn.[223][215]

Austrian Herbert von Karajan was principal conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic for 35 years. He is generally regarded as one of the greatest conductors of the 20th century, and he was a dominant figure in European classical music from the 1960s until his death.[224]

Cinema and theatre

Arnold Schwarzenegger, a well-known Austrian and American actor and filmmaker.

Golden Globe for his critically acclaimed film The White Ribbon
(2010).

The first Austrian director to receive an

Academy Award was Stefan Ruzowitzky. A number of Austrian actors also pursued international careers, among them Peter Lorre, Helmut Berger, Curd Jürgens, Senta Berger, Oskar Werner, and Klaus Maria Brandauer. Most notably, Hedy Lamarr and Arnold Schwarzenegger became international movie stars in Hollywood. Christoph Waltz rose to fame with his performances in Inglourious Basterds and Django Unchained, earning him the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor in 2010 and 2012. Max Reinhardt was a master of spectacular and astute theatre productions. Otto Schenk
not only excelled as a stage actor, but also as an opera director.

Science and philosophy

Kurt Gödel as a student in 1925

Austria was the cradle of numerous scientists with international reputation. Among them are

quantum physicists are Anton Zeilinger and Peter Zoller renown for important developments in quantum optics and quantum information
.

In addition to physicists, Austria was the birthplace of two of the most noteworthy philosophers of the 20th century, Ludwig Wittgenstein and Karl Popper. In addition to them, biologists Gregor Mendel and Konrad Lorenz as well as mathematician Kurt Gödel and engineers such as Ferdinand Porsche and Siegfried Marcus were Austrians. Bertha von Suttner became the first woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, and the first Austrian laureate.

A focus of Austrian science has always been medicine and psychology, starting in

Theodore Billroth, Clemens von Pirquet, and Anton von Eiselsberg have built upon the achievements of the 19th-century Vienna School of Medicine. Austria was home to Sigmund Freud, founder of psychoanalysis, Alfred Adler, founder of Individual psychology, psychologists Paul Watzlawick and Hans Asperger, and psychiatrist Viktor Frankl. Austria was ranked 18th in the Global Innovation Index in 2023.[225][226][227]

The

.

Food and beverages

Tirol Austria
Wiener Schnitzel, a traditional Austrian dish

Austria's cuisine is derived from that of the

Millirahmstrudel
" (milk-cream strudel).

In addition to native regional traditions, the cuisine has been influenced by

cuisines, from which both dishes and methods of food preparation have often been borrowed. The Austrian cuisine is therefore one of the most multicultural and transcultural in Europe.

Typical Austrian dishes include

Mannerschnitten. Austria is also famous for its Mozartkugeln and its coffee tradition. With over 8 kg per year it has the sixth highest per capita coffee consumption worldwide.[228]

Beer is sold in 0.2-litre (a Pfiff), 0.3-litre (a Seidel, kleines Bier or Glas Bier) and 0.5-litre (a Krügerl or großes Bier or Halbe) measures. At festivals one litre Maß and two-litre Doppelmaß in the Bavarian style are also dispensed. The most popular types of beer are lager (known as Märzen in Austria), naturally cloudy Zwicklbier and wheat beer. At holidays like Christmas and Easter bock beer is also available.

The most important wine-producing areas are in Lower Austria, Burgenland, Styria, and Vienna. The Grüner Veltliner grape provides some of Austria's most notable white wines[229] and Zweigelt is the most widely planted red wine grape.[230]

In

Carinthia, Most, a type of cider or perry
, is widely produced.

A

distilleries
, of which there are around 20,000 in Austria, is known as Selbstgebrannter or Hausbrand.

Local soft drinks such as Almdudler are very popular around the country as an alternative to alcoholic beverages. Another popular drink is the so-called "Spezi", a mix between Coca-Cola and the original formula of Orange Fanta or the more locally renowned Frucade.[citation needed] Red Bull, the highest-selling energy drink in the world, was introduced by Dietrich Mateschitz, an Austrian entrepreneur.

Sports

Innsbruck hosted the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics, as well as the 2012 Winter Youth Olympics, the first in history.

Due to the mountainous terrain,

Igls, which hosted bobsleigh and luge competitions for the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics held in Innsbruck. The first Winter Youth Olympics in 2012 were held in Innsbruck as well.[232]

Ski racer Franz Klammer won a gold medal at the 1976 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck.

Football in Austria is governed by the

Sturm Graz
.

Besides football, Austria also has professional national leagues for most major team sports, including the

Spanish Riding School of Vienna
is located in Vienna.

Zeltweg Airfield
.

number 1 in the ATP ranking. 2020 US Open winner Dominic Thiem is also another prominent tennis player having been as high as world number 3 and also been in the finals of the French Open and Australian Open. Other well known Austrian tennis players include Horst Skoff and Jürgen Melzer
.

Sport played a significant role in developing national consciousness and boosting national self-confidence in the early years of the Second Republic after World War II, through events such as the Tour of Austria cycle race and through sporting successes such as the national football team's run to third at the 1954 World Cup and the performances of Toni Sailer and the rest of the "Kitzbühel Miracle Team" in the 1950s.[234][235]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Based on article 8 of the 1920 Austrian constitution.
  2. ^ Croatian, Czech, Hungarian, Romani, Slovak, and Slovene are officially recognised by the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML).
  3. ^ It is standardized in Austria by the Österreichisches Wörterbuch, a dictionary published by the Ministry of Education, Science and Research.
  4. ^ a b The Republic of Austria is de jure semi-presidential according to the country's Constitution; however, it behaves more like a parliamentary republic in practice by constitutional convention, with the Chancellor being the country's leading political figure despite nominally being ranked third according to the Constitution.
  5. Austrian German: Österreich [ˈøːstɐraɪç] , Bavarian: Östareich, Alemannic German
    : Öschtreich, Eschtrych
  6. Austrian German: Republik Österreich
    Austrian German: Republik Österreich [repuˈbliːk ˈʔøːstɐraɪç]
  7. Reformed Christians

References

  1. ^ a b "Die verschiedenen Amtssprachen in Österreich". DemokratieWEBstatt.at. Archived from the original on 24 May 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2018.
  2. ^ a b "Regional Languages of Austria". Rechtsinformationssystem des Bundes. 2013. Archived from the original on 18 October 2013. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
  3. ^ "Bevölkerung nach Migrationshintergrund" (in Austrian German). www.statistik.at. Archived from the original on 31 March 2022. Retrieved 23 December 2021.
  4. ^ "Religionsbekenntnis – STATISTIK AUSTRIA – die Informationsmanager". Archived from the original on 30 September 2022. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
  5. ^ "Hofburg-Wahl: 'Österreich ist ein sehr ungewöhnlicher Fall'" (in Austrian German). 22 September 2022. Archived from the original on 3 October 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  6. ^ "Austria EN" (PDF). Migrants Refugees. The Vatican. April 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 January 2024. Retrieved 12 January 2024.
  7. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Archived from the original on 24 March 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  8. ^ "Population by Year-/Quarter-beginning". 8 June 2022. Archived from the original on 12 June 2015. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
  9. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2024 Edition. (Austria)". www.imf.org. International Monetary Fund. 16 April 2024. Archived from the original on 16 April 2024. Retrieved 16 April 2024.
  10. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". Eurostat. Archived from the original on 9 October 2020. Retrieved 21 June 2022.
  11. ^ "Human Development Report 2023/24" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 13 March 2024. p. 288. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 March 2024. Retrieved 13 March 2024.
  12. ^ "Austria". UNGEGN World Geographical Names. New York, NY: United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names. Archived from the original on 7 January 2023. Retrieved 4 January 2023.
  13. .
  14. ^ "Austria's History". www.austria.info. Retrieved 8 June 2024.
  15. ^ "Austria country profile". BBC News. 16 March 2012. Retrieved 8 June 2024.
  16. ^ "Österreich-Ungarn". www.geschichtewiki.wien.gv.at. Retrieved 8 June 2024.
  17. ^ Jelavich 267
  18. ^ a b c "Austria". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. 14 May 2009. Archived from the original on 10 January 2021. Retrieved 31 May 2009.
  19. ^ "Austria About". OECD. Archived from the original on 6 May 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2009.
  20. ^ "Austria joins Schengen". Migration News. May 1995. Archived from the original on 7 July 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2009.
  21. ^ "Austria and the euro". European Commission – European Commission. Archived from the original on 8 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
  22. ^ "University of Klagenfurt". Archived from the original on 13 May 2011. Retrieved 2 October 2009.
  23. from the original on 14 June 2018. Retrieved 14 June 2018.
  24. .
  25. ^ "What Was the Celtic "Cult of the Head"?". TheCollector. 11 February 2024. Archived from the original on 7 May 2024. Retrieved 7 May 2024.
  26. ^ "Celt | History, Institutions, & Religion | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Archived from the original on 11 July 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2024.
  27. ^ "Noricum | Celtic culture, Roman province, Alps | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Archived from the original on 25 February 2024. Retrieved 26 April 2024.
  28. ^ "Pannonia | Roman Empire, Map, Hungary, & History | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Archived from the original on 15 June 2023. Retrieved 20 May 2024.
  29. ^ "Raetia | Roman Empire, Alps, Gaul | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Archived from the original on 3 October 2023. Retrieved 20 May 2024.
  30. ^ "Rome's metropolis on the Danube awakens to new life". Archäologischer Park Carnuntum. Archäologische Kulturpark Niederösterreich Betriebsgesellschaft m.b.H. Archived from the original on 16 January 2010. Retrieved 20 February 2010.
  31. ^ Kessler, P. L. "Kingdoms of the Germanic Tribes - Rugii (Rugians)". The History Files. Retrieved 26 April 2024.
  32. ^ "Ostrogoth | Italy, Roman Empire, Arianism | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Archived from the original on 25 April 2019. Retrieved 26 April 2024.
  33. ^ a b Johnson 19
  34. ^ "Mittelalter". oesterreich.com. Archived from the original on 26 April 2024. Retrieved 26 April 2024.
  35. ^ a b Johnson 20–21
  36. ^ a b Johnson 21
  37. ^ Lonnie Johnson 23
  38. ^ a b Lonnie Johnson 25
  39. ^ a b Brook-Shepherd 11
  40. ^ Lonnie Johnson 26
  41. ^ " The Catholic encyclopedia". Charles George Herbermann (1913). Robert Appleton company.
  42. ^ "Bentley's miscellany Archived 12 March 2024 at the Wayback Machine". Charles Dickens, William Harrison Ainsworth, Albert Smith (1853).
  43. ^ Lonnie Johnson 26–28
  44. ^ Lonnie Johnson 34
  45. ^ Clodfelter
  46. ^ a b Johnson 36
  47. ^ Lonnie Johnson 55
  48. ^ Schulze 233
  49. ^ Lonnie Johnson 59
  50. ^ "Das politische System in Österreich (The Political System in Austria)" (PDF) (in German). Vienna: Austrian Federal Press Service. 2000. p. 24. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2014. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
  51. ^ Unowsky, Daniel L. (2005). The Pomp and Politics of Patriotism: Imperial Celebrations in Habsburg Austria, 1848–1916. Purdue University Press. p. 157.
  52. ^ Evan Burr Bukey, Hitler's Austria: Popular Sentiment in the Nazi Era, 1938–1945, p. 6
  53. ^ Brigitte Hamann, Hitler's Vienna: A Portrait of the Tyrant as a Young Man, p. 394
  54. ^ Suppan (2008). "'Germans' in the Habsburg Empire". The Germans and the East. pp. 164, 172.
  55. ^ "The Annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina 1908". Mtholyoke.edu. Archived from the original on 23 March 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
  56. ^ Johnson 52–54
  57. .
  58. .
  59. ^ "Austria: notes". Archontology. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  60. ^ In Habsburg Austria-Hungary, "German-Austria" was an unofficial term for the areas of the empire inhabited by Austrian Germans.
  61. ^ Alfred D. Low, The Anschluss Movement, 1918–1919, and the Paris Peace Conference, pp. 135–138.
  62. ^ Alfred D. Low, The Anschluss Movement, 1918–1919, and the Paris Peace Conference, pp. 3–4
  63. ^ Mary Margaret Ball, Post-war German-Austrian Relations: The Anschluss Movement, 1918–1936, pp. 11–15
  64. ^ Roderick Stackelberg, Hitler's Germany: Origins, Interpretations, Legacies, pp. 161–162
  65. ^ "Treaty of Peace between the Allied and Associated Powers and Austria; Protocol, Declaration and Special Declaration [1920] ATS 3". Austlii.edu.au. Archived from the original on 17 September 2000. Retrieved 15 June 2011.
  66. ^ Mary Margaret Ball, Post-war German-Austrian Relations: The Anschluss Movement, 1918–1936, pp. 18-19
  67. ^ Montserrat Guibernau, The Identity of Nations, pp. 70–75
  68. ^ Brook-Shepherd 246
  69. ^ Brook-Shepherd 245
  70. ^ Brook-Shepherd 257–258
  71. ^ a b Lonnie Johnson 104
  72. ^ a b Brook-Shepherd 269–270
  73. ^ a b Brook-Shepherd 261
  74. ^ a b Johnson 107
  75. ^ Brook-Shepherd 283
  76. ^ Lonnie Johnson 109
  77. ^ Brook-Shepherd 292
  78. .
  79. ^ a b Lonnie Johnson 112-113
  80. ^ Robert Gellately, Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany, (2001), p. 216
  81. 1938 German election and referendum
  82. ^ Evan Burr Bukey, Hitler's Austria: Popular Sentiment in the Nazi Era, 1938–1945, p. 33
  83. ^ Ian Kershaw (2001) Hitler 1936-1945" Nemesis, p.83
  84. ^ Roderick Stackelberg, Hitler's Germany: Origins, Interpretations, Legacies, p.170
  85. ^ "DÖW – Erkennen – Ausstellung – 1938 – Die Verfolgung der österreichischen Juden". www.doew.at. Archived from the original on 6 July 2022. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  86. ^ "Jüdische Gemeinde – Wien (Österreich)". www.xn—jdische-gemeinden-22b.de. Archived from the original on 10 June 2022. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  87. ^ "Jewish Vienna". www.wien.gv.at. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  88. ^ Riedl, Joachim (12 March 2018). "Hitlers willige Vasallen". Die Zeit. Archived from the original on 5 May 2022. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  89. ^ Wolfgang Häusler, Das Jahr 1938 und die österreichischen Juden. In: Dokumentationsarchiv des österreichischen Widerstandes: "Anschluß" 1938. Vienna, 1988.
  90. , p. 122.
  91. .
  92. .
  93. ^ a b David Art (2006) "The politics of the Nazi past in Germany and Austria" Cambridge University Press p.43 ISBN 9780521856836
  94. ^ Ian Wallace (1999) "German-speaking exiles in Great Britain" Rodopi p.81 ISBN 9789042004153
  95. ^ Österreichische Historikerkommission, Schlussbericht der Historikerkommission der Republik Österreich. Volume 1, 2003, pp 85.
  96. ^ Norbert Schausberger, Rüstung in Österreich 1938–1945, Vienna (1970).
  97. ^ "Hitlers Schuldendiktat: Wie Hitlers Kriegswirtschaft wirklich lief". profil.at. 26 July 2010. Archived from the original on 15 April 2021. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  98. ^ "Zwangsarbeit für die Rüstungsindustrie". www.mauthausen-memorial.org. KZ-Gedenkstätte Mauthausen. Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 21 February 2021.
  99. ^ Karl Glanz (2020) Die Sozialdemokratie p 28
  100. ^ Christoph Thurner (2017) The CASSIA Spy Ring in World War II Austria: A History of the OSS's Maier-Messner Group p. 35.
  101. ^ Elisabeth Boeckl-Klamper, Thomas Mang, Wolfgang Neugebauer, (2018) Gestapo-Leitstelle Wien 1938–1945 ISBN 9783902494832 p 299-305
  102. ^ Hansjakob Stehle, "Die Spione aus dem Pfarrhaus (German: The spies from the rectory)". In: Die Zeit, 5 January 1996
  103. ^ a b Lonnie Johnson 135-136
  104. ^ Rüdiger Overmans (2000) Deutsche militärische Verluste im Zweiten Weltkrieg Oldenbourg
  105. ^ Anschluss and World War II Archived 20 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
  106. ^ Lonnie Johnson 137
  107. ^ Manfried Rauchensteiner, Der Sonderfall. Die Besatzungszeit in Österreich 1945 bis 1955 (The Special Case. The Time of Occupation in Austria 1945 to 1955), edited by Heeresgeschichtliches Museum / Militärwissenschaftliches Institut (Museum of Army History / Institute for Military Science), Vienna 1985
  108. .
  109. ^ a b Lonnie Johnson 153
  110. ^ "The Austrian National Day". Austrian Embassy, Washington. Archived from the original on 25 October 2018. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  111. ^ Lonnie Johnson 139
  112. ^ Lonnie Johnson 165
  113. ^ "Kurt Waldheim | president of Austria and secretary-general of the United Nations". Encyclopedia Britannica. Archived from the original on 26 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  114. ^ Brook-Shepherd 447,449
  115. ^ "Signatures of Partnership for Peace Framework Document". North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 5 October 2006. Archived from the original on 29 November 2006. Retrieved 17 February 2024.
  116. ^ "Press corner". European Commission – European Commission. Archived from the original on 4 February 2022. Retrieved 9 December 2021.
  117. ^ Lonnie Johnson 17, 142
  118. ^ "Bundesministerium für Inneres – Elections Compulsory voting". Bmi.gv.at. Archived from the original on 3 November 2007. Retrieved 3 January 2009.
  119. ^ "The Austrian Parliament" (PDF). Parlament.gv.at. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 April 2022. Retrieved 22 November 2021.
  120. ^ "Willkommen beim Österreich Konvent". Konvent.gv.at. Archived from the original on 4 January 2009. Retrieved 21 November 2008.
  121. ^ "24 November 2002 General Election Results – Austria Totals". Election Resources on the Internet. 2006. Archived from the original on 7 July 2009. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  122. ^ "October 1st, 2006 General Election Results – Austria Totals". Election Resources on the Internet. 2006. Archived from the original on 7 July 2009. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  123. TheGuardian.com. 11 October 2008. Archived
    from the original on 21 June 2012. Retrieved 10 December 2021.
  124. ^ "Election Resources on the Internet: Federal Elections in Austria – Nationalrat Results Lookup". www.electionresources.org. Archived from the original on 20 October 2021. Retrieved 9 December 2021.
  125. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche (17 May 2016). "Austria's Christian Kern sworn in as new chancellor | DW | 17 May 2016". DW.COM. Archived from the original on 10 December 2021. Retrieved 10 December 2021.
  126. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche (26 January 2017). "Van der Bellen takes office as Austrian president | DW | 26 January 2017". DW.COM. Archived from the original on 10 December 2021. Retrieved 10 December 2021.
  127. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche (15 October 2017). "Austrian elections: Sebastian Kurz becomes youngest leader". DW.COM. Archived from the original on 9 December 2021. Retrieved 9 December 2021.
  128. ^ "Muted protests in Vienna as far-right ministers enter Austria's government". the Guardian. 18 December 2017. Archived from the original on 9 December 2021. Retrieved 9 December 2021.
  129. ^ "Austrian government collapses after far-right minister fired". the Guardian. 20 May 2019. Archived from the original on 25 November 2020. Retrieved 9 December 2021.
  130. ^ "Austrian elections: support for far-right collapses". the Guardian. 29 September 2019. Archived from the original on 9 December 2021. Retrieved 9 December 2021.
  131. ^ "Sebastian Kurz: Austrian leader resigns amid corruption inquiry". BBC News. 9 October 2021. Archived from the original on 9 October 2021. Retrieved 10 December 2021.
  132. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche (6 December 2021). "Austria: Karl Nehammer sworn in as new chancellor | DW | 6 December 2021". DW.COM. Archived from the original on 12 April 2022. Retrieved 10 December 2021.
  133. ^ "Austria blocks Schengen accession of Romania and Bulgaria, while Croatia gets green light". euronews. 9 December 2022. Archived from the original on 10 February 2023. Retrieved 17 February 2023.
  134. ^ "Romania Recalls Ambassador Hurezeanu From Austria. MAE: Relations Will Be Diminished". Romania Journal. 9 December 2022. Archived from the original on 17 February 2023. Retrieved 17 February 2023.
  135. ^ "Romanians started boycott against Austrian companies". The Conservative. 21 December 2022. Archived from the original on 17 February 2023. Retrieved 17 February 2023.
  136. ^ "Austria's Permanent Neutrality". New Austrian Information. 16 December 2015. Archived from the original on 13 February 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  137. ^ "Chapter XXVI: Disarmament – No. 9 Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons". United Nations Treaty Collection. 6 July 2019. Archived from the original on 6 August 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  138. ^ "122 countries adopt 'historic' UN treaty to ban nuclear weapons". CBC News. 7 July 2017. Archived from the original on 14 August 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  139. ^ Prodhan, Georgina (20 January 2013). "Neutral Austria votes to keep military draft". Reuters. Archived from the original on 8 February 2021. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  140. ^ "Defence Data". europa.eu. Archived from the original on 3 June 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  141. ^ "Austria 1920 (reinst. 1945, rev. 2013)". Constitute. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 17 March 2015.
  142. ^ "Eurostat – Data Explorer". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2011.
  143. ^ "Statistik Austria – Bevölkerung zu Jahresbeginn 2002–2017 nach Gemeinden (Gebietsstand 1.1.2017)". Archived from the original on 22 March 2018. Retrieved 9 July 2018.
  144. ^ "Alps". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 11 June 2009. Archived from the original on 1 June 2009. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  145. ^ "Geography – Permanent Mission of Austria to the United Nations – Vienna". Archived from the original on 8 February 2023. Retrieved 8 February 2023.
  146. PMID 28608869
    .
  147. .
  148. .
  149. ^ "Average Conditions, Vienna, Austria". British Broadcasting Corporation. 2006. Archived from the original on 2 December 2010. Retrieved 24 May 2009.
  150. ^ a b "Austrian Meteorological Institute". Archived from the original on 12 August 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
  151. ^ "Climate-Data.org". Archived from the original on 15 April 2017. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
  152. .
  153. ^ "Real GDP Gwoth". International Monetary Fund. Archived from the original on 14 November 2020. Retrieved 4 December 2023.
  154. ^ "GDP Growth – Expenditure Side by the Oesterreichische Nationalbank". Archived from the original on 4 December 2023. Retrieved 4 December 2023.
  155. ^ "OEC Austria (AUT) Exports, Imports, and Trade Partners". atlas.media.mit.edu. Archived from the original on 13 March 2016. Retrieved 12 March 2016.
  156. ^ Groendahl, Boris (15 February 2014). "Hypo Alpe Debt Cut Four Steps as Insolvency Not Ruled Out". Bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on 24 October 2014. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  157. ^ Groendahl, Boris (17 February 2014). "Faymann Evokes 1931 Austria Creditanstalt Crash on Hypo Alpe". Bloomberg.com. Archived from the original on 24 October 2014. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  158. ^ Mark (16 November 2010). "Mark's Market Analysis". Marksmarketanalysis.com. Archived from the original on 14 July 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
  159. ^ "Statistics on Mergers & Acquisitions (M&A)". Imaa-institute.org. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
  160. ^ "Statistics on Mergers & Acquisitions". Imaa-institute.org. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
  161. ^ Ramsey, Jonathon. "Volkswagen takes 49.9 percent stake in Porsche AG". Autoblog.com. Archived from the original on 10 August 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
  162. ^ [1] Archived 9 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  163. ^ "TOURISMUS IN ÖSTERREICH 2007" (PDF) (in German). BMWA, WKO, Statistik Austria. May 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 December 2008. Retrieved 18 November 2008.
  164. ^ a b "UNTWO World Tourism Barometer, Vol.6 No.2" (PDF). UNTWO. June 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 October 2008. Retrieved 18 November 2008.
  165. ^ Lonnie Johnson 168–169
  166. ^ "Austria Renewable Energy Fact Sheet" (PDF). Europe's Energy Portal. 23 January 2008. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2009.
  167. ^ "Renewable energy in Europe". Europe's Energy Portal. 2006. Archived from the original on 20 May 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2009.
  168. ^ a b "Country Trends". Global Footprint Network. Archived from the original on 8 August 2017. Retrieved 16 October 2019.
  169. ^ Statistik Austria. "STATISTIK AUSTRIA – Presse". statistik.at. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
  170. ^ "Probezählung 2006 – Bevölkerungszahl" (PDF). Statistik Austria (in German). 31 October 2006. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 27 May 2009.
  171. ^ "Migration and migrantpopulation statistics" (PDF). www.ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 January 2020. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  172. ^ "Population – Austria". Austrian Press & Information Service in the United States, Embassy of Austria. Archived from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  173. ^ "Turkey's ambassador to Austria prompts immigration spat". BBC News. 10 November 2010. Archived from the original on 19 September 2017. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  174. ^ Bell, Bethany (24 December 2002). "Europe | Back to school for Austria immigrants". BBC News. Archived from the original on 23 May 2003. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
  175. ^ "Austria - European Commission". Archived from the original on 6 October 2023. Retrieved 22 September 2023.
  176. ^ AUSTRIA, STATISTIK. "Bevölkerung". Statistik.at. Archived from the original on 19 March 2015. Retrieved 24 August 2017.
  177. ^ Roser, Max (2014), "Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last two centuries", Our World in Data, Gapminder Foundation, archived from the original on 2 May 2023, retrieved 2 May 2023
  178. ^ "Eurostat – Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". ec.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 27 May 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
  179. ^ "Median age – The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 23 May 2021. Retrieved 15 August 2022.
  180. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
  181. ^ "Population Forecasts" (PDF). www.statistik.at. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 November 2022. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  182. ^ "Bundes-Verfassungsgesetz Art. 8 (Austrian Constitution)" (in German). 23 November 2023. Archived from the original on 11 November 2020. Retrieved 26 November 2023.
  183. ^ a b "Die Bevölkerung nach Umgangssprache, Staatsangehörigkeit und Geburtsland" (PDF). Statistik Austria. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 November 2010. Retrieved 17 November 2010.
  184. from the original on 28 September 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
  185. from the original on 28 September 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
  186. from the original on 28 September 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2015.
  187. ^ "Österreicher fühlen sich heute als Nation". Derstandard.at. 12 March 2008. Archived from the original on 10 October 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2013.
  188. from the original on 21 March 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2013.
  189. ^ Cole, Jeffrey. Ethnic groups of Europe. p. 23.
  190. ^ "Austria – people and society – ethnic groups". CIA – The world fact book. Archived from the original on 10 January 2021. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
  191. ^ "World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Austria: Turks" Archived 29 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Minority Rights Group International, World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Austria: Turks, 2008. Online. UNHCR Refworld
  192. ^ "Beč: Božić na gastarbajterski način | Evropa | Deutsche Welle | 07.01.2010". Dw-world.de. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 25 April 2010.
  193. ^ Palić, Svetlana (17 July 2011). "Četiri miliona Srba našlo uhlebljenje u inostranstvu". Blic. Archived from the original on 26 October 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2016. Austriji (300.000)
  194. ^ "Serben-Demo eskaliert in Wien". 20 Minuten. 20 Minuten Online. 2008. Archived from the original on 23 February 2012. Retrieved 28 April 2016.
  195. ^ "Srbi u Austriji traže status nacionalne manjine". Blic. 2 October 2010. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved 28 April 2016. "Srba u Austriji ima oko 300.000, po brojnosti su drugi odmah iza Austrijanaca i više ih je od Slovenaca, Mađara i Gradištanskih Hrvata zajedno, koji po državnom ugovoru iz 1955. godine imaju status nacionalne manjine u Austriji", navodi se u saopštenju.
  196. ^ "HKDC Geschichte – Frame". Croates.at. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2008.
  197. ^ "State Treaty (with annexes and maps) for the re-establishment of an independent and democratic Austria. Signed at Vienna, on 15 May 1955 - dipublico.org". www.dipublico.org (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 16 April 2021. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
  198. ^ a b c d "Religionszugehörigkeit 2021: drei Viertel bekennen sich zu einer Religion" [2021 religious affiliation: three fourths profess a religion] (PDF) (with comparative data from the censuses from 1951 to 2021). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 August 2022.
  199. ^ from the original on 12 March 2024. Retrieved 2 February 2023.
  200. (PDF) on 7 January 2022.
  201. ^ a b c d "Census 2001: Population 2001 according to religious affiliation and nationality" (PDF) (in German). Statistik Austria. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 November 2007. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
  202. ^ "Katholische Kirche Österreichs, Statistik". Archived from the original on 14 March 2013. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  203. ^ Church data Archived 16 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine retrieved 14 January 2015
  204. ^ Zahl der Muslime in Österreich seit 2001 verdoppelt Archived 20 September 2017 at the Wayback Machine diepresse.com, 4 August 2017.
  205. ^ "Fast Facts—Austria". Jehovah's Witnesses (JW.ORG). Archived from the original on 18 May 2022. Retrieved 15 August 2022.
  206. ^ "Special Eurobarometer, biotechnology, page 204" (PDF) (Fieldwork: Jan–Feb 2010 ed.). Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2010. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  207. ^ "Studying in Austria: Tuition Fee". Help.gv.at. 1 January 2009. Archived from the original on 1 May 2009. Retrieved 18 June 2009.
  208. ^ "HÖHE DES ÖH-BEITRAGES?". www.oeh.ac.at (in German). Archived from the original on 3 March 2020. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
  209. ^ "STC Health Index". globalresidenceindex.com. Archived from the original on 5 September 2022. Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  210. .
  211. ^ "Austria: Health System Personnel". World Health Systems Facts. Archived from the original on 5 September 2022. Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  212. ^ "Austria - Music, Art, Theater | Britannica". Archived from the original on 18 February 2024. Retrieved 18 February 2024.
  213. ^ a b "Joseph Haydn | Biography, Compositions, & Facts | Britannica". 23 January 2024. Archived from the original on 31 October 2023. Retrieved 18 February 2024.
  214. ^ "Michael Haydn | Austrian composer, symphonies, operas | Britannica". Archived from the original on 3 July 2019. Retrieved 18 February 2024.
  215. ^ "Franz Liszt | Biography, Music, Compositions, Famous Works, Children, & Facts | Britannica". 16 February 2024. Archived from the original on 27 November 2023. Retrieved 18 February 2024.
  216. ^ "Franz Schubert | Biography, Music, & Facts | Britannica". 27 January 2024. Archived from the original on 19 December 2023. Retrieved 18 February 2024.
  217. ^ "Anton Bruckner | Austrian Composer & Romantic Symphony Writer | Britannica". 19 February 2024. Archived from the original on 30 November 2023. Retrieved 18 February 2024.
  218. ^ "Arnold Schoenberg | Biography, Compositions, & Facts | Britannica". March 2024. Archived from the original on 13 June 2015. Retrieved 18 February 2024.
  219. ^ "Anton Webern | Austrian Composer & 12-Tone Pioneer | Britannica". Archived from the original on 7 March 2024. Retrieved 18 February 2024.
  220. ^ "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart | Biography, Music, the Magic Flute, & Facts | Britannica". 8 February 2024. Archived from the original on 5 July 2022. Retrieved 18 February 2024.
  221. ^ a b c "Vienna - Culture, Music, Art | Britannica". Archived from the original on 18 February 2024. Retrieved 18 February 2024.
  222. ^ Rockwell, John (17 July 1989). "Herbert von Karajan Is Dead; Musical Perfectionist was 81". The New York Times. pp. A1. Archived from the original on 12 July 2018. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
  223. from the original on 22 October 2023. Retrieved 23 October 2023.
  224. ^ "RTD – Item". ec.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 2 September 2021. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
  225. ^ "Global Innovation Index". INSEAD Knowledge. 28 October 2013. Archived from the original on 2 September 2021. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
  226. ^ Jones, Lora (13 April 2018). "Coffee: Who grows, drinks and pays the most?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 13 June 2018. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  227. ^ "Gruner Veltliner Wine". Wine-Searcher. Archived from the original on 1 March 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
  228. ^ "Zweigelt Wine". Wine-Searcher. Archived from the original on 7 February 2014. Retrieved 2 June 2014.
  229. S2CID 144319167
    .
  230. ^ "YOG Innsbruck 2012: Relive the announcement". International Olympic Committee. 12 December 2008. Archived from the original on 16 December 2008. Retrieved 24 December 2008.
  231. ^ "Österreichischer Fußballbund". ÖFB (in German). 2009. Archived from the original on 28 June 2009. Retrieved 17 June 2009.
  232. S2CID 145300546
    .
  233. ^ Norden, Gilbert (Spring 2001). "Austrian Sport Museums" (PDF). Journal of Sport History. 28 (1): 87–107. Archived (PDF) from the original on 14 January 2017. Retrieved 3 January 2017.

Bibliography

External links

Government
Trade
Travel

47°20′N 13°20′E / 47.333°N 13.333°E / 47.333; 13.333