Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the food industry
|Part of a series on the|
The COVID-19 pandemic affects the global food industry as governments close down restaurants and bars to slow the spread of the virus. Across the world, restaurants' daily traffic dropped precipitously compared to the same period in 2019. Closures of restaurants caused a ripple effect among related industries such as food production, liquor, wine, and beer production, food and beverage shipping, fishing, and farming.
The issues were particularly disruptive in industrialized areas where large proportions of entire categories of food are typically imported using just-in-time logistics.
Global food security expert Peter Alexander of the University of Edinburgh said that the free-market, just-in-time logistical systems common in industrialized areas are very good at dealing with disruptions in one place or sudden shortages of one commodity but are more vulnerable to systemic shock because there is no slack in the system and no supply reserves to fall back on.
In many places there was panic buying with resulting shortages. There were some supply chain disruptions for some products; for instance, many hand pumps for hand sanitizer bottles are imported into the US from China and were in shorter supply. For most food products in the US normal resupply happened, but panic buying causing empty shelves contributed to consumers' impulse to stock up and hoard. A US food retail trade group advised retailers to accelerate ordering and consider rationing to prevent empty shelves. Food retailers were "among the most affected by the coronavirus, but one of the few businesses that might actually benefit," at least in the short term according to the television channel Cheddar. Some areas saw price gouging.
Food traffic to restaurants and cafes declined by 75% in Latin America, where as North America and Middle East markets saw a decline of 90% by end of March. Later on, as demand for certain agricultural products fell due to lockdowns and closure of restaurants, farmers reported a glut in supply, such as potatoes in the Netherlands and milk in the U.S. state of Wisconsin.
Online grocery shopping has grown substantially during the pandemic. Small-scale farmers have been embracing digital technologies as a way to directly sell produce, and community-supported agriculture and direct-sell delivery systems are on the rise during the coronavirus pandemic.
For retail workers in food and grocery businesses, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Occupational Safety and Health Administration have recommended specific COVID-19 hazard controls beyond general workplace recommendations. For employees, these include encouraging touchless payment options and minimizing handling of cash and credit cards, placing cash on the counter rather than passing it directly by hand, and routinely disinfecting frequently touched surfaces such as workstations, cash registers, payment terminals, door handles, tables, and countertops. Employers may place sneeze guards with a pass-through opening at the bottom of the barrier in checkout and customer service locations, use every other check-out lane, move the electronic payment terminal farther from the cashier, place visual cues such as floor decals to indicate where customers should stand during check out, provide remote shopping alternatives, and limit the maximum customer capacity at the door. Food workers experiencing clinical gastrointestinal or respiratory disease symptoms should not participate in food processing or preparation.
All types of food can potentially be contaminated though contact with any contaminated equipment, surfaces or environment. Proper cleaning and prevention of cross-contamination are critical in the control of foodborne illnesses. Once pathogens are deposited on surfaces by a previously contaminated product (cross-contamination), aerosols or touch from contaminated hands or clothing, they can survive on inanimate objects such as knives, saws, transport containers and conveyor belts made of metal, plastic and wood. Coronaviruses have been shown to remain infectious for up to nine days on such surfaces.
Good hygiene practices are particularly important when handling fresh foods that may be consumed raw and/or without any further processing. Examples include fresh fruits and vegetables and ready-to-use foods for consumption without further heat treatment. These can be particularly susceptible to contamination from the environment and food handlers. To minimize risk of exposure to any foodborne bacteria and viruses, it is important to keep food contact environments, equipment and tools clean, observe good handwashing practices, and separate raw and cooked foods and use clean water.
Impacts by country
On 23 March 2020, the Brazilian Association of Bars and Restaurants (Abrasel) reported that more than 3 million workers could lose their jobs over the next 40 days.
As of April 17, 2020[update], 15% of the infections in Alberta – 358 cases – have been connected to the Cargill meat processing plant in High River. The outbreak itself has been linked to an employee of a long-term care facility who had close contact with an employee of the plant in their household. The plant was idled by Cargill on 20 April.
Starbucks, KFC, Pizza Hut, and McDonald's had closed restaurants in Wuhan or Hubei by 27 January. Because the closings came just before the Lunar New Year celebrations, they came "at probably the worst time for China," according to Jude Blanchette, head of China studies at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. The Lunar New Year as of 2020 was considered China's single most important economic event, with 2019 spending of US$150 billion. The service sector in 2020 represented 52% of China's economy.
By 24 March, Starbucks had reopened 95% of the 2000 restaurants that had closed, including some in Wuhan. Starbucks announced it expected a $400 million or more in lowered revenues for the fiscal second quarter because of the China closures.
According to Eater, "The whole French food chain may become less individual and more corporate as only big restaurant groups like Alain Ducasse and major industrial food producers survive."
According to Eater, restaurants in Budapest depend heavily on tourism, and will likely not survive.
On 23 March 2020, the National Restaurants Association of India asked the Finance Ministry for a bailout for the industry. The economic value of the industry is estimated at ₹4,238.65 billion.
All bars and pubs were closed in Ireland by 15 March. On 22 March, it was announced that all McDonald's outlets in Ireland would be closed from 7 pm on 23 March. The day after the McDonald's announcement, coffeehouse chain Costa Coffee and restaurant franchise Subway both announced they would shut their Irish outlets, as did doughnut company Krispy Kreme regarding its one Irish outlet in Dublin. The Irish fast food restaurant chain Supermac's announced the same day as the Costa and Subway closures that it would shut all its restaurants by the evening of 26 March; it intended the delay to allow emergency services using its facilities time to plan where they would eat, but did say it would shut its seating areas that night. By August 2020, McDonald's, Supermac's, Costa Coffee, Subway and Krispy Kreme reopened providing takeaway, delivery or drive thru services only.
As the third phase of the government's roadmap got underway on 29 June, all restaurants and cafés reopened serving on premises food and strict social distancing and cleaning measures in place. Pubs and bars reopened only if they served "substantial" meals of at least €9—according to the Government of Ireland and Fáilte Ireland. Indoor hospitality soon closed again in October after the government imposed a national six-week lockdown. On 4 December, thousands of restaurants, cafés and gastropubs reopened after six weeks of closure. On Christmas Eve, all restaurants, cafés and gastropubs closed again at 3 pm following the reimposition of lockdown restrictions until 12 January 2021 at the earliest, after a third wave of COVID-19 arrived in Ireland. Due to the repeated extension of the lockdown, they remained closed throughout the first five months of 2021.
Under the government's reopening plan throughout May and June 2021, all bars, restaurants and cafés reopened for outdoor service on 7 June, while indoor service remained closed. On 29 June, due to the rapidly increasing incidence of the Delta variant, the government announced that the planned reopening of indoor dining and drinking in restaurants and pubs on 5 July would be delayed. After further delays, the government eventually approved legislation for the resumption of indoor hospitality, with proofs of vaccination needed for those who were vaccinated or recovered from COVID-19, while those under 18 would be required to be accompanied by a fully vaccinated person. On 21 July, it was confirmed that indoor dining in pubs and restaurants could resume on Monday 26 July for fully vaccinated and COVID-19 recovered people, after President Michael D. Higgins signed the legislation underpinning new guidelines into law.
According to Eater, much of Italy's artisanal food production depends heavily on tourism, both directly and indirectly via restaurants, and may not survive.
Restaurant-related Diffusion Index (飲食関連DI, inshoku kanren dhīai) in March 2020 was felt down into 0.7 which was worst value ever. Torikizoku (鳥貴族), a yakitori-style izakaya chain, announced on 2 April that they would shut all 394 of their stores from 4 April to 6 May. Doutor Coffee shut all about 250 of their stores in seven prefectures (Tokyo, Chiba, Saitama, Kanagawa, Osaka, Hyogo and Fukuoka), which are issued emergency declaration initially, from 8 April. Starbucks also shut all about 850 of their stores in seven prefectures from 9 April. Tully's Coffee shut about 400 of their stores in seven prefectures and about 50 of their stores in six prefectures (Hokkaido, Ibarakim Ishikawa, Gifu, Aichi and Kyoto), which are designated as special alert prefectures (特定警戒都道府県, tokutei keikai todōfuken), from 16 April to 6 May and from 23 April to 6 May respectively. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries asked people to drink milk more for reducing disposal of it. According to website of Joyfull (ジョイフル) family restaurant chain, 200 restaurant were close from July 2020 in Japan, affective of COVID-19 in nationwide from February 2020. An western-style restaurant chain, Khtchen Jiro (キッチンジロー) official confirmed report on 3 September 13 places were close on 30 September, due to affective of COVID-19 pandemic in Japan since February, according to this restaurant website showed. According to web site show for restaurant chain giant, Skylark (すかいらーく) announced in 12 November 200 place closed from November 2020 to 2021, and Izakaya (Japanese style bar) restaurant chain, Monterosa (モンテローザ), announced by web site on 15 January 61 places were closed on same day, both affective for COVID-19 pandemic on nationwide from March 2020.
McDonald's temporary closed their dine-in restaurants on mid-March when movement control order begun and their service were restricted to takeaways only. Despite the partially relaxation of the movement control order which is known as conditional movement control order effective 4 May which allows restaurants to accept dine-in, McDonald's refuse to provide dine-in in all their restaurants citing safety as their main priority and continue to offer takeaways until further notice.
Due to the movement control order that was enforced since mid-March, many restaurants, cafes, bakery and convenient stores in Kuala Lumpur, Selangor and Muar were impacted by the pandemic which forces many business to become defunct or dissolved, and each affected stores were placing up the banner regarding the premises is for sale or rent, although some stores has been dissolved few days earlier prior to MCO lockdown. However, not all dissolved business placed up the banner yet as their rental contract has yet to be expired. The dissolving of business was attributed to lockdown and curfews which prevents many people from having dinner and supper in restaurants during night time, which were exacerbate further by high rental fees and landlord's refusal to reduce the rental fees.
In Subang Jaya, bubble tea is one of the food industry that was worst hit by COVID-19 pandemic. According to the observation by Malay Mail, reporter discovered that in SS15 area which is well known for bubble tea hence unofficially named "Bubble Tea Street" or "Boba Street", 15 out of 20 bubble tea shops in that area were permanently closed. While the closure of these bubble tea shops were attributed to their target demographic, mainly university students and young professionals, who are unable to study and work in that area during movement control order lockdown that prevents many people from visiting their shops and was further exacerbated by the rising of rental price due to gentrification caused by booming of bubble tea shops from RM 3000 in 2014 to RM 12000 in May 2020 that causes many struggling business unable to pay rents during pandemic, however, when Malay Mail interviewed with anonymous quality control officer of an anonymous bubble tea company, he denied that pandemic impact is the real cause of decline of bubble tea shops as bubble tea shops is a food shops which food shops is a category that are allowed to operate during lockdown, but instead stating that lack of passion regarding managing their own bubble tea shops by owner is the main reason of decline of bubble tea shops. Some netizens react the closure as predictable, with one said that the decline will continues despite the diseases has contained, while others praised the closure as a hope to reduce diabetes rates among Malaysian and considering bubble tea as non-essential business.
Although some restaurants survived the pandemic impact and has reopened for dine-in, however, it was also reported that many customers were continue to prefer either queuing up for takeaways or using online food ordering system to deliver takeaways to home instead.
In New Zealand on 25 March 2020 butcher shops were declared non-essential businesses by the government. According to the 2017 version of the New Zealand Pandemic Plan, Retail Meat New Zealand and other organizations will coordinate with the government to maintain essential food supplies to point of sale.
Select outlets of fast food and restaurant chains across Luzon remained operational during the Luzon enhanced community quarantine. The outlets that remained open continue to accept take out and delivery orders. Food delivery services such as GrabFood and FoodPanda temporarily halted but eventually resumed operations in Luzon during the quarantine period.
According to Eater, in the restaurant industry in Sweden "there is a feeling of utter despair" but also high levels of camaraderie among restaurateurs, who are trying out new ideas in an attempt to survive.
On 21 March, the Ministry of the Interior announced that starting from midnight, restaurants, dining places and patisseries were to be closed to the public for dining in, and were only allowed to offer home delivery and take-away.
UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson on 16 March recommended the public stay away from bars, clubs, and restaurants. The restaurant industry is the UK's third-largest employer. A relief package for workers was announced 20 March but funds would not be available until the end of April.
According to The Guardian, restaurants "scrambled to reinvent themselves" by pivoting their business models to adapt to the realities of government restrictions. Restaurants became "takeaways, bottle shops, delicatessens. Others [were] selling hampers, fresh meal-kits or offering cookery courses."
On 24 March, Greggs announced that it would close all of its around 2,000 stores. This is despite having converted into a takeaway shop following the call for all restaurants and cafes to close. Nearly half of the UK food supply is imported. Multiple suppliers to restaurants switched to direct-to-consumer models.
The 2020 coronavirus pandemic impacted the US food industry via government closures, resulting in layoffs of workers and loss of income for restaurants and owners. It impacted retail groceries with panic buying noted as early as 2 March in some areas.
The closures impacted the distribution for food and beverages. In early April, while grocery stores were experiencing shortages of dairy products, farmers whose main customers were in the food service supply chain were dumping their milk because of lack of demand. According to Cornell dairy industry economist Christopher Wolf, "If you have a factory that was set up to produce sour cream to sell at Mexican restaurants, you can't just decide that tomorrow you're gonna produce ice cream and send it to the grocery store." Meat processor Tyson Foods temporarily ceased operations in April because many of its workers had contracted coronavirus, and it was expected that farmers would simply slaughter many animals without having anywhere to sell them as meat.
According to NPR's Yuki Noguchi, "Just about every restaurant nationwide has been hit hard at once, making this disaster unique." Industry experts warned that many small businesses would not be able to recover from closures without help from the government. Impact on the greater economy was as of 17 March expected to be large as Americans have in recent years spent more at restaurants than at grocery stores. Lester Jones, chief economist of the National Beer Wholesalers Association, said "This is a very significant and traumatic event for the restaurants, bars, taverns and the industry in general." Chris Swonger, CED of the Distilled Spirits Council of the United States, said "The impact on our industry is going to be really, really difficult. It's going to be a real challenge economically for not only the distillers of the United States, but certainly small businesses, restaurants, and bars." Sean Kennedy of the National Restaurant Association on 19 March called the closures a "perfect storm" for the industry, saying the three primary challenges for restaurateurs are short-term access to cash, medium and long-term access to credit, and tax relief when the closures are ended. An investor in two New York City restaurants told the New York Post:
This situation is apocalyptic for the restaurant business. How sad would the city be if the only places that survived were chains? It makes me depressed to even think about it.— Mark Amadei
The New York Times on 20 March reported that industry analysts were predicting that two-thirds of restaurants would not survive, and as many as 75% of independents. On 26 March 11 percent of restaurants anticipated permanently closing within the next 30 days.
The US restaurant industry was projected at $899 billion in sales for 2020 by the National Restaurant Association, the main trade association for the industry in the United States. An estimated 99% of companies in the industry are family-owned small businesses with fewer than 50 employees. The industry as a whole as of February 2020 employed more than 15 million people, representing 10% of the workforce directly. It is the nation's second largest private employer and the third largest employer overall. It indirectly employed close to another 10% when dependent businesses such as food producers, trucking, and delivery services were factored in, according to Ohio restaurateur Britney Ruby Miller. In Delaware and Massachusetts, one in ten workers is employed in the restaurant industry. In North Carolina, 11% of workers are employed by the industry. In Texas, 12% of workers were employed by the industry as of 2016.
Industry experts on 18 March forecasted $225 billion in direct losses and a full economic impact of $675 billion because of additional revenues generated elsewhere in the economy when customers patronize restaurants.
In July, Dunkin' Donuts announced the permanent closure of 800 stores as pandemic related closures impacted the chain's business revenues. California Pizza Kitchen filed for bankruptcy. NPC International, CEC Entertainment, Le Pain Quotidien have also filed for bankruptcy.
In a 28 February story about how restaurants could prepare for the possibility of a pandemic, Restaurant Business quoted Roslyn Stone, COO of a firm that provides crisis response for restaurants, who said "The prospect of a global pandemic has already put a spotlight on restaurants and the tendency for employees to come in sick. Though more chains have started giving employees sick time as the supply of labor has tightened, it's increasingly important for companies to change their culture to ensure employees aren't working while sick."
A 3 March story in Nation's Restaurant News characterized the industry as being braced for impact from the virus.
On Sunday, 15 March, Ohio Governor Mike DeWine and Ohio Health Department director Amy Acton ordered the closure of all bars and restaurants to help slow the spread of the virus, saying the government "encouraged restaurants to offer carryout or delivery service, but they would not be allowed to have people congregating in the businesses." DeWine said he'd made the decision "after being contacted by citizens around the state sharing photos and stories of crowded bars Saturday night, despite warnings of social distancing and the governor's edict limiting crowds to no larger than 100 people." The city of Los Angeles closed all restaurants and bars later that evening and New York City announced all restaurants and bars would close by the following Tuesday, both cities also allowing exceptions for takeout and delivery.
The next day, Illinois, New Jersey, New York state, Connecticut, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Maryland and Washington DC followed suit. On 18 March, the National Restaurant Association asked the federal government to provide relief to restaurants and restaurant workers. By 21 March, at least 25 states had closed restaurants and bars. By 22 March, the number had risen to 38. In other states, major cities had closed bars and restaurants to sit-down diners and limited to takeout orders and delivery.
Industry fallout and reactions
The partial rather than full closings of restaurants meant that the closings failed to trigger business interruption insurance for many restaurants; other policies had clauses excluding coverage in the case of epidemics, action by civil authority, or requiring restaurants to have physical damage to property. Many employees were laid off, and more employees lacked sick leave in the sector compared to similar sectors. The New York Times characterized the closures as affecting "all strata of the industry, from the owners and their celebrity chefs to the waiters and waitresses, bar-backs and busboys, who effectively are facing layoffs and may be unable to pay their rent."
The virus has spread to hundreds of meat processing plants in the U.S., forcing some facilities to close, and causing tens of thousands of infections and dozens of deaths among meat processing workers. Smithfield Foods CEO Kenneth Sullivan said this created risks to the meat supply chain; the company closed at least three plants because of workers with the virus.
Directory and review site Yelp in July announced that 60% of US restaurants that closed down completely during the pandemic had marked those closures as permanent for a total of nearly 16,000 restaurants by 24 July.
Multiple state and local governments offered relief packages for workers and restaurants. US President Trump met via phone on 19 March with leaders of chain restaurant companies, but no independent franchises were included. Participants included Domino's Pizza, McDonald's, Wendy's, Yum Brands and Darden Restaurants and representatives from the International Franchise Association and the National Retail Federation.
In early May legislation was proposed in Congress to allow Americans to use SNAP benefits at restaurants. Currently, food assistance benefits can only be used at restaurants if the state participates in the "Restaurant Meals Program". The proposed SNAP CARRY Act includes provisions to expand access to the restaurant program during emergencies like the pandemic.
On a wider scope, in 2021 the Quality Franchise Association published a report investigating the impacts of the pandemic on the UK franchising sector, with a survey on both franchisor and franchisee angles of business from a variety of sectors.
Individuals who have continued to shop during the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic are at an increased risk of contracting COVID-19. Amidst the pandemic, grocery stores and pharmacies continue to remain open and attract crowds of shoppers, thus creating the potential to further spread contagion. Some stores and pharmacies have set restrictions on shoppers to encourage social distancing such as a limit on capacity, required masks for customers and employees, taking temperatures before entrance or not allowing children under 16 inside the buildings.
- "See how much business U.S. restaurants are losing because of the coronavirus". CBS News. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- Somvichian-Clausen, Austa (20 March 2020). "How NYC's restaurant industry is surviving amid coronavirus closures". The Hill. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- Mali, Meghashyam (17 March 2020). "Restaurant industry reeling under coronavirus". The Hill. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- Bloom, Jonty (26 March 2020). "How are food supply networks coping with coronavirus?". BBC News. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- Harvey, Fiona (9 June 2020). "World faces worst food crisis for at least 50 years, UN warns". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
- "How Is the Grocery Supply Chain Responding to Coronavirus?". fmi.org. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
- Repko, Melissa (2 March 2020). "How grocery stores are trying to prevent 'panic buying' as coronavirus causes stockpiling, emptying shelves". CNBC. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
- "Grocers, Retailers Gear Up for Coronavirus as Demand Spikes". Cheddar. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
- Inc, Aislelabs (6 April 2020), How the Food and Beverage Industry is Responding to Coronavirus by Aislelabs, retrieved 7 May 2020
- Barrett, Rick (3 April 2020). "Wisconsin farmers forced to dump milk as coronavirus slams a fragile dairy economy". USA Today. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
- "With No Fries Sold, Dutch Farmers Face Billion Kilo Potato Pile". The New York Times. 3 April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
- "Coronavirus will change the grocery industry forever". CNN. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
- Foote, Natasha (2 April 2020). "Innovation spurred by COVID-19 crisis highlights 'potential of small-scale farmers'".
- "What Grocery and Food Retail Workers Need to Know about COVID-19". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 13 April 2020. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
- Food Safety in the time of COVID-19. Rome: FAO. 2020. doi:10.4060/ca8623en. ISBN 978-92-5-132408-0. S2CID 216051391.
- "How Food Scenes Around the World Are Coping Amid Coronavirus". Eater. 20 March 2020. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
- Dryden, Joel (17 April 2020). "358 cases of COVID-19 now linked to Cargill meat plant". CBC News. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- Dormer, Dave (20 April 2020). "Cargill meat processing plant in High River to be idled after COVID-19 outbreak". Calgary. Retrieved 21 April 2020.
- "Feeding a nation under lockdown | Saltwire".
- "Meat plant closures unlikely to impact grocery prices in short term".
- Pham, Sherisse (27 January 2020). "How the coronavirus is already hurting global business". CNN. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- Stankiewicz, Kevin (24 March 2020). "Starbucks CEO: Our experience tracking coronavirus in China shows US on 'very similar' path". CNBC. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- "Starbucks commits to paying all workers for 30 days — even if they don't go to work during coronavirus". CBS News. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- Mar. 22, Jonathan Maze on; 2020. "Vapiano says coronavirus might push it into bankruptcy". Restaurant Business. Retrieved 23 March 2020.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- "Coronavirus impact: Restaurant body seeks financial bailout package". @businessline. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
- "All pubs advised to close until March 29". gov.ie. Government of Ireland. 15 March 2020. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
- "McDonald's to close Irish restaurants". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. 22 March 2020. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
- "McDonald's to close restaurants in UK and Ireland on Monday". The Guardian. 22 March 2020. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
- "Supermacs latest to announce closure of outlets". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
- "All McDonald's drive-thrus to reopen by June 4". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. 27 May 2020. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
- "COVID-19 Update : McDonalds.ie". mcdonalds.ie. 12 May 2020. Retrieved 12 May 2020.
- McNulty, Fran (22 April 2020). "Supermac's to reopen for limited food services". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
- "Supermac's statement – limited service provision". Supermac's. 22 April 2020. Retrieved 26 April 2020.
- "Costa Coffee Ireland unaffected by job cuts announcement in UK". Irish Examiner. 3 September 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
- Costa Coffee [@CostaCoffee] (9 July 2020). "We have a further 467 stores reopening today for takeaway, taking us up to over 1,800+ stores now open. All open stores will be displayed on our website store locator. We're also going be trialing 'eat in' within 44 of our stores today ☕" (Tweet). Retrieved 29 October 2020 – via Twitter.
- "Subway to reopen 25% of stores on phased basis". Irish Examiner. 12 May 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.
- "Krispy Kreme announces Dublin re-opening". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. 19 May 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
- Dunne, Alex (19 May 2020). "Krispy Kreme announce reopening of Blanchardstown store with drive through service for frontline workers". Dublin Live. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
- Harrison, Shane (29 June 2020). "Coronavirus lockdown: Pubs, restaurants and barbers reopen in Ireland". BBC News. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
- "Pubs can only reopen if a 'substantial' meal costs at least €9". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. 16 June 2020. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
- Goodbody, Will (4 December 2020). "Restaurants, cafes and some pubs reopening". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
- Ryan, Philip (22 December 2020). "Covid restrictions: Cabinet agree to shut restaurants and hair salons on Christmas Eve". Irish Independent. Retrieved 23 December 2020.
- Hutton, Brian (20 February 2021). "Hospitality will not reopen before mid-summer, Taoiseach says". The Irish Times. Retrieved 23 August 2021.
- O'Brien, Fergal (7 June 2021). "Outdoor hospitality returns as restrictions are eased". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Retrieved 7 June 2021. Halpin, Hayley (7 June 2021). "'Stepping stone to normality': Relief for some, ongoing worries for others as pubs and restaurants open outdoor spaces". TheJournal.ie. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
- "Public health measures that will come into place from 5 July". gov.ie. Department of the Taoiseach, Department of Health. 29 June 2021. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
- McQuinn, Cormac; Horgan-Jones, Jack; Clarke, Vivienne (12 July 2021). "People caught using fake passes to access indoor hospitality face fine of up to €2,000". The Irish Times. Retrieved 12 July 2021.
- Regan, Mary (21 July 2021). "Indoor dining to resume for fully vaccinated and those recovered from Covid-19". RTÉ News and Current Affairs. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
- "3月の街角景気、新型コロナで大幅悪化 飲食は過去最低の0.7". 日本経済新聞 電子版 (in Japanese). 8 April 2020. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
-  Announcement on Torikizoku's official site (Ja)
- 日本放送協会. "【緊急事態宣言 生活情報】外食チェーン各社の対応". NHKニュース. Archived from the original on 29 April 2020. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
- "2020年4月14日 「緊急事態宣言」に伴う店舗休業について（4月17日更新） |TULLY'S COFFEE – タリーズコーヒー". www.tullys.co.jp (in Japanese). Retrieved 30 April 2020.
- "「牛乳モー1本!」農水省がいま訴える切実な理由 | 経済プレミア・トピックス | 川口雅浩". 毎日新聞「経済プレミア」 (in Japanese). Retrieved 30 April 2020.
- "日本の牛乳を救う「プラスワンプロジェクト」緊急スタート！：農林水産省". maff.go.jp. Retrieved 30 April 2020.
- ja:ジョイフル#沿革 (Japanese language edition) Ritriveted date on 12 June 2019.
- Daim, Nuradzimmah (17 March 2020). "Restaurants, fast food outlets prepare for restricted movement order". New Straits Times. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
- Wong, Alexander (3 May 2020). "McDonald's Malaysia will not open for dine-in customers on 4th May". SoyaCincau. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
- ""疫"中止血求存·麻餐饮业掀结业潮" [Restaurants in Muar seens waves of business closure]. Sin Chew Daily (in Chinese). 10 June 2020. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
- "招租横幅越挂越多·雪隆商店陆续倒闭" [More and more banner regarding properties for rent were placed. Many shops in Klang Valley continues to shut down]. Sin Chew Daily (in Chinese). Petaling Jaya. 2 June 2020. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
- Vin Ang, May (19 May 2020). "Netizens Grieve Possible Closure Of Several Bubble Tea Shops In SS15". Says Sdn Bhd. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
- Annuar, Azril (25 May 2020). "A Covid-19 fatali-tea: How Subang Jaya's Boba Street bubble burst". The Malay Mail. Kuala Lumpur. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
- 蔡琦淮 (19 May 2020). "承受不了亏损6家倒闭 奶茶街 风光不再" [Not able to bear the damages, six bubble tea shops permanently closed. Bubble Tea Street wave were no more.]. China Press (in Chinese). Subang Jaya. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
- Justin (19 May 2020). "Several SS15's Bubble Tea Shops Have Closed & Are Now Up For Sale". Hype.my. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
- globalmeatnews.com. "New Zealand butcher shops deemed 'non-essential'". globalmeatnews.com. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
- "New Zealand Influenza Pandemic Plan A framework for action" (PDF). New Zealand Government Ministry of Health. p. 38. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
Representatives of the FMCG sector will coordinate during a pandemic event to maintain essential food and grocery supplies to point of sale. Coordinating organisations include, but are not limited to, the New Zealand Food and Grocery Council, the New Zealand Retailers Association, Retail Meat New Zealand, Fonterra, the New Zealand Fruit and Vegetable Growers Federation, Progressive Enterprises, Foodstuffs, Colgate Palmolive and Goodman Fielder.
- "Where to Order Food for Take Out and Delivery Amidst Enhanced Community Quarantine". Philippine Primer. 19 March 2020. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- "İçişleri Bakanlığı lokanta ve restoranlar için yeni tedbirleri açıkladı". Anadolu Agency. 21 March 2020. Retrieved 21 March 2020.
- Rayner, Jay (22 March 2020). "Chefs and restaurateurs fear they may go under after coronavirus closures". The Observer. ISSN 0029-7712. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- Naylor, Tony (22 March 2020). "How restaurants are scrambling to reinvent themselves in the wake of coronavirus | Tony Naylor". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- Hanbury, Mary. "McDonald's is closing all of its restaurants in the UK as the coronavirus pandemic rages on". Business Insider. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
- "Greggs to close all stores to prevent virus spread". BBC News. 23 March 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
- globalmeatnews.com. "UK meat businesses adapting to tackle coronavirus situation". globalmeatnews.com. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
- Noguchi, Yuki (22 March 2020). "Closed All At Once: Restaurant Industry Faces Collapse". NPR. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- Fu, Jessica (8 April 2020). "Why farmers are dumping milk while grocery stores report dairy shortages". The Counter. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
- McLean, Rob (27 April 2020). "'The food supply chain is breaking,' Tyson says as plants close". CNN. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
- Reuters (4 May 2020). "Tyson Foods says coronavirus will continue to limit U.S. meat supply". Yahoo Finance. Retrieved 4 May 2020.
- "Food And Beverage Industry Hit Hard By Coronavirus Outbreak". NPR. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- Keil, Jennifer Gould (23 March 2020). "NYC restaurants stop offering takeout due to coronavirus crisis". New York Post. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
- Severson, Kim; Yaffe-Bellany, David (20 March 2020). "Independent Restaurants Brace for the Unknown". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
- Davies, Madeleine (26 March 2020). "Trump Says Restaurants Will Make a Comeback, Just Maybe With New Owners". Eater.
- Brownfield, Andy (20 March 2020). "Cincinnati restaurants ask feds for coronavirus bailout". login.research.cincinnatilibrary.org. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- Ramirez, Elva. "The Restaurant Industry Needs A Coronavirus Bailout. Will They Get It?". Forbes. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- "Restaurant industry reeling from coronavirus". MSNBC. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- Ciolino, Nick. "Coronavirus in Delaware: Fallout from closing restaurants and bars". delawarepublic.org. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- "The Massachusetts Restaurant Industry at a Glance" (PDF). Massachusetts Restaurant Association.
- "NC restaurant association launches health plan aiming to help hundreds of thousands of workers". The Business Journals. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- "Restaurant Industry In Texas". txresto.com. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- Gangitano, Alex (18 March 2020). "Restaurant industry estimates $225B in losses from coronavirus". The Hill. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- "Dunkin' Revenue Falls 20%, Company to Close 800 Stores". 30 July 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
- "California Pizza Kitchen Latest Chain to File for Bankruptcy". 30 July 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2020.
- Maze, Jonathan; Feb. 28, Heather Lalley on; 2020. "How restaurants can prepare for a coronavirus pandemic". Restaurant Business. Retrieved 22 March 2020.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
- "Restaurant industry braces for coronavirus impact". Nation's Restaurant News. 3 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- Conradis, Brandon (15 March 2020). "Illinois, Ohio closing all bars, restaurants in response to coronavirus". The Hill.
- "37 confirmed cases of coronavirus in Ohio; 361 under investigation". WBNS-10TV Columbus, Ohio | Columbus News, Weather & Sports. 15 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
- "Coronavirus: Governor orders Ohio bars, restaurants to shut down". The Columbus Dispatch. 15 March 2020. Archived from the original on 16 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
- "LIST: States that have closed restaurants and bars to dine-in customers". KFOR.com. 16 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- Kang, Matthew (15 March 2020). "LA Mayor Eric Garcetti orders closure of restaurants and bars, allowing only takeout and delivery". Eater LA. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- Witte, Griff; Zezima, Katie (16 March 2020). "Ohio Gov. Mike DeWine's coronavirus response has become a national guide to the crisis". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- "Natl Rest. Association COVID Response Ltr". National Restaurant Association. 18 March 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- Taylor, Luke (21 March 2020). "When coronavirus is behind us, will you still think of restaurant and bar workers?". Vox. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- "Assoc-State-Covid19-Resources" (PDF). National Restaurant Association. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- "Chart: How coronavirus is devastating the restaurant business". 16 March 2020. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 19 March 2020.
- Sedacca, Matthew (20 March 2020). "Why Are Insurance Companies Denying Restaurant Claims in Wake of Pandemic?". Eater. Retrieved 24 March 2020.
- "Coronavirus exposes sick leave gap for retail, restaurant workers". Press Enterprise. 17 March 2020. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 20 March 2020.
- Sick leave National Bureau of Economic Research
- Wilson, Michael; Nierenberg, Amelia (16 March 2020). "'We're Completely Lost': Coronavirus Hits N.Y. Restaurants". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- Michelle A. Waltenburg, DVM; Tristan Victoroff, MPH; Charles E. Rose, PhD; Marilee Butterfield; Rachel H. Jervis, MPH; Kristen M. Fedak, PhD; Julie A. Gabel, DVM; Amanda Feldpausch, MPH; Eileen M. Dunne, PhD; Connie Austin, DVM; Farah S. Ahmed, PhD; Sheri Tubach, MPH; Charles Rhea, MPH; Anna Krueger, MS; David A. Crum, DVM; Johanna Vostok, MPH; Michael J. Moore, MS; George Turabelidze, MD; Derry Stover, MPH; Matthew Donahue, MD; Karen Edge, MPH; Bernadette Gutierrez; Kelly E. Kline, MPH; Nichole Martz; James C. Rajotte, MS; Ernest Julian, PhD; Abdoulaye Diedhiou, MD; Rachel Radcliffe, DVM; Joshua L. Clayton, PhD; Dustin Ortbahn, MPH; Jason Cummins, MPH; Bree Barbeau, MPH; Julia Murphy, DVM; Brandy Darby, DVM; Nicholas R. Graff, MPH; Tia K. H. Dostal, MPH; Ian W. Pray, PhD; Courtney Tillman, MPH; Michelle M. Dittrich, MPH; Gail Burns-Grant; Sooji Lee, MSPH; Alisa Spieckerman, MPH; Kashif Iqbal, MPH; Sean M. Griffing, PhD; Alicia Lawson, MPH; Hugh M. Mainzer, DVM; Andreea E. Bealle, MPH; Erika Edding; Kathryn E. Arnold, MD; Tomas Rodriguez, MA; Sarah Merkle, MPH; Kristen Pettrone, MD; Karen Schlanger, PhD; Kristin LaBar, MPH; Kate Hendricks, MD; Arielle Lasry, PhD; Vikram Krishnasamy, MD; Henry T. Walke, MD; Dale A. Rose, PhD; Margaret A. Honein, PhD (10 July 2020). Update: COVID-19 Among Workers in Meat and Poultry Processing Facilities ― United States, April–May 2020 (Report). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 31 July 2020. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
Among 23 states reporting COVID-19 outbreaks in meat and poultry processing facilities, 16,233 cases in 239 facilities occurred, including 86 (0.5%) COVID-19–related deaths.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Pitt, David; Foley, Ryan J. (15 April 2020). "Tyson Foods says 2 dead from COVID-19 outbreak at Columbus Junction plant". Cedar Rapids, Iowa: KCRG-TV. Archived from the original on 28 July 2020. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
- "One of the largest pork processing facilities in the US is closing until further notice". CNN. Retrieved 14 April 2020.
- Lardieri, Alexa (16 April 2020). "Smithfield Foods Closes Two More Plants Following COVID-19 Concerns". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- Croft, Jay (25 July 2020). "Yikes! Yelp says 60% of restaurant Covid-19 closures are permanent". CNN. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
- McCarthy, Kelly (24 July 2020). "Nearly 16,000 restaurants have closed permanently due to the pandemic, Yelp data shows". ABC News. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
- Adams, Erika (19 March 2020). "NYC's Top Restaurant Groups Band Together to Petition for Government Relief". Eater NY. Retrieved 22 March 2020.
- "More restaurants could start taking SNAP benefits". FOX Business. 1 May 2020.
- Schrotenboer, Brent (27 March 2020). "Are grocery stores and pharmacies vectors for the coronavirus?". USA Today. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
- Tyko, Kelly. "Should shoppers be required to wear face masks? Can kids go to the store? COVID-19 brings massive changes". USA Today. Retrieved 30 April 2020.