Coordinates: 55°36′21″N 13°02′09″E / 55.60583°N 13.03583°E / 55.60583; 13.03583
Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

From top left to right: Malmö Live, Turning Torso, Emporia, Griffin Sculpture, Lönngården 1950s apartments, and the Öresund Bridge
From top left to right: Malmö Live, Turning Torso, Emporia, Griffin Sculpture, Lönngården 1950s apartments, and the Öresund Bridge
Malmö is located in Sweden
Location within Sweden
Coordinates: 55°36′21″N 13°02′09″E / 55.60583°N 13.03583°E / 55.60583; 13.03583
Postal code
2xx xx
Area code(+46) 40

Malmö (

Malmö Metropolitan Region is home to over 700,000 people,[8] and the Øresund Region, which includes Malmö and Copenhagen, is home to 4 million people.[9]

Malmö was one of the earliest and most

biotech and IT companies, and attracting students through Malmö University and other higher education facilities. Over time, Malmö's demographics have changed and by the turn of the 2020s almost half the municipal population had a foreign background.[10] The city contains many historic buildings and parks, and is also a commercial centre for the western part of Skåne County. It is also home to Malmö FF, the Swedish football club with the most national championships and the only Nordic club to have reached the European Cup

Malmö has a mild climate for the latitude and, normally, average high temperatures remain above freezing in winter, with prolonged snow cover being rare.

Malmö was Sweden's fastest growing city in 2020 and the population increased by 3,800 inhabitants during 2021.[11] Malmö is expected to have a population of 500,000 around 2050.[12]


Malmö's 1437 grant of arms

The earliest written mention of Malmö as a city dates from 1275.

Archbishop of Lund,[14] 20 kilometres (12 miles) to the north-east. Malmö was for centuries Denmark's second-biggest city. Its original name was Malmhaug (with alternate spellings), meaning "Gravel pile" or "Ore Hill". An alternate story stems from a more gruesome tale that suggests that a maiden was once ground up in a mill on what is now the town square. The name would originate from 'Mal Mö', which translates to 'Ground up maiden.' A millstone that was placed in 1538 can still be found on the town square today.[15][16][17]

In the 15th century, Malmö became one of Denmark's largest and most visited cities, reaching a population of approximately 5,000 inhabitants. It became the most important city around the

from 1660.

In 1434, a new

fortress, known today as Malmöhus
, did not take its current form until the mid-16th century. Several other fortifications were constructed, making Malmö Sweden's most fortified city, but only Malmöhus remains.

Sankt Petri Church
's tower at centre

Protestant Reformation
, and Malmö became one of the first cities in Scandinavia to fully convert (1527–1529) to this Protestant denomination.

In the 17th century, Malmö and the Skåneland region came under control of Sweden following the Treaty of Roskilde with Denmark, signed in 1658. Fighting continued, however; in June 1677, 14,000 Danish troops laid siege to Malmö for a month, but were unable to defeat the Swedish troops holding it.

By the dawn of the 18th century, Malmö had about 3,000 inhabitants. However, owing to the wars of Charles XII of Sweden (reigned 1697–1718) and to bubonic plague epidemics, the population dropped to 1,800 by 1727. The population did not grow much until the modern harbour was constructed in 1775. The city started to expand and the population in 1800 was 4,000. 15 years later, it had increased to 6,000.[18]

In 1840, Frans Henrik Kockum founded the workshop from which the

Kockums shipyard eventually developed as one of the largest shipyards in the world. The Southern Main Line was built between 1856 and 1864; this enabled Malmö to become a centre of manufacture, with major textile and mechanical industries. In 1870, Malmö overtook Norrköping
to become Sweden's third-most populous city, and by 1900 Malmö had strengthened this position with 60,000 inhabitants. Malmö continued to grow through the first half of the 20th century. The population had swiftly increased to 100,000 by 1915 and to 200,000 by 1952.


In 1914, (15 May to 4 October) Malmö hosted the Baltic Exhibition. The large park Pildammsparken was arranged and planted for this large event. The Russian part of the exhibition was never taken down, owing to the outbreak of World War I.

On 18 and 19 December 1914, the Three Kings Meeting was held in Malmö. After a somewhat disturbed period (1905–1914), which included the dissolution of the

Gustav V
became the new King of Sweden, the tensions within Scandinavia were still unresolved, but during this historical meeting, the Scandinavian Kings found internal understanding, as well as a common line about remaining neutral in the ongoing war.

Within sports, Malmö has mostly been associated with football. IFK Malmö participated in the first ever edition of Allsvenskan 1924/25, but from the mid-1940s Malmö FF started to rise, and ever since it has been one of the most prominent clubs within Swedish football. They have won Allsvenskan 23 times in all (as of February 2018) between 1943/44 and 2017.


By 1971, Malmö reached 265,000 inhabitants, but this was the peak which would stand for more than 30 years.[19] (Svedala was, for a few years in the early 1970s, a part of Malmö municipality.)

By the mid-1970s Sweden experienced a

Skåne. Kockums shipyard had become a symbol of Malmö as its largest employer and, when shipbuilding ceased in 1986, confidence in the future of Malmö plummeted among politicians and the public. In addition, many middle-class families moved into one-family houses in surrounding municipalities such as Vellinge Municipality, Lomma Municipality and Staffanstorp Municipality, which profiled themselves as the suburbs of the upper-middle class. By 1985, Malmö had lost 35,000 inhabitants and was down to 229,000.[citation needed


Öresund Bridge road, railway and tunnel project, connecting it to Copenhagen and to the rail lines of Europe. The new Malmö University
opened in 1998 on Kockums' former dockside.

2000s and later

Further redevelopment of the now disused south-western harbour followed; a city architecture exposition (Bo01) was held in the area in 2001, and its buildings and villas form the core of a new city district. Designed with attractive waterfront vistas, it was intended to be and has been successful in attracting the urban middle-class.

Since 1974, the Kockums Crane had been a landmark in Malmö and a symbol of the city's manufacturing industry, but in 2002 it was disassembled and moved to South Korea. In 2005, Malmö gained a new landmark with completion of Turning Torso, the tallest skyscraper in Scandinavia. Although the transformation from a city with its economic base in manufacturing has returned growth to Malmö, the new types of jobs have largely benefited the middle and upper classes.

In its 2015 and 2017 reports,

Malmö is currently growing fast and detailed work is being planned near the Malmö Central Station, in a district called Nyhamnen. Nyhamnen will provide 9,000 new housings, two larger buildings for offices and courts. It is expected to be complete around 2040-2050.[22]


Malmö is located at 13°00' east and 55°35' north, near the southwestern tip of Sweden, in Skåne County.

The city is part of the transnational

Öresund to Copenhagen, Denmark. The bridge opened on 1 July 2000, and measures 8 kilometres (5 miles) (the whole link totalling 16 km), with pylons reaching 204.5 metres (670.9 feet) vertically. Apart from the Helsingborg-Helsingør
ferry links further north, most ferry connections have been discontinued.


Malmö, like the rest of southern Sweden, has an oceanic climate (Cfb). Despite its northern location, the climate is mild compared to other locations at similar latitudes, mainly because of the influence of the Gulf Stream and also its westerly position on the Eurasian landmass. Owing to its northern latitude, daylight lasts 17 hours 31 minutes in midsummer, but only around seven hours in midwinter. According to data from 2002 to 2014 Falsterbo, to the south of the city, received an annual average of 1,895 hours of sunshine while Lund, to the north, received 1,803 hours. The sunshine data in the weather box is based on the data for Falsterbo.[23]

Summers are mild with average high temperatures of 20 to 23 °C (68 to 73 °F) and lows of around 11 to 13 °C (52 to 55 °F). Heat waves during the summer arise occasionally. Winters are fairly cold and windy, with temperatures steady between −3 and 4 °C (27 and 39 °F), but it rarely drops below −10 °C (14 °F).

Rainfall is light to moderate throughout the year with 169 wet days. Snowfall occurs mainly in December through March, but snow covers do not remain for a long time,[24] and some winters are virtually free of snow.

Climate data for Malmö, 1991–2018; extremes since 1901
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 10.8
Mean maximum °C (°F) 8.0
Average high °C (°F) 2.9
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.8
Average low °C (°F) −1.4
Mean minimum °C (°F) −11.1
Record low °C (°F) −28.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 58.0
Mean monthly sunshine hours 43.6 64.4 138.9 222.9 274.4 271.5 272.1 236.0 188.1 115.9 56.8 33.1 1,917.7
Source 1: SMHI Open Data[25]
Source 2: SMHI Average Data 2002–2018[26]
Climate data for Malmö 2002-2021
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 4.3
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.7
Average low °C (°F) −0.4
Source 1: SMHI Open Data[27]
Source 2: SMHI Average Data 2002–2019[28]


Scandinavian peninsula with Central and Western Europe
through Denmark.

Triangeln railway station to Hyllievång (Hyllie Meadow). Then, the line comes to the surface to enter Hyllie Station
, also created as part of the tunnel project. From Hyllie Station, the line connects to the existing Öresund line in either direction, with the Öresund Bridge lying due west.

Besides the Copenhagen airport, Malmö has an airport of its own,

low-cost carriers



Malmö has 410 kilometres (250 mi) of bike paths; approximately 40% of all commuting is done by bicycle.


Malmö has an extensive network of buses within the city, and is also the destination of many regional bus lines from the rest of Skåne. The bus network replaced the tram network that existed from 1887 to 1973.


The city has two industrial harbours; one is still in active use and is the largest Nordic port for car imports.[29] It also has two marinas: the publicly owned Limhamn Marina (55°35′N 12°55′E / 55.583°N 12.917°E / 55.583; 12.917) and the private Lagunen (55°35′N 12°56′E / 55.583°N 12.933°E / 55.583; 12.933), both offering a limited number of guest docks.

Malmö S-Train

A local train line with circular traffic at seven stations was opened in December 2018. The stations are

Hyllie station – Malmö South/SvågertorpPersborgRosengårdÖstervärnMalmö Central Station (main overground terminus). Some trains arrive from Kristianstad and finish with a lap around Malmö, whilst other trains at this circular line, never drive outside the city limits. There is at least a 30 minutes service between each departure, but far more between the Central Station and Hyllie. Extension plans of a minor network system exists.[30][31]

Proposed metro


Öresund Bridge. The construction cost is estimated at 4 billion euros with a construction period of 6–7 years.[34]


Malmö Municipality is an administrative unit defined by geographical borders, consisting of the City of Malmö[35] and its immediate surroundings.

Malmö (Malmö tätort) consists of the urban part of the municipality together with the small town of Arlöv in the Burlöv Municipality. Both municipalities also include smaller urban areas and rural areas, such as the suburbs of Oxie and Åkarp. Malmö tätort is to be distinguished from Malmö stad (the city of Malmö), which is a semi-official name of Malmö Municipality.

The leaders in Malmö created a commission for a socially sustainable Malmö in November 2010. The commissions were tasked with providing evidence-based strategies for reducing health inequalities and improve living conditions for all citizens of Malmö, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged and issued its final report in December 2013.[36][non-primary source needed]


Population by country of birth
by country of birth (2021)[37]
Country Population
Foreign-born 123,290 (35%)
 Iraq 11,675
 Syria 8,669
 Denmark 7,485
 Yugoslavia 7,257
 Poland 6,619
 Bosnia 6,374
 Afghanistan 4,865
 Lebanon 4,509
 Iran 4,236
 Pakistan 3,116
 Turkey 2,710
 Somalia 2,556
 Romania 2,512
 Germany 2,164
 India 1,973
 North Macedonia 1,899
 Vietnam 1,887
 United Kingdom 1,575
 Hungary 1,545
 Serbia 1,542
 Finland 1,458
 Chile 1,325
 United States 1,321
 China 1,253
 Thailand 1,244
 Croatia 1,239
 Kosovo 1,066
Historical population
1950 198,856—    
1960 234,453+17.9%
1970 265,505+13.2%
1980 233,803−11.9%
1990 233,887+0.0%
2000 259,579+11.0%
2010 298,963+15.2%
2015 320,147+7.1%
2020 347,949+8.7%
Note: Svedala municipality was included in Malmö municipality during the large municipality reforms in Sweden, which occurred from the late 1960s until 1974, but Svedala soon became a new municipality of its own, which explains a good part of the decreased population between 1970 and 1980. (Statistics for the municipality)[38][39]

Malmö has a young population by Swedish standards, with almost half of the population under the age of 35 (48.2%).[40]

After 1971, Malmö had 265,000 inhabitants, but the population then dropped to 229,000 by 1985.[41] The total population of the urban area was 280,415 in December 2010. It then began to rise again, and had passed the previous record by the 1 January 2003 census, when it had 265,481 inhabitants.[42] On 27 April 2011, the population of Malmö reached the 300,000 mark.[43] In 2017 the total population of the city was 316,588 inhabitants out of a municipal total of 338,230.[44]

Malmö is a diverse city with inhabitants from 179 different nationalities.

The Middle East, Horn of Africa, former Yugoslavia and Denmark are the main sources of immigration.[47][48]

Greater Malmö is one of Sweden's three officially recognized metropolitan areas (storstadsområden) and since 2005 is defined as the municipality of Malmö and 11 other municipalities in the southwestern corner of Skåne County.[49] As of 2019, its population was recorded as 740,840.[50] The region covers an area of 2,522 square kilometres (974 sq mi).[1] The municipalities included, apart from Malmö, are Burlöv, Eslöv, Höör, Kävlinge, Lomma, Lund, Skurup, Staffanstorp, Svedala, Trelleborg and Vellinge
. Together with Lund, Malmö is the region's economic and education hub.


The largest religion in Malmö is Christianity and the Church of Sweden has the largest membership base, with a total of 125,697 in 2019, corresponding to 36% of its population.[51] There exist several

Catholic communities in Malmö, one being the Church of Our Saviour, Malmö with 7,500 members.[52]

Islam is the largest non-Christian religious group, with approximately 45,000 members, making up 12% of the population. There are about 100,000 Muslims in the region.[citation needed] Malmö Mosque was opened in 1984 and is managed by the Islamic Center.[53] Mahmood Mosque opened in 2016, and serves the Ahmadiyya community.[54]

Malmö has one synagogue,

orthodox and one egalitarian.[55] The Jewish community has a membership of 500.[56]


The economy of Malmö was traditionally based on shipbuilding (

Kockums) and construction-related industries, such as concrete factories. The region's leading university, along with its associated hi-tech and pharmaceutical industries, is located in Lund
about 16 kilometres (10 miles) to the north-east.

Malmö had a troubled economic situation following the mid-1970s. Between 1990 and 1995, 27,000 jobs were lost, and the budget deficit was more than one billion Swedish krona (SEK). In 1995, Malmö had Sweden's highest unemployment rate.[57]

However, during the last two decades, there has been a revival. One contributing factor has been the economic integration with

Öresund Bridge, which opened in July 2000.[58] Also the university founded in 1998 and the effects of integration into the European Union have contributed. In 2017 the unemployment rate was still high. However, in the last 20 years[timeframe?
] Malmö has had one of the strongest employment growth rates in Sweden, although a high proportion of jobs created are taken by workers from outside Malmö.[59] In 2021, Malmö had the highest unemployment rate of 11,3%.[60]

As of 2016, the largest companies were:[61]

Almost 30 companies have moved their headquarters to Malmö during the last seven years,[when?] generating around 2,300 jobs. Among them are IKEA which has most of its headquarter functions based in Malmö.[62][full citation needed]

The number of start-up companies is high in Malmö. Around 7 new companies are started every day in Malmö. In 2010, the renewal of the number of companies amounted to 13.9%, which exceeds both Stockholm and Gothenburg. Especially strong growth is in the gaming area with Massive entertainment and King being the flagship companies for the industry. Among the industries that continue to increase their share of companies in Malmö are transport, financial and business services, entertainment, leisure and construction.[63][full citation needed]

Tall buildings

Under construction, announced and proposed

Name Height (m)
Floors Usage Location Estimated Completion
Docks 79.0 [64] 26 Residential Västra Hamnen 2025


Malmö has the country's ninth-largest school of higher education, Malmö University, established in 1998. It has 1,600 employees and 24,000 students (2014).

In addition nearby Lund University (established in 1666) has some educational facilities located in Malmö:

The United Nations World Maritime University is also located in Malmö. The World Maritime University (WMU)[65] operates under the auspices of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), a specialized agency of the United Nations. WMU thus enjoys the status, privileges and immunities of a UN institution in Sweden.


Film and television

A striking depiction of Malmö (in the 1930s) was made by

Gambia, and deals with identity, integration and everyday racism.[67]

The cities of Malmö and Copenhagen are, with the Öresund Bridge, the main locations in the television series The Bridge (Bron, Danish: Broen).[68]


In 1944, Malmö Stadsteater (Malmö Municipal Theatre) was established with a repertoire comprising stage theatre, opera, musical, ballet, musical recitals and experimental theatre. In 1993 it was split into three units, Dramatiska Teater (Dramatical Theatre), Malmö Musikteater (Music Theatre) and Skånes Dansteater (Skåne Dance Theatre) and the name was abandoned. The ownership of the last two were transferred to

Malmö Operan and plays operas and musicals, classics as newly composed, on one of Scandinavia's large opera scenes with 1,511 seats.[70] Skånes dansteater is active and plays contemporary dance repertory and present works by Swedish and international choreographers in their house in Malmö harbor.[71]

Since the 1970s the city has also been home to independent theatre groups and show or musical companies. It also hosts a rock–dance–dub culture; in the 1960s The Rolling Stones played the Klubb Bongo, and in recent years stars like Morrissey, Nick Cave, B.B. King and Pat Metheny have made repeated visits.

The Cardigans debuted in Malmö and recorded their albums there. On 7 January 2009 CNN Travel broadcast a segment called "MyCity_MyLife" featuring Nina Persson taking the camera to some of the sites in Malmö that she enjoys.

The Rooseum Centre for Contemporary Art, founded in 1988 by the Swedish art collector and financier Fredrik Roos and housed in a former power station which had been built in 1900, was one of the foremost centres for contemporary art in Europe during the 1980s and 1990s. By 2006, most of the collection had been sold off and the museum was on a time-out; by 2010 Rooseum had been dismantled and a subsidiary of the National Museum of Modern Art inaugurated in its place.


In 1992 and in 2013 Malmö was the host of the Eurovision Song Contest.[72]

Big Slap is a music festival, held annually since 2013 at Pildammsparken. Big Slap will be held at Nyhamnen 2022 featuring Justin Bieber, which will be the biggest concert in Malmö's history.[73]

Malmö is the home of several bands, including CC & Lee, Fews, LeGrand, Nasty Idols, Spunsugar and Timeless Miracle.


Moderna Museet Malmö was opened in December 2009 in the old Rooseum building. It is a part of the Moderna Museet, with independent exhibitions of modern and contemporary art. The collection of Moderna Museet holds key pieces of, among others, Marcel Duchamp, Louise Bourgeois, Pablo Picasso, Niki de Saint Phalle, Salvador Dalí, Carolee Schneemann, Henri Matisse and Robert Rauschenberg[74][75]

Malmö Museum (Malmö Museer) is a municipal and regional museum. The museum features exhibitions on technology, shipping, natural history and history. Malmö Museum has an aquarium and an art museum.

Malmöhus Castle
is also operated as a part of the museum. Exhibitions are primarily shown at Slottsholmen and at the Technology and Maritime Museum (Teknikens och sjöfartens hus).[76] [77] [78] [79]

Malmö Konsthall is one of the largest exhibition halls in Europe for contemporary art, opened in 1975.[80]


Malmö synagogue

Malmö's oldest building is St. Peter's Church (Swedish: Sankt Petri). It was built in the early 14th century in Baltic Brick Gothic probably after St Mary's Church in Lübeck. The church is built with a nave, two aisles, a transept and a tower. Its exterior is characterized above all by the flying buttresses spanning its airy arches over the aisles and ambulatory. The tower, which fell down twice during the 15th century, got its current look in 1890.[81] Another major church of significance is the Church of Our Saviour, Malmö, which was founded in 1870.

Another old building is Tunneln, 300 metres (1,000 ft) to the west of Sankt Petri Church, which also dates back to around 1300.

The oldest parts of Malmö were built between 1300 and 1600 during its first major period of expansion.[citation needed] The central city's layout, as well as some of its oldest buildings, are from this time. Many of the smaller buildings from this time are typical Scanian: two-story urban houses that show a strong Danish influence.[citation needed]

Recession followed in the ensuing centuries. The next expansion period was in the mid 19th century and led to the modern stone and brick city. This expansion lasted into the 20th century and can be seen by a number of

Malmö synagogue. Malmö was relatively late to be influenced by modern ideas of functionalist
tenement architecture in the 1930s.

Around 1965, the government initiated the so-called Million Programme, intending to offer affordable apartments in the outskirts of major Swedish cities. But this period also saw the reconstruction (and razing) of much of the historical city centre.[82]

Since the late 1990s, Malmö has seen a more cosmopolitan architecture. Västra Hamnen (the Western Harbor), like most of the harbors to the north of the city centre, was industrial. In 2001 its reconstruction began as an urban residential neighbourhood, with 500 residential units, most were part of the exhibition Bo01.[83] The exhibition had two main objectives: develop self-sufficient housing units in terms of energy and greatly diminish phosphorus emissions. Among the new building's towers were the Turning Torso, a skyscraper with a twisting design, 190 metres (620 ft) tall, the majority of which is residential. It became Malmö's new landmark.[84][85] The most recent addition (2015) is the new development of Malmö Live. This new building features a hotel, a concert hall, congress hall and a sky bar in the centre of Malmö. Point Hyllie is a new 110 m (360 ft) commercial tower that began construction in 2018.

Other sights

The beach Ribersborg, by locals usually called Ribban,[86] south-west of the harbor area, is a man-made shallow beach, stretching along Malmö's coastline. Despite Malmö's chilly climate, it is sometimes referred to as the "Copacabana of Malmö".[87] It is the site of Ribersborgs open-air bath, opened in the 1890s.

The long boardwalk at the Western Harbor, Scaniaparken and Daniaparken, has become a favorite summer hang-out for the people of Malmö and is a popular place for bathing.[88] The harbor is particularly popular with Malmö's vibrant student community and has been the scene of several impromptu outdoor parties and gatherings.

Annual events

In the third week of August each year a festival, Malmöfestivalen, fills the streets of Malmö with different kinds of cuisines and events.

BUFF International Film Festival, an international children and young people's film festival, is held in Malmö every March.

Nordisk Panorama Film Festival, a film festival for short and documentary films by filmmakers from the Nordic countries, is held every September.

Malmö Arab Film Festival (MAFF), the largest Arabic film festival in Europe, is held in Malmö.

The Nordic Game conference takes place in Malmö every April/May.[89][90] The event consists of conference itself, recruitment expo and game expo and attracts hundreds of "gamedev" (game development) professionals every year.

Malmö also hosts other 3rd party events that cater to all communities that reside in Malmö, including religious and political celebrations.


Kvällsposten still has a minimal editorial staff but is today just a version of a Stockholm tabloid. The Social Democratic Arbetet was edited and printed at Malmö between 1887 and 2000.[91]

In addition to these, a number of free-of-charge papers, generally dealing with entertainment, music and fashion have local editions (for instance City, Rodeo, Metro and Nöjesguiden). Malmö is also home to the Egmont Group's Swedish magazine operations. A number of local and regional radio and TV broadcasters are based in the Greater Malmö area.



Eleda Stadion
, the home of Malmö FF