Poland

Coordinates: 52°N 20°E / 52°N 20°E / 52; 20
Page semi-protected
Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Republic of Poland
Rzeczpospolita Polska (Polish)
Anthem: "
Ethnic groups
(2021)[2]
  • 98.84% Polish[b]
    • 96.28% only Polish
    • 2.56% Polish and others
  • 1.13% only non-Polish
  • 0.03% unknown
Religion
(2021[3])
Demonym(s)
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic
• President
Andrzej Duda
Donald Tusk
Legislature
Duchy of Poland[c]
c. 960
966
18 April 1025
1 July 1569
24 October 1795
11 November 1918
17 September 1939
22 July 1944
31 December 1989[6]
Area
• Total
312,696 km2 (120,733 sq mi)[7][8] (69th)
• Water (%)
1.48 (2015)[9]
Population
• 2022 census
Neutral increase 38,036,118[10] (38th)
• Density
122/km2 (316.0/sq mi) (75th)
GDP (PPP)2024 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.801 trillion[11] (20th)
• Per capita
Increase $49,060[11] (39th)
GDP (nominal)2024 estimate
• Total
Increase $844.623 billion[11] (21st)
• Per capita
Increase $23,014[11] (45th)
Gini (2022)Positive decrease 26.3[12]
low
HDI (2022)Increase 0.881[13]
very high (36th)
CurrencyZłoty (PLN)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+48
ISO 3166 codePL
Internet TLD.pl [a]
  1. Also .eu, shared with other European Union member states.

Poland,[e] officially the Republic of Poland,[f] is a country in Central Europe. It extends from the Baltic Sea in the north to the Sudetes and Carpathian Mountains in the south, and has a temperate transitional climate, while its longest river is the Vistula. Poland is the fifth-most populous member state of the European Union, with its sixteen voivodeships comprising a total population of over 38 million and covering a combined area of 312,696 km2 (120,733 sq mi). It is bordered by Lithuania and Russia[g] to the northeast, Belarus and Ukraine to the east, Slovakia and the Czech Republic to the south, and Germany to the west. The nation's capital and largest metropolis is Warsaw. Other major cities include Kraków, Wrocław, Łódź, Poznań, and Gdańsk.

Prehistoric human activity on Polish soil dates to the Lower Paleolithic, with continuous settlement since the end of the Last Glacial Period. Culturally diverse throughout late antiquity, in the early medieval period the region became inhabited by the tribal Polans, who gave Poland its name. The process of establishing proper statehood, which began in 966, coincided with the conversion of a pagan ruler of the Polans to Christianity, under the auspices of the Roman Catholic Church. The Kingdom of Poland emerged in 1025, and in 1569 cemented its long-standing association with Lithuania, thus forming the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. At the time, the Commonwealth was one of the great powers of Europe, with a uniquely liberal political system which adopted Europe's first modern constitution in 1791.

With the passing of the prosperous Polish Golden Age, the country was partitioned by neighbouring states at the end of the 18th century. Poland regained its independence in 1918 as the Second Polish Republic and successfully defended it in the Polish–Soviet War from 1919 to 1921. In September 1939, the invasion of Poland by Germany and the Soviet Union marked the beginning of World War II, which resulted in the Holocaust and millions of Polish casualties. Forced into the Eastern Bloc in the global Cold War, the Polish People's Republic was a founding signatory of the Warsaw Pact. Through the emergence and contributions of the Solidarity movement, the communist government was dissolved and Poland re-established itself as a democratic state in 1989.

Poland is a parliamentary republic, with its bicameral legislature comprising the Sejm and the Senate. It is a developed market and a high-income economy. Considered a middle power, Poland has the sixth-largest economy in the European Union by GDP (nominal) and the fifth-largest by GDP (PPP). It provides a very high standard of living, safety, and economic freedom, as well as free university education and a universal health care system. The country has 17 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 15 of which are cultural. Poland is a founding member state of the United Nations, as well as a member of the World Trade Organization, OECD, NATO, and the European Union (including the Schengen Area).

Etymology

The native

Proto-Slavic noun pole meaning field, which in-itself originates from the Proto-Indo-European word *pleh₂- indicating flatland.[16] The etymology alludes to the topography of the region and the flat landscape of Greater Poland.[17][18] During the Middle Ages, the Latin form Polonia was widely used throughout Europe.[19]

The country's alternative archaic name is

Old Polish word lęda (plain).[23] Initially, both names Lechia and Polonia were used interchangeably when referring to Poland by chroniclers during the Middle Ages.[24]

History

Prehistory and protohistory

A reconstruction of a Bronze Age, Lusatian culture settlement in Biskupin, 8th century BC

The first

anatomically modern humans coincided with the climatic discontinuity at the end of the Last Glacial Period (Northern Polish glaciation 10,000 BC), when Poland became habitable.[26] Neolithic excavations indicated broad-ranging development in that era; the earliest evidence of European cheesemaking (5500 BC) was discovered in Polish Kuyavia,[27] and the Bronocice pot is incised with the earliest known depiction of what may be a wheeled vehicle (3400 BC).[28]

The period spanning the

Late Bronze Age (mid-8th century BC).[31]

Throughout

Roman Legions sent to protect the amber trade.[33] The Polish tribes emerged following the second wave of the Migration Period around the 6th century AD;[19] they were Slavic and may have included assimilated remnants of peoples that earlier dwelled in the area.[34][35] Beginning in the early 10th century, the Polans would come to dominate other Lechitic tribes in the region, initially forming a tribal federation and later a centralised monarchical state.[36]

Kingdom of Poland

Baptism of Poland
marked the beginning of statehood in 966

Poland began to form into a recognisable unitary and territorial entity around the middle of the 10th century under the

martyrdom of Saint Adalbert, who was killed by Prussian pagans in 997 and whose remains were reputedly bought back for their weight in gold by Mieszko's successor, Bolesław I the Brave.[39]

In 1000, at the Congress of Gniezno, Bolesław obtained the right of investiture from Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor, who assented to the creation of additional bishoprics and an archdioceses in Gniezno.[39] Three new dioceses were subsequently established in Kraków, Kołobrzeg, and Wrocław.[41] Also, Otto bestowed upon Bolesław royal regalia and a replica of the Holy Lance, which were later used at his coronation as the first King of Poland in c. 1025, when Bolesław received permission for his coronation from Pope John XIX.[42][43] Bolesław also expanded the realm considerably by seizing parts of German Lusatia, Czech Moravia, Upper Hungary and southwestern regions of the Kievan Rus'.[44]

Casimir III the Great is the only Polish king to receive the title of Great. He built extensively during his reign, and reformed the Polish army along with the country's legal code, 1333–70.

The transition from

Teutonic Knights to aid in combating the Baltic Prussians; a decision that later led to centuries of warfare with the Knights.[50]

In the first half of the 13th century,

Henry I the Bearded and Henry II the Pious aimed to unite the fragmented dukedoms, but the Mongol invasion and the death of Henry II in battle hindered the unification.[51][52] As a result of the devastation which followed, depopulation and the demand for craft labour spurred a migration of German and Flemish settlers into Poland, which was encouraged by the Polish dukes.[53] In 1264, the Statute of Kalisz introduced unprecedented autonomy for the Polish Jews, who came to Poland fleeing persecution elsewhere in Europe.[54]

In 1320,

a reunified Poland since Przemysł II in 1296,[55] and the first to be crowned at Wawel Cathedral in Kraków.[56]
Beginning in 1333, the reign of
Ruthenia in 1340 and imposed quarantine that prevented the spread of Black Death.[59][60] In 1364, Casimir inaugurated the University of Kraków, one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in Europe.[61] Upon his death in 1370, the Piast dynasty came to an end.[62] He was succeeded by his closest male relative, Louis of Anjou, who ruled Poland, Hungary and Croatia in a personal union.[63] Louis' younger daughter Jadwiga became Poland's first female monarch in 1384.[63]

Kingdom of Poland
, 15 July 1410.

In 1386, Jadwiga of Poland entered a marriage of convenience with

Modern Era.[64] The partnership between Poles and Lithuanians brought the vast multi-ethnic Lithuanian territories into Poland's sphere of influence and proved beneficial for its inhabitants, who coexisted in one of the largest European political entities of the time.[65]

In the Baltic Sea region, the struggle of Poland and Lithuania with the

Poland was developing as a

General Sejm in 1505, transferred most of the legislative power from the monarch to the parliament, an event which marked the beginning of the period known as Golden Liberty, when the state was ruled by the seemingly free and equal Polish nobles.[70]

Wawel Castle in Kraków, seat of Polish kings from 1038 until the capital was moved to Warsaw in 1596

The 16th century saw

Calvinist denomination and became the co-founders of global Unitarianism.[72]

The European Renaissance evoked under Sigismund I the Old and Sigismund II Augustus a sense of urgency in the need to promote a cultural awakening.[21] During the Polish Golden Age, the nation's economy and culture flourished.[21] The Italian-born Bona Sforza, daughter of the Duke of Milan and queen consort to Sigismund I, made considerable contributions to architecture, cuisine, language and court customs at Wawel Castle.[21]

Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
at its greatest extent in 1619. At that time it was the largest country in Europe

The

Polonisation policies in newly acquired territories which were met with resistance from ethnic and religious minorities.[73]

In 1573,

Polish-Swedish union endured until 1599, when he was deposed by the Swedes.[80]

King John III Sobieski defeated the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Vienna on 12 September 1683.

In 1609, Sigismund

invaded Russia which was engulfed in a civil war,[21] and a year later the Polish winged hussar units under Stanisław Żółkiewski occupied Moscow for two years after defeating the Russians at Klushino.[21] Sigismund also countered the Ottoman Empire in the southeast; at Khotyn in 1621 Jan Karol Chodkiewicz achieved a decisive victory against the Turks, which ushered the downfall of Sultan Osman II.[81][82]

Sigismund's long reign in Poland coincided with the

Saxon era, under Augustus II and Augustus III, saw the rise of neighbouring countries in the aftermath of the Great Northern War (1700) and the War of the Polish Succession (1733).[89]

Partitions

King of Poland
, reigned from 1764 until his abdication on 25 November 1795.

The

Catherine II of Russia.[91] The new king maneuvered between his desire to implement necessary modernising reforms, and the necessity to remain at peace with surrounding states.[92] His ideals led to the formation of the 1768 Bar Confederation, a rebellion directed against the Poniatowski and all external influence, which ineptly aimed to preserve Poland's sovereignty and privileges held by the nobility.[93] The failed attempts at government restructuring as well as the domestic turmoil provoked its neighbours to intervene.[94]

In 1772, the

In 1791,

3 May Constitution, the first set of supreme national laws, and introduced a constitutional monarchy.[99] The Targowica Confederation, an organisation of nobles and deputies opposing the act, appealed to Catherine and caused the 1792 Polish–Russian War.[100] Fearing the reemergence of Polish hegemony, Russia and Prussia arranged and in 1793 executed, the Second Partition, which left the country deprived of territory and incapable of independent existence. On 24 October 1795, the Commonwealth was partitioned for the third time and ceased to exist as a territorial entity.[101][102] Stanisław Augustus, the last King of Poland, abdicated the throne on 25 November 1795.[103]

Era of insurrections

The partitions of Poland, carried out by the Kingdom of Prussia (blue), the Russian Empire (brown), and the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy (green) in 1772, 1793 and 1795

The Polish people rose several times against the partitioners and occupying armies. An unsuccessful attempt at defending Poland's sovereignty took place in the 1794 Kościuszko Uprising, where a popular and distinguished general Tadeusz Kościuszko, who had several years earlier served under George Washington in the American Revolutionary War, led Polish insurgents.[104] Despite the victory at the Battle of Racławice, his ultimate defeat ended Poland's independent existence for 123 years.[105]

In 1806, an

Free City of Kraków.[107]

Tadeusz Kościuszko was a veteran and hero of both the Polish and American wars of independence.[104]

In 1830,

pogroms of the Polish-Jewish population. Towards the end of the 19th century, Congress Poland became heavily industrialised; its primary exports being coal, zinc, iron and textiles.[111][112]

Second Polish Republic

Chief of State Marshal Józef Piłsudski
was a hero of the Polish independence campaign and the nation's premiere statesman from 1918 until his death on 12 May 1935.

In the aftermath of

armistice with Germany in November 1918, Poland regained its independence as the Second Polish Republic.[115]

The Second Polish Republic reaffirmed its sovereignty after a series of military conflicts, most notably the Polish–Soviet War, when Poland inflicted a crushing defeat on the Red Army at the Battle of Warsaw.[116]

The inter-war period heralded a new era of Polish politics. Whilst Polish political activists had faced heavy censorship in the decades up until

Zachęta Gallery in Warsaw by a painter and right-wing nationalist Eligiusz Niewiadomski.[117]

In 1926, the

Sanacja (Healing) movement to prevent radical political organisations on both the left and the right from destabilizing the country.[118] By the late 1930s, due to increased threats posed by political extremism inside the country, the Polish government became increasingly heavy-handed, banning a number of radical organisations, including communist and ultra-nationalist political parties, which threatened the stability of the country.[119]

World War II

Polish Army 7TP tanks on military manoeuvres shortly before the invasion of Poland in 1939

World War II began with the

Nazi German invasion of Poland on 1 September 1939, followed by the Soviet invasion of Poland on 17 September. On 28 September 1939, Warsaw fell. As agreed in the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Poland was split into two zones, one occupied by Nazi Germany, the other by the Soviet Union. In 1939–1941, the Soviets deported hundreds of thousands of Poles. The Soviet NKVD executed thousands of Polish prisoners of war (among other incidents in the Katyn massacre) ahead of Operation Barbarossa.[120] German planners had in November 1939 called for "the complete destruction of all Poles" and their fate as outlined in the genocidal Generalplan Ost.[121]

, October 1940

Poland made the fourth-largest troop contribution in Europe,

Polish 1st Army distinguished itself in the battles for Warsaw and Berlin.[128]

The

Armia Krajowa (Home Army), fought against German occupation. It was one of the three largest resistance movements of the entire war, and encompassed a range of clandestine activities, which functioned as an underground state complete with degree-awarding universities and a court system.[129] The resistance was loyal to the exiled government and generally resented the idea of a communist Poland; for this reason, in the summer of 1944 it initiated Operation Tempest, of which the Warsaw Uprising that began on 1 August 1944 is the best-known operation.[128][130]

extermination camps are marked with white skulls in black squares. The border in 1941 between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union
is marked in red.

Nazi German forces under orders from

half of them Polish Jews.[142][143][144] About 90% of deaths were non-military in nature.[145]

In 1945, Poland's borders

Oder-Neisse line. As a result, Poland's territory was reduced by 20%, or 77,500 square kilometres (29,900 sq mi). The shift forced the migration of millions of other people, most of whom were Poles, Germans, Ukrainians, and Jews.[147][148][149]

Post-war communism

At High Noon, 4 June 1989—political poster featuring Gary Cooper to encourage votes for the Solidarity party in the 1989 elections

At the insistence of

As elsewhere in Communist Europe, the Soviet influence over Poland was met with armed resistance from the outset which continued into the 1950s.[150]

Despite widespread objections, the new Polish government accepted the Soviet annexation of the pre-war eastern regions of Poland

Lwów) and agreed to the permanent garrisoning of Red Army units on Poland's territory. Military alignment within the Warsaw Pact throughout the Cold War came about as a direct result of this change in Poland's political culture. In the European scene, it came to characterise the full-fledged integration of Poland into the brotherhood of communist nations.[152]

The new communist government took control with the adoption of the

was officially proclaimed in 1952. In 1956, after the death of Bolesław Bierut, the régime of Władysław Gomułka became temporarily more liberal, freeing many people from prison and expanding some personal freedoms. Collectivisation in the Polish People's Republic failed. A similar situation repeated itself in the 1970s under Edward Gierek, but most of the time persecution of anti-communist opposition groups persisted. Despite this, Poland was at the time considered to be one of the least oppressive states of the Eastern Bloc.[153]

Labour turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union "Solidarity" ("Solidarność"), which over time became a political force. Despite persecution and imposition of martial law in 1981 by General Wojciech Jaruzelski, it eroded the dominance of the Polish United Workers' Party and by 1989 had triumphed in Poland's first partially free and democratic parliamentary elections since the end of the Second World War. Lech Wałęsa, a Solidarity candidate, eventually won the presidency in 1990. The Solidarity movement heralded the collapse of communist regimes and parties across Europe.[154]

Third Polish Republic

death of Poland's top government officials
in a plane crash on 10 April 2010

A

Soviet-style planned economy into a market economy.[155] As with other post-communist countries, Poland suffered temporary declines in social, economic, and living standards,[156] but it became the first post-communist country to reach its pre-1989 GDP levels as early as 1995, although the unemployment rate increased.[157] Poland became a member of the Visegrád Group in 1991,[158] and joined NATO in 1999.[159] Poles then voted to join the European Union in a referendum in June 2003,[160] with Poland becoming a full member on 1 May 2004, following the consequent enlargement of the organisation.[161]

Poland joined the

In 2011, the ruling Civic Platform won parliamentary elections.[164] In 2014, the Prime Minister of Poland, Donald Tusk, was chosen to be President of the European Council, and resigned as prime minister.[165] The 2015 and 2019 elections were won by the national-conservative Law and Justice Party (PiS) led by Jarosław Kaczyński,[166][167] resulting in increased Euroscepticism and increased friction with the European Union.[168] In December 2017, Mateusz Morawiecki was sworn in as the Prime Minister, succeeding Beata Szydlo, in office since 2015. President Andrzej Duda, supported by Law and Justice party, was re-elected in the 2020 presidential election.[169] As of November 2023 the Russian invasion of Ukraine had led to 17 million Ukrainian refugees crossing the border to Poland.[170] As of November 2023, 0.9 million of those had stayed in Poland.[170] In October 2023, the ruling Law and Justice (PiS) party won the largest share of the vote in the election, but lost its majority in parliament. In December 2023, Donald Tusk became the new Prime Minister leading a coalition called Civic Coalition made up of Civic Platform, Third Way, and The Left. Law and Justice became the leading opposition party.[171]

Geography

Topographic map of Poland

Poland covers an administrative area of 312,722 km2 (120,743 sq mi), and is the

elevation above the sea level is estimated at 173 metres.[172]

The country has a coastline spanning 770 km (480 mi); extending from the shores of the Baltic Sea, along the

sand dune fields or coastal ridges and is indented by spits and lagoons, notably the Hel Peninsula and the Vistula Lagoon, which is shared with Russia.[175] The largest Polish island on the Baltic Sea is Wolin, located within Wolin National Park.[176] Poland also shares the Szczecin Lagoon and the Usedom island with Germany.[177]

The mountainous belt in the extreme south of Poland is divided into two major

Mount Śnieżka at 1,603.3 metres (5,260 ft), shared with the Czech Republic.[180] The lowest point in Poland is situated at Raczki Elbląskie in the Vistula Delta, which is 1.8 metres (5.9 ft) below sea level.[172]

Morskie Oko alpine lake in the Tatra Mountains. Poland has one of the highest densities of lakes in the world.

Poland's

Bug.[172] The country also possesses one of the highest densities of lakes in the world, numbering around ten thousand and mostly concentrated in the north-eastern region of Masuria, within the Masurian Lake District.[181] The largest lakes, covering more than 100 square kilometres (39 sq mi), are Śniardwy and Mamry, and the deepest is Lake Hańcza at 108.5 metres (356 ft) in depth.[172]

Climate

The climate of Poland is

Precipitation is more frequent during the summer months, with highest rainfall recorded from June to September.[183]

There is a considerable fluctuation in day-to-day weather and the arrival of a particular season can differ each year.[182] Climate change and other factors have further contributed to interannual thermal anomalies and increased temperatures; the average annual air temperature between 2011 and 2020 was 9.33 °C (48.8 °F), around 1.11 °C higher than in the 2001–2010 period.[184] Winters are also becoming increasingly drier, with less sleet and snowfall.[182]

Biodiversity

wisent, one of Poland's national animals, is commonly found at the ancient and UNESCO-protected Białowieża Forest
.

The

migratory birds and hosts around one quarter of the global population of white storks.[191]

Around 315,100 hectares (1,217 sq mi), equivalent to 1% of Poland's territory, is protected within 23

landscape parks, along with numerous nature reserves and other protected areas under the Natura 2000 network.[193]

Government and politics

Andrzej Sebastian Duda
President
Andrzej Duda
since 6 August 2015
Donald Franciszek Tusk
Prime Minister
Donald Tusk
since 13 December 2023

Poland is a

prime minister who acts as the head of government.[194] The council's individual members are selected by the prime minister, appointed by the president and approved by parliament.[194] The head of state is elected by popular vote for a five-year term.[195] The current president is Andrzej Duda and the prime minister is Donald Tusk
.

Poland's

first-past-the-post electoral system, with one senator being returned from each of the one hundred constituencies.[198] The Senate has the right to amend or reject a statute passed by the Sejm, but the Sejm may override the Senate's decision with a majority vote.[199]

The Sejm is the lower house of the parliament of Poland.

With the exception of ethnic minority parties, only candidates of political parties receiving at least 5% of the total national vote can enter the Sejm.[198] Both the lower and upper houses of parliament in Poland are elected for a four-year term and each member of the Polish parliament is guaranteed parliamentary immunity.[200] Under current legislation, a person must be 21 years of age or over to assume the position of deputy, 30 or over to become senator and 35 to run in a presidential election.[200]

Members of the Sejm and Senate jointly form the

National Assembly of the Republic of Poland.[201] The National Assembly, headed by the Sejm Marshal, is formed on three occasions – when a new president takes the oath of office; when an indictment against the president is brought to the State Tribunal; and in case a president's permanent incapacity to exercise his duties due to the state of his health is declared.[201]

Administrative divisions

Poland is divided into 16 provinces or states known as voivodeships.[202] As of 2022, the voivodeships are subdivided into 380 counties (powiats), which are further fragmented into 2,477 municipalities (gminas).[202] Major cities normally have the status of both gmina and powiat.[202] The provinces are largely founded on the borders of historic regions, or named for individual cities.[203] Administrative authority at the voivodeship level is shared between a government-appointed governor (voivode), an elected regional assembly (sejmik) and a voivodeship marshal, an executive elected by the assembly.[203]

Voivodeship Capital city Area Population
in English in Polish km2[204] 2021[204]
Greater Poland Wielkopolskie Poznań 29,826 3,496,450
Kuyavian-Pomeranian
Kujawsko-Pomorskie Bydgoszcz & Toruń 17,971 2,061,942
Lesser Poland Małopolskie Kraków 15,183 3,410,441
Łódź Łódzkie Łódź 18,219 2,437,970
Lower Silesian Dolnośląskie Wrocław 19,947 2,891,321
Lublin Lubelskie Lublin 25,123 2,095,258
Lubusz Lubuskie Gorzów Wielkopolski &
Zielona Góra
13,988 1,007,145
Masovian Mazowieckie Warsaw 35,559 5,425,028
Opole Opolskie Opole 9,412 976,774
Podlaskie Podlaskie Białystok 20,187 1,173,286
Pomeranian Pomorskie Gdańsk 18,323 2,346,671
Silesian Śląskie Katowice 12,333 4,492,330
Subcarpathian Podkarpackie Rzeszów 17,846 2,121,229
Holy Cross Świętokrzyskie Kielce 11,710 1,224,626
Warmian-Masurian
Warmińsko-Mazurskie Olsztyn 24,173 1,416,495
West Pomeranian Zachodniopomorskie Szczecin 22,905 1,688,047

Law

Constitution of 3 May
adopted in 1791 was the first modern constitution in Europe.

The

medical experimentation, torture or corporal punishment, and acknowledges the inviolability of the home, the right to form trade unions, and the right to strike.[206]

The

National Council of the Judiciary and are appointed for life by the president.[208] On the approval of the Senate, the Sejm appoints an ombudsman for a five-year term to guard the observance of social justice.[198]

Poland has a low

congenital disorder and stillbirth are not covered by the law, prompting some women to seek abortion abroad.[211]

Historically, the most significant Polish legal act is the

democratic movements across the globe.[212][213][214] In 1918, the Second Polish Republic became one of the first countries to introduce universal women's suffrage.[215]

Foreign relations

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, located in Warsaw

Poland is a

ODIHR, one of the principal institutions of the OSCE.[219][220] Apart from the European Union, Poland has been a member of NATO, the United Nations, and the WTO
.

In recent years, Poland significantly strengthened its relations with the United States, thus becoming one of its closest allies and strategic partners in Europe.[221] Historically, Poland maintained strong cultural and political ties to Hungary; this special relationship was recognised by the parliaments of both countries in 2007 with the joint declaration of 23 March as "The Day of Polish-Hungarian Friendship".[222]

Military

F-16s, a single-engine multirole fighter aircraft

The Polish Armed Forces are composed of five branches – the

Ministry of National Defence of the Republic of Poland.[223] However, its commander-in-chief in peacetime is the president, who nominates officers, the Minister for National Defence and the chief of staff.[223] Polish military tradition is generally commemorated by the Armed Forces Day, celebrated annually on 15 August.[224] As of 2022, the Polish Armed Forces have a combined strength of 114,050 active soldiers, with a further 75,400 active in the gendarmerie and defence force.[225]

Poland is spending 2% of its GDP on defence, equivalent to approximately US$14.5 billion in 2022, with a slated increase to US$29 billion in 2023.

SIPRI, the country exported €487 million worth of arms and armaments to foreign countries in 2020.[230]

Compulsory

military exercises.[225] Since 1953, the country has been a large contributor to various United Nations peacekeeping missions,[232] and currently maintains military presence in the Middle East, Africa, the Baltic states and southeastern Europe.[225]

Security, law enforcement and emergency services

State Police Service
(Policja)

Thanks to its location, Poland is a country essentially free from the threat of natural disasters such as

tropical cyclones. However, floods have occurred in low-lying areas from time to time during periods of extreme rainfall (e.g. during the 2010 Central European floods
).

Law enforcement in Poland is performed by several agencies which are subordinate to the

firearms unless instructed by the superior commanding officer.[235] Security service personnel conduct regular patrols in both large urban areas or smaller suburban localities.[236]

The

Central Investigation Bureau of Police (CBŚP) and the Central Anticorruption Bureau (CBA) are responsible for countering organised crime and corruption in state and private institutions.[238][239]

Emergency services in Poland consist of the emergency medical services, search and rescue units of the Polish Armed Forces and State Fire Service. Emergency medical services in Poland are operated by local and regional governments,[240] but are a part of the centralised national agency – the National Medical Emergency Service (Państwowe Ratownictwo Medyczne).[241]

Economy

Economic indicators
GDP (PPP) $1.801 trillion (2024)[11]
Nominal GDP $844.6 billion (2024)[11]
Real GDP growth 5.3% (2022)[242]
CPI inflation 14.4% (2022)[243]
Employment-to-population ratio 57% (2022)[244]
Unemployment 2.8% (2023)[245]
Total public debt
$340 billion (2022)[246]

As of 2023, Poland's economy and gross domestic product (GDP) is the sixth largest in the European Union by nominal standards and the fifth largest by purchasing power parity. It is also one of the fastest growing within the Union and reached a developed market status in 2018.[247] The unemployment rate published by Eurostat in 2023 amounted to 2.8%, which was the second-lowest in the EU.[245] As of 2023, around 62% of the employed population works in the service sector, 29% in manufacturing, and 8% in the agricultural sector.[248] Although Poland is a member of the European single market, the country has not adopted the Euro as legal tender and maintains its own currency – the Polish złoty (zł, PLN).

Poland is the regional economic leader in Central Europe, with nearly 40 per cent of the 500 biggest companies in the region (by revenues) as well as a

Central Statistical Office estimated that in 2014 there were 1,437 Polish corporations with interests in 3,194 foreign entities.[250]

Poland has the largest banking sector in Central Europe,[251] with 32.3 branches per 100,000 adults.[252] It was the only European economy to have avoided the recession of 2008.[253] The country is the 20th largest exporter of goods and services in the world.[254] Exports of goods and services are valued at approximately 56% of GDP, as of 2020.[255] In 2019, Poland passed a law that would exempt workers under the age of 26 from income tax.[256]

Tourism

UNESCO World Heritage Site
.

Poland experienced a significant increase in the number of tourists after joining the European Union in 2004.[257][258] With over 21 million international arrivals in 2019, tourism contributes considerably to the overall economy and makes up a relatively large proportion of the country's service market.[259]

Tourist attractions in Poland vary, from the mountains in the south to the sandy beaches in the north, with a trail of nearly every architectural style. The most visited city is

rock salt beneath the ground.[260]

Poland has a 770 km long coastline of the southern Baltic Sea with many wide sandy beaches, which are frequently visited by tourists in the summer season.

Other tourist destinations include the

Trail of the Eagles' Nests.[262] The largest castle in the world by land area is situated in Malbork, in north-central Poland.[263]

Transport

PKP Intercity Pendolino at the Wrocław railway station

Transport in Poland is provided by means of rail, road, marine shipping and air travel. The country is part of EU's Schengen Area and is an important transport hub due to its strategic geographical position in Central Europe.[264] Some of the longest European routes, including the E30 and E40, run through Poland. The country has a good network of highways comprising express roads and motorways. As of August 2023, Poland has the world's 21st-largest road network, maintaining over 5,000 km (3,100 mi) of highways in use.[265]

In 2022, the nation had 19,393 kilometres (12,050 mi) of railway track, the third longest in the European Union after Germany and France.[266] The Polish State Railways (PKP) is the dominant railway operator, with certain major voivodeships or urban areas possessing their own commuter and regional rail.[267] Poland has a number of international airports, the largest of which is Warsaw Chopin Airport.[268] It is the primary global hub for LOT Polish Airlines, the country's flag carrier.[269]

Seaports exist all along Poland's Baltic coast, with most freight operations using Świnoujście, Police, Szczecin, Kołobrzeg, Gdynia, Gdańsk and Elbląg as their base. The Port of Gdańsk is the only port in the Baltic Sea adapted to receive oceanic vessels. Polferries and Unity Line are the largest Polish ferry operators, with the latter providing roll-on/roll-off and train ferry services to Scandinavia.[270]

Energy

The electricity generation sector in Poland is largely fossil-fuel–based. Coal production in Poland is a major source of employment and the largest source of the nation's greenhouse gas emissions.[271] Many power plants nationwide use Poland's position as a major European exporter of coal to their advantage by continuing to use coal as the primary raw material in the production of their energy. The three largest Polish coal mining firms (Węglokoks, Kompania Węglowa and JSW) extract around 100 million tonnes of coal annually.[272] After coal, Polish energy supply relies significantly on oil—the nation is the third-largest buyer of Russian oil exports to the EU.[273]

The new Energy Policy of Poland until 2040 (EPP2040) would reduce the share of coal and lignite in electricity generation by 25% from 2017 to 2030. The plan involves deploying new nuclear plants, increasing energy efficiency, and decarbonising the Polish transport system in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and prioritise long-term energy security.[271][274]

Science and technology

Physicist and chemist Marie Curie was the first person to win two Nobel Prizes.[275]

Over the course of history, the Polish people have made considerable contributions in the fields of science, technology and mathematics.[276] Perhaps the most renowned Pole to support this theory was Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik), who triggered the Copernican Revolution by placing the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe.[277] He also derived a quantity theory of money, which made him a pioneer of economics. Copernicus' achievements and discoveries are considered the basis of Polish culture and cultural identity.[278] Poland was ranked 41st in the Global Innovation Index in 2023.[279]

Nicolaus Copernicus, the 16th century Polish astronomer who formulated the heliocentric model of the solar system

Poland's tertiary education institutions; traditional

Radium Institute.[275]

In the first half of the 20th century, Poland was a flourishing centre of mathematics. Outstanding Polish mathematicians formed the

Warsaw School of Mathematics (with Alfred Tarski, Kazimierz Kuratowski, Wacław Sierpiński and Antoni Zygmund). Numerous mathematicians, scientists, chemists or economists emigrated due to historic vicissitudes, among them Benoit Mandelbrot, Leonid Hurwicz, Alfred Tarski, Joseph Rotblat and Nobel Prize laureates Roald Hoffmann, Georges Charpak and Tadeusz Reichstein
.

Demographics

Poland has a population of approximately 38.2 million as of 2021, and is the

median age of 42.2.[284]

Population of Poland from 1900 to 2010 in millions of inhabitants

Around 60% of the country's population lives in urban areas or major cities and 40% in rural zones.

detached dwellings and 44.3% in apartments.[286] The most populous administrative province or state is the Masovian Voivodeship and the most populous city is the capital, Warsaw, at 1.8 million inhabitants with a further 2–3 million people living in its metropolitan area.[287][288][289] The metropolitan area of Katowice is the largest urban conurbation with a population between 2.7 million[290] and 5.3 million residents.[291] Population density is higher in the south of Poland and mostly concentrated between the cities of Wrocław and Kraków.[292]

In the

2011 Polish census, 37,310,341 people reported Polish identity, 846,719 Silesian, 232,547 Kashubian and 147,814 German. Other identities were reported by 163,363 people (0.41%) and 521,470 people (1.35%) did not specify any nationality.[293] Official population statistics do not include migrant workers who do not possess a permanent residency permit or Karta Polaka.[294] More than 1.7 million Ukrainian citizens worked legally in Poland in 2017.[295] The number of migrants is rising steadily; the country approved 504,172 work permits for foreigners in 2021 alone.[296] According to the Council of Europe, 12,731 Romani people live in Poland.[297]

 
 
Largest cities or towns in Poland
Statistics Poland (GUS) 2021[298] and GUS BDL 2021[299]
Rank
Name
Voivodeship Municipal pop. Rank
Name
Voivodeship Municipal pop.
Warsaw
Warsaw
Kraków
Kraków
1 Warsaw Masovian 1,860,281 11 Katowice Silesian 285,711 Wrocław
Wrocław
Łódź
Łódź
2 Kraków Lesser Poland 800,653 12 Gdynia Pomeranian 245,222
3 Wrocław Lower Silesian 672,929 13 Częstochowa Silesian 213,107
4 Łódź Łódź 670,642 14 Radom Masovian 201,601
5 Poznań Greater Poland 546,859 15 Toruń
Kuyavian-Pomeranian
198,273
6 Gdańsk Pomeranian 486,022 16 Rzeszów Subcarpathian 195,871
7 Szczecin West Pomeranian 396,168 17 Sosnowiec Silesian 193,660
8 Bydgoszcz
Kuyavian-Pomeranian
337,666 18 Kielce Świętokrzyskie 186,894
9 Lublin Lublin 334,681 19 Gliwice Silesian 174,016
10 Białystok Podlaskie 294,242 20 Olsztyn
Warmian-Masurian
170,225

Languages

bilingual Polish-Kashubian
road sign with the village name

homogeneous nation, with 97% of respondents declaring Polish as their mother tongue.[303] There are currently 15 minority languages in Poland,[304] including one recognised regional language, Kashubian, which is spoken by approximately 100,000 people on a daily basis in the northern regions of Kashubia and Pomerania.[305] Poland also recognises secondary administrative languages or auxiliary languages in bilingual municipalities, where bilingual signs and placenames are commonplace.[306] According to the Centre for Public Opinion Research, around 32% of Polish citizens declared knowledge of the English language in 2015.[307]

Religion

Roman Catholic
Pope.

According to the 2021 census, 71.3% of all Polish citizens adhere to the

Roman Catholic Church, with 6.9% identifying as having no religion and 20.6% refusing to answer.[3]

Poland is one of the most religious countries in Europe, where Roman Catholicism remains a part of national identity and Polish-born Pope John Paul II is widely revered.[308][309] In 2015, 61.6% of respondents outlined that religion is of high or very high importance.[310] However, church attendance has greatly decreased in recent years; only 28% of Catholics attended mass weekly in 2021, down from around half in 2000.[311] According to The Wall Street Journal, "Of [the] more than 100 countries studied by the Pew Research Center in 2018, Poland was secularizing the fastest, as measured by the disparity between the religiosity of young people and their elders."[308]

Freedom of religion in Poland is guaranteed by the Constitution, and Poland's

Ashkenazi Jewish culture and traditional learning until the Holocaust.[314]

Contemporary religious minorities include

neopagans, some of whom are members of the Native Polish Church.[315]

Pilgrimages to the Jasna Góra Monastery, a shrine dedicated to the Black Madonna, take place annually.[316]

Health

Medical service providers and

Ministry of Health; it provides administrative oversight and scrutiny of general medical practice, and is obliged to maintain a high standard of hygiene and patient care. Poland has a universal healthcare system based on an all-inclusive insurance system; state subsidised healthcare is available to all citizens covered by the general health insurance program of the National Health Fund (NFZ). Private medical complexes exist nationwide; over 50% of the population uses both public and private sectors.[317][318][319]

According to the

medications and pharmaceutical products.[323]

Education

Jagiellonian University in Kraków

The Jagiellonian University founded in 1364 by Casimir III in Kraków was the first institution of higher learning established in Poland, and is one of the oldest universities still in continuous operation.[324] Poland's Commission of National Education (Komisja Edukacji Narodowej), established in 1773, was the world's first state ministry of education.[325][326]

The framework for primary, secondary and higher tertiary education are established by the Ministry of Education and Science. Kindergarten attendance is optional for children aged between three and five, with one year being compulsory for six-year-olds.[327][328] Primary education traditionally begins at the age of seven, although children aged six can attend at the request of their parents or guardians.[328] Elementary school spans eight grades and secondary schooling is dependent on student preference – a four-year high school (liceum), a five-year technical school (technikum) or various vocational studies (szkoła branżowa) can be pursued by each individual pupil.[328] A liceum or technikum is concluded with a maturity exit exam (matura), which must be passed in order to apply for a university or other institutions of higher learning.[329]

In Poland, there are over 500 university-level institutions,

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ranked Poland's educational system higher than the OECD average; the study showed that students in Poland perform better academically than in most OECD countries.[334]

Culture

The Polish White Eagle is Poland's enduring national and cultural symbol.

The culture of Poland is closely connected with its intricate 1,000-year

National Heritage Board of Poland.[338] Over 100 of the country's most significant tangible wonders were enlisted onto the Historic Monuments Register,[339] with further 17 being recognised by UNESCO as World Heritage Sites.[340]

Holidays and traditions

All Saints' Day on 1 November is one of the most important public holidays in Poland.

There are 13 government-approved annual public holidays – New Year on 1 January,

Independence Day on 11 November and Christmastide on 25 and 26 December.[341]

Particular traditions and superstitious customs observed in Poland are not found elsewhere in Europe. Though Christmas Eve (

carolers journey around smaller towns with a folk Turoń creature until the Lent period.[344]

A widely-popular

Holy Sunday are painted and placed in decorated baskets that are previously blessed by clergymen in churches on Easter Saturday. Easter Monday is celebrated with pagan dyngus festivities, where the youth is engaged in water fights.[346][345] Cemeteries and graves of the deceased are annually visited by family members on All Saints' Day; tombstones are cleaned as a sign of respect and candles are lit to honour the dead on an unprecedented scale.[347]

Music

Frédéric Chopin
Frédéric Chopin was a renowned classical composer and virtuoso pianist.
Artur Rubinstein
Artur Rubinstein was one of the greatest concert pianists of the 20th century.

Artists from Poland, including famous musicians such as

Artur Rubinstein, Ignacy Jan Paderewski, Krzysztof Penderecki, Henryk Wieniawski, Karol Szymanowski, and traditional, regionalised folk composers create a lively and diverse music scene, which even recognises its own music genres, such as sung poetry and disco polo.[348]

The origins of Polish music can be traced to the 13th century; manuscripts have been found in

polonaise tune for Polish kings by an unknown composer), may also date back to this period, however, the first known notable composer, Nicholas of Radom, lived in the 15th century. Diomedes Cato, a native-born Italian who lived in Kraków, became a renowned lutenist at the court of Sigismund III; he not only imported some of the musical styles from southern Europe but blended them with native folk music.[349]

In the 17th and 18th centuries, Polish baroque composers wrote liturgical music and secular compositions such as concertos and sonatas for voices or instruments. At the end of the 18th century, Polish classical music evolved into national forms like the polonaise. Wojciech Bogusławski is accredited with composing the first Polish national opera, titled Krakowiacy i Górale, which premiered in 1794.[350]

Poland today has an active music scene, with the jazz and metal genres being particularly popular among the contemporary populace. Polish jazz musicians such as

Art

Jan Matejko
Jan Matejko, leading Polish history painter whose works depict Poland's heritage and key historical events
Lady with an Ermine
Lady with an Ermine (1490) by Leonardo da Vinci is displayed in the Czartoryski Museum in Kraków.

Art in Poland has invariably reflected

art nouveau. Since the 20th century Polish documentary art and photography has enjoyed worldwide fame, especially the Polish School of Posters.[353] One of the most distinguished paintings in Poland is Lady with an Ermine (1490) by Leonardo da Vinci.[354]

Internationally renowned Polish artists include

art deco), and Zdzisław Beksiński (dystopian surrealism).[355] Several Polish artists and sculptors were also acclaimed representatives of avant-garde, constructivist, minimalist and contemporary art movements, including Katarzyna Kobro, Władysław Strzemiński, Magdalena Abakanowicz, Alina Szapocznikow, Igor Mitoraj and Wilhelm Sasnal
.

Notable art academies in Poland include the

MOCAK art galleries.[356]

Architecture

Main Market Square in Kraków is an example of Brick Gothic architecture.
Poznań City Hall
The 16th-century City Hall of Poznań illustrates the Renaissance
style.

The

city tenements and town halls.[359] Cloth hall markets (sukiennice) were once an abundant feature of Polish urban architecture.[360] The mountainous south is known for its Zakopane chalet style, which originated in Poland.[361]

The earliest architectonic trend was

Polish Mannerism, found in Poznań, Lublin and Zamość.[365][366] Foreign artisans often came at the expense of kings or nobles, whose palaces were built thereafter in the Baroque, Neoclassical and Revivalist styles (17th–19th century).[367]

Primary building materials comprising

Literature

Adam Mickiewicz
Adam Mickiewicz, whose national epic poem Pan Tadeusz (1834) is considered a masterpiece of Polish literature
Joseph Conrad-Korzeniowski
Joseph Conrad, author of popular books such as Heart of Darkness (1899) and Nostromo (1904)

The

Old Polish are the Holy Cross Sermons and the Bible of Queen Sophia,[376] and Calendarium cracoviense (1474) is Poland's oldest surviving print.[377]

The poets

Baroque era, Jesuit philosophy and local culture greatly influenced the literary techniques of Jan Andrzej Morsztyn (Marinism) and Jan Chryzostom Pasek (sarmatian memoirs).[379] During the Enlightenment, playwright Ignacy Krasicki composed the first Polish-language novel.[380] Poland's leading 19th-century romantic poets were the Three BardsJuliusz Słowacki, Zygmunt Krasiński and Adam Mickiewicz, whose epic poem Pan Tadeusz (1834) is a national classic.[381] In the 20th century, the English impressionist and early modernist writings of Joseph Conrad made him one of the most eminent novelists of all time.[382][383]

Contemporary Polish literature is versatile, with its fantasy genre having been particularly praised.

sci-fi novel Solaris by Stanisław Lem and The Witcher series by Andrzej Sapkowski are celebrated works of world fiction.[385] Poland has six Nobel-Prize winning authors – Henryk Sienkiewicz (Quo Vadis; 1905), Władysław Reymont (The Peasants; 1924), Isaac Bashevis Singer (1978), Czesław Miłosz (1980), Wisława Szymborska (1996), and Olga Tokarczuk (2018).[386][387][388]

Cuisine

potato pancakes, and rye bread

The cuisine of Poland is eclectic and shares similarities with other regional cuisines. Among the staple or regional dishes are

żurek (soured rye soup), oscypek (smoked cheese), and tomato soup.[389][390] Bagels, a type of bread roll, also originated in Poland.[391]

Traditional dishes are hearty and abundant in pork, potatoes, eggs, cream, mushrooms, regional herbs, and sauce.

makowiec (poppy seed roll), or napoleonka (mille-feuille) cream pie.[393]

Traditional alcoholic beverages include honey mead, widespread since the 13th century, beer, wine and vodka.[394] The world's first written mention of vodka originates from Poland.[395] The most popular alcoholic drinks at present are beer and wine which took over from vodka more popular in the years 1980–1998.[396] Grodziskie, sometimes referred to as "Polish Champagne", is an example of a historical beer style from Poland.[397] Tea remains common in Polish society since the 19th century, whilst coffee is drunk widely since the 18th century.[398]

Fashion and design

Traditional polonaise dresses, 1780–1785

Several Polish designers and stylists left a legacy of beauty inventions and cosmetics; including

eyelash extensions.[400][401] As of 2020, Poland possesses the sixth-largest cosmetic market in Europe. Inglot Cosmetics is the country's largest beauty products manufacturer,[402] and the retail store Reserved is the country's most successful clothing store chain.[403]

Historically, fashion has been an important aspect of Poland's national consciousness or

Versailles, where French dresses inspired by Polish garments included robe à la polonaise and the witzchoura. The scope of influence also entailed furniture; rococo Polish beds with canopies became fashionable in French châteaus.[405] Sarmatism eventually faded in the wake of the 18th century.[404]

Cinema

Honorary Oscar, the Palme d'Or, as well as Honorary Golden Lion and Golden Bear
awards

The

The

history, drama, war, culture and black realism (film noir).[406][407] In the 21st-century, two Polish productions won the Academy AwardsThe Pianist (2002) by Roman Polański and Ida (2013) by Paweł Pawlikowski.[407] Polish cinematography also created many well-received comedies. The most known of them were made by Stanisław Bareja and Juliusz Machulski
.

Media

Headquarters of the publicly funded national television network TVP in Warsaw

According to the

TVN 24 and Polsat News.[411] Public television extends its operations to genre-specific programmes such as TVP Sport, TVP Historia, TVP Kultura, TVP Rozrywka, TVP Seriale and TVP Polonia, the latter a state-run channel dedicated to the transmission of Polish-language telecasts for the Polish diaspora. In 2020, the most popular types of newspapers were tabloids and socio-political news dailies.[409]

Poland is a major European hub for video game developers and among the most successful companies are CD Projekt, Techland, The Farm 51, CI Games and People Can Fly.[412] Some of the popular video games developed in Poland include The Witcher trilogy and Cyberpunk 2077.[412] The Polish city of Katowice also hosts Intel Extreme Masters, one of the biggest esports events in the world.[412]

Sports

The Kazimierz Górski National Stadium in Warsaw, home of the national football team

Track and field, basketball, handball, boxing, MMA, ski jumping, cross-country skiing, ice hockey, tennis, fencing, swimming, and weightlifting
are other popular sports. The golden era of football in Poland occurred throughout the 1970s and went on until the early 1980s when the Polish national football team achieved their best results in any FIFA World Cup competitions finishing third place in the 1974 and the 1982 tournaments. The team won a gold medal in football at the 1972 Summer Olympics and two silver medals, in 1976 and in 1992. In 2012, Poland co-hosted the UEFA European Football Championship.[415]

As of June 2024, the

as first in the world.[416] The team won a gold medal at the 1976 Summer Olympics and the gold medal at the FIVB World Championship 1974, 2014 and 2018.[417][418]
Mariusz Pudzianowski is a highly successful strongman competitor and has won more World's Strongest Man titles than any other competitor in the world, winning the event in 2008 for the fifth time.[419]

Poland has made a distinctive mark

Ekstraliga division has one of the highest average attendances for any sport in Poland. The national speedway team of Poland is one of the major teams in international speedway. Individually, Poland has three Speedway Grand Prix World Champions, with the most successful being three-time World Champion Bartosz Zmarzlik who won back-to-back championships in 2019 and 2020 as well as 2022 and 2023. In 2021, Poland finished runners-up in the Speedway of Nations world championship final, held in Manchester, England in 2021.[420]

In the 21st century, the country has seen a growth of popularity of tennis and produced a number of successful tennis players including World No. 1

Agnieszka Radwanska, winner of 20 WTA career singles titles including 2015 WTA Finals; Top 10 ATP player Hubert Hurkacz; and former World No. 1 doubles player Łukasz Kubot whose career highlights include winning two Grand Slam doubles titles – 2014 Australian Open and 2017 Wimbledon Championships. Poland also won the 2015 Hopman Cup with Agnieszka Radwańska and Jerzy Janowicz representing the country.[421][422]

Poles made significant achievements in mountaineering, in particular, in the Himalayas and the winter ascending of the eight-thousanders. Polish mountains are one of the tourist attractions of the country. Hiking, climbing, skiing and mountain biking and attract numerous tourists every year from all over the world.[261] Water sports are the most popular summer recreation activities, with ample locations for fishing, canoeing, kayaking, sailing and windsurfing especially in the northern regions of the country.[423]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "the Dąbrowski Mazurka"
  2. ^ Multiple national identity was available in the census.
  3. ^ "The dukes (dux) were originally the commanders of an armed retinue (drużyna) with which they broke the authority of the chieftains of the clans, thus transforming the original tribal organization into a territorial unit."[4]
  4. ^ "Mieszko accepted Roman Catholicism via Bohemia in 966. A missionary bishopric directly dependent on the papacy was established in Poznań. This was the true beginning of Polish history, for Christianity was a carrier of Western civilization with which Poland was henceforth associated."[5]
  5. ^ Polish: Polska [ˈpɔlska]
  6. ^ Polish: Rzeczpospolita Polska [ʐɛt͡ʂpɔsˈpɔlita ˈpɔlska]
  7. ^ Poland borders the Kaliningrad Oblast, an exclave of Russia.

References

  1. ^ Constitution of the Republic of Poland, Article 27.
  2. ^ {{|url=https://stat.gov.pl/en/national-census/national-population-and-housing-census-2021/final-results-of-the-national-population-and-housing-census-2021/size-and-demographic-social-structure-in-the-light-of-the-2021-census-results,6,1.html |title=National Population and Housing Census 2021 Population. Size and demographic-social structure in the light of the 2021 Census results |language=en }}
  3. ^ a b "Final results of the National Population and Housing Census 2021". Statistics Poland.
  4. ^ "Poland". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2023. Archived from the original on 19 January 2024. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  5. ^ "Poland". Encyclopedia Britannica. 2023. Archived from the original on 19 January 2024. Retrieved 31 December 2023.
  6. ^ "The Act of December 29, 1989 amending the Constitution of the Polish People's Republic". Internetowy System Aktów Prawnych. Archived from the original on 19 October 2020. Retrieved 18 October 2020. (in Polish)
  7. ^ GUS. "Powierzchnia i ludność w przekroju terytorialnym w 2023 roku". Archived from the original on 22 September 2023. Retrieved 19 October 2023.
  8. ^ "Poland country profile". BBC News. 12 November 2023. Archived from the original on 21 October 2023. Retrieved 12 November 2023.
  9. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Archived
    from the original on 24 March 2021. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  10. ^ "Statistical Bulletin No 11/2022". Statistics Poland. Archived from the original on 23 December 2022. Retrieved 23 December 2022.
  11. ^ a b c d e f "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2024 Edition. (Poland)". International Monetary Fund. 16 April 2024. Retrieved 16 April 2024.
  12. ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Retrieved 13 April 2024.
  13. ^ "Human Development Report 2023/2024". United Nations Development Programme. 19 March 2024. Archived from the original on 19 March 2024. Retrieved 19 March 2024.
  14. from the original on 7 February 2024. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  15. from the original on 4 February 2024. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  16. from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  17. from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  18. from the original on 4 February 2024. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  19. ^ from the original on 7 April 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  20. from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  21. ^ .
  22. from the original on 4 February 2024. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  23. from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  24. from the original on 4 February 2024. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  25. from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  26. .
  27. from the original on 8 May 2021. Retrieved 7 August 2021.
  28. .
  29. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  30. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  31. from the original on 24 August 2021. Retrieved 31 March 2019.
  32. from the original on 18 May 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  33. ^ Zdziebłowski, Szymon (9 May 2018). "Archaeologist: We have evidence of the presence of Roman legionaries in Poland". Science in Poland. Polish Ministry of Education and Science. Archived from the original on 15 February 2022. Retrieved 8 August 2021.
  34. PMID 23342138
  35. .
  36. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  37. .
  38. from the original on 14 April 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  39. ^ from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  40. from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  41. .
  42. .
  43. from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  44. . Retrieved 26 October 2014. ... w wersji Anonima Minoryty mówi się znowu, iż w Polsce "paliły się kościoły i klasztory", co koresponduje w przekazaną przez Anonima Galla wiadomością o zniszczeniu kościołów katedralnych w Gnieźnie...
  45. from the original on 25 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  46. ISBN 978-0-230-34537-9. Retrieved 26 October 2014.[permanent dead link
    ]
  47. .
  48. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  49. from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  50. from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  51. from the original on 20 April 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  52. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  53. from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  54. from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  55. from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  56. .
  57. .
  58. . Retrieved 8 April 2013. At the same time, when most of Europe was decimated by the Black Death, Poland developed quickly and reached the levels of the wealthiest countries of the West in its economy and culture.
  59. .
  60. .
  61. ^ Magill 2012, p. 64
  62. ^ a b Davies 2001, p. 256
  63. .
  64. from the original on 4 April 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  65. . By 1490 the Jagiellons controlled Poland–Lithuania, Bohemia, and Hungary, but not the Empire.
  66. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  67. from the original on 5 April 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  68. ^ Graves 2014, pp. 101, 197
  69. ^ .
  70. from the original on 24 May 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  71. ^ from the original on 4 April 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  72. from the original on 5 April 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  73. ^ Parker 2017, p. 122
  74. from the original on 9 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  75. .
  76. . Retrieved 2 July 2012.
  77. from the original on 4 April 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  78. from the original on 27 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  79. from the original on 5 April 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  80. from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  81. from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  82. from the original on 6 April 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  83. ^ Czapliński, Władysław (1976). Władysław IV i jego czasy [Władysław IV and His Times] (in Polish). Warsaw: PW "Wiedza Poweszechna". pp. 170, 217–218.
  84. ^ Scott 2015, p. 409
  85. ^ a b Scott 2015, pp. 409–413
  86. ^ Scott 2015, p. 411
  87. ^ Scott 2015, pp. 409–412, 666
  88. ^ Butterwick 2021, p. 88
  89. ^ Butterwick 2021, pp. 83–88
  90. ^ Butterwick 2021, pp. 89–91
  91. ^ Butterwick 2021, pp. 108–109
  92. ^ Butterwick 2021, pp. 108–116
  93. , pp. 1–74
  94. . Retrieved 17 March 2013.
  95. ^ Butterwick 2021, p. 176
  96. ^ Polska Akademia Nauk (1973). Nauka polska. Polska Akademia Nauk. p. 151. Retrieved 30 August 2021.
  97. ^ Butterwick 2021, p. 260
  98. ^ Butterwick 2021, p. 310
  99. ^ Józef Andrzej Gierowski – Historia Polski 1764–1864 (History of Poland 1764–1864), pp. 74–101
  100. ^ Bertholet, Auguste (2021). "Constant, Sismondi et la Pologne". Annales Benjamin Constant. 46: 65–85. Archived from the original on 12 May 2022. Retrieved 20 January 2022.
  101. .
  102. ^ – via Google Books.
  103. ^ Gardner, Monica Mary (1942). "The Rising of Kościuszko (Chapter VII)". Kościuszko: A Biography. G. Allen & Unwin., ltd, 136 pages. Archived from the original on 19 March 2022. Retrieved 29 October 2014 – via Project Gutenberg.
  104. from the original on 18 April 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  105. from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  106. from the original on 9 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  107. from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023 – via Google Books.
  108. from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023 – via Google Books.
  109. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  110. from the original on 25 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  111. Paris Peace Conference
    ." Margaret MacMillan, Paris 1919: Six Months that Changed the World (2001), p. 208.
  112. .
  113. .
  114. .
  115. ^ Bitter glory: Poland and its fate, 1918 to 1939; p. 179
  116. JSTOR 45333442
    .
  117. .
  118. ^ "Russian parliament condemns Stalin for Katyn massacre". BBC News. 26 November 2010
  119. .
  120. ISBN 978-0-85045-417-8. Retrieved 6 March 2011 – via Google Books.[permanent dead link
    ]
  121. . Retrieved 6 March 2011 – via Google Books.
  122. . Retrieved 6 March 2011 – via Google Books.
  123. ^ At the siege of Tobruk
  124. ^ including the capture of the monastery hill at the Battle of Monte Cassino
  125. from the original on 25 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  126. ^ – via Google Books.
  127. , p. 37
  128. ^ The Warsaw Rising, polandinexile.com
  129. .
  130. .
  131. ^ Materski & Szarota (2009) Quote: Liczba Żydów i Polaków żydowskiego pochodzenia, obywateli II Rzeczypospolitej, zamordowanych przez Niemców sięga 2,7- 2,9 mln osób. Translation: The number of Jewish victims is estimated at 2,9 million. This was about 90% of the 3.3 million Jews living in prewar Poland. Source: IPN.
  132. ^ "Poland: Historical Background during the Holocaust". Archived from the original on 12 November 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  133. ^ "Polish Victims". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 24 August 2019. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  134. ^ Piotrowski, Tadeusz. "Poland World War II casualties (in thousands)". Archived from the original on 18 April 2007. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  135. ^ Materski & Szarota (2009) Quote: Łączne straty śmiertelne ludności polskiej pod okupacją niemiecką oblicza się obecnie na ok. 2 770 000. Translation: Current estimate is roughly 2,770,000 victims of German occupation. This was 11.3% of the 24.4 million ethnic Poles in prewar Poland.
  136. ^ "Documenting Numbers of Victims of the Holocaust and Nazi Persecution". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 3 November 2019. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  137. ISBN 978-83-7629-063-8. Archived from the original
    (PDF) on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2020. Oblicza się, że akcja "Inteligencja" pochłonęła ponad 100 tys. ofiar. Translation: It is estimated that Intelligenzaktion took the lives of 100,000 Poles.
  138. ^ Grzegorz Motyka, Od rzezi wołyńskiej do akcji "Wisła". Konflikt polsko-ukraiński 1943–1947. Kraków 2011, p. 447. See also: Book review by Tomasz Stańczyk: "Grzegorz Motyka oblicza, że w latach 1943–1947 z polskich rąk zginęło 11–15 tys. Ukraińców. Polskie straty to 76–106 tys. zamordowanych, w znakomitej większości podczas rzezi wołyńskiej i galicyjskiej."
  139. ^ "What were the Volhynian Massacres?". 1943 Wołyń Massacres Truth and Remembrance. Institute of National Remembrance. 2013. Archived from the original on 13 August 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
  140. ^ Materski & Szarota (2009)
  141. ^ Holocaust: Five Million Forgotten: Non-Jewish Victims of the Shoah. Archived 25 January 2018 at the Wayback Machine Remember.org.
  142. ^ "Polish experts lower nation's WWII death toll". Archived from the original on 18 August 2019.
  143. ^ Bureau odszkodowan wojennych (BOW), Statement on war losses and damages of Poland in 1939–1945. Warsaw 1947
  144. (PDF) on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  145. (PDF) on 20 May 2014. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  146. ^ "European Refugee Movements After World War Two". BBC – History.
  147. ^ "ARTICLE by Karol Nawrocki, Ph.D.: The soldiers of Polish freedom". Archived from the original on 12 May 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  148. I saw Poland betrayed
    : An American Ambassador Reports to the American People
    . Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1948.
  149. ^ "Warsaw Pact: Definition, History, and Significance". Archived from the original on 31 May 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  150. ^ "Polska. Historia". PWN Encyklopedia (in Polish). Archived from the original on 1 October 2006. Retrieved 11 July 2005.
  151. ^ "Solidarity Movement– or the Beginning of the End of Communism". September 2020. Archived from the original on 28 March 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  152. JSTOR 25779611
    .
  153. ^ Kowalik, Tadeusz (2011). From Solidarity to Sell-Out: The Restoration of Capitalism in Poland. New York, NY: Monthly Review Press.
  154. .
  155. .
  156. ^ Sieradzka, Monika (3 November 2019). "After 20 years in NATO, Poland still eager to please". DW News. Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 31 May 2022. Retrieved 26 March 2022. Poland's NATO accession in 1999 was meant to provide protection from Russia.
  157. S2CID 153998856
    .
  158. .
  159. ^ "Europe's border-free zone expands". BBC News. 21 December 2007. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  160. ^ Smith, Alex Duval (7 February 2016). "Will Poland ever uncover the truth about the plane crash that killed its president?". The Guardian. Warsaw. Archived from the original on 30 May 2022. Retrieved 26 March 2022.
  161. ^ Turkowski, Andrzej. "Ruling Civic Platform Wins Parliamentary Elections in Poland". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Archived from the original on 30 May 2022. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
  162. ^ Lynch, Suzanne. "Donald Tusk named next president of European Council". The Irish Times. Archived from the original on 31 May 2022. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
  163. ^ "Poland elections: Conservatives secure decisive win". BBC News. 25 October 2015. Archived from the original on 25 October 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  164. ^ "Poland's populist Law and Justice party win second term in power". The Guardian. 14 October 2019. Archived from the original on 31 May 2022. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  165. ^ "Rule of Law: European Commission acts to defend judicial independence in Poland". European Commission. Archived from the original on 28 March 2021. Retrieved 15 November 2020.
  166. ^ "Poland's Duda narrowly beats Trzaskowski in presidential vote". BBC News. 13 July 2020. Archived from the original on 13 July 2020. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  167. ^ a b "Situation Ukraine Refugee Situation". data.unhcr.org. Archived from the original on 27 June 2022. Retrieved 14 December 2023.
  168. ^ "Donald Tusk elected as Polish prime minister". 11 December 2023. Archived from the original on 13 December 2023. Retrieved 12 December 2023.
  169. ^ (PDF) from the original on 3 March 2022. Retrieved 2 April 2022.
  170. ^ "Cechy krajobrazów Polski – Notatki geografia". Archived from the original on 29 October 2020. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  171. JSTOR 40869887
    .
  172. .
  173. .
  174. .
  175. ^ "Najwyższe szczyty w Tatrach Polskich i Słowackich". www.polskie-gory.pl. Archived from the original on 12 December 2021. Retrieved 4 December 2020.
  176. ^ Siwicki, Michał (2020). "Nowe ustalenia dotyczące wysokości szczytów w Tatrach". geoforum.pl (in Polish). Archived from the original on 9 October 2021. Retrieved 9 October 2021.
  177. S2CID 150809158
    .
  178. from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023. Insert: Poland is home to 9,300 lakes. Finland is the only European nation with a higher density of lakes than Poland.
  179. ^ from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  180. ^ from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  181. ^ a b Zbigniew Ustrunul; Agnieszka Wypych; Ewa Jakusik; Dawid Biernacik; Danuta Czekierda; Anna Chodubska (2020). Climate of Poland (PDF) (Report). Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – National Research Institute (IMGW). p. 7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 June 2022. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  182. ^ "Forest area (% of land area) – Poland". World Bank. Archived from the original on 30 May 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  183. (PDF) from the original on 31 May 2022. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  184. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  185. ^ Aniskiewicz, Alena (2016). "That's Polish: Exploring the History of Poland's National Emblems". culture.pl. Adam Mickiewicz Institute. Archived from the original on 3 April 2022. Retrieved 3 April 2022. "A white eagle [...], the profile of a shaggy bison in a field of grass. These are emblems of Poland". "Nation's (somewhat disputed) national flower – the corn poppy".
  186. (PDF) on 14 January 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2022.
  187. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  188. from the original on 25 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  189. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  190. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  191. ^ a b c Serwis Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej (n.d.). "Civil Service; Basic information about Poland". www.gov.pl. Government of the Republic of Poland. Archived from the original on 30 May 2022. Retrieved 8 March 2022.
  192. from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  193. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  194. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  195. ^ from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  196. .
  197. ^ from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  198. ^ from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  199. ^ a b c "Liczba jednostek podziału terytorialnego kraju". TERYT (in Polish). Statistics Poland (Główny Urząd Statystyczny GUS). 2022. Archived from the original on 21 June 2022. Retrieved 16 March 2022.
  200. ^ from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  201. ^ a b Government of Poland (2021). "Powierzchnia i ludność w przekroju terytorialnym w 2021 roku" (in Polish). Statistics Poland (Główny Urząd Statystyczny). Archived from the original on 25 March 2022. Retrieved 23 March 2022.
  202. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  203. ^ Sejm of the Republic of Poland. "Dziennik Ustaw nr 78: The Constitution of the Republic of Poland". sejm.gov.pl. National Assembly (Zgromadzenie Narodowe). Archived from the original on 6 September 2022. Retrieved 9 March 2022.
  204. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  205. ^ from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  206. ^ Nations, United (2020). "Human Development Indicators – Poland". Human Development Reports. United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on 28 January 2019. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  207. ^ "Victims of intentional homicide 1990–2018 – Poland". Data UNODC. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2018. Archived from the original on 28 March 2022. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  208. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  209. – via Internet Archive.
  210. .
  211. . Retrieved 26 October 2014.
  212. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  213. .
  214. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  215. ^ "Poland in the EU". Website of the Republic of Poland. Government of Poland. 2022. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 19 March 2022.
  216. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  217. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  218. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  219. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  220. ^ from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  221. from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  222. ^ from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  223. ^ Onoszko, Maciej (20 August 2022). "Poland Will Double Military Spending as War in Ukraine Rages". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 30 August 2022. Retrieved 30 March 2022.
  224. ^ Popescu, Ana-Roxana (2022). "Poland to increase defence spending to 3% of GDP from 2023". Janes. Montagu Private Equity. Archived from the original on 1 July 2022. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
  225. ^ Lepiarz, Jacek (27 August 2022). "Europa Środkowa i Wschodnia nie kupuje niemieckiej broni". MSN. Archived from the original on 28 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  226. ^ L., Wojciech (29 March 2022). "Quick and Bold: Poland's Plan To Modernize its Army". Overt Defense. Archived from the original on 28 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  227. ^ Government of Poland (2019). Eksport uzbrojenia i sprzętu wojskowego Polski (PDF) (Report). Warszawa (Warsaw): Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych MSZ (Ministry of Foreign Affairs). p. 4. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 March 2022. Retrieved 24 March 2022.
  228. ^ Day, Matthew (5 August 2008). "Poland ends army conscription". Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 10 January 2022. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  229. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  230. ^ a b Narodowego, Biuro Bezpieczeństwa. "Potencjał ochronny". Biuro Bezpieczeństwa Narodowego. Archived from the original on 24 January 2022. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
  231. ^ Rybak, Marcin (6 December 2018). "Klient kontra ochrona sklepu. Czy mogą nas zatrzymać, przeszukać, legitymować?". Gazeta Wrocławska. Archived from the original on 31 May 2022. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
  232. ^ "Rozdział 3 – Uprawnienia i obowiązki strażników – Straże gminne. – Dz.U.2019.1795 t.j." Archived from the original on 12 May 2022. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
  233. ^ "Policja o zwierzchnictwie nad Strażą Miejską w powiecie dzierżoniowskim". doba.pl. Archived from the original on 12 May 2022. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
  234. ^ "Agencja Wywiadu". aw.gov.pl. Archived from the original on 12 May 2022. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
  235. ^ Antykorupcyjne, Centralne Biuro. "Aktualności". Centralne Biuro Antykorupcyjne. Archived from the original on 21 June 2022. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
  236. ^ Internet, J. S. K. "Status prawny". Centralne Biuro Śledcze Policji. Archived from the original on 14 June 2022. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
  237. ^ "Projekt ustawy o krajowym systemie ratowniczym". orka.sejm.gov.pl. Archived from the original on 12 May 2022. Retrieved 2 December 2020.
  238. ^ "Ustawa z dnia 25 lipca 2001 r. o Państwowym Ratownictwie Medycznym". isap.sejm.gov.pl. Archived from the original on 17 June 2022. Retrieved 10 August 2021.
  239. ^ "GDP growth (annual %) – Poland | Data". data.worldbank.org. Archived from the original on 10 July 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
  240. ^ "Inflation, consumer prices (annual %) – Poland | Data". data.worldbank.org. Archived from the original on 12 August 2020. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
  241. ^ "Employment to population ratio, 15+, total (%) (modeled ILO estimate) – Poland | Data". data.worldbank.org. Archived from the original on 13 May 2021. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
  242. ^ a b "Lowest unemployment in the EU. Poland on the podium – Ministry of Family and Social Policy – Gov.pl website". Ministry of Family and Social Policy. Archived from the original on 21 December 2023. Retrieved 21 December 2023.
  243. ^ "Poland National Debt 2020". countryeconomy.com. Archived from the original on 2 February 2013. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
  244. ^ "Poland promoted to developed market status by FTSE Russell". Emerging Europe. September 2018. Archived from the original on 9 January 2021. Retrieved 1 January 2021.
  245. ^ "Pracujący w rolnictwie, przemyśle i usługach | RynekPracy.org" (in Polish). Archived from the original on 25 April 2020. Retrieved 21 December 2023.
  246. ^ "Polish economy seen as stable and competitive". Warsaw Business Journal. 9 September 2010. Archived from the original on 13 September 2010. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  247. ^ Dorota Ciesielska-Maciągowska (5 April 2016). "Hundreds of foreign companies taken over by Polish firms over the last decade". Central European Financial Observer. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2017.
  248. ^ Thomas White International (September 2011), Prominent Banks in Poland. Emerging Market Spotlight. Banking Sector in Poland (Internet Archive). Retrieved 6 November 2014.
  249. ^ Worldbank.org, Global Financial Development Report 2014. Archived 7 August 2019 at the Wayback Machine Appendix B. Key Aspects of Financial Inclusion (PDF file, direct download). Retrieved 6 November 2014.
  250. ^ Schwab, Klaus. "The Global Competitiveness Report 2010–2011" (PDF). World Economic Forum. pp. 27 (41/516). Retrieved 25 April 2011.
  251. ^ "Exports of goods and services (BoP, current US$) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Archived from the original on 31 May 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  252. ^ "Exports of goods and services (% of GDP) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Archived from the original on 25 April 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2021.
  253. ^ Ivana Kottasová (30 July 2019). "Brain drain claimed 1.7 million youths. So this country is scrapping its income tax". CNN. Archived from the original on 30 July 2019. Retrieved 30 July 2019.
  254. ^ "Travel And Tourism in Poland". www.euromonitor.com. Archived from the original on 7 December 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2009.
  255. .
  256. ^ Press Release (5 November 2012). "International tourism strong despite uncertain economy". World Tourism Organization UNWTO. Archived from the original on 18 February 2013. Retrieved 6 February 2013.
  257. ^ "History of the Mine". www.wieliczka-saltmine.com. Archived from the original on 10 December 2023. Retrieved 3 December 2023.
  258. ^ a b "UNTWO World Tourism Barometer, Vol.5 No.2" (PDF). www.tourismroi.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 12 October 2009.
  259. .
  260. .
  261. ^ "PAIH | Transport". www.paih.gov.pl. Archived from the original on 12 May 2022. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
  262. ^ "Generalna Dyrekcja Dróg Krajowych i Autostrad". www.gddkia.gov.pl. Archived from the original on 5 August 2023. Retrieved 6 August 2023.
  263. ^ "Linie kolejowe w Polsce". utk.gov.pl. Archived from the original on 27 August 2023. Retrieved 26 November 2023.
  264. from the original on 1 September 2023. Retrieved 6 August 2023.
  265. from the original on 1 September 2023. Retrieved 6 August 2023.
  266. from the original on 1 September 2023. Retrieved 6 August 2023.
  267. from the original on 1 September 2023. Retrieved 6 August 2023.
  268. ^ a b International Energy Agency (20 May 2022). "Poland – Countries & Regions". Paris: IEA. Archived from the original on 24 May 2022. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  269. ^ "Poland. Summary of Coal Industry" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 January 2022. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  270. ^ International Energy Agency (13 April 2022). "Frequently Asked Questions on Energy Security". Paris: IEA. Archived from the original on 16 January 2023. Retrieved 27 April 2022.
  271. ^ Ministry of Climate and Environment (2 February 2021). "Energy Policy of Poland until 2040 (EPP2040)". Ministry of Climate and Environment of Poland. Archived from the original on 24 May 2022. Retrieved 24 May 2022.
  272. ^ – via Google Books.
  273. on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  274. ^ "Nicolaus Copernicus Biography: Facts & Discoveries". Space.com. 20 March 2018. Archived from the original on 30 May 2022. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  275. .
  276. ISBN 978-92-805-3432-0. Archived from the original on 22 October 2023. Retrieved 28 October 2023. {{cite book}}: |website= ignored (help
    )
  277. S2CID 199470591. Archived from the original on 1 May 2020 – via content.sciendo.com.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of February 2024 (link
    )
  278. ^ Statistics Poland (2021). Preliminary results of the National Population and Housing Census 2021. Główny Urząd Statystyczny GUS. p. 1. Archived from the original on 6 March 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  279. ^ Statistics Poland (2021). Area and population in the territorial profile (in English and Polish). Główny Urząd Statystyczny GUS. p. 20. Archived from the original on 6 March 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  280. ^ "Fertility rate, total (births per woman) – Poland". World Bank. Archived from the original on 3 June 2022. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  281. ^ "Median age". www.cia.gov. Archived from the original on 21 December 2023. Retrieved 21 December 2023.
  282. ^ "Urban population (% of the population) – Poland". World Bank. Archived from the original on 31 May 2022. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  283. ^ "Distribution of population by degree of urbanisation, dwelling type and income group – EU-SILC survey". European Statistical Office "Eurostat". European Commission. 2020. Archived from the original on 21 January 2023. Retrieved 6 April 2022.
  284. ^ Funkcje Metropolitalne Pięciu Stolic Województw Wschodnich Archived 27 March 2009 at the Wayback MachineMarkowski
  285. ^ World Urbanization Prospects Archived 16 July 2012 at the Wayback Machine – United Nations – Department of Economic and Social Affairs / Population Division, The 2003 Revision (data of 2000)
  286. ^ Eurostat, Urban Audit database Archived 6 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine, accessed on 12 March 2009. Data for 2004.
  287. ^ Cox, Wendell (2013). "Major Metropolitan Areas in Europe". New Geography. Joel Kotkin and Praxis Strategy Group. Archived from the original on 31 May 2022. Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  288. European Spatial Planning Observation Network, Study on Urban Functions (Project 1.4.3) Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine
    , Final Report, Chapter 3, (ESPON, 2007)
  289. .
  290. (PDF) from the original on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  291. ^ Statistics Poland (n.d.). The Concept of the International Migration. Statistics System in Poland (PDF). Główny Urząd Statystyczny GUS. p. 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 January 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  292. ^ "Filling Poland's labour gap". Poland Today. Archived from the original on 12 May 2022. Retrieved 24 March 2019.
  293. ^ Departament Rynku Pracy MRPiPS (2021). "Zezwolenia na pracę cudzoziemców". psz.praca.gov.pl (in Polish). Archived from the original on 31 May 2022. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  294. ^ "Poland - European Commission".
  295. ^ "Informacja o wynikach Narodowego Spisu Powszechnego Ludności i Mieszkań 2021 na poziomie województw, powiatów i gmin". stat.gov.pl. 2022. Archived from the original on 20 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  296. ^ "GUS – Bank Danych Lokalnych". bdl.stat.gov.pl. 2022. Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 21 September 2022.
  297. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  298. ^ Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (Treaty 157). Council of Europe. 1 February 1995. Retrieved 15 September 2021. "Full list - Treaty Office - www.coe.int". Archived from the original on 16 October 2013. Retrieved 28 March 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  299. from the original on 24 July 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  300. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  301. ^ "Act of 6 January 2005 on national and ethnic minorities and on the regional languages" (PDF). GUGiK.gov.pl. Główny Urząd Geodezji i Kartografii (Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 March 2021. Retrieved 6 April 2020.
  302. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  303. ^ "Obwieszczenie Marszałka Sejmu Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z dnia 5 kwietnia 2017 r. w sprawie ogłoszenia jednolitego tekstu ustawy o mniejszościach narodowych i etnicznych oraz o języku regionalnym". isap.sejm.gov.pl. Archived from the original on 2 July 2022. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  304. (PDF) from the original on 16 February 2022. Retrieved 15 March 2022.
  305. ^ from the original on 14 October 2023. Retrieved 23 October 2023.
  306. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  307. ^ "Infographic – Religiousness of Polish inhabitants". Statistics Poland (Główny Urząd Statystyczny). 2015. Archived from the original on 9 March 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2022.
  308. ^ Coppen, Luke (18 January 2023). "How steep is Poland's drop in Mass attendance?". The Pillar. Archived from the original on 18 October 2023. Retrieved 23 October 2023.
  309. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  310. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  311. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  312. ^ "Concise Statistical Yearbook of Poland, 2008" (PDF). Central Statistical Office. 28 July 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 October 2008. Retrieved 12 August 2008.
  313. from the original on 2 October 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2023.
  314. ^ "Niecierpliwi". www.termedia.pl. Archived from the original on 31 May 2022. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  315. ^ "Prywatnie leczy się już ponad połowa Polaków". 16 September 2018. Archived from the original on 1 June 2022. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  316. ^ "Poland Guide: The Polish health care system, An introduction: Poland's health care is based on a general". Justlanded.com. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  317. ^ Nations, United (2020). "Poland – Human Development Indicators". Human Development Reports. United Nations Development Programme. Archived from the original on 28 January 2019. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
  318. ^ "Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births) | Data". data.worldbank.org. Archived from the original on 25 April 2010. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  319. ^ "Poland: Country Health Profile 2019 | READ online". OECD iLibrary. Archived from the original on 23 December 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  320. ^ "Imports of Drugs and Medicines by Country". World's Top Exports. 4 April 2020. Archived from the original on 11 December 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  321. ^ "History – Jagiellonian University – Jagiellonian University". en.uj.edu.pl. Archived from the original on 13 December 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  322. . Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  323. .
  324. ^ "Zmiany w wychowaniu przedszkolnym - Informacje - Wychowanie przedszkolne w Polsce - wiek, obowiązek, miejsce, opłaty - dlaprzedszkolaka.info". www.dlaprzedszkolaka.info. Archived from the original on 25 November 2020. Retrieved 3 December 2020.
  325. ^ a b c "Ustawa z dnia 14 grudnia 2016 r." (PDF). isap.sejm.gov.pl (in Polish). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 November 2021. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  326. ^ "MATURA 2020 | wymagania na STUDIA | jak wygląda | terminy". otouczelnie.pl.
  327. ^ Central Statistical Office: Studenci szkół wyższych (łącznie z cudzoziemcami) na dzień 30 XI 2008. Number of students at Poland's institutions of higher education, as of 30 November 2008. Retrieved 13 June 2012. Archived at Archive.org on 28 October 2008. (in Polish)
  328. ^ "Study in Poland". studies.info. Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  329. ^ "Ranking Uczelni Akademickich – Ranking Szkół Wyższych PERSPEKTYWY 2019". ranking.perspektywy.pl.
  330. ^ OECD (2009). "The impact of the 1999 education reform in Poland". Retrieved 17 September 2010.
  331. ^ "Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) Results from PISA 2018" (PDF). OECD. 2019. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  332. ^ "Biało-Czerwoni – definicja, synonimy, przykłady użycia". sjp.pwn.pl.
  333. JSTOR 3032734
    .
  334. ^ "Zabytki nieruchome". www.nid.pl. Archived from the original on 7 July 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  335. ^ "Album "100 pomników historii"". www.nid.pl. Archived from the original on 8 July 2020. Retrieved 7 July 2020.
  336. ^ UNESCO World Heritage. "Poland". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved 29 July 2021.
  337. ^ "Obwieszczenie Marszałka Sejmu Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej z dnia 19 grudnia 2014 r. w sprawie ogłoszenia jednolitego tekstu ustawy o dniach wolnych od pracy". isap.sejm.gov.pl.
  338. ^ "Opłatek i pierwsza gwiazdka czyli wigilijne tradycje". wegorzewo.wm.pl.
  339. ^ "Why Do Poles Leave One Chair Empty on Christmas Eve?". Culture.pl.
  340. ^ "turoń – słownik języka polskiego i poradnia językowa – Dobry słownik". DobrySłownik.pl.
  341. ^ – via Google Books.
  342. ^ "Śmigus-Dyngus: Poland's National Water Fight Day". Culture.pl.
  343. ^ "Summer in Warsaw | Things You Can Do Only in Summer". 21 October 2018.
  344. .
  345. ^ "The Music Courts of the Polish Vasas" (PDF). www.semper.pl. p. 244. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 May 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2009.
  346. .
  347. ^ "Pol'and'Rock: Poland's biggest music fest kicks off". polskieradio.pl. 4 August 2022. Retrieved 14 March 2024.
  348. .
  349. Access date 13 December 2007.
  350. ^ "Lady with an Ermine – by Leonardo Da Vinci". LeonardoDaVinci.net.
  351. . Retrieved 31 August 2017 – via Google Books.
  352. ^ Sarzyński, Piotr (12 February 2013). "Ranking polskich galerii ze współczesną sztuką". www.polityka.pl (in Polish). Retrieved 4 May 2021.
  353. .
  354. .
  355. .
  356. .
  357. .
  358. .
  359. .
  360. .
  361. .
  362. ^ Many designs imitated the arcaded courtyard and arched loggias of the Wawel palace. Michael J. Mikoś. "Renaissance Cultural Background". www.staropolska.pl. p. 9. Retrieved 23 April 2009.
  363. JSTOR 40870954
    .
  364. .
  365. .
  366. .
  367. .
  368. – via Google Books.
  369. ^ Koca, B. (2006). "Polish Literature – The Middle Ages (Religious writings)" (in Polish). Archived from the original on 8 November 2006. Retrieved 10 December 2006.
  370. ^ www.ideo.pl, Ideo Sp. z o.o. –. "The manuscript with the first ever sentence in Polish has be [sic] digitalized – News – Science & Scholarship in Poland". scienceinpoland.pap.pl. Archived from the original on 21 August 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
  371. ^ "The first sentence in Polish in the UNESCO register". #Poland. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
  372. ^ "Polish Libraries – Wiesław Wydra: The Oldest Extant Prose Text in the Polish language. The Phenomenon of the Holy Cross Sermons". polishlibraries.pl. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
  373. .
  374. ^ "Dwujęzyczność w twórczości Jana Kochanowskiego". fp.amu.edu.pl.
  375. . Retrieved 24 May 2017.
  376. . Retrieved 24 May 2017 – via Google Books.
  377. ]
  378. ^ "The Joseph Conrad Society (UK) Official Website". josephconradsociety.org. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
  379. ^ "The Joseph Conrad Society of America". josephconrad.org. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
  380. .
  381. ^ "O Wiedźminie i Wiedźmince". Rynek książki. 19 July 2023.
  382. ^ "Facts on the Nobel Prize in Literature". Nobelprize.org. 5 October 2009. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
  383. ^ Adam Gopnik (5 June 2007). "Szymborska's 'View': Small Truths Sharply Etched". npr.org. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
  384. ^ "Tokarczuk and Handke win Nobel Literature Prizes". BBC News. 10 October 2019.
  385. ^ "Always home-made, tomato soup is one of the first things a Polish cook learns to prepare." [in:] Marc E. Heine. Poland. 1987
  386. – via Google Books.
  387. ^ Amanda Fiegl (17 December 2008). "A Brief History of the Bagel". smithsonianmag.com. Retrieved 6 May 2023.
  388. .
  389. .
  390. ^ "gorzała – Słownik języka polskiego PWN". sjp.pwn.pl.
  391. ^ "History of vodka production, at the official page of Polish Spirit Industry Association (KRPS), 2007". Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
  392. ^ "EJPAU 2004. Kowalczuk I. CONDITIONS OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES CONSUMPTION AMONG POLISH CONSUMERS". www.ejpau.media.pl.
  393. ^ Jim Hughes (4 February 2013). "Forgotten Beer Styles: Grodziskie". badassdigest.com. Archived from the original on 17 February 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2023.
  394. . Retrieved 31 March 2019 – via Google Books.
  395. ^ "Maks Faktorowicz: Polak, który stworzył kosmetyczne imperium" [Maks Faktorowicz: A Pole who created a cosmetic empire]. Interia Kobieta (in Polish). 7 February 2013. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
  396. ^ "Maksymilian Faktorowicz – człowiek, który dał nam sztuczne rzęsy" [Maksymilian Faktorowicz – a man who gave us false eyelashes]. Polskie Radio (in Polish). Retrieved 24 May 2017.
  397. ^ Stella Rose Saint Clair (12 February 2014). "Makeup Masters: The History of Max Factor". Beautylish. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
  398. ^ Norbert Ziętal (13 July 2013). "Przemyski Inglot ma już 400 sklepów na świecie" [Przemysl Inglot already has 400 stores in the world]. Strefa Biznesu (in Polish).
  399. ^ Butler, Sarah (2 September 2016). "Reserved! Polish fashion chain moves into BHS flagship store". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 March 2022.
  400. ^
    OCLC 607873644
    .
  401. ^ "The Wrightsman Collection. Vols. 1 and 2, Furniture, Gilt Bronze and Mounted Porcelain, Carpets". Metropolitan Museum of Art – via Google Books.
  402. ^ .
  403. ^ .
  404. .
  405. ^ .
  406. ^ Cabrera, Isabel (2020). "World Reading Habits in 2020 [Infographic]". geediting.com. Global English Editing. Retrieved 29 September 2021.
  407. .
  408. ^ .
  409. ^ "FIFA World Cup Statistics-Poland". FIFA. Archived from the original on 6 December 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
  410. ^ "FIFA Statistics – Poland". Archived from the original on 6 December 2007. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
  411. ^ "Poland hosts Euro 2012!". warsaw-life.com. Retrieved 12 December 2010.
  412. ^ "FIVB Senior World Ranking – Men". Retrieved 30 May 2021.
  413. ^ "FIVB Volleyball Men's World Championship Poland 2014". Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  414. ^ "Finals". Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  415. .
  416. ^ "Speedway World Cup: Poland win 2010 Speedway World Cup". worldspeedway.com. Archived from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
  417. ^ Blanka Konopka (10 June 2022). "Tennis fever hits Poland as clubs across the country report surge in interest". thefirstnews.com. Retrieved 24 April 2023.
  418. ^ "Poland wins Hopman Cup as Agnieszka Radwanska and Jerzy Janowicz combine to beat Serena Williams and John Isner in Perth". abc.net.au. 10 January 2015. Retrieved 24 April 2023.
  419. ^ Summer Sports in Poland at Poland For Visitors Online. Retrieved 2 November 2014.

Works cited

External links