Coordinates: 55°40′34″N 12°34′06″E / 55.67611°N 12.56833°E / 55.67611; 12.56833
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København (
Copenhagen is located in Europe
Location within Europe
Coordinates: 55°40′34″N 12°34′06″E / 55.67611°N 12.56833°E / 55.67611; 12.56833
 • City183.20 km2 (70.73 sq mi)
 • Urban
525.50 km2 (202.90 sq mi)
 • Metro
3,371.80 km2 (1,301.86 sq mi)
 • Øresund Region20,754.63 km2 (8,013.41 sq mi)
Highest elevation
91 m (299 ft)
Lowest elevation
1 m (3 ft)
 (1 July 2022)[3][4][5][6]
 • City1,366,301
 • Density4,417.65/km2 (11,441.7/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Urban density2,560.54/km2 (6,631.8/sq mi)
 • Metro
 • Metro density633.38/km2 (1,640.4/sq mi)
 • Øresund Region
 • Øresund Region density199.28/km2 (516.1/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
Postal code
1050–1778, 2100, 2150, 2200, 2300, 2400, 2450, 2500
Area code(+45) 3

Copenhagen (/ˌkpənˈhɡən, -ˈhɑː-/ KOH-pən-HAY-gən, -⁠HAH- or /ˈkpənhɡən, -hɑː-/ KOH-pən-hay-gən, -⁠hah-.;[9] Danish: København [kʰøpm̩ˈhɑwˀn] (listen)) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark, with a population of around 1.4 million in the urban area,[10][11] and more than 2 million in the wider Copenhagen metropolitan area. The city is on the islands of Zealand and Amager, separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the Øresund strait. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road.

Originally a

Second World War, the Finger Plan
fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre.

Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure. The city is the

pharmaceuticals and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become increasingly integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterised by parks, promenades, and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, The Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle, Frederik's Church, Børsen
and many museums, restaurants and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.

Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen Business School and the IT University of Copenhagen. The University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the football clubs F.C. Copenhagen and Brøndby IF. The annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world.

Coast Line network serve and connect central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2.5 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the busiest airport in the Nordic countries


Copenhagen's name (København in Danish), reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce. The original designation in

Old Danish was spoken, the capital was called Køpmannæhafn, with the current name deriving from centuries of subsequent regular sound change

The English

chapman's haven".[12] The English chapman, German Kaufmann, Dutch koopman, Swedish köpman, Danish købmand, and Icelandic kaupmaður share a derivation from Latin caupo, meaning 'tradesman'. However, the English term for the city was adapted from its Low German name, Kopenhagen. Copenhagen's Swedish
name is Köpenhamn, a direct translation of the mutually intelligible Danish name.

The city's Latin name is Hafnia.


Early history

Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent


These finds indicate that Copenhagen's origins as a city go back at least to the 11th century. Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age.[13] Many historians believe the town dates to the late Viking Age, and was possibly founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard.[14] The natural harbour and good herring stocks seem to have attracted fishermen and merchants to the area on a seasonal basis from the 11th century and more permanently in the 13th century.[15] The first habitations were probably centred on Gammel Strand (literally 'old shore') in the 11th century or even earlier.[16]

The earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus Mercatorum, meaning 'Merchants' Harbour' or, in the Danish of the time, Købmannahavn.[17] Traditionally, Copenhagen's founding has been dated to Bishop Absalon's construction of a modest fortress on the little island of Slotsholmen in 1167 where Christiansborg Palace stands today.[18] The construction of the fortress was in response to attacks by Wendish pirates who plagued the coastline during the 12th century.[19] Defensive ramparts and moats were completed and by 1177 St. Clemens Church had been built. Attacks by the Wends continued, and after the original fortress was eventually destroyed by the marauders, islanders replaced it with Copenhagen Castle.[20]

Middle Ages

In 1186, a letter from

Church of Our Lady was constructed on higher ground to the northeast of the town, which began to develop around it.[15]

As the town became more prominent, it was repeatedly attacked by the

Second Danish-Hanseatic War. As the fishing industry thrived in Copenhagen, particularly in the trade of herring, the city began expanding to the north of Slotsholmen.[19] In 1254, it received a charter as a city under Bishop Jakob Erlandsen[21] who garnered support from the local fishing merchants against the king by granting them special privileges.[22] In the mid 1330s, the first land assessment of the city was published.[22]

With the establishment of the

Sixtus IV.[24] This makes it the oldest university in Denmark and one of the oldest in Europe. Originally controlled by the Catholic Church, the university's role in society was forced to change during the Reformation in Denmark in the late 1530s.[24]

16th and 17th centuries

In disputes prior to the Reformation of 1536, the city which had been faithful to

Frederik I, who supported Lutheranism. Copenhagen's defences were reinforced with a series of towers along the city wall. After an extended siege from July 1535 to July 1536, during which the city supported Christian II's alliance with Malmö and Lübeck, it was finally forced to capitulate to Christian III. During the second half of the century, the city prospered from increased trade across the Baltic supported by Dutch shipping. Christoffer Valkendorff, a high-ranking statesman, defended the city's interests and contributed to its development.[15]
The Netherlands had also become primarily Protestant, as were northern German states.

During the reign of

Rundetårn.[19] In 1658–1659, the city withstood a siege by the Swedes under Charles X and successfully repelled a major assault.[25]

By 1661, Copenhagen had asserted its position as capital of Denmark and Norway. All the major institutions were located there, as was the fleet and most of the army. The defences were further enhanced with the completion of the Citadel in 1664 and the extension of Christianshavns Vold with its bastions in 1692, leading to the creation of a new base for the fleet at Nyholm.[25][26]

18th century

Amalienborg Palace

Copenhagen lost around 22,000 of its population of 65,000 to the

1795 fire, it is the main reason that few traces of the old town can be found in the modern city.[28][29]

A substantial amount of rebuilding followed. In 1733, work began on the royal residence of Christiansborg Palace which was completed in 1745. In 1749, development of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden was initiated. Designed by Nicolai Eigtved in the Rococo style, its centre contained the mansions which now form Amalienborg Palace.[30] Major extensions to the naval base of Holmen were undertaken while the city's cultural importance was enhanced with the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts.[31]

In the second half of the 18th century, Copenhagen benefited from Denmark's neutrality during the wars between Europe's main powers, allowing it to play an important role in trade between the states around the Baltic Sea. After Christiansborg was destroyed by fire in 1794 and another fire caused serious damage to the city in 1795, work began on the classical Copenhagen landmark of

Gammel Torv were converged.[31]

19th century

On 2 April 1801, a

fleet anchored near Copenhagen. Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson led the main attack.[32] He famously disobeyed Parker's order to withdraw, destroying many of the Dano-Norwegian ships before a truce was agreed.[33] Copenhagen is often considered to be Nelson's hardest-fought battle, surpassing even the heavy fighting at Trafalgar.[34] It was during this battle that Lord Nelson was said to have "put the telescope to the blind eye" in order not to see Admiral Parker's signal to cease fire.[35]

Gottlieb Bindesbøll's Thorvaldsen Museum
Danish soldiers returning to Copenhagen in 1849, after the First Schleswig War – painting by Otto Bache


Vor frue kirke, was destroyed by the sea artillery. Several historians consider this battle the first terror attack against a major European city in modern times.[37][38]

The British landed 30,000 men, they surrounded Copenhagen and the attack continued for the next three days, killing some 2,000 civilians and destroying most of the city.[39] The devastation was so great because Copenhagen relied on an old defence-line whose limited range could not reach the British ships and their longer-range artillery.[40]

Despite the disasters of the early 19th century, Copenhagen experienced a period of intense cultural creativity known as the

C.F. Hansen and Gottlieb Bindesbøll brought a Neoclassical look to the city's architecture.[41] In the early 1850s, the ramparts of the city were opened to allow new housing to be built around The Lakes (Danish: Søerne) that bordered the old defences to the west. By the 1880s, the districts of Nørrebro and Vesterbro developed to accommodate those who came from the provinces to participate in the city's industrialization. This dramatic increase of space was long overdue, as not only were the old ramparts out of date as a defence system but bad sanitation in the old city had to be overcome. From 1886, the west rampart (Vestvolden) was flattened, allowing major extensions to the harbour leading to the establishment of the Freeport of Copenhagen 1892–94.[42] Electricity came in 1892 with electric trams in 1897. The spread of housing to areas outside the old ramparts brought about a huge increase in the population. In 1840, Copenhagen was inhabited by approximately 120,000 people. By 1901, it had some 400,000 inhabitants.[31]

20th century

By the beginning of the 20th century, Copenhagen had become a thriving industrial and administrative city. With its new city hall and railway station, its centre was drawn towards the west.[31] New housing developments grew up in Brønshøj and Valby while Frederiksberg became an enclave within the city of Copenhagen.[43] The northern part of Amager and Valby were also incorporated into the City of Copenhagen in 1901–02.[44]

As a result of Denmark's neutrality in the

First World War, Copenhagen prospered from trade with both Britain and Germany while the city's defences were kept fully manned by some 40,000 soldiers for the duration of the war.[45]

In the 1920s there were serious shortages of goods and housing. Plans were drawn up to demolish the old part of Christianshavn and to get rid of the worst of the city's slum areas.[46] However, it was not until the 1930s that substantial housing developments ensued,[47] with the demolition of one side of Christianhavn's Torvegade to build five large blocks of flats.[46]

World War II

liberation of Denmark
at Strøget in Copenhagen, 5 May 1945. Germany surrendered three days later.

occupied by German troops along with the rest of the country from 9 April 1940 until 4 May 1945. German leader Adolf Hitler hoped that Denmark would be "a model protectorate"[48] and initially the Nazi authorities sought to arrive at an understanding with the Danish government. The 1943 Danish parliamentary election was also allowed to take place, with only the Communist Party excluded. But in August 1943, after the government's collaboration with the occupation forces collapsed, several ships were sunk in Copenhagen Harbor by the Royal Danish Navy to prevent their use by the Germans. Around that time the Nazis started to arrest Jews, although most managed to escape to Sweden.[49]

In 1945

Shell Oil Company. Political prisoners were kept in the attic to prevent an air raid, so the RAF had to bomb the lower levels of the building.[50]

The attack, known as "Operation Carthage", came on 22 March 1945, in three small waves. In the first wave, all six planes (carrying one bomb each) hit their target, but one of the aircraft crashed near Frederiksberg Girls School. Because of this crash, four of the planes in the two following waves assumed the school was the military target and aimed their bombs at the school, leading to the death of 123 civilians (of which 87 were schoolchildren).[50] However, 18 of the 26 political prisoners in the Shell Building managed to escape while the Gestapo archives were completely destroyed.[50]

On 8 May 1945 Copenhagen was officially liberated by British troops commanded by

Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery who supervised the surrender of 30,000 Germans situated around the capital.[51]

Post-war decades

Shortly after the end of the war, an innovative urban development project known as the

S-train routes.[52][53] With the expansion of the welfare state and women entering the work force, schools, nurseries, sports facilities and hospitals were established across the city. As a result of student unrest in the late 1960s, the former Bådsmandsstræde Barracks in Christianshavn was occupied, leading to the establishment of Freetown Christiania in September 1971.[54]

Motor traffic in the city grew significantly and in 1972 the trams were replaced by buses. From the 1960s, on the initiative of the young architect Jan Gehl, pedestrian streets and cycle tracks were created in the city centre.[55] Activity in the port of Copenhagen declined with the closure of the Holmen Naval Base. Copenhagen Airport underwent considerable expansion, becoming a hub for the Nordic countries. In the 1990s, large-scale housing developments were realised in the harbour area and in the west of Amager.[47] The national library's Black Diamond building on the waterfront was completed in 1999.[56]


21st century

Since the summer of 2000, Copenhagen and the Swedish city of

transport system and has led to the extensive redevelopment of Amager.[54] The city's service and trade sectors have developed while a number of banking and financial institutions have been established. Educational institutions have also gained importance, especially the University of Copenhagen with its 35,000 students.[57] Another important development for the city has been the Copenhagen Metro, the railway system which opened in 2002 with additions until 2007, transporting some 54 million passengers by 2011.[58]

On the cultural front, the

On 3 July 2022, three people were killed in a shooting at Field's mall in Copenhagen. Police chief inspector Søren Thomassen announced the arrest of a 22-year-old man and said that the police cannot rule out an act of terrorism.[61][62]


Copenhagen is part of the Øresund Region, which consists of Zealand, Lolland-Falster and Bornholm in Denmark and Scania in Sweden.[63] It is located on the eastern shore of the island of Zealand, partly on the island of Amager and on a number of natural and artificial islets between the two. Copenhagen faces the Øresund to the east, the strait of water that separates Denmark from Sweden, and which connects the North Sea with the Baltic Sea. The Swedish city of Malmö and the town of Landskrona lie on the Swedish side of the sound directly across from Copenhagen.[64] By road, Copenhagen is 42 kilometres (26 mi) northwest of Malmö, Sweden, 85 kilometres (53 mi) northeast of Næstved, 164 kilometres (102 mi) northeast of Odense, 295 kilometres (183 mi) east of Esbjerg and 188 kilometres (117 mi) southeast of Aarhus by sea and road via Sjællands Odde.[65]

The city centre lies in the area originally defined by the old ramparts, which are still referred to as the Fortification Ring (Fæstningsringen) and kept as a partial green band around it.[66] Then come the late-19th- and early-20th-century residential neighbourhoods of Østerbro, Nørrebro, Vesterbro and Amagerbro. The outlying areas of Kongens Enghave, Valby, Vigerslev, Vanløse, Brønshøj, Utterslev and Sundby followed from 1920 to 1960. They consist mainly of residential housing and apartments often enhanced with parks and greenery.[67]


The central area of the city consists of relatively low-lying flat ground formed by moraines from the last ice age while the hilly areas to the north and west frequently rise to 50 m (160 ft) above sea level. The slopes of Valby and Brønshøj reach heights of over 30 m (98 ft), divided by valleys running from the northeast to the southwest. Close to the centre are the Copenhagen lakes of Sortedams Sø, Peblinge Sø and Sankt Jørgens Sø.[67]

Copenhagen rests on a subsoil of flint-layered limestone deposited in the

greensand from the Selandian is also present. There are a few faults in the area, the most important of which is the Carlsberg fault which runs northwest to southeast through the centre of the city.[68] During the last ice age, glaciers eroded the surface leaving a layer of moraines up to 15 m (49 ft) thick.[69]

Geologically, Copenhagen lies in the northern part of Denmark where the land is rising because of post-glacial rebound.


Amager Strandpark, which opened in 2005, is a 2 km (1 mi) long artificial island, with a total of 4.6 km (2.9 mi) of beaches. It is located just 15 minutes by bicycle or a few minutes by metro from the city centre.[70] In Klampenborg, about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from downtown Copenhagen, is Bellevue Beach. It is 700 metres (2,300 ft) long and has both lifeguards and freshwater showers on the beach.[71]

The beaches are supplemented by a system of Harbour Baths along the Copenhagen waterfront. The first and most popular of these is located at Islands Brygge, literally meaning Iceland's Quay, and has won international acclaim for its design.[72]


Copenhagen is in the

low-pressure systems from the Atlantic which result in unstable conditions throughout the year. Apart from slightly higher rainfall from July to September, precipitation is moderate. While snowfall occurs mainly from late December to early March, there can also be rain, with average temperatures around the freezing point.[74]

June is the sunniest month of the year with an average of about eight hours of sunshine a day. July is the warmest month with an average daytime high of 21 °C. By contrast, the average hours of sunshine are less than two per day in November and only one and a half per day from December to February. In the spring, it gets warmer again with four to six hours of sunshine per day from March to May. February is the driest month of the year.[75] Exceptional weather conditions can bring as much as 50 cm of snow to Copenhagen in a 24-hour period during the winter months[76] while summer temperatures have been known to rise to heights of 33 °C (91 °F).[77]

Because of Copenhagen's northern latitude, the number of daylight hours varies considerably between summer and winter. On the summer solstice, the sun rises at 04:26 and sets at 21:58, providing 17 hours 32 minutes of daylight. On the winter solstice, it rises at 08:37 and sets at 15:39 with 7 hours and 1 minute of daylight. There is therefore a difference of 10 hours and 31 minutes in the length of days and nights between the summer and winter solstices.[78]

Climate data for Copenhagen, Denmark (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1768–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11.8
Average high °C (°F) 3.4
Daily mean °C (°F) 1.4
Average low °C (°F) −0.8
Record low °C (°F) −26.3
Average precipitation mm (inches) 55
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 14.9 11.4 13.5 11.5 10.8 12.0 12.4 12.0 13.6 14.5 15.4 15.4 157.4
Average snowy days 5.9 4.4 4.1 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 1.7 3.9 21.4
relative humidity
86 84 82 76 72 72 73 75 78 83 84 85 79
Mean monthly sunshine hours 47 64 148 212 243 238 243 194 166 105 45 34 1,739
Percent possible sunshine 20 26 40 48 50 47 47 42 42 31 20 17 36
Average ultraviolet index 0 1 2 3 5 6 6 5 3 1 1 0 3
Source: DMI (precipitation days and snowy days 1971–2000, humidity 1961–1990),[79][80][81] Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[82] and Weather Atlas[83]


According to Statistics Denmark, the urban area of Copenhagen (Hovedstadsområdet) consists of the municipalities of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Albertslund, Brøndby, Gentofte, Gladsaxe, Glostrup, Herlev, Hvidovre, Lyngby-Taarbæk, Rødovre, Tårnby and Vallensbæk as well as parts of Ballerup, Rudersdal and Furesø municipalities, along with the cities of Ishøj and Greve Strand.[7][84] They are located in the Capital Region (Region Hovedstaden). Municipalities are responsible for a wide variety of public services, which include land-use planning, environmental planning, public housing, management and maintenance of local roads, and social security. Municipal administration is also conducted by a mayor, a council, and an executive.[85]

Copenhagen Municipality is by far the largest municipality, with the historic city at its core. The seat of Copenhagen's municipal council is the Copenhagen City Hall (Rådhus), which is situated on City Hall Square. The second largest municipality is Frederiksberg, an enclave within Copenhagen Municipality.

Copenhagen Municipality is divided into


Law and order

Most of Denmark's top legal courts and institutions are based in Copenhagen. A modern-style court of justice,

Supreme Court (Højesteret), located in Christiansborg Palace on Prins Jørgens Gård in the centre of Copenhagen, is the country's final court of appeal. Handling civil and criminal cases from the subordinate courts, it has two chambers which each hear all types of cases.[90]


Danish National Police and Copenhagen Police headquarters is situated in the Neoclassical-inspired Politigården building built in 1918–1924 under architects Hack Kampmann and Holger Alfred Jacobsen. The building also contains administration, management, emergency department and radio service offices.[91]

The Copenhagen Fire Department forms the largest municipal fire brigade in Denmark with some 500 fire and ambulance personnel, 150 administration and service workers, and 35 workers in prevention.[92] The brigade began as the Copenhagen Royal Fire Brigade on 9 July 1687 under King Christian V. After the passing of the Copenhagen Fire Act on 18 May 1868, on 1 August 1870 the Copenhagen Fire Brigade became a municipal institution in its own right.[93] The fire department has its headquarters in the Copenhagen Central Fire Station which was designed by Ludvig Fenger in the Historicist style and inaugurated in 1892.[94]

Environmental planning

Copenhagen is recognised as one of the most environmentally friendly cities in the world.[95] As a result of its commitment to high environmental standards, Copenhagen has been praised for its green economy, ranked as the top green city for the second time in the 2014 Global Green Economy Index (GGEI).[96][97] In 2001 a large offshore wind farm was built just off the coast of Copenhagen at Middelgrunden. It produces about 4% of the city's energy.[98] Years of substantial investment in sewage treatment have improved water quality in the harbour to an extent that the inner harbour can be used for swimming with facilities at a number of locations.[99]

Copenhagen aims to be

carbon-neutral by 2025. Commercial and residential buildings are to reduce electricity consumption by 20 percent and 10 percent respectively, and total heat consumption is to fall by 20 percent by 2025. Renewable energy features such as solar panels are becoming increasingly common in the newest buildings in Copenhagen. District heating will be carbon-neutral by 2025, by waste incineration and biomass. New buildings must now be constructed according to Low Energy Class ratings and in 2020 near net-zero energy buildings. By 2025, 75% of trips should be made on foot, by bike, or by using public transit. The city plans that 20–30% of cars will run on electricity or biofuel by 2025. The investment is estimated at $472 million public funds and $4.78 billion private funds.[100]

The city's urban planning authorities continue to take full account of these priorities. Special attention is given both to climate issues and efforts to ensure maximum application of

economy. These solutions support operations covered by the city administration to improve e.g. public health, district heating, urban mobility and waste management systems. Smart city operations in Copenhagen are maintained by Copenhagen Solutions Lab, the city's official smart-city development unit under the Technical and Environmental Administration.

Demographics and society

Population by origin background in 2022

  Danish (73.7%)
  Other European (12.9%)
  Asian (8.2%)
  African (3.0%)
  Others (2.2%)
by sub-national origin (Q1 2006)[103]
Nationality Population
Greenland Greenland 5,333
by country of origin (Top 15) (Q1 2022)[104]
Nationality Population
 Pakistan 8,581
 Turkey 7,457
 Iraq 6,894
 Germany 6,720
 Poland 6,510
 Sweden 5,459
 Somalia 5,440
 Morocco 5,312
 United Kingdom 5,263
 Lebanon 5,058
 Italy 4,787
 Norway 4,752
 India 4,295
 China 4,243
 Iran 4,232
Other countries/territories
 United States 3,975
 Romania 3,635
 France 3,373
 Spain 3,362
 Yugoslavia 3,063
   Nepal 2,668
 Philippines 2,543
 North Macedonia 2,372
 Argentina 2,315
 Iceland 2,283
 Bosnia 2,198
 Thailand 2,044
 Lithuania 1,946
 Bulgaria 1,912
 Syria 1,850
 Afghanistan 1,838
 Greece 1,767
 Russia 1,713
 Vietnam 1,627
 Brazil 1,516
 Netherlands 1,416
 Portugal 1,405
 Finland 1,393
 Hungary 1,305
 Bangladesh 1,208
 Jordan 1,192
 Ukraine 1,042
 Australia 1,026

Copenhagen is the most populous city in Denmark and one of the

City of Copenhagen (Byen København) to consist of the Municipality of Copenhagen plus three adjacent municipalities: Dragør, Frederiksberg, and Tårnby.[105] Their combined population stands at 763,908 (as of December 2016).[11]

The Municipality of Copenhagen is by far the most populous

ethnic groups
. The adjacent table shows the most common countries of origin of Copenhagen residents. Largest foreign groups are Pakistanis (1.3%), Turks (1.2%), Iraqis (1.1%), Germans (1.0%) and Poles (1.0%).

According to Statistics Denmark, Copenhagen's urban area has a larger population of 1,280,371 (as of 1 January 2016[update]).[7] The urban area consists of the municipalities of Copenhagen and Frederiksberg plus 16 of the 20 municipalities of the former counties Copenhagen and Roskilde, though five of them only partially.[84] Metropolitan Copenhagen has a total of 2,016,285 inhabitants (as of 2016).[7] The area of Metropolitan Copenhagen is defined by the Finger Plan.[106] Since the opening of the Øresund Bridge in 2000, commuting between Zealand and Scania in Sweden has increased rapidly, leading to a wider, integrated area. Known as the Øresund Region, it has 4.1 million inhabitants—of whom 2.7 million (August 2021) live in the Danish part of the region.[107]


Church of Our Lady, situated on Frue Plads