Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on science and technology
This article has multiple issues. Please help to improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)
|Part of a series on the|
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected many scientific and technical institutions globally, resulting in lower productivity in a number of fields and programs. However, the impact of the pandemic has led to the opening of several new research funding lines for government agencies around the world.
As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, new and improved forms of scientific communication have evolved. One example is the amount of data being published on preprint servers and the way it has been reviewed on social media platforms before being formally peer reviewed. Scientists are reviewing, editing, analyzing, and publishing manuscripts and data speedily. This intense communication may have enabled an unusual level of collaboration and efficiency among scientists. Francis Collins notes that while he has not seen research move faster, the pace of research "can still feel slow" during a pandemic. The typical research model was considered too slow for the "urgency of the coronavirus threat".
World Health Organization (WHO)
On the 4th of May, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) organized a telethon to raise US$8 billion from forty countries to support the rapid development of COVID-19 vaccines. WHO also announced the implementation of an international "solidarity trial" to simultaneously evaluate multiple vaccine candidates reaching phase II-III clinical trials. The "solidarity trial for treatments" is a multinational phase III-IV clinical trial organized by WHO and its partners to compare four untested treatments for hospitalized people with severe cases of COVID-19 disease. The trial was announced on March 18, 2020, and by April 21, 2020, over 100 countries had participated. In addition, WHO is coordinating an international multisite randomized controlled trial—"solidarity trial for vaccines"—that will allow simultaneous assessment of the benefits and risks of different vaccine candidates being clinically tested in countries with high rates of COVID-19 disease. The WHO Vaccine Coalition prioritizes which vaccines to include in phase II and III clinical trials and establishes harmonized phase III protocols for all vaccines that reach the pivotal testing phase.
The Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), which has established a US$2 billion global fund for rapid investment and development of vaccine candidates, indicated in April 2020 that a vaccine could be available under protocols of emergency use in less than 12 months, or by early 2021.
The seventh edition of the UNESCO Science Report, which monitors science policy and governance around the world, was in preparation as the COVID-19 pandemic began. As a result, the report documents some of the ways in which scientists, inventors, and governments used science to meet society's needs during the early stages of the pandemic. In the paper What the COVID-19 Pandemic Reveals About the Evolving Landscape of Scientific Advice, the authors present five countries' case studies (Uruguay, Sri Lanka, Jamaica, Ghana, and New Zealand). The authors conclude, "Effective and trusted scientific advice is not simply a function of linkages with the policy-maker. It also involves an effective conversation with stakeholders and the public."
During the COVID-19 pandemic, Africa contributed 13% of the world's new or adapted technologies, such as robotics, 3D printing, and mobile phone apps, according to the World Health Organization. Many countries have accelerated their approval processes for research project proposals. For example, the innovation agencies of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay have issued calls for research proposals with an expedited approval process through early April 2020. Peru's two innovation agencies reduced their own response time to two weeks, as documented in the UNESCO Science Report (2021).
The UNESCO study of publication trends in 193 countries on the topic of new or re-emerging viruses that can infect humans covered the period from 2011 to 2019 and now provides an overview of the state of research prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Global output on this broad topic increased by only 2% per year between 2011 and 2019, slower than overall global scientific publications. Growth was much higher in individual countries that had to use science to address other viral outbreaks during this period, such as Liberia to combat Ebola or Brazil to combat Zika fever. It remains to be seen whether or not the scientific landscape will shift toward a more proactive approach to health sciences after COVID-19.
National and Intergovernmental Laboratories
The United States Department of Energy federal scientific laboratories, such as the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, have closed all their doors to all visitors and many employees, with non-essential employees and scientists encouraged to work from home if possible. Contractors are also strongly advised to isolate their facilities and employees unless necessary. Overall, ORNL operations remain reasonably unaffected.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been tasked by the White House Coronavirus Task Force to use most of its supercomputing capacity to continue the research on the virus stream, possible mutations, and other factors, while other projects are temporarily scaled back or indefinitely postponed.
The European Molecular Biology Laboratory has closed all six sites in Europe (Barcelona, Grenoble, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Hinxton, and Rome). All EMBL site governments have implemented strict controls in response to the coronavirus. EMBL staff have been instructed to follow the advice of local authorities. Several staff members have been given permission to work at the sites to provide essential services such as animal facility maintenance or data services. All other staff has been instructed to stay at home. EMBL has also canceled all visits to the sites by groups outside the staff. This includes physical attendance at the Heidelberg course and conference program, EMBL-EBI training courses, and all other seminars, courses, and public visits at all sites. Meanwhile, the European Bioinformatics Institute has established a European COVID-19 platform for data/information exchange. The goal is to collect and share readily available research data to enable synergy, cross-fertilization, and use of different data sets with varying degrees of aggregation, validation, and/or completeness. The platform is envisioned to consist of two interconnected components, the SARS-CoV-2 data hubs, which will organize the flow of SARS-CoV-2 outbreak sequence data and enable comprehensive open data exchange for the European and global research community, and a more comprehensive COVID-19 portal.
World Meteorological Organization
The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has expressed concern about the effects of the pandemic on its monitoring system. Observations from the Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay program, which use in-flight measurements from the fleets of 43 airlines, have been reduced by 50 to 80 percent depending on the region. Data from other automated systems have been virtually unaffected, although WMO is concerned that repairs and maintenance may be affected. Manual observations, mainly from developing countries, have also seen a significant decrease.
The need to accelerate open scientific research prompted several civil society organizations to create an Open COVID-19 Pledge asking different industries to release their intellectual property rights during the pandemic to help find a cure for the disease. Several tech giants have joined the pledge, which includes the release of an Open COVID license. Long-time open access advocates such as Creative Commons have launched a myriad of calls and actions to promote open access in science as a key component to combat the disease. These include a public call for open access policies and a call to scientists to adopt zero embargo periods for their publications, applying a CC BY to their articles and a CC0 waiver for research data. Other organizations have challenged the current scientific culture, calling for more open and public science.
For studies and information on coronavirus that can contribute to citizen science through open science, many other online resources are available on other open science and open access websites, including portals run by Cambridge University Press, the Europe branch of the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition, The Lancet, John Wiley and Sons, and Springer Nature.
A JAMA Network Open study examined trends in oncology clinical trials initiated before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. It was noted that pandemic-related declines in clinical trials raised concerns about the potential negative impact on the development of new cancer therapies and the extent to which these findings could be applied to other diseases.
Computing and machine learning research and citizen science
This section needs to be updated.(November 2020)
In March 2020, the United States Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, NASA, industry, and nine universities pooled resources to access supercomputers from IBM combined with cloud computing resources from Hewlett Packard Enterprise, Amazon, Microsoft, and Google for drug discovery. The COVID‑19 High Performance Computing Consortium also aims to predict the spread of disease, model possible vaccines, and study thousands of chemical compounds to develop a COVID‑19 vaccine or therapy.
The C3.ai Digital Transformation Institute, another consortium of Microsoft, six universities (including the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a member of the first consortium), and the National Center for Supercomputer Applications in Illinois, operating under the auspices of C3.ai, founded by Thomas Siebel, is pooling supercomputing resources for drug discovery, developing medical protocols, and improving public health strategies, and is awarding large grants through May to researchers proposing to use AI for similar tasks.
In March 2020, the [email protected] distributed computing project launched a program to support medical researchers around the world. The first wave of the project will simulate potential target proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and the related SARS-CoV virus, which has already been studied.
In March, the [email protected] distributed computing project also joined the effort. The project uses volunteers' computers to model the proteins of SARS-CoV-2 virus to discover potential drug targets or develop new proteins to neutralize the virus. The researchers announced that using [email protected], they were able to "accurately predict the atomic-scale structure of an important coronavirus protein weeks before it could be measured in the lab."
In May 2020, the Open Pandemics—COVID-19 partnership was launched between Scripps Research and IBM's World Community Grid. The partnership is a distributed computing project that "will automatically run a simulated experiment in the background [of connected home PCs] that will help predict the efficacy of a particular chemical compound as a potential treatment for COVID-19."
- The Eterna Open-Vaccine project allows video game players to "design an mRNA encoding a potential vaccine against the novel coronavirus."
- The EU-Citizen Science project provides "a selection of resources related to the current COVID-19 pandemic. It contains links to citizen science and crowdsourcing projects."
- The COVID-19 Citizen Science project is "a new initiative by University of California, San Francisco physician-scientists" that "will allow anyone in the world age 18 or over to become a citizen scientist advancing understanding of the disease."
- The CoronaReport digital journalism project is "a citizen science project which explains the reporting on the Coronavirus and makes these reports accessible to other citizens."
- The COVID Symptom Tracker is a crowdsourced study of symptoms of the virus. It has been downloaded two million times as of April 2020.
- The COVID Near you epidemiology tool "uses crowdsourced data to visualise maps to help citizens and public health agencies identify current and potential hotspots for the recent pandemic coronavirus, COVID-19."
The scientific community has held several machine learning competitions to identify false information related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Some examples are listed below:
- The First Workshop on Combating Online Hostile Posts in Regional Languages during Emergency Situation, co-located with the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence conference (AAAI-2021), focused on detecting fake news in English related to COVID-19. The data sources were various social media platforms such as Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram. Given a social media post, the objective of the shared task was to classify it was fake or real news. The winner of the task presented an ensemble approach based on fine-tuning COVID-Twitter-BERT models.
- The Sixth Workshop on Noisy User-generated Text: Identification of Informative COVID-19 English Tweets, aimed to automatically identify whether a COVID-19 related English tweet is informative or not. The organisers provided the research community with a new dataset of tweets for identification. The selection of tweets included information about suspected, confirmed, recovered, and death cases, as well as the location or travel history of cases. The winning solution for the workshop task presented a neural network ensemble consisting of the COVID-Twitter-BERT and RoBERTa language models.
NASA announced the temporary closure of all visitor complexes at its field centers until further notice and asked all non-critical personnel to work from home if possible. Production and manufacturing of the Space Launch System at the Michoud Assembly Facility has been halted, and further delays are expected for the James Webb Space Telescope, although work resumed on June 3, 2020.
The majority of Johnson Space Center personnel have transitioned to telecommunicating, and mission-critical personnel on the International Space Station have been ordered to reside in the mission control room until further notice. Station operations are relatively unaffected, but astronauts on new expeditions are subject to longer more stringent pre-flight quarantine.
NASA's emergency response framework has varied based on local virus cases around its agency's field centers. As of March 24, 2020, the following space centers had moved to Stage 4.
- Glenn Research Center in Ohio
- Plum Brook Station in Ohio
- Armstrong Flight Research Center in California
- Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia
- Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York
- Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, which also reported its first COVID-19 positive employee case.
Two facilities were maintained at Stage 4 after reporting new cases of coronavirus: the Michoud Assembly Facility reported its first employee to test positive for COVID-19, and Stennis Space Center recorded the second case of a NASA community member with the virus. Kennedy Space Center maintained at Stage 3 after a workforce member tested positive. Due to mandatory telecommuting policy already in place, the individual had not been on site for more than a week before the onset of symptoms. On May 18, the Michoud facility began resuming work operations on the SLS, but so far remains in a Level 3 status.
At Level 4, mandatory telecommuting is in effect for all personnel except for limited personnel required for mission-critical work and to ensure and maintain the safety and security of the facility.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (June 2020)
Recent developments, including increased restrictions by national, regional, and local authorities across Europe and the first positive COVID-19 test result among European Space Operations Centre personnel, have led the agency to further restrict on-site personnel at its mission control centers.
ESA Director of Operations, Rolf Densing, has strongly advised mission personnel to reduce activity on science missions, especially on interplanetary spacecraft.
The affected spacecraft currently have stable orbits and long-duration mission, so turning off their science instruments and placing them into a largely unattended safety configuration for a certain period of time will have a negligible impact on their overall mission performance.
Examples of such missions include:
- Cluster – A four-spacecraft mission launched in 2000, orbiting Earth to study our planet's magnetic environment and how it is forged by the solar wind, the stream of charged particles constantly released by the Sun;
- ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter – Launched in 2016, the spacecraft orbited Mars, where it studied the planet's atmosphere and provided data relay for landers on the surface;
- Mars Express – Launched in 2003, the workhorse orbiter has been imaging the Martian surface and sampling the planet's atmosphere for more than a decade and a half;
- Solar Orbiter – ESA's newest science mission, launched in February 2020, is currently en route to its science operations orbit around the Sun.
ESA Science Director Günther Hasinger said: "It was a difficult decision, but the right one to take. Our greatest responsibility is the safety of people, and I know all of us in the science community understand why this is necessary."
The temporary reduction in on-site personnel will also allow the ESOC teams to focus on maintaining spacecraft safety for all other missions involved, especially the Mercury explorer BepiColombo, which is en route to the solar system's closest planet and would need on-site support during its planned April 10 flyby of Earth.
The difficult maneuver, which uses Earth's gravity to adjust BepiColombo's trajectory as it cruises towards Mercury, was performed by a very small number of engineers and with full respect to social distancing and other health and hygiene measures required by the current situation. Commissioning and initial checkout operations of recently launched Solar Orbiter science instrument, which had begun last month, have been temporarily suspended.
ESA plans to resume these operations in the near future, depending on the development of the coronavirus situation. In the meantime, Solar Orbiter will continue its journey towards the Sun, with the first Venus flyby to take place in December.
The space and science operations of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) were virtually unaffected. However, all visits to their many field centers have been suspended until April 30, 2020, to reduce contamination.
Bigelow Aerospace announced on March 23, 2020, that it was laying off all its 88 employees. It has said it would rehire the workers when pandemic restrictions were lifted. Tucson, Arizona-based World View announced on April 17, 2020, that it had terminated new business initiatives and laid off an unspecified number of employees to reduce cash outflows. The company also received rent deferrals from Pima County, Arizona.
OneWeb filed for bankruptcy on March 27, 2020, following a cash crunch due to difficulties in raising capital to complete construction and deployment of the remaining 90 percent of the network. The company had already laid off approximately 85 percent of its 531 employees, but said it will maintain operational satellite capabilities while the court restructures it and new owners for the constellation are sought.
Major companies such as SpaceX and Boeing are not economically affected, except that they have taken extra precautions and security measures for their employees to limit the spread of the virus in their workplaces. As of April 16, Blue Origin said that it is continuing to hire staff, with about 20 more people added each week. ULA has implemented an internal pandemic plan. Although some aspects of launch-related outreach have been scaled back, the company has made clear its intention to maintain its launch schedule.
This section needs expansion with: Not enough attention to the digital divide; needs more detail. You can help by adding to it. (November 2020)
This section needs to be updated.(November 2020)
The pandemic has caused a huge strain on internet traffic, with BT Group and Vodafone seeing a 60 and 50 percent increase in broadband usage, respectively. At the same time, Netflix, Disney+, Google, Amazon, and YouTube have considered reducing the quality of their videos to avoid overload. In addition, Sony has begun to slow down PlayStation game downloads in Europe and the United States to maintain the traffic levels.
Cellular service providers in mainland China reported significant declines in subscribers, partially due to inability of migrant workers to return to work as a result of the quarantine lockdowns; China Mobile saw a reduction of 8 million subscribers, while China Unicom had 7.8 million fewer subscribers, and China Telecom lost 5.6 million users.
Teleconferencing has been used to replace cancelled events as well as daily business meetings and social contacts. Teleconference companies such as Zoom Video Communications have seen a sharp increase in usage, accompanied by technical issues such as bandwidth overcrowding and social problems such as Zoombombing.
However, teleconferencing has also contributed to the development of remote learning.
- List of events affected by the COVID-19 pandemic
- Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on education
- Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on religion
- Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on politics
- Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on aviation
- Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cinema
- "Acciones sobre COVID-19". Argentina.gob.ar (in Spanish). 2020-03-20. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
- "Gobierno lanza "Fondo COVID-19" y dispone $2.300 millones para proyectos de investigación científica « Diario y Radio U Chile" (in Spanish). Retrieved 2020-05-04.
- Taskforce, CLAIRE COVID19. "CLAIRE Taskforce on COVID19". CLAIRE COVID19 Taskforce. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
- Aristovnik A, Ravšelj D, Umek L (November 2020). "A Bibliometric Analysis of COVID-19 across Science and Social Science Research Landscape". Sustainability. 12 (21): 9132. doi:10.3390/su12219132.
- Kupferschmidt, Kai (26 February 2020). "'A completely new culture of doing research.' Coronavirus outbreak changes how scientists communicate". Science | AAAS. Archived from the original on 4 March 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- Johnson, Carolyn Y. "Chaotic search for coronavirus treatments undermines efforts, experts say". The Washington Post. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
- Damon Wake (2020-05-04). "World leaders urge cooperation in vaccine hunt, raise $8 billion". Yahoo Finance. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
- "Update on WHO Solidarity Trial – Accelerating a safe and effective COVID-19 vaccine". World Health Organization. 2020-04-27. Retrieved 2020-05-02.
It is vital that we evaluate as many vaccines as possible as we cannot predict how many will turn out to be viable. To increase the chances of success (given the high level of attrition during vaccine development), we must test all candidate vaccines until they fail. WHO is working to ensure that all of them have the chance of being tested at the initial stage of development. The results for the efficacy of each vaccine are expected within three to six months and this evidence, combined with data on safety, will inform decisions about whether it can be used on a wider scale
- "UN health chief announces global 'solidarity trial' to jumpstart search for COVID-19 treatment". United Nations, World Health Organization. 18 March 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- Kupferschmidt, Kai; Cohen, Jon (22 March 2020). "WHO launches global mega trial of the four most promising coronavirus treatments". Science. AAAS. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "'Solidarity' clinical trial for COVID-19 treatment". www.who.int. World Health Organization. Retrieved 2020-04-22.
- "An international randomised trial of candidate vaccines against COVID-19: Outline of Solidarity vaccine trial" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2020-04-09. Retrieved 2020-05-09.
- "CEPI welcomes UK Government's funding and highlights need for $2 billion to develop a vaccine against COVID-19". Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, Oslo, Norway. 6 March 2020. Retrieved 23 March 2020.
- Thanh Le T, Andreadakis Z, Kumar A, Gómez Román R, Tollefsen S, Saville M, Mayhew S (9 April 2020). "The COVID-19 vaccine development landscape". Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 19 (5): 305–306. doi:10.1038/d41573-020-00073-5. ISSN 1474-1776. PMID 32273591.
- "COVID-19 Advisory | ORNL". ornl.gov. Archived from the original on 2020-03-26. Retrieved 2020-03-26.
- "Lab antibody, anti-viral research aids COVID-19 response | Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory". llnl.gov. Archived from the original on 2020-03-26. Retrieved 2020-03-26.
- "EMBL's response to the coronavirus outbreak". March 25, 2020.
- "EMBL-EBI leads International collaboration to share COVID-19 research data". March 27, 2020.
- "EMBL-EBI COVID-19 Data Platform".
- "WMO is concerned about impact of COVID-19 on observing system" (Press release). World Meteorological Organization. 31 March 2020.
- "Open COVID Pledge: Removing Obstacles to Sharing IP in the Fight Against COVID-19". Creative Commons. 2020-04-07. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
- "PIJIP Among Founding Partners of Open COVID Pledge". American University Washington College of Law. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
- "Tech Giants Join the CC-Supported Open COVID Pledge". Creative Commons. 2020-04-20. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
- "The Open COVID Pledge". opencovidpledge.org. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
- "Creative Commons' Response to COVID-19". Creative Commons. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
- "La risposta di Creative Commons all'emergenza causata dal COVID-19: interventi a tutela del personale e della comunità. – Italia" (in Italian). Retrieved 2020-05-04.
- "Now Is the Time for Open Access Policies—Here's Why". Creative Commons. 2020-03-19. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
- "Dr. Lucie Guibault on What Scientists Should Know About Open Access". Creative Commons. 2020-03-27. Retrieved 2020-05-04.
- "Antivírus 02 – Que ciência queremos? - ANTIVÍRUS". Spotify (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2020-05-04.
- "Coronavirus Free Access Collection". Cambridge University Press. 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
- "The Coronavirus and Open Science: Our reads and Open use cases". Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition Europe. March 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
- "The Lancet COVID-19 Resource Centre". Elsevier Inc. April 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
- "Covid-19: Novel Coronavirus Outbreak". John Wiley & Sons, Inc. March 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
- "SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19". Springer Nature. 2020. Retrieved 4 April 2020.
- Lamont, Elizabeth B.; Diamond, Sheila S.; Katriel, Ron G.; Ensign, Lisa L.; Liu, Jingshu; Rusli, Emelly; Alexander, G. Caleb (2021-01-27). "Trends in Oncology Clinical Trials Launched Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic". JAMA Network Open. 4 (1): e2036353. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.36353. ISSN 2574-3805. PMC 7841452. PMID 33502481.
- Shankland, Stephen (2020-03-23). "Sixteen supercomputers tackle coronavirus cures in the US". CNET. ViacomCBS. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
- "The COVID-19 High Performance Computing Consortium". The COVID-19 High Performance Computing Consortium. 2020. Retrieved 2020-04-27.
- "C3.ai, Microsoft, and Leading Universities Launch C3.ai Digital Transformation Institute". C3.ai. C3.ai. 2020-03-26. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
- Broad, William (26 March 2020). "A.I. Versus the Coronavirus". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
- Broekhuijsen, Niels (3 March 2020). "Help Cure Coronavirus with Your PC's Leftover Processing Power". Tom's Hardware. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
- Bowman, Greg (27 February 2020). "Foldin[email protected] takes up the fight against COVID-19 / 2019-nCoV". [email protected]. Retrieved 12 March 2020.
- "[email protected] Turns Its Massive Crowdsourced Computer Network Against COVID-19". March 16, 2020.
- "[email protected] Rallies a Legion of Computers Against the Coronavirus". HPCwire. 2020-03-24. Retrieved 2020-11-04.
- "OpenPandemics - COVID-19". IBM. 2020. Retrieved 18 May 2020.
- CSA team (April 2020). "Citizen science resources related to the COVID19 pandemic". Citizen Science Association. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "COVID-19 Open Innovation Efforts". University of California, San Francisco. 24 March 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "Citizen Scientists Are Helping Researchers Design New Drugs to Combat COVID-19". Howard Hughes Medical Institute. 26 March 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- Do Soon & the Eterna Developer Team (23 March 2020). "Eterna OpenVaccine". Eterna. Retrieved 20 April 2020.
- Steigleder, Lucie (24 March 2020). "Citizen science resources related to the COVID19 pandemic". EU-Citizen.Science. Archived from the original on 31 March 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- Norris, Jeff (30 March 2020). "New COVID-19 'Citizen Science' Initiative Lets Any Adult with a Smartphone Help to Fight Coronavirus". The Regents of The University of California. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "CoronaReport". April 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "Corona Report App (social media)". April 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- "COVID Symptom Tracker". King's College London. March 2020. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- Baumgardner, Gwen (1 April 2020). "New COVID-19 symptom tracker app helps researchers better understand coronavirus". ClickOrlando.com. Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- team, CNY (April 2020). "Covid Near You". Retrieved 2 April 2020.
- Patwa; Bhardwaj; Guptha; Kumari; Sharma; Pykl; Das; Ekbal; Akhtar; Chakraborty (2021). "Overview of CONSTRAINT 2021 Shared Tasks: Detecting English COVID-19 Fake News and Hindi Hostile Posts". Proceedings of the First Workshop on Combating Online Hostile Posts in Regional Languages During Emergency Situation (CONSTRAINT). Communications in Computer and Information Science. 1402: 42–53. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-73696-5_5. ISBN 978-3-030-73695-8. S2CID 234973379.
- Glazkova, Anna; Glazkov, Maksim; Trifonov, Timofey (2021). "g2tmn at [email protected]: Exploiting CT-BERT and Ensembling Learning for COVID-19 Fake News Detection". Combating Online Hostile Posts in Regional Languages During Emergency Situation. CONSTRAINT 2021. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Communications in Computer and Information Science. 1402: 116–127. arXiv:2012.11967. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-73696-5_12. ISBN 978-3-030-73695-8. S2CID 229349150.
- Muller, Martin; Salathé, Marcel; Kummervold, Per E (2020). "COVID-Twitter-BERT: A Natural Language Processing Model to Analyse COVID-19 Content on Twitter". arXiv:2005.07503 [cs.CL].
- Nguyen, DQ; Vu, T; Rahimi, A; Dao, MH; Nguyen, LT; Doan, L (2020). "WNUT-2020 Task 2: Identification of Informative COVID-19 English Tweets". Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Noisy User-generated Text (W-NUT 2020): 314–318. arXiv:2010.08232. doi:10.18653/v1/2020.wnut-1.41. S2CID 223953613.
- Kumar, P; Singh, A (2020). "NutCracker at WNUT-2020 Task 2: Robustly Identifying Informative COVID-19 Tweets using Ensembling and Adversarial Training". Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Noisy User-generated Text (W-NUT 2020): 404–408. arXiv:2010.04335. doi:10.18653/v1/2020.wnut-1.57. S2CID 222272063.
- Northon, Karen (March 20, 2020). "NASA Leadership Assessing Mission Impacts of Coronavirus". NASA. Archived from the original on March 23, 2020. Retrieved March 26, 2020.
- "MAFspace". mafspace.msfc.nasa.gov. Archived from the original on 2020-03-21. Retrieved 2020-03-25.
- Clark, Stephen. "NASA confirms work stoppage on James Webb Space Telescope – Spaceflight Now". Archived from the original on 2020-03-24. Retrieved 2020-03-25.
- "Work on JWST ramps up again". SpaceNews. June 3, 2020.
- "Johnson Space Center Taking Safety Precautions Amid Coronavirus". Houstonia Magazine.
- Bridenstine, Jim. "March 24 Update on NASA Response to Coronavirus". blogs.nasa.gov/. NASA Blogs. Retrieved 1 September 2021.
- Kelley, Emre. "Employee at Kennedy Space Center tests positive for coronavirus". eu.floridatoday.com. Florida Today. Retrieved 1 September 2021.
- Mohon, Lee (May 17, 2020). "Michoud Transitions to Stage 3 of the NASA Response Framework". NASA.
- "March 24 Update on NASA Response to Coronavirus – Administrator Jim Bridenstine". blogs.nasa.gov. Archived from the original on 2020-03-25. Retrieved 2020-03-25.
- "Recruiting during COVID-19". www.esa.int. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
- March 2020, Chelsea Gohd 24 (2020-03-24). "Europe stalls science on 4 space missions due to coronavirus pandemic". Space.com. Retrieved 2021-07-30.
- "ESA scales down science mission operations amid pandemic". esa.int. Archived from the original on 2020-03-24. Retrieved 2020-03-25.
- "JAXA | Tsukuba Space Center". JAXA | Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Archived from the original on August 21, 2019. Retrieved Mar 31, 2020.
- "JAXA | Field Centers". JAXA | Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Archived from the original on March 28, 2020. Retrieved Mar 31, 2020.
- "Bigelow Aerospace lays off entire workforce". SpaceNews.com. March 23, 2020.
- "World View delays plans and furloughs staff because of pandemic". SpaceNews.com. 2020-04-17. Retrieved 2020-04-19.
- Henry, Caleb (27 March 2020). "OneWeb files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy". SpaceNews. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
- Oberhaus, Daniel (27 March 2020). "SpaceX Competitor OneWeb Is Reportedly Bankrupt". Wired. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
- "Rocket Lab executive says company is well positioned to weather crisis". SpaceNews.com. 2020-04-01. Retrieved 2020-04-19.
- Twitter, Blue Origin (Apr 16, 2020). "We're continuing to hire and..." Twitter. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
- Berger, Eric (2020-03-16). "The virus has gone global—so what happens to the launch industry?". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2020-04-18.
- "The internet is under huge strain because of the coronavirus. Experts say it can cope — for now". CNBC. 27 March 2020. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020. Retrieved 28 March 2020.
- "Sony slows PS4 game download speeds in the US and Europe". TechRadar. 27 March 2020. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
- Zhao, Shirley (March 23, 2020). "China's Mobile Carriers Lose 21 Million Users as Virus Bites". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on March 30, 2020. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
- Kang, Cecilia; Alba, Davey; Satariano, Adam (2020-03-26). "Surging Traffic Is Slowing Down Our Internet". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-03-29.
- Lorenz, Taylor; Griffith, Erin; Isaac, Mike (2020-03-17). "We Live in Zoom Now". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-03-29.
- "'Zoombombers' disrupt online classes with racist, pornographic content". www.insidehighered.com. Retrieved 2020-03-29.
- Thrasyvoulos, Tsiatsos (2021-08-24). "Teleconference in support of distance learning: Views of educators". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2021-08-24.
- Goldfarb, Rose (2020-03-20). "How to Have a Successful Virtual Happy Hour". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-03-29.
- "Coronavirus Shut Down Nightclubs. These DJs Are Hosting Digital Dance Parties to Get By". Time. Retrieved 2020-03-29.