Malaysia

Coordinates: 2°N 112°E / 2°N 112°E / 2; 112
This is a good article. Click here for more information.
Page semi-protected
Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Malaysia
  • مليسيا‎ (Jawi)
Motto: Bersekutu Bertambah Mutu
Ethnic groups
(2023)[2][3]
Religion
(2020)
Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King)
Ibrahim Iskandar
Anwar Ibrahim
Mutang Tagal
Johari Abdul
Tengku Maimun Tuan Mat
Legislature
North Borneo self-governance
31 August 1963[7]
16 September 1963
+60
ISO 3166 codeMY
Internet TLD.my

Malaysia (UK: /məˈlziə/ mə-LAY-zee-ə; US: /məˈlʒə/ mə-LAY-zhə; Malay: [malɛjsia] ) is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of 13 states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two regions: Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo's East Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia, as well as a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital, the country's largest city, and the seat of the legislative branch of the federal government.

43rd-most populous country. Malaysia is tropical and is one of 17 megadiverse countries; it is home to numerous endemic species. Tanjung Piai in the Malaysian state of Johor is the southernmost point of continental Eurasia
.

The country has its origins in the

World War Two, British Malaya, along with other nearby British and American colonies, was occupied by the Empire of Japan.[15] Following three years of occupation, Peninsular Malaysia was unified as the Malayan Union in 1946 and then restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948. The country achieved independence on 31 August 1957. On 16 September 1963, independent Malaya united with the then British crown colonies of North Borneo, Sarawak, and Singapore to become Malaysia. In August 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation and became a separate, independent country.[16]

The country is

official religion, the constitution grants freedom of religion to non-Muslims. The government is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system, and the legal system is based on common law. The head of state is an elected monarch, chosen from among the nine state sultans every five years. The head of government is the prime minister
.

After independence, the

(APEC).

Etymology

English Map of Southeast Asia, "MALAYSIA" typeset horizontally so that the letters run across the northernmost corner of Borneo and pass just south of the Philippines.
Malaysia used as a label for the Malay Archipelago on a 1914 map from a United States atlas

The name

Geographia that used the name Malayu Kulon for the west coast of Golden Chersonese, and the 7th-century Yijing's account of Malayu.[23]

At some point, the

ethnoreligious identity in Malacca, with the term Melayu beginning to appear as interchangeable with Melakans. It may have specifically referred to local Malays speakers thought loyal to the Malaccan Sultan. The initial Portuguese use of Malayos reflected this, referring only to the ruling people of Malacca. The prominence of traders from Malacca led Melayu to be associated with Muslim traders, and from there became associated with the wider cultural and linguistic group.[23] Malacca and later Johor claimed they were the centre of Malay culture, a position supported by the British which led to the term Malay becoming more usually linked to the Malay peninsula rather than Sumatra.[30]

Before the onset of European colonisation, the Malay Peninsula was known natively as

Austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula and portions of the adjacent islands of Southeast Asia, including the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, and smaller islands that lie between these areas.[37]

The state that gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1957 took the name the Federation of Malaya, chosen in preference to other potential names such as Langkasuka, after the historic kingdom located at the upper section of the Malay Peninsula in the first millennium CE.[38][39] The name Malaysia was adopted in 1963 when the existing states of the Federation of Malaya, plus Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak formed a new federation.[40][d] One theory posits the name was chosen so that si represented the inclusion of Singapore, North Borneo, and Sarawak to Malaya in 1963.[40] Politicians in the Philippines contemplated renaming their state Malaysia before the modern country took the name.[42]

History

Map showing the extent of the Malacca Sultanate, covering much of the Malay Peninsula and some of Sumatra
The Malacca Sultanate played a major role in spreading Islam throughout the Malay Archipelago.

Evidence of modern human habitation in Malaysia dates back 40,000 years.

Parameswara, a runaway king of the former Kingdom of Singapura linked to the old Srivijayan court, founded the Malacca Sultanate.[51] The spread of Islam increased following Parameswara's conversion to that religion. Malacca was an important commercial centre during this time, attracting trade from around the region.[52]

Dutch fleet vs Portuguese armada
The Dutch fleet battling with the Portuguese armada as part of the Dutch–Portuguese War in 1606 to gain control of Malacca

In 1511,

Sultan of Brunei and the Sultan of Sulu transferred their respective territorial rights of ownership, between 1877 and 1878.[56] In 1842, Sarawak was ceded by the Sultan of Brunei to James Brooke, whose successors ruled as the White Rajahs over an independent kingdom until 1946, when it became a crown colony.[57]

In the

British possessions in the Malay Peninsula with the exception of Singapore, was quickly dissolved and replaced on 1 February 1948 by the Federation of Malaya, which restored the autonomy of the rulers of the Malay states under British protection.[60]

Leader of the Malayan Communist Party Lee Meng holding a rifle during the Malayan Emergency, 1951

During this time, the mostly ethnically Chinese rebels under the leadership of the Malayan Communist Party launched guerrilla operations designed to force the British out of Malaya. The Malayan Emergency (1948–1960) involved a long anti-insurgency campaign by Commonwealth troops in Malaya.[61] On 31 August 1957, Malaya became an independent member of the Commonwealth of Nations.[62] Subsequently, a comprehensive plan was devised to unite Malaya with the crown colonies of North Borneo (known as Sabah upon joining), Sarawak, and Singapore. The envisioned federation was originally intended to take place on 31 August 1963, to coincide with the commemoration of Malayan independence. However, due to the necessity of conducting a survey on the level of support for the federation in Sabah and Sarawak by the United Nations, as requested by opponents of the federation such as Indonesia's Sukarno and the Sarawak United Peoples' Party, the date of the federation was postponed until 16 September 1963. This delay allowed sufficient time for the completion of the aforementioned survey.[63][64]

The federation brought heightened tensions including a

Tun Abdul Razak, trying to increase the share of the economy held by the bumiputera.[68] Under Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad there was a period of rapid economic growth and urbanization beginning in the 1980s. The economy shifted from being agriculturally based to one based on manufacturing and industry. Numerous mega-projects were completed, such as the Petronas Towers, the North–South Expressway, the Multimedia Super Corridor, and the new federal administrative capital of Putrajaya.[40]

In the late 1990s, the

a political crisis that coincided with health and economic crises caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.[72] This was then followed by an earlier general election in November 2022, which resulted in the first hung parliament in the nation's history.[73] On 24 November 2022, Anwar Ibrahim was sworn in as the 10th Prime Minister of Malaysia, leading a grand coalition government.[74]

Government and politics

White tall building and two arches
The Parliament of Malaysia, the building that houses the members of the Dewan Rakyat

Malaysia is a

Malay states. The other four states, which have titular Governors, do not participate in the selection. By informal agreement the position is rotated among the nine,[76] and has been held by Ibrahim Iskandar of Johor since 31 January 2024. The King's role has been largely ceremonial since changes to the constitution in 1994, picking ministers and members of the upper house.[77]

Legislative power is divided between federal and state legislatures. The bicameral federal

Senate.[78] The 222-member House of Representatives is elected for a maximum term of five years from single-member constituencies. All 70 senators sit for three-year terms; 26 are elected by the 13 state assemblies, and the remaining 44 are appointed by the King upon the Prime Minister's recommendation.[52] The parliament follows a multi-party system and the government is elected through a first-past-the-post system.[52][79] Parliamentary elections are held at least once every five years,[52] the most recent of which took place in May 2018.[71] Before 2018, registered voters aged 21 and above could vote for the members of the House of Representatives and, in most of the states, for the state legislative chamber. Voting is not mandatory.[80] In July 2019, a bill to lower the voting age to 18 years old was officially passed.[81]

Large building with a series of flags in front of it
The Perdana Putra houses the office of Malaysia's Prime Minister.

political crisis in 2020. In March 2020, the Perikatan Nasional (PN) coalition formed under Prime Minister Muhyiddin Yassin,[82] before Muhyiddin lost majority support and was replaced by deputy Prime Minister Ismail Sabri Yaakob, a veteran politician from the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), in August 2021.[83][84] As a result of the 2022 Malaysian general election, a hung parliament was elected. Anwar Ibrahim of the PH coalition was appointed as the new Prime Minister to lead the coalition government of PH, Barisan Nasional, Gabungan Parti Sarawak, Gabungan Rakyat Sabah
and several other political parties and independents. Meanwhile, PN, the only political coalition not in the coalition government became the Opposition.

high courts, one for Peninsular Malaysia and one for East Malaysia. Malaysia also has a special court to hear cases brought by or against royalty.[86]

Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party with the support of UMNO state assemblymen in the state legislative assembly of Kelantan have been blocked by the federal government on the basis that criminal laws are the responsibility of the federal government.[90][91][92]

After UMNO lost power at the

Press Freedom Index increased by 22 places to 101st compared to the previous year, making it one of two countries in Southeast Asia without a 'Difficult situation' or 'Very Serious situation' with regards to press freedom.[94] However, it fell 18 places the following year due to the policies of the PN government.[95]

Malaysia is marked at 48th and 62nd place according to the 2021 Corruption Perceptions Index, indicating above average levels of corruption. Freedom House noted Malaysia as "partly free" in its 2018 survey.[96] A lawsuit filed by the Department of Justice alleged that at least $3.5 billion involving former prime minister Najib Razak had been stolen from Malaysia's 1MDB state-owned fund, known as the 1Malaysia Development Berhad scandal.[97][98][99]

Administrative divisions

Malaysia is a

districts, which are then divided into mukim. In Sabah and Sarawak districts are grouped into divisions.[101]

Governance of the states is divided between the federal and the state governments, with different powers reserved for each, and the Federal government has direct administration of the federal territories.

Chief Ministers,[52] who are state assembly members from the majority party in the assembly. In each of the states with a hereditary ruler, the Chief Minister is normally required to be a Malay, appointed by the ruler upon the recommendation of the Prime Minister.[103] Except for state elections in Sarawak, by convention state elections are held concurrently with the federal election.[77]

Lower-level administration is carried out by local authorities, which include city councils, district councils, and municipal councils, although autonomous statutory bodies can be created by the federal and state governments to deal with certain tasks.[104] The federal constitution puts local authorities outside of the federal territories under the exclusive jurisdictions of the state government,[105] although in practice the federal government has intervened in the affairs of state local governments.[106] There are 154 local authorities, consisting of 14 city councils, 38 municipal councils and 97 district councils.

The 13 states are based on historical Malay kingdoms, and 9 of the 11 Peninsular states, known as the

royalties have occasionally led to statements about secession from leaders in several states such as Penang, Johor, Kelantan, Sabah and Sarawak, although these have not been followed up and no serious independence movements exist.[111][112][113][114]

States

A list of thirteen states and each state capital (in parentheses):

Federal territories
  1. Kuala Lumpur Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur
  2. Labuan Federal Territory of Labuan
  3. Putrajaya Federal Territory of Putrajaya

Foreign relations and military

With Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad
Former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad meeting with US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo at the Prime Minister's Office in Putrajaya, 2018

A founding member of ASEAN[115] and OIC,[116] the country participates in many international organisations such as the United Nations (U.N.),[117] APEC,[118] the D-8 Organization for Economic Cooperation,[119] and NAM.[120] It has chaired ASEAN, OIC, and NAM in the past.[52] A former British colony, it is also a member of the Commonwealth.[121] Kuala Lumpur was the site of the first EAS in 2005.[122]

Malaysia's foreign policy is officially based on the principle of neutrality and maintaining peaceful relations with all countries, regardless of their political system.[123] The government attaches a high priority to the security and stability of Southeast Asia,[122] and seeks to further develop relations with other countries in the region. Historically the government has tried to portray Malaysia as a progressive Islamic nation[123] while strengthening relations with other Islamic states.[122] A strong tenet of Malaysia's policy is national sovereignty and the right of a country to control its domestic affairs.[77] Malaysia signed the U.N. treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.[124][125]

The Spratly Islands are disputed by many states in the area, and a large portion of the South China Sea is claimed by China. Unlike its neighbours of Vietnam and the Philippines, Malaysia historically avoided conflicts with China.[126] However, after the encroachment of Chinese ships in Malaysian territorial waters,[127] and breach of airspace by their military aircraft, Malaysia has become active in condemning China.[128][129] Brunei and Malaysia in 2009 announced an end to claims of each other's land, and committed to resolve issues related to their maritime borders.[130] The Philippines has a dormant claim to the eastern part of Sabah.[131] Singapore's land reclamation has caused tensions,[132] and minor maritime and land border disputes exist with Indonesia.[131][133]

PT-91M MBT tank; and Malaysian Army paratrooper with M4

The Malaysian Armed Forces have three branches: the Malaysian Army, Royal Malaysian Navy and the Royal Malaysian Air Force. There is no conscription, and the required age for voluntary military service is 18. The military uses 1.5% of the country's GDP, and employs 1.23% of Malaysia's manpower.[134] Malaysian peacekeeping forces have contributed to many U.N. peacekeeping missions, such as in Congo, Iran–Iraq, Namibia, Cambodia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Somalia, Kosovo, East Timor and Lebanon.[52][135]

The

southern Philippines[citation needed] and southern Thailand[146] would spill over into Malaysia. Because of this, Malaysia began to increase its border security.[citation needed
]

Human rights

Homosexuality is illegal in Malaysia,[147][148] and authorities have imposed punishments such as caning and imprisonment.[149][150] Human trafficking and sex trafficking in Malaysia are significant problems.[151][152] There have also been cases of vigilante executions and beatings against LGBT individuals in Malaysia.[153][154] The illegality of homosexuality in Malaysia has also been the forefront of Anwar Ibrahim's sodomy trials, which Anwar has called politically motivated, a characterization supported by the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, along with Amnesty International and the Human Rights Watch.[155][156][157]

The

Wan Junaidi pledged to abolish capital punishment and replace it with other punishments at the discretion of the court.[160]

In July 2023, The 1975 lead singer Matty Healy slammed the country's anti-LGBTQ laws by kissing a bandmate on stage at a music festival in Kuala Lumpur causing the Ministry of Communications and Digital to cancel the 3 day event.[161]

Geography

Relief map of Malaysia
Topographic map of Malaysia; Mount Kinabalu is the highest summit in the country.

Malaysia is the

66th largest country by total land area, with a total area of 330,803 km2 (127,724 sq mi).[8] It has land borders with Thailand in West Malaysia, and Indonesia and Brunei in East Malaysia.[162] It is linked to Singapore by a narrow causeway and a bridge. The country also has maritime boundaries with Vietnam[163] and the Philippines.[164] The land borders are defined in large part by geological features such as the Perlis River, the Golok River and the Pagalayan Canal, whilst some of the maritime boundaries are the subject of ongoing contention.[162] Brunei forms what is almost an enclave in Malaysia,[165] with the state of Sarawak dividing it into two parts. Malaysia is the only country with territory on both the Asian mainland and the Malay archipelago.[166] The Strait of Malacca, lying between Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia, is one of the most important thoroughfares in global commerce, carrying 40 per cent of the world's trade.[167]

The two parts of Malaysia, separated from each other by the South China Sea, share a largely similar landscape in that both Peninsular and East Malaysia feature coastal plains rising to hills and mountains.[162] Peninsular Malaysia, containing 40 per cent of Malaysia's land area,[166] extends 740 km (460 mi) from north to south, and its maximum width is 322 km (200 mi).[168] It is divided between its east and west coasts by the Titiwangsa Mountains,[169] rising to a peak elevation of 2,183 metres (7,162 ft) at Mount Korbu,[170] part of a series of mountain ranges running down the centre of the peninsula.[166] These mountains are heavily forested,[citation needed] and mainly composed of granite and other igneous rocks. Much of it has been eroded, creating a karst landscape.[166] The range is the origin of some of Peninsular Malaysia's river systems.[citation needed] The coastal plains surrounding the peninsula reach a maximum width of 50 kilometres (31 mi), and the peninsula's coastline is nearly 1,931 km (1,200 mi) long, although harbours are only available on the western side.[168]

East Malaysia, on the island of

Kinabalu National Park, which is protected as one of the four UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Malaysia.[173] The highest mountain ranges form the border between Malaysia and Indonesia. Sarawak contains the Mulu Caves, the largest cave system in the world, in the Gunung Mulu National Park which is also a World Heritage Site.[166] The largest river in Malaysia is the Rajang
.

Around these two halves of Malaysia are numerous islands, the largest of which is Banggi.[174] The local climate is equatorial and characterised by the annual southwest (April to October) and northeast (October to February) monsoons.[168] The temperature is moderated by the presence of the surrounding oceans.[166] Humidity is usually high, and the average annual rainfall is 250 cm (98 in).[168] The climates of the Peninsula and the East differ, as the climate on the peninsula is directly affected by wind from the mainland, as opposed to the more maritime weather of the East. Local climates can be divided into three regions, highland, lowland, and coastal.[166] Climate change will cause sea level rise and increased rainfall, increasing flood risks and leading to droughts.[175]

Biodiversity and conservation

Tiger
Hornbill
Monkey
Hawksbill
Native species in Malaysia, clockwise from top: Malayan tiger; oriental pied hornbills; hawksbill sea turtle; and proboscis monkey

Malaysia signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 12 June 1993, and became a party to the convention on 24 June 1994.[176] It has subsequently produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, which was received by the convention on 16 April 1998.[177] The country is megadiverse with a high number of species and high levels of endemism.[178] It is estimated to contain 20 per cent of the world's animal species.[179] High levels of endemism are found on the diverse forests of Borneo's mountains, as species are isolated from each other by lowland forest.[166]

There are about 210 mammal species in the country.

Sipadan island are the most biodiverse in the world.[179] Bordering East Malaysia, the Sulu Sea is a biodiversity hotspot, with around 600 coral species and 1200 fish species.[184] The unique biodiversity of Malaysian Caves always attracts lovers of ecotourism from all over the world.[185]

Nearly 4,000 species of fungi, including lichen-forming species have been recorded from Malaysia. Of the two fungal groups with the largest number of species in Malaysia, the

toadstools have been studied, but Malaysian rust and smut fungi remain very poorly known. Without doubt, many more fungal species in Malaysia are yet to be recorded, and it is likely that many of those, when found, will be new to science.[186]

Red flower made of 5 petals surrounding a depressed centre, on the forest floor surrounded by dead leaves and small green plants
Some species of Rafflesia can grow up to 1 m (3 ft 3 in) in diameter, making them the largest flowers in the world.

About two thirds of Malaysia was covered in forest as of 2007,

mangroves in Malaysia,[168] and a large amount of peat forest. At higher altitudes, oaks, chestnuts, and rhododendrons replace dipterocarps.[166] There are an estimated 8,500 species of vascular plants in Peninsular Malaysia, with another 15,000 in the East.[188] The forests of East Malaysia are estimated to be the habitat of around 2,000 tree species, and are one of the most biodiverse areas in the world, with 240 different species of trees every hectare.[166] These forests host many members of the Rafflesia genus, the largest flowers in the world,[187] with a maximum diameter of 1 m (3 ft 3 in).[189]

overconsumption and the use of animal parts for profit endangering many animals, from marine life[184] to tigers.[191] Marine life is also detrimentally affected by uncontrolled tourism.[193]

The Malaysian government aims to balance economic growth with environmental protection, but has been accused of favouring big business over the environment.

28 national parks have been established, 23 in East Malaysia and five in the Peninsula.[189] Tourism has been limited in biodiverse areas such as Sipadan island.[193] Wildlife trafficking is a large issue, and the Malaysian government has held talks with the governments of Brunei and Indonesia to standardise anti-trafficking laws.[194]

Economy

Development of real GDP per capita, 1820 to 2018

Malaysia is a relatively

newly industrialised market economy.[195] It has the world's 36th-largest economy by nominal GDP and the 31st-largest by PPP. In 2017, the large service sector contributed to 53.6% of total GDP, the industrial sector 37.6%, and the small agricultural sector roughly 8.8%.[196] Malaysia has a low official unemployment rate of 3.9%.[197] Its foreign exchange reserves are the world's 24th-largest.[198] It has a labour force of about 15 million, which is the world's 34th-largest.[199] Malaysia's large automotive industry ranks as the world's 22nd-largest by production.[200]

Malaysia is the world's 23rd-largest exporter and 25th-largest importer.[201][202] However, economic inequalities exist between different ethnic groups.[203] The Chinese make up about one-quarter of the population, but account for 70 per cent of the country's market capitalisation.[204] Chinese businesses in Malaysia are part of the larger bamboo network, a network of overseas Chinese businesses in the Southeast Asian market sharing common family and cultural ties.[205]

International trade, facilitated by the shipping route in adjacent

rubber and palm oil in the world. Manufacturing has a large influence in the country's economy,[210] although Malaysia's economic structure has been moving away from it.[211] Malaysia remains one of the world's largest producers of palm oil.[212]

World Tourism Organization, Malaysia was the fourteenth-most visited country in the world, and the fourth-most visited country in Asia in 2019, with over 26.1 million visits.[214] Malaysia was ranked 38th in the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report 2019.[215] Its international tourism receipts in 2019 amounted to $19.8 billion.[214]

The country has developed into a centre of

Islamic banking, and has the highest numbers of female workers in that industry.[216] Knowledge-based services are also expanding.[211] In 2020, Malaysian exported high-tech products worth $92.1 billion, the second-highest in the ASEAN, after Singapore.[217] Malaysia was ranked 36th in the Global Innovation Index in 2023, and 32nd in the Global Competitiveness Report in 2022.[218][219]

Infrastructure

Railway transport in Malaysia is state-run, and spans some 2,783 kilometres (1,729 mi).[220] As of 2016, Malaysia has the world's 26th-largest road network, with some 238,823 kilometres (148,398 mi) of roads. Malaysia's inland waterways are the world's 22nd-longest, and total 7,200 km (4,474 mi).[221] Among Malaysia's 114 airports,[222] among which the busiest is Kuala Lumpur International Airport located south of Kuala Lumpur in Sepang District, which is also the twelfth-busiest airport in Asia. Among the 7 federal ports, the major one is Port Klang,[223] which is the thirteenth-busiest container port.[224] Malaysia's flag carrier is Malaysia Airlines, providing international and domestic air services.[225]

Malaysia's

ground water accounting for 90% of the freshwater resources.[229][230] Although rural areas have been the focus of great development, they still lag behind areas such as the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia.[231] The telecommunication network, although strong in urban areas, is less available to the rural population.[226]

Demographics

A map of Malaysia depicting the expected 2010 estimated population density.
Population density (person per km2) in 2010
Percentage distribution of Malaysian population by ethnic group, 2010
The percentage distribution of Malaysian population by ethnic group based on 2010 census

According to the Malaysian Department of Statistics, the country's population was 32,447,385 in 2020,

age group constitute 69.5 per cent of the total population; the 0–14 age group corresponds to 24.5 per cent; while senior citizens aged 65 years or older make up 6.0 per cent. In 1960, when the first official census was recorded in Malaysia, the population was 8.11 million. 91.8 per cent of the population are Malaysian citizens.[237]

Malaysian citizens are divided along local ethnic lines, with 69.7 per cent considered

Muslims who practise Malay customs and culture. They play a dominant role politically.[239] Bumiputera status is also accorded to the non-Malay indigenous groups of Sabah and Sarawak: which includes Dayaks (Iban, Bidayuh, Orang Ulu), Kadazan-Dusun, Melanau, Bajau and others. Non-Malay bumiputeras make up more than half of Sarawak's population and over two thirds of Sabah's population.[240][241] There are also indigenous or aboriginal groups in much smaller numbers on the peninsular, where they are collectively known as the Orang Asli.[242] Laws over who gets bumiputera status vary between states.[243]

There are also two other non-Bumiputera local ethnic groups. 22.8 per cent of the population are

MyKad at the age of 12, and must carry the card at all times.[247]

The population is concentrated on Peninsular Malaysia,

RELA, a volunteer militia with a history of controversies, to enforce its immigration law.[252]

 
Largest cities and municipalities in Malaysia
Department of Statistics, Malaysia (2020) [1]
Rank Name State Pop. Rank Name State Pop.
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Kajang
Kajang
1 Kuala Lumpur
Federal Territory
1,982,112 11 Ipoh Perak 759,952 Seberang Perai
Seberang Perai
Subang Jaya
Subang Jaya
2 Kajang Selangor 1,047,356 12 Seremban Negeri Sembilan 681,541
3 Seberang Perai Penang 946,092 13 Iskandar Puteri Johor 575,977
4 Subang Jaya Selangor 902,086 14 Kuantan Pahang 548,014
5 Klang Selangor 902,025 15 Sungai Petani Kedah 545,053
6 Johor Bahru Johor 858,118 16 Ampang Jaya Selangor 531,904
7 Shah Alam Selangor 812,327 17 Kota Kinabalu Sabah 500,425
8 George Town Penang 794,313 18 Malacca City Malacca 453,904
9 Petaling Jaya Selangor 771,687 19 Sandakan Sabah 439,050
10 Selayang Selangor 764,327 20 Alor Setar Kedah 423,868

Religion

A Map of Malaysia showing religious statistics by state
Dominant religious confessions in Malaysia according to 2020 census.[253]
Dark green: Muslim majority > 50%
Light green: Muslim plurality < 50%
Blue: Christian majority > 50%

The constitution grants freedom of religion, while establishing Islam as the "religion of the Federation".[254][255] According to the Population and Housing Census 2020 figures, ethnicity and religious beliefs correlate highly. Approximately 63.5% of the population practise Islam, 18.7% practise Buddhism, 9.1% Christianity, 6.1% Hinduism and 1.3% practise Confucianism, Taoism and other traditional Chinese religions. 2.7% declared no religion or practised other religions or did not provide any information.[236] The states of Sarawak, Penang and the federal territory of Kuala Lumpur have non-Muslim majorities.[256][257]

nondenominational Muslims.[260] The Malaysian constitution strictly defines what makes a "Malay", considering Malays those who are Muslim, speak Malay regularly, practise Malay customs, and lived in or have ancestors from Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore.[166] Statistics from the 2010 Census indicate that 83.6% of the Chinese population identify as Buddhist, with significant numbers of adherents following Taoism (3.4%) and Christianity (11.1%), along with small Muslim populations in areas like Penang. The majority of the Indian population follow Hinduism (86.2%), with a significant minority identifying as Christians (6.0%) or Muslims (4.1%). Christianity is the predominant religion of the non-Malay bumiputera community (46.5%) with an additional 40.4% identifying as Muslims.[236]

Civil Courts. The Civil Courts do not hear matters related to Islamic practices.[261]

Languages

Bornean
  Aslian
  Areas with multiple languages

The official and national language of Malaysia is

English remains an active second language, with its use allowed for some official purposes under the National Language Act of 1967.[269] In Sarawak, English is an official state language alongside Malay.[270][271][272] Historically, English was the de facto administrative language; Malay became predominant after the 1969 race riots (13 May incident).[273] Malaysian English, also known as Malaysian Standard English, is a form of English derived from British English. Malaysian English is widely used in business, along with Manglish, which is a colloquial form of English with heavy Malay, Chinese, and Tamil influences. The government discourages the use of non-standard Malay but has no power to issue compounds or fines to those who use what is perceived as improper Malay on their advertisements.[274][275]

Many other languages are used in Malaysia, which contains speakers of 137 living languages.

Chavacano language.[282]

Health

Malaysia operates an efficient and widespread

universal healthcare system and a co-existing private healthcare system; provided by highly subsidized healthcare through its extensive network of public hospitals and clinics.[283] The Ministry of Health is the main provider of healthcare services to the country's population.[284] Malaysia's healthcare system is considered to be among the most developed in Asia, which contributes to its thriving medical tourism industry.[285]

Malaysia spent 3.83% of its GDP on healthcare in 2019.

infant mortality rate of 7 deaths per 1000 births.[288] Malaysia had a total fertility rate of 2.0 in 2020, which is just below the replacement level of 2.1.[289] In 2020, the country's crude birth rate was 16 per 1000 people, and the crude death rate was 5 per 1000 people.[290][291]

In 2021, the principal cause of death among Malaysian adults was

Transport accidents are considered a major health hazard, as Malaysia, relative to its population, has one of the highest traffic fatality rates in the world.[293] Smoking is also considered a major health issue across the country.[294]

Education

Ministry of Education, Putrajaya

The education system of Malaysia features a non-compulsory kindergarten education followed by six years of compulsory primary education, and five years of optional secondary education.[295] Schools in the primary education system are divided into two categories: national primary schools, which teach in Malay, and vernacular schools, which teach in Chinese or Tamil.[296] Secondary education is conducted for five years. In the final year of secondary education, students sit for the Malaysian Certificate of Education examination.[297] Since the introduction of the matriculation programme in 1999, students who completed the 12-month programme in matriculation colleges can enroll in local universities. However, in the matriculation system, only 10 per cent of places are open to non-bumiputera[jargon] students.[298]

Culture

The wooden frame of a house under construction, with the floor raised off the ground
A traditional house being built in Sabah

Malaysia has a multi-ethnic, multicultural, and multilingual society. Substantial influence exists from

British cultures. Due to the structure of the government, coupled with the social contract theory, there has been minimal cultural assimilation of ethnic minorities.[299] Some cultural disputes exist between Malaysia and neighbouring countries, notably Indonesia.[300]

In 1971, the government created a "National Cultural Policy", defining Malaysian culture. It stated that Malaysian culture must be based on the culture of the indigenous peoples of Malaysia, that it may incorporate suitable elements from other cultures, and that Islam must play a part in it.[301] It also promoted the Malay language above others.[302] This government intervention into culture has caused resentment among non-Malays who feel their cultural freedom was lessened. Both Chinese and Indian associations have submitted memorandums to the government, accusing it of formulating an undemocratic culture policy.[301]

Fine arts

Making Malaysian batik
A craftsman making batik. Malaysian batik is usually patterned with floral motifs with light colouring.

Traditional Malaysian art was mainly centred on the areas of carving, weaving, and silversmithing.

beetle nut sets, and woven batik and songket fabrics. Indigenous East Malaysians are known for their wooden masks.[166] Each ethnic group have distinct performing arts, with little overlap between them. However, Malay art does show some North Indian influence due to the historical influence of India.[304]

Traditional Malay music and performing arts appear to have originated in the

gendang (drum). There are at least 14 types of traditional drums.[305] Drums and other traditional percussion instruments and are often made from natural materials.[305] Music is traditionally used for storytelling, celebrating life-cycle events, and occasions such as a harvest.[304] It was once used as a form of long-distance communication.[305] In East Malaysia, gong-based musical ensembles such as agung and kulintang are commonly used in ceremonies such as funerals and weddings.[306] These ensembles are also common in neighbouring regions such as in Mindanao in the Philippines, Kalimantan in Indonesia, and Brunei.[306]

  • kompang
    kompang
  • dholak
    dholak
  • gong
    gong
  • geduk
    geduk

Malaysia has a strong oral tradition that has existed since before the arrival of writing, and continues today. Each of the Malay Sultanates created their own literary tradition, influenced by pre-existing oral stories and by the stories that came with Islam.[307] The first Malay literature was in the Arabic script. The earliest known Malay writing is on the Terengganu stone, made in 1303.[166] Chinese and Indian literature became common as the numbers of speakers increased in Malaysia, and locally produced works based in languages from those areas began to be produced in the 19th century.[307] English has also become a common literary language.[166] In 1971, the government took the step of defining the literature of different languages. Literature written in Malay was called "the national literature of Malaysia", literature in other bumiputera languages was called "regional literature", while literature in other languages was called "sectional literature".[302] Malay poetry is highly developed, and uses many forms. The Hikayat form is popular, and the pantun has spread from Malay to other languages.[307]

Cuisine

The national drink and dish of Malaysia[308][309]

Malaysia's cuisine reflects the multi-ethnic makeup of its population.

spice route.[311] The cuisine is very similar to that of Singapore and Brunei,[189] and also bears resemblance to Filipino cuisine.[166] The different states have varied dishes,[189] and often the food in Malaysia is different from the original dishes.[245]

Sometimes food not found in its original culture is assimilated into another; for example, Chinese restaurants in Malaysia often serve Malay dishes.

stir fried water spinach (kangkung belacan).[313] This means that although much of Malaysian food can be traced back to a certain culture, they have their own identity.[311] Rice is a staple food, and an important constituent of the country's culture.[314] Chili is commonly found in local cuisine, although this does not necessarily make them spicy.[310]

Media

Logo of Radio Televisyen Malaysia, the country's main public broadcaster.

Malaysia's main newspapers are owned by the government and political parties in the ruling coalition,[315][316] although some major opposition parties also have their own, which are openly sold alongside regular newspapers. A divide exists between the media in the two halves of the country. Peninsular-based media gives low priority to news from the East, and often treats the eastern states as colonies of the Peninsula.[317] As a result of this, East Malaysia region of Sarawak launched TV Sarawak as internet streaming beginning in 2014, and as TV station on 10 October 2020[318] to overcome the low priority and coverage of Peninsular-based media and to solidify the representation of East Malaysia.[319] The media have been blamed for increasing tension between Indonesia and Malaysia, and giving Malaysians a bad image of Indonesians.[320] The country has Malay, English, Chinese, and Tamil dailies.[317] Kadazandusun and Bajau news are only available via TV broadcast Berita RTM.[321] Written Kadazan news was once included in publications such as The Borneo Post, the Borneo Mail, the Daily Express, and the New Sabah Times, but publication has ceased with the newspaper or as a section.[322][323]

Printing Presses and Publications Act have also been cited as curtailing freedom of expression.[327]

Holidays and festivals

Temple at night illuminated with light from decorations
Malaysia's largest Buddhist templeKek Lok Si in Penang—illuminated in preparation for the Chinese New Year

Malaysians observe a number of holidays and festivities throughout the year. Some are federally gazetted

public holidays and some are observed by individual states. Other festivals are observed by particular ethnic or religion groups, and the main holiday of each major group has been declared a public holiday. The most observed national holiday is Hari Merdeka (Independence Day) on 31 August, commemorating the independence of the Federation of Malaya in 1957.[166] Malaysia Day on 16 September commemorates federation in 1963.[328] Other notable national holidays are Labour Day (1 May) and the King's birthday (first week of June).[166]

Deepavali, the festival of lights,[329] while Thaipusam is a religious rite which sees pilgrims from all over the country converge at the Batu Caves.[330] Malaysia's Christian community celebrates most of the holidays observed by Christians elsewhere, most notably Christmas and Easter. In addition to this, the Dayak community in Sarawak celebrate a harvest festival known as Gawai,[331] and the Kadazandusun community celebrate Kaamatan.[332] Despite most festivals being identified with a particular ethnic or religious group, celebrations are universal. In a custom known as "open house" Malaysians participate in the celebrations of others, often visiting the houses of those who identify with the festival.[228]

Sports

A woman and a man in black outfits with red belts practising the martial art of Silat Melayu
Traditional sports, such as the martial art style Silat Melayu, persist alongside modern sports.

Popular sports in Malaysia include

skate boarding.[228] Football is the most popular sport in Malaysia.[333] Badminton matches also attract thousands of spectators, and since 1948 Malaysia has been one of four countries to hold the Thomas Cup, the world team championship trophy of men's badminton.[334] The Malaysian Lawn Bowls Federation was registered in 1997.[335] Squash was brought to the country by members of the British army, with the first competition being held in 1939.[336] The Squash Racquets Association of Malaysia was created on 25 June 1972.[337] The men's national field hockey team ranked 10th in the world as of June 2022.[338] The 3rd Hockey World Cup was hosted at Merdeka Stadium in Kuala Lumpur, as well as the 10th cup.[339] The country also has its own Formula One track – the Sepang International Circuit, with the first Malaysian Grand Prix held in 1999.[340] Traditional sports include Silat Melayu, the most common style of martial arts practised by ethnic Malays.[341]

The Federation of Malaya Olympic Council was formed in 1953, and received recognition by the IOC in 1954. It first participated in the 1956 Melbourne Olympic Games. The council was renamed the Olympic Council of Malaysia in 1964, and has participated in all but one Olympic games since its inception. The largest number of athletes ever sent to the Olympics was 57 to the 1972 Munich Olympic Games.[342] Besides the Olympic Games, Malaysia also participates in the Paralympic Games.[343] Malaysia has competed at the Commonwealth Games since 1950 as Malaya, and 1966 as Malaysia, and the games were hosted in Kuala Lumpur in 1998.[344][345]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Constitutional capital, ceremonial and legislative
  2. ^ administrative and judicial
  1. ^ Section 9 of the National Language Act 1963/67 states that "The script of the national language shall be the Rumi script: provided that this shall not prohibit the use of the Malay script, more commonly known as the Jawi script, of the national language".
  2. ^ Section 2 of the National Language Act 1963/67 states that "Save as provided in this Act and subject to the safeguards contained in Article 152(1) of the Constitution relating to any other language and the language of any other community in Malaysia the national language shall be used for official purposes".
  3. ^
    Federal Constitution of Malaysia and National Language Act 1963/67
    .
  4. better source needed
    ]

References

  1. ^ "Malaysian Flag and Coat of Arms". Malaysian Government. Archived from the original on 22 October 2013. Retrieved 9 September 2013.
  2. ^ "Minister: Census shows Malaysia's oldest man and woman aged 120 and 118; preliminary census findings to be released in Feb 2022". Malaymail. 17 January 2022. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  3. ^ Department of Statistics Malaysia (2021). "Current population and estimates, Malaysia 2021 Group". Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  4. ^ "The States, Religion and Law of the Federation" (PDF). Constitution of Malaysia. Judicial Appointments Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 June 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2017. Islam is the religion of the Federation; but other religions may be practised in peace and harmony in any part of the Federation.
  5. ^ "Distribution and Basic Demographic Characteristic Report 2020". Department of Statistics, Malaysia. 14 February 2020.
  6. .
  7. ^ "31 Ogos 1963, Hari kemerdekaan Sabah yang rasmi". AWANI. 14 May 2021. Retrieved 1 September 2021.
  8. ^ a b "Laporan Kiraan Permulaan 2010". Jabatan Perangkaan Malaysia. p. 27. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 2 August 2023.
  9. ^ "Malaysia country profile". BBC News. 24 February 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  10. ^ "Malaysia". The World Factbook (2024 ed.). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 24 September 2022. (Archived 2022 edition)
  11. ^ "Population and Housing Census of Malaysia 2020". Department of Statistics, Malaysia. p. 48. Archived from the original on 28 February 2022. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  12. ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2023 Edition. (Malaysia)". International Monetary Fund. 10 October 2023. Retrieved 12 October 2023.
  13. ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 20 December 2018.
  14. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  15. ^ "Malaya in World War II". World War Two Database. Retrieved 29 January 2023.
  16. .
  17. .
  18. ^ "The World Factbook – Malaysia". Central Intelligence Agency. 2020.
  19. ^
  20. .
  21. .
  22. .
  23. ^
  24. .
  25. .
  26. .
  27. .
  28. ^ Sarkar, Himansu Bhusan (1970). Some contributions of India to the ancient civilisation of Indonesia and Malaysia. Punthi Pustak. p. 8.
  29. ^ .
  30. .
  31. .
  32. ^ Painter, Nell Irvin (7–8 November 2003). "Collective Degradation: Slavery and the Construction of Race" (PDF). Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Gilder Lehrman Center International Conference at Yale University. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University. p. 18. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  33. S2CID 162374626
    .
  34. ^ Earl, George S. W. (1850). "On The Leading Characteristics of the Papuan, Australian and Malay-Polynesian Nations". Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia (JIAEA). IV: 119.
  35. ^ Barrows, David P. (1905). A History of the Philippines. American Book Company. pp. 25–26.
  36. ^ Clifford, Hugh Charles (1911). "Malays" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 475–478.
  37. ^ .
  38. ^ "Federation of Malaya Independence Act 1957 (c. 60)e". The UK Statute Law Database. 31 July 1957. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
  39. ^ a b c Spaeth, Anthony (9 December 1996). "Bound for Glory". Time. New York. Archived from the original on 17 March 2009. Retrieved 20 August 2011.
  40. ^ Constitution of 1957 with Amendments through 2007
  41. ISBN 978-0-415-55130-4. Archived from the original
    (PDF) on 13 October 2014.
  42. stuff.co.nz
    . Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  43. .
  44. ^ Tsang, Cheng-hwa (2000), "Recent advances in the Iron Age archaeology of Taiwan", Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association, 20: 153–158, doi:10.7152/bippa.v20i0.11751
  45. ^ Turton, M. (2021). Notes from central Taiwan: Our brother to the south. Taiwan's relations with the Philippines date back millennia, so it's a mystery that it's not the jewel in the crown of the New Southbound Policy. Taiwan Times.
  46. ^ Everington, K. (2017). Birthplace of Austronesians is Taiwan, capital was Taitung: Scholar. Taiwan News.
  47. ^ Bellwood, P., H. Hung, H., Lizuka, Y. (2011). Taiwan Jade in the Philippines: 3,000 Years of Trade and Long-distance Interaction. Semantic Scholar.
  48. .
  49. ^ Suporno, S. (1979). "The Image of Majapahit in late Javanese and Indonesian Writing". In A. Reid; D. Marr (eds.). Perceptions of the Past. Southeast Asia publications. Vol. 4. Singapore: Heinemann Books for the Asian Studies Association of Australia. p. 180.
  50. JSTOR 20067505
    .
  51. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Malaysia". United States State Department. 14 July 2010. Retrieved 14 September 2010.
  52. ^ Luscombe, Stephen. "The Map Room: South East Asia: Malaya". Retrieved 18 September 2010.
  53. ^ Clifford, Hugh Charles; Graham, Walter Armstrong (1911). "Malay States (British)" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 478–484.
  54. ^ Kuar, Amarjit. "International Migration and Governance in Malaysia: Policy and Performance" (PDF). University of New England. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 May 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
  55. .
  56. ^ Luscombe, Stephen. "The Map Room: South East Asia: North Borneo". Retrieved 1 July 2011.
  57. .
  58. ^ Mohamad, Mahathir (31 May 1999). "Our Region, Ourselves". Time. New York. Archived from the original on 12 February 2001. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
  59. ^ "MALAYA: Token Citizenship". Time. New York. 19 May 1952. Archived from the original on 6 November 2007. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
  60. ^ "The Malayan Emergency: 1948–1960". Australian Government Department of Veteran Affairs. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
  61. ^ "1957: Malaya celebrates independence". BBC News. Retrieved 9 August 2016.
  62. ^ "Malaysia: Tunku Yes, Sukarno No". Time. New York. 6 September 1963. Archived from the original on 2 April 2008. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
  63. .
  64. ^ "Proclamation on Singapore". Singapore Attorney-General. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  65. ^ "Malaysia: The Art of Dispelling Anxiety". Time. New York. 27 August 1965. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
  66. ^ "Race War in Malaysia". Time. New York. 23 May 1969. Archived from the original on 16 February 2007. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
  67. ^ a b Sundaram, Jomo Kwame (1 September 2004). "The New Economic Policy and Interethnic Relations in Malaysia". UNRISD. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  68. ^ Ping Lee Poh; Yean Tham Siew. "Malaysia Ten Years After The Asian Financial Crisis" (PDF). Thammasat University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 April 2010. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
  69. ^ "Malaysian taskforce investigates allegations $700m paid to Najib". The Guardian. London. 6 July 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  70. ^ a b c "Malaysia election: Opposition scores historic victory". BBC News. 10 May 2018. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
  71. ^ Walden, Max (13 January 2021). "How Malaysia went from fewer COVID cases than Australia to a national state of emergency". ABC News (Australia). Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  72. ^ "No clear winner as Malaysia election ends in hung parliament". www.aljazeera.com. 19 November 2022.
  73. ^ "Anwar Ibrahim sworn in as Malaysian PM after post-election deadlock". BBC News. 24 November 2022.
  74. ^ "Could Federalism Smooth Southeast Asia's Rough Edges?". Stratfor. 26 January 2018.
  75. ^ a b "Malaysia Information". Federation of International Trade Associations. Archived from the original on 26 December 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  76. ^ a b c d "Malaysia country brief". Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. February 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  77. ^ "Background". Parlimen Malaysia. 3 June 2010. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
  78. .
  79. ^ "Malaysia (Dewan Rakyat)". Inter-Parliamentary Union. 29 September 2008.
  80. ^ Martin Carvalho; Hemananthani Sivanandam; Rahimy Rahim; Tarrence Tan (16 July 2019). "Dewan Rakyat passes Bill to amend Federal Constitution to lower voting age to 18". The Star. Retrieved 16 July 2019.
  81. ^ "Palace: Muhyiddin to be sworn in as PM". The Star Online. 29 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.
  82. ^ "Ismail Sabri sworn in as Malaysia's ninth Prime Minister". The Star. 21 August 2021. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  83. ^ "Malaysia's Ismail Sabri Yaakob sworn in as new PM".
  84. ^ "Attacks on Justice – Malaysia" (PDF). International Commission of Jurists. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 January 2012. Retrieved 5 December 2011.
  85. ^ "Malaysian criminal court system". Association of Commonwealth Criminal Lawyers. Archived from the original on 15 May 2011. Retrieved 15 December 2010.
  86. ^ "Dasar Ekonomi Baru". Pusat Maklumat Rakyat. 14 November 2008. Retrieved 21 November 2010.
  87. ISSN 1020-8194
    . Retrieved 22 August 2011.
  88. ^ Perlez, Jane (24 August 2006). "Once Muslim, Now Christian and Caught in the Courts". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
  89. ^ "Malaysian state passes Islamic law". BBC News. 8 July 2002. Retrieved 27 November 2011.
  90. ^ "Kelantan's passing of hudud amendments void". The Star. Kuala Lumpur. 23 March 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  91. ^ "BN won't declare hudud support, but individual members can, chief whip says". Malay Mail. Kuala Lumpur. 31 March 2015. Retrieved 1 April 2015.
  92. ^ "Democracy Index 2019 A year of democratic setbacks and popular protest". EIU.com. Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  93. ^ "2020 World Press Freedom Index". Reporters Without Borders. 2020. Retrieved 27 October 2020.
  94. ^ "Malaysia : Back to harassment, intimidation and censorship | Reporters without borders". RSF. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  95. ^ "Malaysia considers amending human trafficking law after U.S. report". Reuters. 29 June 2018.
  96. ^ "1MDB: The inside story of the world's biggest financial scandal". The Guardian. 28 July 2016. Archived from the original on 11 November 2019.
  97. ^ "1MDB: The playboys, PMs and partygoers around a global financial scandal". BBC News. 9 August 2019.
  98. ^ "The bizarre story of 1MDB, the Goldman Sachs-backed Malaysian fund that turned into one of the biggest scandals in financial history". Business Insider. 9 August 2019.
  99. ^ "Understanding the Federation of Malaysia". The Star. Kuala Lumpur. 2 November 2015. Archived from the original on 5 November 2015. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
  100. ^ "Malaysia Districts". Statoids. Retrieved 3 November 2010.
  101. ^ "Federal Territories and State Governments". Malaysian government. Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  102. .
  103. ^ "Malaysia's government procurement regime" (PDF). Ministry of Finance Malaysia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
  104. ^ "Introduction to local government in Malaysia" (PDF). Universiti Teknologi Mara. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 March 2018. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
  105. ^ Nooi, Phang Siew (May 2008). "Decentralisation or recentralisation? Trends in local government in Malaysia". Commonwealth Journal of Local Governance. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
  106. ^ Hai, Lim Hong. "Electoral Politics in Malaysia: 'Managing' Elections in a Plural Society" (PDF). Retrieved 19 February 2014.
  107. .
  108. .
  109. ^ Bong, Karen & Pilo, Wilfred (16 September 2011). "An agreement forged and forgotten". The Borneo Post. Kuching. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
  110. ^ Koay, Su Lin (September 2016). "Penang: The Rebel State (Part One)". Penang Monthly. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  111. . Retrieved 3 November 2015.
  112. ^ Mohd Hazmi Mohd Rusli (18 October 2015). "Could the Federation of Malaysia really come apart?". Astro Awani. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
  113. ^ "Will things fall apart in the Malaysian federation?". Today. Singapore. 3 November 2015. Retrieved 3 November 2015.
  114. ^ "Overview". Association of Southeast Asian Nations. Archived from the original on 9 January 2008. Retrieved 8 November 2007.
  115. ^ "Islamic Affairs (OIC) and D8 Division". Malaysian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2010.
  116. ^ "List of Member States". United Nations. Archived from the original on 24 October 2007. Retrieved 8 November 2007.
  117. ^ "Member Economies". Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Archived from the original on 1 December 2010. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
  118. ^ "Malaysia". Developing 8 Countries. Archived from the original on 30 June 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  119. ^ "The Non-Aligned Movement: Member States". Non-Aligned Movement. Archived from the original on 9 December 2010. Retrieved 5 September 2010.
  120. ^ "Member States". Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
  121. ^ a b c "Malaysia Foreign Relations". New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 4 December 2008. Archived from the original on 26 May 2010. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
  122. ^ a b "Malaysia's Foreign Policy". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 21 September 2010.
  123. ^ "Chapter XXVI: Disarmament – No. 9 Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons". United Nations Treaty Collection. 7 July 2017.
  124. ^ "Japan should support nuclear ban treaty, says Malaysian PM Mahathir Mohamad". The Japan Times. 7 August 2019.
  125. ^ Diola, Camille (25 June 2014). "Why Malaysia, unlike Philippines, keeps quiet on sea row". The Philippine Star. Retrieved 25 June 2014.
  126. ^ "Presence of China Coast Guard ship at Luconia Shoals spooks local fishermen". The Borneo Post. Kuching. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  127. ^ "Malaysia lodges diplomatic protest against intrusion at Beting Patinggi Ali". The Rakyat Post. Bernama. 15 August 2015. Archived from the original on 29 September 2015. Retrieved 16 August 2015.
  128. ^ Blanchard, Ben; Pullin, Richard (18 October 2015). "Malaysia slams China's 'provocation' in South China Sea". Channel News Asia. Reuters. Archived from the original on 19 October 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2015.
  129. ^ Masli, Ubaidillah (17 March 2009). "Brunei drops all claims to Limbang". The Brunei Times. Archived from the original on 12 July 2014. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
  130. ^ a b Mohamad, Kadir (2009). "Malaysia's territorial disputes – two cases at the ICJ: Batu Puteh, Middle Rocks and South Ledge (Malaysia/Singapore), Ligitan and Sipadan [and the Sabah claim] (Malaysia/Indonesia/Philippines)" (PDF). Institute of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations (IDFR) Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Malaysia. p. 46. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 May 2016. Retrieved 16 May 2014. Map of British North Borneo, highlighting in yellow colour the area covered by the Philippine claim, presented to the Court by the Philippines during the Oral Hearings at the ICJ on 25 June 2001
  131. ^ "Disputed – International". CIA. Archived from the original on 14 October 2018. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
  132. ^ "Border disputes differ for Indonesia, M'sia". Daily Express. Kota Kinabalu. 16 October 2015. Archived from the original on 19 October 2015. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
  133. ^ "Malaysian Military statistics". NationMaster. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
  134. ^ "Malaysia – Permanent Missions to the United Nations" (PDF). United Nations. 12 February 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  135. ^ "Australia says major military exercise underway in Malaysia". My Sinchew. 26 April 2010. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
  136. ^ Wood, Daniel (20 April 2014). "Brunei, M'sia train in 11th military exercise". The Brunei Times. Archived from the original on 8 December 2014. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  137. ^ Yao Jianing (17 September 2015). "First China-Malaysia joint military exercise held in Malacca Strait". China Military Online. Ministry of National Defense of the People's Republic of China. Archived from the original on 1 October 2018. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  138. ^ Aman Anand (30 April 2018). "First Ever Joint Army exercise on Malaysian Soil Commences with Handing-Over of Troops Ceremony". Press Information Bureau (India). Archived from the original on 1 October 2018. Retrieved 2 October 2018.
  139. ^ "Indonesia-Malaysia military exercises must continue – defence minister". ANTARA News. 13 September 2010. Archived from the original on 22 September 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
  140. Jane's Information Group. Archived from the original
    on 1 October 2018. Retrieved 1 October 2018.
  141. ^ "Malaysia, US armed forces in joint exercise". The Star. Kuala Lumpur. 25 August 2014. Retrieved 26 August 2014.
  142. ^ "Malaysia, Philippines committed to enhancing border security". My Sinchew. 9 August 2010. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
  143. ^ "Piracy in Southeast Asia: Organised Criminal Syndicates or Small Scale Opportunists?" (PDF). Gray Page. April 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  144. ^ Carvalho, Martin (15 May 2012). "Malaysia, Thailand military exercise to include other agencies, Asean members". The Star. Kuala Lumpur. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  145. ^ Kent, Jonathan (28 April 2004). "Malaysia ups Thai border security". BBC News. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
  146. ^ Bearak, Max; Cameron, Darla (16 June 2016). "Here are the 10 countries where homosexuality may be punished by death". The Washington Post.
  147. ^ Avery, Daniel (4 April 2019). "71 Countries Where Homosexuality is Illegal". Newsweek.
  148. ^ Lamb, Kate (3 September 2018). "Women caned in Malaysia for attempting to have lesbian sex". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
  149. ^ "Malaysia sentences five men to jail, caning and fines for gay sex". Reuters. 7 November 2019. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  150. ^ "Malaysia must wake up to its human trafficking problem". New Mandala. 24 May 2017.
  151. ^ "US penalises Malaysia for shameful human trafficking record". The Guardian. 20 June 2014.
  152. ^ "A brutal assault and rising fear in Malaysia's LGBT community". The Star. 24 August 2018. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  153. ^ "Malaysia: Government Steps Up Attacks on LGBT People". Human Rights Watch. 25 January 2021. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  154. ^ "Malaysia: Political Motivations Undermine Anwar Case". Human Rights Watch. 21 July 2008.
  155. ^ Doherty, Ben (10 February 2015). "Anwar Ibrahim guilty in sodomy case". the Guardian. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  156. ^ "Anwar Ibrahim: Malaysia opposition leader 'should be freed'". BBC News. 2 November 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  157. ^ "Laws of Malaysia [Act 574]" (PDF). Attorney General's Chamber. 1 January 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2020. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  158. ^ "The Death Penalty in Malaysia" (PDF). Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  159. ^ "Malaysia renews pledge to abolish mandatory death penalty". Reuters. 10 June 2022. Retrieved 10 June 2022.
  160. ^ Heather Chen; Teele Rebane; Lauren Kent (22 July 2023). "Malaysia halts music festival after same-sex kiss by The 1975 singer". CNN. Retrieved 23 July 2023.
  161. ^ a b c d e f "Malaysia". CIA. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
  162. ^ "To Reduce Conflicts, Indonesia and Malaysia Should Meet Intensively". Universitas Gadjah Mada. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
  163. .
  164. ^ "Brunei". CIA. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
  165. ^ .
  166. ^ Schuman, Michael (22 April 2009). "Waterway To the World – Summer Journey". Time. New York. Archived from the original on 23 April 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
  167. ^ .
  168. .
  169. .
  170. ^ .
  171. . Retrieved 23 April 2014.
  172. ^ "Mount Kinabalu – revered abode of the dead". Ecology Asia. Retrieved 17 September 2010.
  173. ^ Daw, T. (April 2004). Reef Fish Aggregations in Sabah, East Malaysia (PDF) (Report). Western Pacific Fisher Survey series. Vol. 5. Society for the Conservation of Reef Fish Aggregations. p. 17.
  174. ^ "Country: Malaysia". World Bank Climate Change Knowledge Portal. Retrieved 1 February 2023.
  175. ^ "List of Parties". Retrieved 9 December 2012.
  176. ^ "Malaysia's National Policy on Biological Diversity" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 August 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  177. ^ "Biodiversity Theme Report". Australian Government Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. 2001. Archived from the original on 8 December 2008. Retrieved 24 January 2009.
  178. ^ ]
  179. ^ .
  180. ^ "Exclusive Economic Zones". Sea Around Us | Fisheries, Ecosystems and Biodiversity. Retrieved 23 February 2023.
  181. .
  182. ^ "Coral Triangle". WWF. Retrieved 14 September 2010.
  183. ^ a b c d "Saving the gardeners of the ocean". Inquirer Global Nation. 12 July 2010. Archived from the original on 10 December 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
  184. ^ "Species diversity and food-web complexity in the caves of Malaysia". Ambient Science, 2014 Vol 1(2). Archived from the original on 3 May 2014.
  185. ^ Lee, S.S.; Alias, S.A.; Jones, E.B.G.; Zainuddin, N. and Chan, H.T. (2012) Checklist of Fungi of Malaysia Research Pamphlet No. 132, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Malaysia.
  186. ^ a b c d "The Malaysian Rainforest". WWF Malaysia. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
  187. .
  188. ^ .
  189. ^ "Malaysia plans to halt all expansion of oil palm plantations, minister says". The Straits Times. Singapore. 4 March 2019. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
  190. ^ a b McQuillan, Rebecca (22 November 2010). "Can global summit save the tiger". The Herald. Glasgow. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
  191. ^ "Artificial reefs to prevent illegal fishing". The Borneo Post. Kuching. 4 December 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
  192. ^ a b Rahim, Ridzwan A. (22 June 2011). "Go: A diver's paradise". New Straits Times. Kuala Lumpur. Archived from the original on 22 June 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
  193. ^ "Standardize illegal animal trafficking law – Ellron". The Borneo Post. Kuching. 15 December 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010.
  194. ^ Boulton, William R.; Pecht, Michael; Tucker, William; Wennberg, Sam (May 1997). "Electronics Manufacturing in the Pacific Rim, World Technology Evaluation Center, Chapter 4: Malaysia". The World Technology Evaluation Center, Inc. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
  195. ^ "GDP – composition, by sector of origin". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  196. ^ "Malaysia – Unemployment Rate". Moody's Analytics. Retrieved 28 June 2022.[permanent dead link]
  197. ^ "International Reserves of Bank Negara Malaysia as at 31 March 2022". Central Bank of Malaysia (Bank Negara Malaysia). 7 April 2022. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  198. ^ "Labor force – The World Factbook". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  199. ^ "2021 PRODUCTION STATISTICS". OICA. Retrieved 16 June 2021.
  200. ^ "List of importing markets for the product exported by Malaysia in 2021". International Trade Centre. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  201. ^ "List of supplying markets for the product imported by Malaysia in 2021". International Trade Centre. Retrieved 27 June 2022.
  202. ^ Khalid, Muhammed Abdul; Yang, Li (July 2019). "Income Inequality and Ethnic Cleavages in Malaysia | Evidence from Distributional National Accounts | (1984-2014)". World Inequality Database. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  203. ^ Chau, Amy. "Minority rule, majority hate". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 1 August 2003. Retrieved 15 November 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  204. .
  205. ^ "The Security of The Straits of Malacca and Its Implications to The South East Asia Regional Security". Office of The Prime Minister of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 4 March 2014. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
  206. ^ "BNM National Summary Data Page". Bank Negara Malaysia. 30 September 2003. Archived from the original on 6 February 2010. Retrieved 29 October 2010.
  207. ^ Schuman, Michael (22 April 2009). "How to Defeat Pirates: Success in the Strait". Time. Archived from the original on 23 April 2009.
  208. ^ "TED Case Studies: Tin Mining In Malaysia – Present And Future". American University. Archived from the original on 30 November 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  209. ^ "BNM National Summary Data Page". Bank Negara Malaysia. Archived from the original on 6 February 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  210. ^ a b "WHO Western Pacific Region – 2006 – Malaysia – Political and socioeconomic situation". WHO. Archived from the original on 29 August 2010. Retrieved 18 October 2010.
  211. ^ Clover, Charles (10 June 2007). "Malaysia defends palm oil production". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 1 December 2009. Retrieved 28 November 2010.
  212. ^ "SMART TOURISM: FUTURE OF TOURISM IN MALAYSIA". Malaysian Investment Development Authority. 13 June 2021. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  213. ^
    S2CID 241989515
    .
  214. ^ "Travel & Tourism Development Index 2021 - Rebuilding for a Sustainable and Resilient Future" (PDF). World Economic Forum. May 2022.
  215. ^ Gooch, Liz (September 2010). "A Path to Financial Equality in Malaysia". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
  216. ^ "High-technology exports (current US$) - Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia | Data". data.worldbank.org.
  217. . Retrieved 28 October 2023.
  218. IMD Business School
    . Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  219. ^ "Rail lines (total route-km) - Malaysia". World Bank. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  220. ^ "Waterways – The World Factbook". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  221. ^ "Airports – The World Factbook". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 15 June 2021.
  222. .
  223. ^ "The Top 50 Container Ports". World Shipping Council. Washington, D.C. Retrieved 6 July 2022.
  224. JSTOR 2564511
    .
  225. ^ a b "Malaysian Telecommunications Overview". American University. Archived from the original on 4 May 2011. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
  226. ^ "Telephones – mobile cellular". The World Factbook. Archived from the original on 16 November 2011. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
  227. ^ a b c Guidebook on Expatriate Living in Malaysia (PDF). Malaysia Industrial Development Authority. May 2009. pp. 8–9, 69. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 20 August 2011.
  228. ^ Sobian, Azrina (13 December 2018). "Water is life, use it wisely, don't waste it". New Straits Times. Archived from the original on 20 September 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  229. ^ "Malaysia's Water Vision: The Way Forward – The Malaysian Water Partnership". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 13 December 2018. Archived from the original on 20 September 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  230. ^ "Infrastructure and Rural Development in Malaysia" (PDF). Centre on Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
  231. ^ "Tenaga Nasional Berhad 500kV Transmission System, Phase 1". Ranhill Berhad. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2009.
  232. ^ "Malaysia – Power Sector". AsiaTradeHub.com. Archived from the original on 18 January 2020. Retrieved 18 January 2020.
  233. ^ "Energy Commission". Archived from the original on 9 May 2015. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
  234. ^ Selamat, Salsuwanda & Abidin, Che Zulzikrami Azner. "Renewable Energy and Kyoto Protocol: Adoption in Malaysia". Universiti Malaysia Perlis. Archived from the original on 4 September 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  235. ^ a b c "Population Distribution and Basic Demographic Characteristics" (PDF). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. p. 82. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 May 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
  236. ^ "Population Distribution and Basic Demographic Characteristic Report 2010 (Ethnic composition)". Department of Statistics, Malaysia. 2010. Archived from the original on 8 October 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2013.
  237. ^ a b "Infographics". Department of Statistics. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
  238. ^ Brant, Robin (4 March 2008). "Malaysia's lingering ethnic divide". BBC News. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  239. ^ "2. Socio-Economic and National Context [People]". Malaysian-Danish Country Programme for Cooperation in Environment and Development (2002–2006). Miljøstyrelsens Informationscenter. Archived from the original on 21 September 2004. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  240. ^ Leong, Trinna (3 August 2017). "Who are Malaysia's bumiputera?". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 20 September 2020. Retrieved 20 September 2020.
  241. .
  242. ^ "PM asked to clarify mixed-race bumiputra status". The Star. 4 November 2009. Archived from the original on 7 November 2009. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
  243. ^ Kuppusamy, Baradan (24 March 2006). "Racism alive and well in Malaysia". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 24 March 2006. Retrieved 27 October 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  244. ^ .
  245. ^ "Malaysia: Citizenship laws, including methods by which a person may obtain citizenship; whether dual citizenship is recognized and if so, how it is acquired; process for renouncing citizenship and related documentation; grounds for revoking citizenship". Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. 16 November 2007. Archived from the original on 24 November 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
  246. ^ May, Leow Yong (30 August 2007). "More than just a card". The Star. Archived from the original on 5 January 2009. Retrieved 27 October 2010.
  247. .
  248. ^ Permatasari, Soraya (13 July 2009). "As Malaysia deports illegal workers, employers run short". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
  249. ^ Kent, Jonathan (29 October 2004). "Illegal workers leave Malaysia". BBC News. Retrieved 26 October 2010.
  250. ^ Quek, Kim. "Demographic implosion in Sabah? Really?". Malaysiakini. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
  251. ^ "World Refugee Survey 2009". United States Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. 17 June 2009. Retrieved 10 June 2011.
  252. ^ "Launching of report on the key findings population and housing census of Malaysia 2020". Department of Statistics Malaysia. 14 February 2022.
  253. ^ Ibrahim, Zawawi; Mohd Rasid, Imram (October 2019). "Country Profile Malaysia" (PDF). GREASE: Religion, Diversity and Radicalisation.
  254. ^ Ambiga Sreenevasan (18 July 2007). "PRESS STATEMENT: Malaysia a secular state". The Malaysian Bar. Archived from the original on 28 December 2018. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  255. ^ "Department of Statistics Malaysia Official Portal".
  256. ^ "Malaysia Christians pray for peace, equality, freedom - UCA News".
  257. ^ .
  258. ^ "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". Pew Research Center. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2013.
  259. ^ "Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". 9 August 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
  260. ^ Mahathir, Marina (17 August 2010). "Malaysia moving forward in matters of Islam and women by Marina Mahathir". Common Ground News Service. Archived from the original on 22 December 2010. Retrieved 14 September 2010.
  261. ^ "Malay, Standard". Ethnologue. 2009. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
  262. ^ "Mahathir regrets govt focussing too much on Bahasa". Daily Express. Kota Kinabalu. 2 October 2013. Archived from the original on 12 July 2014. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
  263. ^ "Bahasa Rasmi" (in Malay). Malaysian Administrative Modernisation and Management Planning Unit. Retrieved 19 April 2021. Perkara 152 Perlembagaan Persekutuan menjelaskan bahawa bahasa Melayu yang dikenali juga sebagai bahasa Malaysia adalah bahasa rasmi yang tidak boleh dipertikai fungsi dan peranannya sebagai Bahasa Kebangsaan.
  264. ^ Encik Md. Asham bin Ahmad (8 August 2007). "Malay Language Malay Identity". Institute of Islamic Understanding Malaysia. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  265. ^ "Federal Constitution" (PDF). Judicial Appointments Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
  266. ^ Fernandez, Kathleen (1 June 2016). "The history of Bahasa Melayu / Malaysia: The language of the Malay(sian) people". Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  267. .
  268. ^ a b "National Language Act 1963/67". Act No. 32 of 1967 (PDF). Dewan Rakyat.
  269. ^ Sulok Tawie (18 November 2015). "Sarawak makes English official language along with BM". Malay Mail. Kuala Lumpur. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
  270. ^ "Sarawak to recognise English as official language besides Bahasa Malaysia". Borneo Post. Kuching. 18 November 2015. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
  271. ^ "Sarawak adopts English as official language". The Sun. Kuala Lumpur. 19 November 2015. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
  272. .
  273. ^ Zimmer, Benjamin (5 October 2006). "Language Log: Malaysia cracks down on "salad language"". University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 14 September 2010.
  274. ^ "Dewan Bahasa champions use of BM in ads". New Straits Times. Kuala Lumpur. 14 October 2013. Archived from the original on 24 October 2013. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
  275. ^ "Ethnologue report for Malaysia". Ethnologue. Retrieved 18 October 2010.
  276. ^ "Ethnologue report for Malaysia (Peninsular)". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2010.
  277. .
  278. .
  279. ^ Schiffman, Harold F. (31 December 1998). "Malaysian Tamils and Tamil Linguistic Culture". University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 13 June 2022.
  280. JSTOR 30027570
    .
  281. .
  282. .
  283. . The Malaysian Ministry of Health (MOH), being the main provider of health services...
  284. .
  285. ^ "Current healthcare expenditure (% of GDP) - Malaysia". World Bank. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  286. ^ "Life expectancy at birth, total (years) - Malaysia". World Bank. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  287. ^ "Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) - Malaysia". World Bank. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  288. ^ "Fertility rate, total (births per woman) - Malaysia". World Bank. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  289. ^ "Birth rate, crude (per 1000 people) - Malaysia". World Bank. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  290. ^ "Death rate, crude (per 1,000 people) - Malaysia". World Bank. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  291. ^ "Statistics on Causes of Death, Malaysia 2021". Department of Statistics Malaysia. 16 November 2021. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  292. ^ Abdelfatah, Akmal. "TRAFFIC FATALITY CAUSES AND TRENDS IN MALAYSIA" (PDF). Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 26 June 2022.
  293. S2CID 238829234
    .
  294. .
  295. ^ Mustafa, Shazwan (22 August 2010). "Malay groups want vernacular schools abolished". The Malaysian Insider. Archived from the original on 25 August 2010. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
  296. ^ "Secondary School Education". Malaysian Government. Archived from the original on 31 December 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  297. .
  298. . Retrieved 7 October 2010.
  299. ^ Schonhardt, Sara (3 October 2009). "Indonesia cut from a different cloth". Asia Times. Archived from the original on 5 October 2009. Retrieved 6 November 2010.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  300. ^ a b "Cultural Tourism Promotion and policy in Malaysia". School of Housing, Building and Planning. 22 October 1992. Archived from the original on 29 May 2010. Retrieved 6 November 2010.
  301. ^ .
  302. .
  303. ^ .
  304. ^ ]
  305. ^ .
  306. ^ a b c Osman, Mohd Taib. "Languages and Literature". The Encyclopedia of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 6 January 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2010.
  307. ^ "Lipton urges Malaysians to take pride in the tarik, our national beverage". New Sabah Times. 7 September 2012. Archived from the original on 2 July 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
  308. ^ Rules, Dwayne A. (7 April 2011). "Nasi lemak, our 'national dish'". The Star. Archived from the original on 2 July 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
  309. ^ .
  310. ^ a b Jarvis, Alice-Azania (13 October 2010). "Far Eastern cuisine: Fancy a Malaysian?". The Independent. London. Retrieved 3 November 2010.
  311. .
  312. ^ Yulia Sapthiani (30 January 2011). "Menikmati Kuliner Peranakan". Kompas (in Indonesian). Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
  313. JSTOR 41491996
    .
  314. ^ Ahmad, Razak (5 February 2010). "Malaysian media shapes battleground in Anwar trial". Reuters. Retrieved 3 November 2010.
  315. ^ a b "Malaysian opposition media banned". BBC News. 23 March 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2010.
  316. ^ a b c "The East-West divide of Malaysian media". Malaysian Mirror. 9 September 2010. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2010.
  317. ^ "Abdul Taib launches TV Sarawak | Malay Mail". www.malaymail.com. 11 October 2020. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  318. ^ "Sarawak macam anak tiri stesen TV siaran percuma". www.astroawani.com (in Malay). 27 November 2017. Retrieved 26 July 2021.
  319. ^ "Comment: Anwar blames Malaysian media". The Jakarta Post. 28 September 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2010.
  320. Berita Harian
    .
  321. ^ Lee, Stephanie (1 June 2020). "'Daily Express' ends Kadazan section". The Star. Retrieved 7 January 2022.
  322. ^ "Farewell, New Sabah Times". Borneo Post Online. Retrieved 6 January 2022.
  323. ^ "Malaysia". Freedom House. 2013. Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  324. ^ "Opposition muzzled – here's black and white proof". Malaysiakini. 29 June 2007.
  325. ^ Vikneswary, G (28 June 2007). "TV station denies censoring opposition news". Malaysiakini.
  326. ^ McAdams, Mindy. "How Press Censorship Works". Mindy McAdams. Archived from the original on 30 June 2011. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
  327. ^ Chun, Yeng Ai (19 October 2009). "Malaysia Day now a public holiday, says PM". Archived from the original on 20 October 2009. Retrieved 7 May 2011.
  328. ^ "Malaysia – Religion". Asian Studies Center – Michigan State University. Archived from the original on 9 August 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
  329. ^ "Batu Caves, Selangor". Tourism Malaysia. Archived from the original on 25 June 2014. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  330. .
  331. ^ "PM: Kaamatan, Gawai celebrations, time for people to feel thankful for achievements". The Borneo Post. Kuching. Bernama. 28 May 2016. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
  332. PMID 12198283
    .
  333. ^ "History of Badminton". SportsKnowHow.com. Archived from the original on 29 June 2011. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
  334. ^ "Malaysia Lawn Bowls Federation". 88DB.com. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 1 October 2010.
  335. .
  336. ^ "History of SRAM". Squash Racquets Association of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.
  337. ^ "FIH Men's and Women's World Ranking". International Hockey Federation. Retrieved 14 June 2022.
  338. ^ "History of Hockey World Cup". The Times of India. 27 February 2010. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
  339. ^ Novikov, Andrew. "Formula One Grand Prix Circuits". All Formula One Info. Archived from the original on 2 March 2016. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
  340. .
  341. ^ "Olympic Games – History". The Olympic Council of Malaysia. Archived from the original on 7 August 2013. Retrieved 27 September 2010.
  342. ^ "Sports". www.paralympic.org.my.
  343. ^ Dudley, Rueben (13 September 2010). "Doing Malaysia proud". The Sun. Kuala Lumpur. Archived from the original on 31 October 2014.
  344. ^ "Commonwealth Games Federation, History and Tradition of Commonwealth Games, Edinburgh, Bendigo, Pune". Commonwealth Youth Games 2008. 14 August 2000. Archived from the original on 8 October 2010. Retrieved 27 September 2010.

External links