|Available in||112 languages|
List of languages
Afrikaans, Albanian, Amharic, Arabic, Armenian, Assamese, Azerbaijani, Basque, Belarusian, Bengali, Bosnian, Breton, Bulgarian, Burmese, Catalan, Cebuano, Corsican, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Dutch (België), English (UK), English (US), English (upside down), Esperanto, Estonian, Faroese, Filipino, Finnish, French (Canada), French (France), Frisian, Fula, Galician, Georgian, German, Greek, Guarani, Gujarati, Haitian Creole, Hausa, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Icelandic, Indonesian, Irish, Italian, Japanese, Japanese (Kansai), Javanese, Kannada, Kazakh, Khmer, Kinyarwanda, Korean, Kurdish (Kurmanji), Kyrgyz, Lao, Latvian, Lithuanian, Macedonian, Malagasy, Malay, Malayalam, Maltese, Marathi, Mongolian, Nepali, Norwegian (bokmal), Norwegian (nynorsk), Odia, Pashto, Persian, Polish, Portuguese (Brazil), Portuguese (Portugal), Punjabi, Romanian, Russian, Sardinian, Serbian, Shona, Silesian, Simplified Chinese (China), Sinhala, Slovak, Slovenian, Somali, Sorani Kurdish, Spanish, Spanish (Spain), Swahili, Swedish, Syriac, Tajik, Tamazight, Tamil, Tatar, Telugu, Tetun, Thai, Traditional Chinese (Hong Kong), Traditional Chinese (Taiwan), Turkish, Ukrainian, Urdu, Uzbek, Vietnamese, Welsh and Zaza
|Founded||February 4, 2004Cambridge, Massachusettsin|
|Area served||Worldwide, except blocking countries|
|Registration||Required (to do any activity)|
|Users||2.94 billion monthly active users (as of 31 March 2022[update])|
|Launched||February 4, 2004|
|Written in||C++, Hack (as HHVM)|
|Part of a series on|
|CA data scandal|
|2020 ad boycotts|
|2021 files leak|
Facebook is an online social media and social networking service owned by American technology giant Meta Platforms. Created in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz, and Chris Hughes, its name derives from the face book directories often given to American university students. Membership was initially limited to only Harvard students, gradually expanding to other North American universities and, since 2006, anyone over 13 years old. As of December 2022[update], Facebook claimed 2.96 billion monthly active users, and ranked third worldwide among the most visited websites. It was the most downloaded mobile app of the 2010s.
Facebook can be accessed from devices with
The subject of
2003–2006: Thefacebook, Thiel investment, and name change
Zuckerberg built a website called "Facemash" in 2003 while attending
A "face book" is a student directory featuring photos and personal information. In 2003, Harvard had only a paper version along with private online directories. Zuckerberg told The Harvard Crimson, "Everyone's been talking a lot about a universal face book within Harvard. ... I think it's kind of silly that it would take the University a couple of years to get around to it. I can do it better than they can, and I can do it in a week." In January 2004, Zuckerberg coded a new website, known as "TheFacebook", inspired by a Crimson editorial about Facemash, stating, "It is clear that the technology needed to create a centralized Website is readily available ... the benefits are many." Zuckerberg met with Harvard student Eduardo Saverin, and each of them agreed to invest $1,000 ($1,549 in 2022 dollars) in the site. On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched "TheFacebook", originally located at thefacebook.com.
Six days after the site launched, Harvard seniors
Membership was initially restricted to students of Harvard College. Within a month, more than half the undergraduates had registered. Dustin Moskovitz, Andrew McCollum, and Chris Hughes joined Zuckerberg to help manage the growth of the website. In March 2004, Facebook expanded to Columbia, Stanford and Yale. It then became available to all Ivy League colleges, Boston University, NYU, MIT, and successively most universities in the United States and Canada.
In mid-2004, Napster co-founder and entrepreneur Sean Parker—an informal advisor to Zuckerberg—became company president. In June 2004, the company moved to Palo Alto, California. It received its first investment later that month from PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel. In 2005, the company dropped "the" from its name after purchasing the domain name Facebook.com for US$200,000 ($299,676 in 2022 dollars). The domain had belonged to AboutFace Corporation.
In May 2005,
2006–2012: Public access, Microsoft alliance, and rapid growth
In May 2006, Facebook hired its first intern, Julie Zhuo. After a month, Zhuo was hired as a full-time engineer. On September 26, 2006, Facebook opened to everyone at least 13 years old with a valid email address. By late 2007, Facebook had 100,000 pages on which companies promoted themselves. Organization pages began rolling out in May 2009. On October 24, 2007, Microsoft announced that it had purchased a 1.6% share of Facebook for $240 million ($339 million in 2022 dollars), giving Facebook a total implied value of around $15 billion ($21.2 billion in 2022 dollars). Microsoft's purchase included rights to place international advertisements.
In May 2007, at the first f8 developers conference, Facebook announced the launch of the
The website won awards such as placement into the "Top 100 Classic Websites" by
On July 20, 2008, Facebook introduced "Facebook Beta", a significant redesign of its user interface on selected networks. The Mini-Feed and Wall were consolidated, profiles were separated into tabbed sections, and an effort was made to create a cleaner look. Facebook began migrating users to the new version in September 2008. In July 2008, Facebook sued StudiVZ, a German social network that was alleged to be visually and functionally similar to Facebook.
In October 2008, Facebook announced that its international headquarters would locate in
In May 2009, Zuckerberg said of the $200 million Russian investment, "This investment is purely buffer for us. It is not something we needed to get to cash flow positive." In September 2009, Facebook became cash flow positive ahead of schedule after closing a roughly $200 million gap in operating profitability.
In 2010, Facebook won the Crunchie "Best Overall Startup Or Product" award for the third year in a row.
The company announced 500 million users in July 2010.
On November 15, 2010, Facebook announced it had acquired the domain name fb.com from the American Farm Bureau Federation for an undisclosed amount. On January 11, 2011, the Farm Bureau disclosed $8.5 million ($11.1 million in 2022 dollars) in "domain sales income", making the acquisition of FB.com one of the ten highest domain sales in history.
In February 2011, Facebook announced plans to move its headquarters to the former
2012–2013: IPO, lawsuits, and one billion active users
In March 2012, Facebook announced App Center, a store selling applications that operate via the website. The store was to be available on iPhones, Android devices, and for mobile web users.
Zuckerberg announced at the start of October 2012 that Facebook had one billion monthly active users, including 600 million mobile users, 219 billion photo uploads and 140 billion friend connections.
On October 1, 2012, Zuckerberg visited Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev in Moscow to stimulate social media innovation in Russia and to boost Facebook's position in the Russian market.
2013–2014: Site developments, A4AI, and 10th anniversary
On January 15, 2013, Facebook announced Facebook Graph Search, which provides users with a "precise answer", rather than a link to an answer by leveraging data present on its site. Facebook emphasized that the feature would be "privacy-aware", returning results only from content already shared with the user. On April 3, 2013, Facebook unveiled Facebook Home, a user-interface layer for Android devices offering greater integration with the site. HTC announced HTC First, a phone with Home pre-loaded.
On April 15, 2013, Facebook announced an alliance across 19 states with the National Association of Attorneys General, to provide teenagers and parents with information on tools to manage social networking profiles. On April 19 Facebook modified its logo to remove the faint blue line at the bottom of the "F" icon. The letter F moved closer to the edge of the box.
Following a campaign by 100 advocacy groups, Facebook agreed to update its policy on hate speech. The campaign highlighted content promoting domestic violence and sexual violence against women and led 15 advertisers to withdraw, including Nissan UK, House of Burlesque, and Nationwide UK. The company initially stated, "while it may be vulgar and offensive, distasteful content on its own does not violate our policies". It took action on May 29.
On June 12, Facebook announced that it was introducing clickable
The company celebrated its 10th anniversary during the week of February 3, 2014. In January 2014, over one billion users connected via a mobile device. As of June, mobile accounted for 62% of advertising revenue, an increase of 21% from the previous year. By September Facebook's market capitalization had exceeded $200 billion ($247 billion in 2022 dollars).
Zuckerberg participated in a Q&A session at Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, on October 23, where he attempted to converse in Mandarin. Zuckerberg hosted visiting Chinese politician Lu Wei, known as the "Internet czar" for his influence in China's online policy, on December 8.
2015–2020: Algorithm revision; fake news
As of 2015[update], Facebook's algorithm was revised in an attempt to filter out false or misleading content, such as fake news stories and hoaxes. It relied on users who flag a story accordingly. Facebook maintained that satirical content should not be intercepted. The algorithm was accused of maintaining a "filter bubble", where material the user disagrees with and posts with few likes would be deprioritized. In November, Facebook extended paternity leave from 4 weeks to 4 months.
On April 12, 2016, Zuckerberg outlined his 10-year vision, which rested on three main pillars:
Following the 2016 U.S. presidential election, Facebook announced that it would combat fake news by using fact checkers from sites like FactCheck.org and Associated Press (AP), making reporting hoaxes easier through crowdsourcing, and disrupting financial incentives for abusers.
On January 17, 2017, Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg planned to open Station F, a startup incubator campus in Paris, France. On a six-month cycle, Facebook committed to work with ten to 15 data-driven startups there. On April 18, Facebook announced the beta launch of Facebook Spaces at its annual F8 developer conference. Facebook Spaces is a virtual reality version of Facebook for Oculus VR goggles. In a virtual and shared space, users can access a curated selection of 360-degree photos and videos using their avatar, with the support of the controller. Users can access their own photos and videos, along with media shared on their newsfeed. In September, Facebook announced it would spend up to US$1 billion on original shows for its Facebook Watch platform. On October 16, it acquired the anonymous compliment app tbh, announcing its intention to leave the app independent.
In October 2017, Facebook expanded its work with Definers Public Affairs, a PR firm that had originally been hired to monitor press coverage of the company to address concerns primarily regarding Russian meddling, then mishandling of user data by Cambridge Analytica, hate speech on Facebook, and calls for regulation. Company spokesman Tim Miller stated that a goal for tech firms should be to "have positive content pushed out about your company and negative content that's being pushed out about your competitor". Definers claimed that George Soros was the force behind what appeared to be a broad anti-Facebook movement, and created other negative media, along with America Rising, that was picked up by larger media organisations like Breitbart News. Facebook cut ties with the agency in late 2018, following public outcry over their association. Posts originating from the Facebook page of Breitbart News, a media organization previously affiliated with Cambridge Analytica, are currently[when?] among the most widely shared political content on Facebook.[excessive citations]
In May 2018 at
In August 2018, a lawsuit was filed in Oakland, California claiming that Facebook created fake accounts in order to inflate its user data and appeal to advertisers in the process.
In January 2019, the 10-year challenge was started asking users to post a photograph of themselves from 10 years ago (2009) and a more recent photo.
Criticized for its role in vaccine hesitancy, Facebook announced in March 2019 that it would provide users with "authoritative information" on the topic of vaccines. A study published in the journal Vaccine of advertisements posted in the three months prior to that found that 54% of the anti-vaccine advertisements on Facebook were placed by just two organisations funded by well-known anti-vaccination activists. The Children's Health Defense / World Mercury Project chaired by Robert F. Kennedy Jr. and Stop Mandatory Vaccination, run by campaigner Larry Cook, posted 54% of the advertisements. The ads often linked to commercial products, such as natural remedies and books.
On March 14, the Huffington Post reported that Facebook's PR agency had paid someone to tweak Facebook COO Sheryl Sandberg's Wikipedia page, as well as adding a page for the global head of PR, Caryn Marooney.
In March 2019, the perpetrator of the
On May 2, 2019, at F8, the company announced its new vision with the tagline "the future is private". A redesign of the website and mobile app was introduced, dubbed as "FB5". The event also featured plans for improving groups, a dating platform, end-to-end encryption on its platforms, and allowing users on Messenger to communicate directly with WhatsApp and Instagram users.
On July 31, 2019, Facebook announced a partnership with University of California, San Francisco to build a non-invasive, wearable device that lets people type by simply imagining themselves talking.
On August 13, 2019, it was revealed that Facebook had enlisted hundreds of contractors to create and obtain transcripts of the audio messages of users. This was especially common of Facebook Messenger, where the contractors frequently listened to and transcribed voice messages of users. After this was first reported on by Bloomberg News, Facebook released a statement confirming the report to be true, but also stated that the monitoring program was now suspended.
On September 5, 2019, Facebook launched Facebook Dating in the United States. This new application allows users to integrate their Instagram posts in their dating profile.
Facebook News, which features selected stories from news organizations, was launched on October 25.
On November 17, 2019, the banking data for 29,000 Facebook employees was stolen from a payroll worker's car. The data was stored on unencrypted hard drives and included bank account numbers, employee names, the last four digits of their social security numbers, salaries, bonuses, and equity details. The company didn't realize the hard drives were missing until November 20. Facebook confirmed that the drives contained employee information on November 29. Employees weren't notified of the break-in until December 13, 2019.
On March 10, 2020, Facebook appointed two new directors Tracey Travis and Nancy Killefer to their board of members.
In June 2020, several major companies including
On August 14, 2020, Facebook started integrating the direct messaging service of
On September 15, 2020, Facebook launched a climate science information centre to promote authoritative voices on
After the 2020 U.S. presidential election, Facebook temporarily increased the weight of ecosystem quality in its news feed algorithm.
2020–present: FTC lawsuit, corporate re-branding, shut down of facial recognition technology, ease of policy
Facebook was sued by the Federal Trade Commission as well as a coalition of several states for illegal monopolization and antitrust. The FTC and states sought the courts to force Facebook to sell its subsidiaries WhatsApp and Instagram. The suits were dismissed by a federal judge on June 28, 2021, who stated that there was not enough evidence brought in the suit to determine Facebook to be a monopoly at this point, though allowed the FTC to amend its case to include additional evidence. In its amended filings in August 2021, the FTC asserted that Facebook had been a monopoly in the area of personal social networks since 2011, distinguishing Facebook's activities from social media services like TikTok that broadcast content without necessarily limiting that message to intended recipients.
In response to the proposed bill in the Australian Parliament for a News Media Bargaining Code, on February 17, 2021, Facebook blocked Australian users from sharing or viewing news content on its platform, as well as pages of some government, community, union, charity, political, and emergency services. The Australian government strongly criticised the move, saying it demonstrated the "immense market power of these digital social giants".
On February 22, Facebook said it reached an agreement with the Australian government that would see news returning to Australian users in the coming days. As part of this agreement, Facebook and Google can avoid the News Media Bargaining Code adopted on February 25 if they "reach a commercial bargain with a news business outside the Code".
Facebook has been accused of removing and shadow banning content that spoke either in favor of protesting Indian farmers or against Narendra Modi's government. India-based employees of Facebook are at risk of arrest.
On February 27, 2021, Facebook announced Facebook BARS app for
On June 29, 2021, Facebook announced Bulletin, a platform for independent writers. Unlike competitors such as Substack, Facebook would not take a cut of subscription fees of writers using that platform upon its launch, like Malcolm Gladwell and Mitch Albom. According to The Washington Post technology writer Will Oremus, the move was criticized by those who viewed it as an tactic intended by Facebook to force those competitors out of business.
In October 2021, owner Facebook, Inc. changed its company name to Meta Platforms, Inc., or simply "Meta", as it shifts its focus to building the "metaverse". This change does not affect the name of the Facebook social networking service itself, instead being similar to the creation of Alphabet as Google's parent company in 2015.
In November 2021, Facebook stated it would stop targeting ads based on data related to health, race, ethnicity, political beliefs, religion and sexual orientation. The change will occur in January and will affect all apps owned by Meta Platforms.
In February 2022, Facebook's daily active users dropped for the first time in its 18-year history. According to Facebook's parent Meta, DAUs dropped to 1.929 billion in the three months ending in December, down from 1.930 billion the previous quarter. Furthermore, the company warned that revenue growth would slow due to competition from TikTok and YouTube, as well as advertisers cutting back on spending.
On March 10, 2022, Facebook announced that it will temporarily ease rules to allow violent speech against 'Russian invaders'. Russia then banned all Meta services, including Instagram.
In September 2022, Jonathan Vanian, a Technology Reporter for CNBC, wrote a piece on CNBC.com about the recent struggles Facebook was experiencing, writing "Users are jumping ship and advertisers are reducing their spending, leaving Meta poised to report its second straight drop in quarterly revenue." He also cited poor leadership decisions devoting resources to the metaverse, writing "CEO Mark Zuckerberg spends much of his time proselytizing the metaverse, which may be the company's future but accounts for virtually none of its near-term revenue and is costing billions of dollars a year to build." He also detailed accounts from analysts predicting a "death spiral" for Facebook stock as users leave, ad impressions increase, and the company chases revenue.
October 4, 2021, global service outage
On October 4, 2021, Facebook had its worst outage since 2008. The outage was global in scope, and took down all Facebook properties, including
Shutdown of facial recognition
On November 2, 2021, Facebook announced it would shut down its facial recognition technology and delete the data on over a billion users. Meta later announced plans to implement the technology as well as other biometric systems in its future products, such as the metaverse.
The shutdown of the technology will reportedly also stop Facebook's automated alt text system, used to transcribe media on the platform for visually impaired users.
In February 2023, Meta CEO Mark Zuckerberg announced that Meta would start selling blue "verified" badges on Instagram and Facebook.
This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. The reason given is: Facebook no longer uses HipHop for PHP. (August 2020)
The website's primary color is blue as Zuckerberg is red–green colorblind, a realization that occurred after a test undertaken around 2007. Facebook is built in PHP, compiled with HipHop for PHP, a "source code transformer" built by Facebook engineers that turns PHP into C++. The deployment of HipHop reportedly reduced average CPU consumption on Facebook servers by 50%.
Facebook is developed as one monolithic application. According to an interview in 2012 with Facebook build engineer Chuck Rossi, Facebook compiles into a 1.5 GB binary blob which is then distributed to the servers using a custom BitTorrent-based release system. Rossi stated that it takes about 15 minutes to build and 15 minutes to release to the servers. The build and release process has zero downtime. Changes to Facebook are rolled out daily.
Facebook used a combination platform based on
Data is read from these log files using Ptail, an internally built tool to aggregate data from multiple Scribe stores. It tails the log files and pulls data out. Ptail data are separated into three streams and sent to clusters in different data centers (Plugin impression, News feed impressions, Actions (plugin + news feed)). Puma is used to manage periods of high data flow (Input/Output or IO). Data is processed in batches to lessen the number of times needed to read and write under high demand periods. (A hot article generates many impressions and news feed impressions that cause huge data skews.) Batches are taken every 1.5 seconds, limited by memory used when creating a hash table.
Data is then output in PHP format. The backend is written in Java. Thrift is used as the messaging format so PHP programs can query Java services. Caching solutions display pages more quickly. The data is then sent to MapReduce servers where it is queried via Hive. This serves as a backup as the data can be recovered from Hive.
Content delivery network (CDN)
Facebook uses its own
Hack programming language
On March 20, 2014, Facebook announced a new open-source programming language called Hack. Before public release, a large portion of Facebook was already running and "battle tested" using the new language.
User profile/personal timeline
Each registered user on Facebook has a personal profile that shows their posts and content.
In February 2014, Facebook expanded the gender setting, adding a custom input field that allows users to choose from a wide range of gender identities. Users can also set which set of gender-specific pronoun should be used in reference to them throughout the site. In May 2014, Facebook introduced a feature to allow users to ask for information not disclosed by other users on their profiles. If a user does not provide key information, such as location, hometown, or relationship status, other users can use a new "ask" button to send a message asking about that item to the user in a single click.
On February 23, 2010, Facebook was granted a patent on certain aspects of its News Feed. The patent covers News Feeds in which links are provided so that one user can participate in the activity of another user. The sorting and display of stories in a user's News Feed is governed by the EdgeRank algorithm.
On June 7, 2012, Facebook launched its App Center to help users find games and other applications.
On May 13, 2015, Facebook in association with major news portals launched "Instant Articles" to provide news on the Facebook news feed without leaving the site.
In January 2017, Facebook launched Facebook Stories for iOS and Android in Ireland. The feature, following the format of Snapchat and Instagram stories, allows users to upload photos and videos that appear above friends' and followers' News Feeds and disappear after 24 hours.
On October 11, 2017, Facebook introduced the 3D Posts feature to allow for uploading interactive 3D assets. On January 11, 2018, Facebook announced that it would change News Feed to prioritize friends/family content and de-emphasize content from media companies.
In February 2020, Facebook announced it would spend $1 billion ($1.13 billion in 2022 dollars) to license news material from publishers for the next three years; a pledge coming as the company falls under scrutiny from governments across the globe over not paying for news content appearing on the platform. The pledge would be in addition to the $600 million ($678 million in 2022 dollars) paid since 2018 through deals with news companies such as The Guardian and Financial Times.
In March and April 2021, in response to Apple announcing changes to its iOS device's Identifier for Advertisers policy, which included requiring app developers to directly request to users the ability to track on an opt-in basis, Facebook purchased full-page newspaper advertisements attempting to convince users to allow tracking, highlighting the effects targeted ads have on small businesses. Facebook's efforts were ultimately unsuccessful, as Apple released iOS 14.5 in late April 2021, containing the feature for users in what has been deemed "App Tracking Transparency". Moreover, statistics from Verizon Communications subsidiary Flurry Analytics show 96% of all iOS users in the United States are not permitting tracking at all, and only 12% of worldwide iOS users are allowing tracking, which some news outlets deem "Facebook's nightmare", among similar terms. Despite the news, Facebook has stated that the new policy and software update would be "manageable".
Facebook Messenger is an instant messaging service and software application. It began as Facebook Chat in 2008, was revamped in 2010 and eventually became a standalone mobile app in August 2011, while remaining part of the user page on browsers.
Complementing regular conversations, Messenger lets users make one-to-one and group voice and video calls. Its Android app has integrated support for SMS and "Chat Heads", which are round profile photo icons appearing on-screen regardless of what app is open, while both apps support multiple accounts, conversations with optional end-to-end encryption and "Instant Games". Some features, including sending money and requesting transportation, are limited to the United States. In 2017, Facebook added "Messenger Day", a feature that lets users share photos and videos in a story-format with all their friends with the content disappearing after 24 hours; Reactions, which lets users tap and hold a message to add a reaction through an emoji; and Mentions, which lets users in group conversations type @ to give a particular user a notification.
Businesses and users can interact through Messenger with features such as tracking purchases and receiving notifications, and interacting with customer service representatives. Third-party developers can integrate apps into Messenger, letting users enter an app while inside Messenger and optionally share details from the app into a chat. Developers can build chatbots into Messenger, for uses such as news publishers building bots to distribute news. The M virtual assistant (U.S.) scans chats for keywords and suggests relevant actions, such as its payments system for users mentioning money. Group chatbots appear in Messenger as "Chat Extensions". A "Discovery" tab allows finding bots, and enabling special, branded QR codes that, when scanned, take the user to a specific bot.
Facebook's data policy outlines its policies for collecting, storing, and sharing user's data. Facebook enables users to control access to individual posts and their profile through privacy settings. The user's name and profile picture (if applicable) are public.
Facebook's revenue depends on targeted advertising, which involves analyzing user data to decide which ads to show each user. Facebook buys data from third parties, gathered from both online and offline sources, to supplement its own data on users. Facebook maintains that it does not share data used for targeted advertising with the advertisers themselves. The company states:
"We provide advertisers with reports about the kinds of people seeing their ads and how their ads are performing, but we don't share information that personally identifies you (information such as your name or email address that by itself can be used to contact you or identifies who you are) unless you give us permission. For example, we provide general demographic and interest information to advertisers (for example, that an ad was seen by a woman between the ages of 25 and 34 who lives in Madrid and likes software engineering) to help them better understand their audience. We also confirm which Facebook ads led you to make a purchase or take an action with an advertiser."
As of October 2021[update], Facebook claims it uses the following policy for sharing user data with third parties:
Apps, websites, and third-party integrations on or using our Products.
When you choose to use third-party apps, websites, or other services that use, or are integrated with, our Products, they can receive information about what you post or share. For example, when you play a game with your Facebook friends or use a Facebook Comment or Share button on a website, the game developer or website can receive information about your activities in the game or receive a comment or link that you share from the website on Facebook. Also, when you download or use such third-party services, they can access your public profile on Facebook, and any information that you share with them. Apps and websites you use may receive your list of Facebook friends if you choose to share it with them. But apps and websites you use will not be able to receive any other information about your Facebook friends from you, or information about any of your Instagram followers (although your friends and followers may, of course, choose to share this information themselves). Information collected by these third-party services is subject to their own terms and policies, not this one.
Devices and operating systems providing native versions of Facebook and Instagram (i.e. where we have not developed our own first-party apps) will have access to all information you choose to share with them, including information your friends share with you, so they can provide our core functionality to you.
Note: We are in the process of restricting developers' data access even further to help prevent abuse. For example, we will remove developers' access to your Facebook and Instagram data if you haven't used their app in 3 months, and we are changing Login, so that in the next version, we will reduce the data that an app can request without app review to include only name, Instagram username and bio, profile photo and email address. Requesting any other data will require our approval.
Facebook will also share data with law enforcement.
Facebook's policies have changed repeatedly since the service's debut, amid a series of controversies covering everything from how well it secures user data, to what extent it allows users to control access, to the kinds of access given to third parties, including businesses, political campaigns and governments. These facilities vary according to country, as some nations require the company to make data available (and limit access to services), while the European Union's GDPR regulation mandates additional privacy protections.
Bug Bounty Program
On July 29, 2011, Facebook announced its Bug Bounty Program that paid security researchers a minimum of $500 ($650.00 in 2022 dollars) for reporting security holes. The company promised not to pursue "white hat" hackers who identified such problems. This led researchers in many countries to participate, particularly in India and Russia.
Facebook's rapid growth began as soon as it became available and continued through 2018, before beginning to decline.
Facebook passed 100 million registered users in 2008, and 500 million in July 2010. According to the company's data at the July 2010 announcement, half of the site's membership used Facebook daily, for an average of 34 minutes, while 150 million users accessed the site by mobile.
In October 2012, Facebook's monthly active users passed one billion, with 600 million mobile users, 219 billion photo uploads, and 140 billion friend connections. The 2 billion user mark was crossed in June 2017.
In November 2015, after skepticism about the accuracy of its "monthly active users" measurement, Facebook changed its definition to a logged-in member who visits the Facebook site through the web browser or mobile app, or uses the
From 2017 to 2019, the percentage of the U.S. population over the age of 12 who use Facebook has declined, from 67% to 61% (a decline of some 15 million U.S. users), with a higher drop-off among younger Americans (a decrease in the percentage of U.S. 12- to 34-year-olds who are users from 58% in 2015 to 29% in 2019). The decline coincided with an increase in the popularity of Instagram, which is also owned by Meta.
The number of daily active users experienced a quarterly decline for the first time in the last quarter of 2021, down to 1.929 billion from 1.930 billion, but increased again the next quarter despite being banned in Russia.
Historically, commentators have offered predictions of Facebook's decline or end, based on causes such as a declining user base; the legal difficulties of being a closed platform, inability to generate revenue, inability to offer user privacy, inability to adapt to mobile platforms, or Facebook ending itself to present a next generation replacement; or Facebook's role in Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections.
Graphs are temporarily unavailable due to technical issues.
Population pyramid of Facebook users by age As of 2010[update]
The highest number of Facebook users as of October 2018 are from India and the United States, followed by Indonesia, Brazil and Mexico. Region-wise, the highest number of users are from Asia-Pacific (947 million) followed by Europe (381 million) and US-Canada (242 million). The rest of the world has 750 million users.
Over the 2008–2018 period, the percentage of users under 34 declined to less than half of the total.
In many countries the social networking sites and mobile apps have been blocked temporarily or permanently, including China, Iran, Vietnam, Pakistan, Syria, and North Korea. In May 2018, the government of Papua New Guinea announced that it would ban Facebook for a month while it considered the impact of the website on the country, though no ban has since occurred. In 2019, Facebook announced it would start enforcing its ban on users, including influencers, promoting any vape, tobacco products, or weapons on its platforms.
Criticisms and controversies
"I'm here today because I believe Facebook's products harm children, stoke division, and weaken our democracy. The company's leadership knows how to make Facebook and Instagram safer, but won't make the necessary changes because they have put their astronomical profits before people."
"I don't believe private companies should make all of the decisions on their own. That's why we have advocated for updated internet regulations for several years now. I have testified in Congress multiple times and asked them to update these regulations. I've written op-eds outlining the areas of regulation we think are most important related to elections, harmful content, privacy, and competition."
—Mark Zuckerberg, responding to Frances Haugen's revelations (2021).
Facebook's importance and scale has led to criticisms in many domains. Issues include Internet privacy, excessive retention of user information, its facial recognition software, DeepFace its addictive quality and its role in the workplace, including employer access to employee accounts.
Facebook has been criticized for electricity usage,
Facebook is alleged to have harmful psychological effects on its users, including feelings of jealousy
Facebook has been criticized for allowing users to publish illegal or offensive material. Specifics include copyright and intellectual property infringement, hate speech, incitement of rape and terrorism, fake news, and crimes, murders, and livestreaming violent incidents. Commentators have accused Facebook of willingly facilitating the spread of such content.[excessive citations] Sri Lanka blocked both Facebook and WhatsApp in May 2019 after anti-Muslim riots, the worst in the country since the Easter Sunday bombing in the same year as a temporary measure to maintain peace in Sri Lanka. Facebook removed 3 billion fake accounts only during the last quarter of 2018 and the first quarter of 2019; in comparison, the social network reports 2.39 billion monthly active users.
In late July 2019, the company announced it was under
The consumer advocacy group, Which?, claims that individuals are still utilizing Facebook to set up fraudulent five-star ratings for various products. The group has identified 14 communities that exchange reviews for either money or complimentary items such as watches, earbuds, and sprinklers.
Facebook has faced a steady stream of controversies over how it handles user privacy, repeatedly adjusting its privacy settings and policies.
Since 2009, Facebook has been participating in the PRISM secret program, sharing with the US National Security Agency audio, video, photographs, e-mails, documents and connection logs from user profiles, among other social media services.
On November 29, 2011, Facebook settled
On June 7, 2018, Facebook announced that a bug had resulted in about 14 million Facebook users having their default sharing setting for all new posts set to "public".
On April 4, 2019, half a billion records of Facebook users were found exposed on Amazon cloud servers, containing information about users' friends, likes, groups, and checked-in locations, as well as names, passwords and email addresses.
The phone numbers of at least 200 million Facebook users were found to be exposed on an open online database in September 2019. They included 133 million US users, 18 million from the UK, and 50 million from users in Vietnam. After removing duplicates, the 419 million records have been reduced to 219 million. The database went offline after TechCrunch contacted the web host. It is thought the records were amassed using a tool that Facebook disabled in April 2018 after the Cambridge Analytica controversy. A Facebook spokeswoman said in a statement: "The dataset is old and appears to have information obtained before we made changes last year...There is no evidence that Facebook accounts were compromised."
Facebook's privacy problems resulted in companies like Viber Media and Mozilla discontinuing advertising on Facebook's platforms.
Facebook was accused of committing "systemic" racial bias by EEOC based on the complaints of three rejected candidates and a current employee of the company. The three rejected employees along with the Operational Manager at Facebook as of March 2021 accused the firm of discriminating against Black people. The EEOC has initiated an investigation into the case.
A "shadow profile" refers to the data Facebook collects about individuals without their explicit permission. For example, the "like" button that appears on third-party websites allows the company to collect information about an individual's internet browsing habits, even if the individual is not a Facebook user. Data can also be collected by other users. For example, a Facebook user can link their email account to their Facebook to find friends on the site, allowing the company to collect the email addresses of users and non-users alike. Over time, countless data points about an individual are collected; any single data point perhaps cannot identify an individual, but together allows the company to form a unique "profile".
This practice has been criticized by those who believe people should be able to opt-out of involuntary data collection. Additionally, while Facebook users have the ability to download and inspect the data they provide to the site, data from the user's "shadow profile" is not included, and non-users of Facebook do not have access to this tool regardless. The company has also been unclear whether or not it is possible for a person to revoke Facebook's access to their "shadow profile".
Facebook customer Global Science Research sold information on over 87 million Facebook users to Cambridge Analytica, a political data analysis firm led by
According to The Guardian, both Facebook and Cambridge Analytica threatened to sue the newspaper if it published the story. After publication, Facebook claimed that it had been "lied to". On March 23, 2018, The English High Court granted an application by the Information Commissioner's Office for a warrant to search Cambridge Analytica's London offices, ending a standoff between Facebook and the Information Commissioner over responsibility.
On March 25, Facebook published a statement by Zuckerberg in major UK and US newspapers apologizing over a "breach of trust".
You may have heard about a quiz app built by a university researcher that leaked Facebook data of millions of people in 2014. This was a breach of trust, and I'm sorry we didn't do more at the time. We're now taking steps to make sure this doesn't happen again.
We've already stopped apps like this from getting so much information. Now we're limiting the data apps get when you sign in using Facebook.
We're also investigating every single app that had access to large amounts of data before we fixed this. We expect there are others. And when we find them, we will ban them and tell everyone affected.
Finally, we'll remind you which apps you've given access to your information – so you can shut off the ones you don't want anymore.
Thank you for believing in this community. I promise to do better for you.
On March 26, the Federal Trade Commission opened an investigation into the matter. The controversy led Facebook to end its partnerships with data brokers who aid advertisers in targeting users.
On April 24, 2019, Facebook said it could face a fine between $3 billion ($3.43 billion in 2022 dollars) to $5 billion ($5.72 billion in 2022 dollars) as the result of an investigation by the Federal Trade Commission. The agency has been investigating Facebook for possible privacy violations, but has not announced any findings yet.
Facebook also implemented additional privacy controls and settings in part to comply with the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which took effect in May. Facebook also ended its active opposition to the California Consumer Privacy Act.
Some, such as Meghan McCain have drawn an equivalence between the use of data by Cambridge Analytica and the Barack Obama's 2012 campaign, which, according to Investor's Business Daily, "encouraged supporters to download an Obama 2012 Facebook app that, when activated, let the campaign collect Facebook data both on users and their friends." Carol Davidsen, the Obama for America (OFA) former director of integration and media analytics, wrote that "Facebook was surprised we were able to suck out the whole social graph, but they didn't stop us once they realised that was what we were doing." PolitiFact has rated McCain's statements "Half-True", on the basis that "in Obama's case, direct users knew they were handing over their data to a political campaign" whereas with Cambridge Analytica, users thought they were only taking a personality quiz for academic purposes, and while the Obama campaign only used the data "to have their supporters contact their most persuadable friends", Cambridge Analytica "targeted users, friends and lookalikes directly with digital ads."
On September 28, 2018, Facebook experienced a major breach in its security, exposing the data of 50 million users. The data breach started in July 2017 and was discovered on September 16. Facebook notified users affected by the exploit and logged them out of their accounts.
In March 2019, Facebook confirmed a password compromise of millions of Facebook lite application users also affected millions of Instagram users. The reason cited was the storage of password as plain text instead of encryption which could be read by its employees.
On December 19, 2019, security researcher Bob Diachenko discovered a database containing more than 267 million Facebook user IDs, phone numbers, and names that were left exposed on the web for anyone to access without a password or any other authentication.
In February 2020, Facebook encountered a major
In April 2021, The Guardian reported approximately half a billion users' data had been stolen including birthdates and phone numbers. Facebook alleged it was "old data" from a problem fixed in August 2019 despite the data's having been released a year and a half later only in 2021; it declined to speak with journalists, had apparently not notified regulators, called the problem "unfixable", and said it would not be advising users.
Phone data and activity
After acquiring Onavo in 2013, Facebook used its Onavo Protect virtual private network (VPN) app to collect information on users' web traffic and app usage. This allowed Facebook to monitor its competitors' performance, and motivated Facebook to acquire WhatsApp in 2014. Media outlets classified Onavo Protect as spyware. In August 2018, Facebook removed the app in response to pressure from Apple, who asserted that it violated their guidelines. The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission sued Facebook on December 16, 2020, for "false, misleading or deceptive conduct" in response to the company's use of personal data obtained from Onavo for business purposes in contrast to Onavo's privacy-oriented marketing.
In 2016, Facebook Research launched Project Atlas, offering some users between the ages of 13 and 35 up to $20 per month ($24.00 in 2022 dollars
In January 2020, Facebook launched the Off-Facebook Activity page, which allows users to see information collected by Facebook about their non-Facebook activities. The Washington Post columnist Geoffrey A. Fowler found that this included what other apps he used on his phone, even while the Facebook app was closed, what other web sites he visited on his phone, and what in-store purchases he made from affiliated businesses, even while his phone was completely off.
In November 2021, a report was published by Fairplay, Global Action Plan and Reset Australia detailing accusations that Facebook was continuing to manage their ad targeting system with data collected from teen users. The accusations follow announcements by Facebook in July 2021 that they would cease ad targeting children.
The company first apologized for its privacy abuses in 2009.
Facebook apologies have appeared in newspapers, television, blog posts and on Facebook. On March 25, 2018, leading US and UK newspapers published full-page ads with a personal apology from Zuckerberg. Zuckerberg issued a verbal apology on CNN. In May 2010, he apologized for discrepancies in privacy settings.
Previously, Facebook had its privacy settings spread out over 20 pages, and has now put all of its privacy settings on one page, which makes it more difficult for third-party apps to access the user's personal information. In addition to publicly apologizing, Facebook has said that it will be reviewing and auditing thousands of apps that display "suspicious activities" in an effort to ensure that this breach of privacy does not happen again. In a 2010 report regarding privacy, a research project stated that not a lot of information is available regarding the consequences of what people disclose online so often what is available are just reports made available through popular media. In 2017, a former Facebook executive went on the record to discuss how social media platforms have contributed to the unraveling of the "fabric of society".
Content disputes and moderation
Facebook relies on its users to generate the content that bonds its users to the service. The company has come under criticism both for allowing objectionable content, including conspiracy theories and fringe discourse, and for prohibiting other content that it deems inappropriate.
Misinformation and fake news
Facebook has been criticized as a vector for
In 2017, Facebook partnered with fact checkers from the Poynter Institute's International Fact-Checking Network to identify and mark false content, though most ads from political candidates are exempt from this program. As of 2018, Facebook had over 40 fact-checking partners across the world, including The Weekly Standard. Critics of the program have accused Facebook of not doing enough to remove false information from its website.
Facebook has repeatedly amended its content policies. In July 2018, it stated that it would "downrank" articles that its fact-checkers determined to be false, and remove misinformation that incited violence. Facebook stated that content that receives "false" ratings from its fact-checkers can be demonetized and suffer dramatically reduced distribution. Specific posts and videos that violate community standards can be removed on Facebook.
In May 2019, Facebook banned a number of "dangerous" commentators from its platform, including Alex Jones, Louis Farrakhan, Milo Yiannopoulos, Paul Joseph Watson, Paul Nehlen, David Duke, and Laura Loomer, for allegedly engaging in "violence and hate".
In May 2020, Facebook agreed to a preliminary settlement of $52 million ($58.8 million in 2022 dollars) to compensate U.S.-based Facebook content moderators for their psychological trauma suffered on the job. Other legal actions around the world, including in Ireland, await settlement.
In September 2020, the Government of Thailand utilized the Computer Crime Act for the first time to take action against Facebook and Twitter for ignoring requests to take down content and not complying with court orders.
Threats and incitement
In October 2020,
In October 2020, the company announced that it would ban Holocaust denial.
In October 2022, Media Matters for America published a report that Facebook and Instagram were still profiting off advertisements using the slur "groomer" for LGBT people. The article reported that Meta had previously confirmed that the use of this word for the LGBT community violates its hate speech policies. The story was subsequently picked up by other news outlets such as the New York Daily News, PinkNews, and LGBTQ Nation.
There are ads on Facebook and Instagram containing sexually explicit content, descriptions of graphic violence and content promoting acts of self harm. Many of the ads are for webnovel apps backed by tech giants Bytedance and Tencent.
Facebook was criticized for allowing InfoWars to publish falsehoods and conspiracy theories. Facebook defended its actions in regards to InfoWars, saying "we just don't think banning Pages for sharing conspiracy theories or false news is the right way to go." Facebook provided only six cases in which it fact-checked content on the InfoWars page over the period September 2017 to July 2018. In 2018 InfoWars falsely claimed that the survivors of the Parkland shooting were "actors". Facebook pledged to remove InfoWars content making the claim, although InfoWars videos pushing the false claims were left up, even though Facebook had been contacted about the videos. Facebook stated that the videos never explicitly called them actors. Facebook also allowed InfoWars videos that shared the Pizzagate conspiracy theory to survive, despite specific assertions that it would purge Pizzagate content. In late July 2018 Facebook suspended the personal profile of InfoWars head Alex Jones for 30 days. In early August 2018, Facebook banned the four most active InfoWars-related pages for hate speech.
As a dominant social-web service with massive outreach, Facebook have been used by identified or unidentified political operatives to affect public opinion. Some of these activities have been done in violation of the platform policies, creating "coordinated inauthentic behavior", support or attacks. These activities can be scripted or paid. Various such abusive campaign have been revealed in recent years, best known being the Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections. In 2021, former Facebook analyst within the Spam and Fake Engagement teams, Sophie Zhang, reported more than 25 political subversion operations and criticized the general slow reaction time, oversightless, laissez-faire attitude by Facebook.
Influence Operations and Coordinated Inauthentic Behavior
In 2018, Facebook stated that during 2018 they had identified "coordinated inauthentic behavior" in "many Pages, Groups and accounts created to stir up political debate, including in the US, the Middle East, Russia and the UK."
Campaigns operated by the British intelligence agency unit, called Joint Threat Research Intelligence Group, have broadly fallen into two categories; cyber attacks and propaganda efforts. The propaganda efforts utilize "mass messaging" and the "pushing [of] stories" via social media sites like Facebook. Israel's Jewish Internet Defense Force, China's 50 Cent Party and Turkey's AK Trolls also focus their attention on social media platforms like Facebook.
In July 2018, Samantha Bradshaw, co-author of the report from the
In October 2018, The Daily Telegraph reported that Facebook "banned hundreds of pages and accounts that it says were fraudulently flooding its site with partisan political content – although they came from the United States instead of being associated with Russia."
In December 2018, The Washington Post reported that "Facebook has suspended the account of Jonathon Morgan, the chief executive of a top social media research firm"
In January 2019, Facebook said it has removed 783 Iran-linked accounts, pages and groups for engaging in what it called "coordinated inauthentic behaviour".
In May 2019, Tel Aviv-based private intelligence agency Archimedes Group was banned from Facebook for "coordinated inauthentic behavior" after Facebook found fake users in countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia. Facebook investigations revealed that Archimedes had spent some $1.1 million ($1.26 million in 2022 dollars) on fake ads, paid for in Brazilian reais, Israeli shekels and US dollars. Facebook gave examples of Archimedes Group political interference in Nigeria, Senegal, Togo, Angola, Niger and Tunisia. The Atlantic Council's Digital Forensic Research Lab said in a report that "The tactics employed by Archimedes Group, a private company, closely resemble the types of information warfare tactics often used by governments, and the Kremlin in particular."
On May 23, 2019, Facebook released its Community Standards Enforcement Report highlighting that it has identified several fake accounts through artificial intelligence and human monitoring. In a period of six months, October 2018-March 2019, the social media website removed a total of 3.39 billion fake accounts. The number of fake accounts was reported to be more than 2.4 billion real people on the platform.
In July 2019, Facebook advanced its measures to counter deceptive political propaganda and other abuse of its services. The company removed more than 1,800 accounts and pages that were being operated from Russia, Thailand, Ukraine and Honduras. After Russia's invasion of Ukraine in February 2022, it was announced that the internet regulatory committee would block access to Facebook.
On October 30, 2019, Facebook deleted several accounts of the employees working at the Israeli NSO Group, stating that the accounts were "deleted for not following our terms". The deletions came after WhatsApp sued the Israeli surveillance firm for targeting 1,400 devices with spyware.
In 2020, Facebook helped found American Edge, an anti-regulation
The Thailand government is forcing Facebook to take down a Facebook group called Royalist Marketplace with 1 million members following potentially illegal posts shared. The authorities have also threatened Facebook with legal action. In response, Facebook is planning to take legal action against the Thai government for suppression of freedom of expression and violation of human rights.
In February 2021, Facebook removed the main page of the
In March 2021, The Wall Street Journal's editorial board criticized Facebook's decision to fact-check its op-ed titled "We'll Have Herd immunity by April" written by surgeon Marty Makary, calling it "counter-opinion masquerading as fact checking."
Facebook guidelines allow users to call for the death of public figures, they also allow praise of mass killers and 'violent non-state actors' in some situations.
In 2021, former Facebook analyst within the Spam and Fake Engagement teams, Sophie Zhang, reported on more than 25 political subversion operations she uncovered while in Facebook, and the general laissez-faire by the private enterprise.
In 2021, Facebook was cited as playing a role in the fomenting of the
In 2018, Special Counsel Robert Mueller indicted 13 Russian nationals and three Russian organizations for "engaging in operations to interfere with U.S. political and electoral processes, including the 2016 presidential election."
Mueller contacted Facebook subsequently to the company's disclosure that it had sold more than $100,000 ($121,936 in 2022 dollars
The company pledged full cooperation in Mueller's investigation, and provided all information about the Russian advertisements. Members of the House and Senate Intelligence Committees have claimed that Facebook had withheld information that could illuminate the Russian propaganda campaign. Russian operatives have used Facebook polarize the American public discourses, organizing both Black Lives Matter rallies and anti-immigrant rallies on U.S. soil, as well as anti-Clinton rallies and rallies both for and against Donald Trump. Facebook ads have also been used to exploit divisions over black political activism and Muslims by simultaneously sending contrary messages to different users based on their political and demographic characteristics in order to sow discord. Zuckerberg has stated that he regrets having dismissed concerns over Russian interference in the 2016 U.S. presidential election.
Russian-American billionaire Yuri Milner, who befriended Zuckerberg between 2009 and 2011 had Kremlin backing for his investments in Facebook and Twitter.
In January 2019, Facebook removed 289 pages and 75 coordinated accounts linked to the Russian state-owned news agency
"Democracy is at risk from the malicious and relentless targeting of citizens with disinformation and personalised 'dark adverts' from unidentifiable sources, delivered through the major social media platforms we use every day," Damian Collins, DCMS Committee Chair
In February 2019, Glenn Greenwald wrote that a cybersecurity company New Knowledge, which is behind one of the Senate reports on Russian social media election interference, "was caught just six weeks ago engaging in a massive scam to create fictitious Russian troll accounts on Facebook and Twitter in order to claim that the Kremlin was working to defeat Democratic Senate nominee Doug Jones in Alabama. The New York Times, when exposing the scam, quoted a New Knowledge report that boasted of its fabrications..."
In 2018, Facebook took down 536 Facebook pages, 17 Facebook groups, 175 Facebook accounts, and 16 Instagram accounts linked to the Myanmar military. Collectively these were followed by over 10 million people. The New York Times reported that:
after months of reports about anti-Rohingya propaganda on Facebook, the company acknowledged that it had been too slow to act in Myanmar. By then, more than 700,000 Rohingya had fled the country in a year, in what United Nations officials called "a textbook example of ethnic cleansing".
Anti-Muslim propaganda and Hindu nationalism in India
A 2019 book titled The Real Face of Facebook in India, co-authored by the journalists Paranjoy Guha Thakurta and Cyril Sam, alleged that Facebook helped enable and benefited from the rise of Narendra Modi's Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in India.
Ankhi Das, Facebook's policy director for India and South and Central Asia, apologized publicly in August 2020 for sharing a Facebook post that called Muslims in India a "degenerate community". She said she shared the post "to reflect my deep belief in celebrating feminism and civic participation". She is reported to have prevented action by Facebook against anti-Muslim content and supported the BJP in internal Facebook messages.
In 2020, Facebook executives overrode their employees' recommendations that the BJP politician T. Raja Singh should be banned from the site for hate speech and rhetoric that could lead to violence. Singh had said on Facebook that Rohingya Muslim immigrants should be shot and had threatened to destroy mosques. Current and former Facebook employees told The Wall Street Journal that the decision was part of a pattern of favoritism by Facebook toward the BJP as it seeks more business in India. Facebook also took no action after BJP politicians made posts accusing Muslims of intentionally spreading COVID-19, an employee said.
On August 31, 2020, the Delhi Assembly began investigating whether Facebook bore blame for the 2020 religious riots in the city, claiming it had found Facebook "prima facie guilty of a role in the violence". On September 12, 2020, a Delhi Assembly committee said in a statement that it had asked Facebook India head Ajit Mohan to appear before it on September 15, leading to Facebook objecting and moving the Supreme Court of India against the decision. On September 15, Facebook skipped the Delhi Assembly panel hearing. On September 20, the Delhi Assembly panel issued a new notice asking Facebook to appear before it on September 23. On September 22, Facebook India vice-president and managing director Ajit Mohan moved the Supreme Court against the summons of the Delhi Assembly Committee. On September 23, the Supreme Court granted him relief and ordered a stay to the summons, with the Central government later backing the decision. A former Facebook employee told a Delhi Assembly panel on November 13 that the violence could have been 'easily averted' if the social media giant had acted in a 'proactive and prompt manner'. On December 3, the Delhi Assembly moved the Supreme Court for intervention in the case. On February 4, 2021, the Delhi Assembly panel issued a fresh notice to Facebook India to testify on the riots, avoiding specific notice to Mohan, by asking a senior, responsible officer from the company to appear before the panel. The Union government submitted in the Supreme Court that Facebook could not be made accountable before any state assembly and the committee formed was unconstitutional. On February 24, Mohan challenged summons issued by the Delhi assembly for failing to appear before it as a witness in connection with the 2020 riots in the Supreme Court, saying that the 'right to silence' is a virtue in present 'noisy times' and the legislature had no authority to examine him in a law and order case. The Supreme Court reserved its judgment for the case. On July 8, the Supreme Court refused to quash the summons and asked Facebook asked to appear before the Delhi assembly panel.
Early Facebook investor and former Zuckerberg mentor Roger McNamee described Facebook as having "the most centralized decision-making structure I have ever encountered in a large company." Nathan Schneider, a professor of media studies at the University of Colorado Boulder argued for transforming Facebook into a platform cooperative owned and governed by the users.
Facebook co-founder Chris Hughes states that CEO Mark Zuckerberg has too much power, that the company is now a monopoly, and that, as a result, it should be split into multiple smaller companies. Hughes called for the breakup of Facebook in an op-ed on The New York Times. Hughes says he's concerned that Zuckerberg has surrounded himself with a team that does not challenge him and that as a result, it's the U.S. government's job to hold him accountable and curb his "unchecked power". Hughes also said that "Mark's power is unprecedented and un-American." Several U.S. politicians agree with Hughes. EU Commissioner for Competition Margrethe Vestager has stated that splitting Facebook should only be done as "a remedy of the very last resort", and that splitting Facebook would not solve Facebook's underlying problems.
The company has been subject to repeated litigation. Its most prominent case addressed allegations that Zuckerberg broke an oral contract with Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, and Divya Narendra to build the then-named "HarvardConnection" social network in 2004.
On March 6, 2018, BlackBerry sued Facebook and its Instagram and WhatsApp subdivision for ripping off key features of its messaging app.
In October 2018, a Texan woman sued Facebook, claiming she had been recruited into the sex trade at the age of 15 by a man who "friended" her on the social media network. Facebook responded that it works both internally and externally to ban sex traffickers.
In 2019, British solicitors representing a bullied Syrian schoolboy, sued Facebook over false claims. They claimed that Facebook protected prominent figures from scrutiny instead of removing content that violates its rules and that the special treatment was financially driven.
The Federal Trade Commission and a coalition of New York state and 47 other state and regional governments filed separate suits against Facebook on December 9, 2020, seeking antitrust action based on its acquisitions of Instagram and WhatsUp among other companies, calling these practices as anticompetitive. The suits also assert that in acquiring these products, they weakened their privacy measures for their users. The suits, besides other fines, seek to unwind the acquisitions from Facebook.
On January 6, 2022, France's data privacy regulatory body
On December 22, 2022, the Quebec Court of Appeal approved a class-action lawsuit on behalf of Facebook users who claim they were discriminated against because the platform allows advertisers to target both job and housing advertisements based on various factors, including age, gender, and even race. The lawsuit centres on the platform's practice of "micro targeting ads", claiming ads are ensured to appear only in the feeds of people who belong to certain targeted groups. Women, for example, would not see ads targeting men, while older generation men wouldn't see an ad aimed at people between 18–45.
The class action could include thousands of Quebec residents who have been using the platform as early as April 2016, who were seeking jobs or housing during that period. Facebook has 60 days after the court's December 22nd ruling to decide to appeal the case to the Supreme Court of Canada. If it doesn't appeal, the case returns to the Quebec Superior Court.
Minors exposed to sexual content on VR apps
In February 2022, a
A commentator in The Washington Post noted that Facebook constitutes a "massive depository of information that documents both our reactions to events and our evolving customs with a scope and immediacy of which earlier historians could only dream". Especially for anthropologists, social researchers, and social historians—and subject to proper preservation and curation—the website "will preserve images of our lives that are vastly crisper and more nuanced than any ancestry record in existence".
Economists have noted that Facebook offers many non-rivalrous services that benefit as many users as are interested without forcing users to compete with each other. By contrast, most goods are available to a limited number of users. E.g., if one user buys a phone, no other user can buy that phone. Three areas add the most economic impact: platform competition, the market place and user behavior data.
Facebook began to reduce its carbon impact after Greenpeace attacked it for its long-term reliance on coal and resulting carbon footprint. In 2021 Facebook announced that their global operations are supported by 100 percent renewable energy and they have reached net zero emissions, a goal set in 2018.
Facebook provides a development platform for many
Facebook was one of the first large-scale social networks. In The Facebook Effect, David Kirkpatrick stated that Facebook's structure makes it difficult to replace, because of its "network effects".[neutrality is disputed] As of 2016, it is estimated that 44 percent of the US population gets news through Facebook.
Mental and emotional health
Studies have associated social networks with positive and negative impacts on emotional health.
Studies have associated Facebook with feelings of envy, often triggered by vacation and holiday photos. Other triggers include posts by friends about family happiness and images of physical beauty—such feelings leave people dissatisfied with their own lives. A joint study by two German universities discovered that one out of three people were more dissatisfied with their lives after visiting Facebook, and another study by Utah Valley University found that college students felt worse about themselves following an increase in time on Facebook. Professor Larry D. Rosen stated that teenagers on Facebook exhibit more narcissistic tendencies, while young adults show signs of antisocial behavior, mania and aggressiveness.
Positive effects include signs of "virtual empathy" with online friends and helping introverted persons learn social skills.
In February 2008, a Facebook group called "One Million Voices Against FARC" organized an event in which hundreds of thousands of Colombians marched in protest against the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). In August 2010, one of North Korea's official government websites and the country's official news agency, Uriminzokkiri, joined Facebook.
During the Arab Spring many journalists claimed that Facebook played a major role in the 2011 Egyptian revolution. On January 14, the Facebook page of "We are all Khaled Said" was started by Wael Ghoniem to invite the Egyptian people to "peaceful demonstrations" on January 25. According to Mashable,[unreliable source?] in Tunisia and Egypt, Facebook became the primary tool for connecting protesters and led the Egyptian government to ban Facebook, Twitter and other websites on January 26 then ban all mobile and Internet connections for all of Egypt on January 28. After 18 days, the uprising forced President Hosni Mubarak to resign.
In 2011, Facebook filed paperwork with the
During the Syrian civil war, the
In recent years, Facebook's
Facebook first played a role in the American political process in January 2008, shortly before the
Over a million people installed the Facebook application "US Politics on Facebook" in order to take part which measured responses to specific comments made by the debating candidates. A poll by CBS News, UWIRE and The Chronicle of Higher Education claimed to illustrate how the "Facebook effect" had affected youthful voters, increasing voting rates, support of political candidates, and general involvement.
The new social media, such as Facebook and Twitter, connected hundreds of millions of people. By 2008, politicians and interest groups were experimenting with systematic use of social media to spread their message. By the 2016 election, political advertising to specific groups had become normalized. Facebook offered the most sophisticated targeting and analytics platform. ProPublica noted that their system enabled advertisers to direct their pitches to almost 2,300 people who expressed interest in the topics of "Jew hater", "How to burn Jews", or, "History of 'why Jews ruin the world".
Facebook has used several initiatives to encourage its users to register to vote and vote. An experiment in 2012 involved showing Facebook users pictures of their friends who reported that they had voted; users who were shown the pictures were about 2% more likely to report that they had also voted compared to the
The Cambridge Analytica data scandal offered another example of the perceived attempt to influence elections. The Guardian claimed that Facebook knew about the security breach for two years, but did nothing to stop it until it became public.
Facebook banned political ads to prevent the manipulation of voters in the US's November's election. Industry experts suggested[clarification needed] that there are several other ways for misinformation to reach voters on social media platforms and blocking political ads will not serve as a proven solution to the problem.
Ahead of the 2019 general elections in India, Facebook has removed 103 pages, groups and accounts on Facebook and Instagram platforms originating from Pakistan. Facebook said its investigation found a Pakistani military link, along with a mix of real accounts of ISPR employees, and a network of fake accounts created by them that have been operating military fan pages, general interest pages but were posting content about Indian politics while trying to conceal their identity. Owing to the same reasons, Facebook also removed 687 pages and accounts of Congress because of coordinated inauthentic behavior on the platform.
Facebook and Zuckerberg have been the subject of music, books, film and television. The 2010 film
In August 2013, Facebook founded
Facebook announced in 2021 that it will make an effort to stop disinformation about climate change. The company will use
- ^ "Facebook Interface Languages". Facebook (Select your language).
- ^ "Facebook Reports First Quarter 2022 Results". Facebook Investor Relations. March 31, 2022. Retrieved April 27, 2022.
- ^ "Our History". Facebook. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- ^ Clarke, Gavin (February 2, 2010). "Facebook re-write takes PHP to an enterprise past". The Register. Situation Publishing. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- ^ Levin, Sam (July 3, 2018). "Is Facebook a publisher? In public it says no, but in court it says yes". The Guardian.
- ^ "Meta Reports Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2022 Results". Meta Investor Relations - Facebook. February 1, 2023. Retrieved March 26, 2023.
- ^ "Top Websites Ranking - Most Visited Websites in January 2023". similarweb. Retrieved August 8, 2022.
- ^ Miller, Chance (December 17, 2019). "These were the most-downloaded apps and games of the decade". 9to5Mac. Retrieved December 17, 2019.
- ^ Cadwalladr, Carole; Graham-Harrison, v (May 24, 2018). "Facebook accused of conducting mass surveillance through its apps". The Guardian. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
- ^ Mahdawi, Arwa (December 21, 2018). "Is 2019 the year you should finally quit Facebook?". The Guardian.
- ^ a b Claburn, Thomas (August 17, 2018). "Facebook flat-out 'lies' about how many people can see its ads – lawsuit". The Register. Retrieved November 18, 2020.
- ^ Shontell, Alyson (May 16, 2011). "This Person Was The First Face of Facebook". Business Insider. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
- ^ a b c Kaplan, Katharine A. (November 19, 2003). "Facemash Creator Survives Ad Board". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
- ^ Fast Company. Mansueto Ventures. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
- ^ Kincaid, Jason (October 24, 2009). "Startup School: An Interview With Mark Zuckerberg". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 24, 2017.
- ^ Phillips, Sarah (July 25, 2007). "A brief history of Facebook". The Guardian. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
- ^ a b Tabak, Alan T. (February 9, 2004). "Hundreds Register for New Facebook Website". The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad 1634–1699: McCusker, J. J. (1997). How Much Is That in Real Money? A Historical Price Index for Use as a Deflator of Money Values in the Economy of the United States: Addenda et Corrigenda (PDF). American Antiquarian Society. 1700–1799: McCusker, J. J. (1992). How Much Is That in Real Money? A Historical Price Index for Use as a Deflator of Money Values in the Economy of the United States (PDF). American Antiquarian Society. 1800–present: Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Retrieved May 28, 2023.
- ^ Hoffman, Claire (September 15, 2010). "The Battle For Facebook". Rolling Stone. Wenner Media. Archived from the original on December 26, 2018. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
- ^ Rothman, Lily (February 4, 2015). "Happy Birthday, Facebook". Time. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
- ^ Carlson, Nicholas (March 5, 2010). "In 2004, Mark Zuckerberg Broke into A Facebook User's Private Email Account". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- ^ Stone, Brad (June 28, 2008). "Judge Ends Facebook's Feud With ConnectU". The New York Times blog. Archived from the original on December 26, 2018. Retrieved July 23, 2008.
- ^ Rushe, Dominic (February 2, 2012). "Facebook IPO sees Winklevoss twins heading for $300m fortune". The Guardian. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- ^ Phillips, Sarah (July 25, 2007). "A brief history of Facebook". The Guardian. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- ^ Weinberger, Matt (September 7, 2017). "33 photos of Facebook's rise from a Harvard dorm room to world domination". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved December 13, 2017.
- ^ "Facebook: a timeline of the social network". The Daily Telegraph. February 1, 2012. Archived from the original on January 10, 2022. Retrieved December 13, 2017.
- ^ Rosmarin, Rachel (September 11, 2006). "Open Facebook". Forbes. New York. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- ^ Nguyen, Lananh (April 12, 2004). "Online network created by Harvard students flourishes". The Tufts Daily. Medford, MA. Retrieved November 30, 2018.
- ^ Rosen, Ellen (May 26, 2005). "Student's Start-Up Draws Attention and $13 Million". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 29, 2005. Retrieved May 18, 2009.
- ^ "Company Timeline" (Press release). Facebook. January 1, 2007. Retrieved March 5, 2008.
- ^ "Why you should beware of Facebook". The Age. Melbourne. January 20, 2008. Retrieved April 30, 2008.
- ^ Williams, Christopher (October 1, 2007). "Facebook wins Manx battle for face-book.com". The Register. Situation Publishing. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- ^ "Jim Breyer (via Accel Partners)". CNBC. May 22, 2012. Archived from the original on December 29, 2014.
- ^ Dempsey, Laura (August 3, 2006). "Facebook is the go-to Web site for students looking to hook up". Dayton Daily News. Ohio.
- ^ Lacy, Sarah (September 12, 2006). "Facebook: Opening the Doors Wider". BusinessWeek. New York. Archived from the original on July 18, 2012. Retrieved March 9, 2008.
- ^ a b "Facebook's Julie Zhuo: She's not just pushing pixels". Fortune. Retrieved October 15, 2019.
- ^ Abram, Carolyn (September 26, 2006). "Welcome to Facebook, everyone". The Facebook Blog. Retrieved March 8, 2008.
- ^ "Facebook Expansion Enables More People to Connect with Friends in a Trusted Environment". Facebook Newsroom. September 26, 2006. Retrieved February 4, 2016.
- ^ Richmond, Riva (November 27, 2007). "Enterprise: Facebook, a Marketer's Friend; Site Offers Platform To Tout Products, Interact With Users". The Wall Street Journal. New York. p. B4.
- ^ Greenstein, Howard (May 27, 2009). "Facebook Pages vs Facebook Groups: What's the Difference?". Mashable.com. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
- CNNMoney. CNN. October 24, 2007. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- ^ Sherrets, Doug (October 24, 2007). "Microsoft invests $240M in Facebook, as Facebook develops ad product". VentureBeat. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- ^ "Facebook Expands Power of Platform Across the Web and Around the World". About Facebook. July 24, 2008. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
- PC Magazine. August 13, 2007. Retrieved May 9, 2008.
- ^ "12th Annual Webby Awards Nominees". International Academy of Digital Arts and Sciences. Archived from the original on September 26, 2010. Retrieved May 6, 2008.
- ^ Arrington, Michael (April 6, 2009). "Facebook Completes Rollout Of Haystack To Stem Losses From Massive Photo Uploads". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 4, 2023.
- ^ Havenstein, Heather (July 21, 2008). "Facebook Facelift Targets Aging Users and New Competitors". The New York Times.
- ^ Slee, Mark (September 10, 2008). "Moving to the new Facebook". The Facebook Blog. Retrieved September 12, 2008.
- ^ Buley, Taylor. "Facebook's Russian Frenemy With Benefits". Forbes. Retrieved April 4, 2023.
- ^ "Why Facebook Suddenly Likes Russia". Yahoo News. October 2012. Retrieved April 4, 2023.
- ^ "Facebook to Establish International Headquarters in Dublin, Ireland" (Press release). Facebook. October 2, 2008. Retrieved November 30, 2008.
- ^ Kazeniac, Andy (February 9, 2009). "Social Networks: Facebook Takes Over Top Spot, Twitter Climbs". Compete Pulse blog. Archived from the original on July 21, 2011. Retrieved February 17, 2009.
- ^ Wauters, Robin (July 7, 2009). "China Blocks Access To Twitter, Facebook After Riots". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 15, 2017.
- ^ "Facebook bet pays off for Russia's Usmanov". Reuters. May 17, 2012.
- ^ Kincaid, Jason (May 24, 2010). "DST's Yuri Milner: Facebook Is Going To Be The Social Graph That Unifies All Civilization". TechCrunch.
- ^ a b Kramer, Mark Scott and Andrew E. (September 5, 2013). "Russian Tech Giant Cashes In on Facebook's Recovery". DealBook.
- . Retrieved April 3, 2023.
- ^ . Retrieved November 6, 2017.
- ^ Schonfeld, Erick (May 26, 2009). "Facebook Takes That $200 Million Investment From The Russians At A $10 Billion Valuation". TechCrunch.
- ^ "Facebook 'cash flow positive,' signs 300M users". CBC News. Toronto. September 16, 2009. Retrieved March 23, 2010.
- ^ a b Siegler, M. G. (September 15, 2009). "Facebook Crosses 300 Million Users. Oh Yeah, And They Just Went Cash Flow Positive". TechCrunch.
- ^ Ha, Anthony (January 11, 2010). "Congratulations to Facebook, Bing, and the other Crunchies winners". VentureBeat. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
- ^ Kincaid, Jason (January 8, 2010). "Congratulations Crunchies Winners! Facebook Takes Best Overall for the Hat Trick". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- ^ a b Wauters, Robin (July 21, 2010). "Zuckerberg Makes It Official: Facebook Hits 500 Million Members". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- ^ a b Arthur, Charles; Kiss, Jemima (July 21, 2010). "Facebook reaches 500 million users". The Guardian. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- ^ A Brief History of Facebook, Its Major Milestones by Christopher McFadden, Interesting Engineering, July 7, 2020
- ^ Curtis, Sophie (February 3, 2014). "Facebook at 10: Zuckerberg hails 'incredible journey'". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on January 10, 2022. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- BeritaSatu Media Holdings. Archived from the originalon December 3, 2010. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- ^ "FB.com acquired by Facebook". NameMon News. January 11, 2011. Archived from the original on February 4, 2011.
- ^ Parr, Ben (February 8, 2011). "These Are Facebook's New Offices [PHOTOS]". Mashable. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- ^ Brundage, Sandy. "Facebook packs up for Menlo Park". www.almanacnews.com. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- ^ "Facebook deletes 20,000 underage profiles daily". IBN Live. Noida, Uttar Pradesh. Press Trust of India. March 24, 2011. Archived from the original on March 26, 2011. Retrieved March 24, 2011.
- CBS Interactive. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
- ^ Solomon, Kate (August 25, 2011). "Facebook hit 1 trillion page views in June". TechRadar. Future plc. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
- ^ "Google and Facebook top 2011's most visited sites in US". BBC News. March 8, 2012. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
- ^ Fleming, Ryan (December 29, 2011). "Google and Facebook top the most visited websites of 2011". Digital Trends. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
- ^ "Facebook app store launches amid mobile revenue worries". BBC News. May 10, 2012.
- ^ Milian, Mark; Chan, Marcus (May 18, 2012). "Facebook's Valuation: What $104 Billion Is Worth". Bloomberg Technology. Retrieved January 11, 2014.
- ^ Kerr, Dara. "Facebook stock hits a record high, since IPO". C|Net News. C|Net. Retrieved August 27, 2013.
- ^ Tangel, Andrew; Hamilton, Walter (May 17, 2012). "Stakes are high on Facebook's first day of trading". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on May 18, 2012. Retrieved May 17, 2012.
- ^ Rusli, Evelyn M.; Eavis, Peter (May 17, 2012). "Facebook Raises $16 Billion in I.P.O." The New York Times. Retrieved May 17, 2012.
- ^ Condon, Bernard (May 17, 2012). "Questions and answers on blockbuster Facebook IPO". U.S. News. Associated Press. Retrieved May 17, 2012.
- ^ Krantz, Matt (May 6, 2013). "Facebook squeaks onto the Fortune 500". USA Today. Retrieved May 19, 2013.
- ^ "Facebook Sets Record For IPO Trading Volume". The Wall Street Journal. May 18, 2012. Archived from the original on May 24, 2012. Retrieved May 18, 2012.
- ^ Facebook shares fall valuation doubts. Yahoo! Finance
- ^ Tepid honeymoon of Facebook and NASDAQ does not deliver the big bang. forbes.com
- ^ Blodget, Henry (May 22, 2012). "Facebook Bankers Secretly Cut Facebook's Revenue Estimates in Middle Of IPO Roadshow". Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
- ^ Facebook IPO underscores shutting out the masses. sfgate.com
- ^ "Listing of Recent Securities Lawsuits Filed Against Facebook". Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2013.
- ^ Nesto, Matt (May 23, 2012). "Fury Over Facebook IPO Grows, Lawsuits Mount". Yahoo! Finance. Retrieved December 14, 2014.
- ^ a b Smith, Aaron; Segal, Laurie; Cowley, Stacy (October 4, 2012). "Facebook reaches one billion users". CNN. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- ^ a b Ionescu, Daniel (October 4, 2012). "Facebook rules the social networking world with 1 billion users". PC World. International Data Group. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- . Retrieved April 4, 2023.
- . Retrieved April 4, 2023.
- ^ Tsukayama, Hayley (January 15, 2013). "Facebook introduces social search feature". The Washington Post.
- ^ Claburn, Thomas (January 16, 2013). "Meet Facebook's Graph Search Tool" Archived January 18, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Information Week.
- ^ Seifert, Dan (April 4, 2013). "HTC and Facebook announce the First smartphone with AT&T, arriving April 12th for $99.99". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- ^ Lunden, Ingrid (April 15, 2013). "Facebook Links Up With Attorneys General in 19 U.S. States For Teen Social Networking Safety Program". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- ^ Murphy, Samantha (November 18, 2011). "New Facebook Logo Made Official". Mashable. Retrieved April 20, 2013.
- ^ Nelson, Sara C. (May 28, 2013). "#FBrape: Will Facebook Heed Open Letter Protesting 'Endorsement Of Rape & Domestic Violence'?". The Huffington Post UK. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
- ^ Carroll, Rory (May 29, 2013). "Facebook gives way to campaign against hate speech on its pages". The Guardian. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- ^ Dey, Aditya (June 13, 2013). "Facebook Introduces Hashtags to its Users". TechStake-Technology News Blog. Archived from the original on June 14, 2013. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
- ^ Thurm, Scott (July 2, 2013). "How Facebook's IPO Created the Best-Paid County in America". Corporate Intelligence blog. The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on July 4, 2013. Retrieved July 4, 2013.
- ^ Gibbs, Samuel (October 7, 2013). "Sir Tim Berners-Lee and Google lead coalition for cheaper internet". The Guardian. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- ^ Rushe, Dominic (January 29, 2014). "Facebook posts record quarterly results and reports $1.5bn profit for 2013". The Guardian. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- ^ McDuling, John (April 23, 2014). "Facebook's mobile user base has crossed the 1 billion threshold – Quartz". Qz.com. Retrieved April 24, 2014.
- ^ DVorkin, Lewis (July 29, 2014). "Inside Forbes: Mobile Part II, Or 4 More Charts That Offer a Peek Into the Future of Journalism". Forbes. Retrieved August 13, 2014.
- ^ Luckerson, Victor (September 8, 2014). "Facebook Is Now Worth $200 Billion". Time. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- CNNMoney. CNN. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- ^ "Facebook Valuation Tops $200 Billion". Bloomberg L.P. September 8, 2014. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- ^ James Griffiths and Steven Jiang (March 26, 2019). "Former Chinese internet czar Lu Wei sentenced to 14 years in prison for bribery". CNN. Retrieved April 18, 2021.
- ^ Macauley, Nikhil Sonnad, Richard (October 26, 2015). "Mark Zuckerberg's 20-minute speech in clumsy Mandarin is his latest attempt to woo China". Quartz. Retrieved April 18, 2021.
- ^ Beijing, Agence France Presse in (October 23, 2014). "Mark Zuckerberg speaks Mandarin during Q&A session in China". the Guardian. Retrieved April 18, 2021.
- ^ Oreskovic, Alexei (January 20, 2015). "Facebook clamps down on fake news stories". Reuters. Retrieved February 4, 2015.
- S2CID 206632821.
- ^ "Facebook Is Hiding Your Friends' Updates From You | Unicorn Booty". Unicorn Booty. May 28, 2015. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved November 8, 2015.
- ^ gong (November 28, 2015). "페이스북, 전세계 '아빠 출산휴가' 4주→4개월로 확대".
- ^ "Zuckerberg unveils 10-year plan to expand Facebook empire, with political tones". USA Today. Retrieved April 12, 2016.
- ^ Ackerman, Gwen (July 11, 2016). "Facebook Sued for $1B for Alleged Use of Medium for Terror". Bloomberg L.P. Archived from the original on August 19, 2016. Retrieved September 23, 2016.
- ^ Constine, Josh (July 26, 2016). "Facebook open sources Surround 360 camera with Ikea-style instructions". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- ^ "Facebook wins first Emmy for Visual animated short "Henry"". September 20, 2016. Retrieved September 21, 2016.
- ^ Hu, Howard (October 11, 2016). "Facebook's Workplace Could Replace All Emails Within Your Company". Forbes. Retrieved October 11, 2016.
- ^ Alba, Davey. "Facebook's Cracking Down on Fake News Starting Today". WIRED. Retrieved December 15, 2016.
- ^ Plunkett, Luke (March 25, 2014). "Facebook Buys Oculus Rift For $2 Billion". Kotaku.com. Retrieved March 25, 2014.
- ^ Shead, Sam (January 17, 2017). "Facebook is planning to open a startup incubator in Paris". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- ^ Burgess, Matt (February 1, 2017). "More than 100 entrepreneurs sign up to help Facebook and Station F find the best startups". WIRED. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
- ^ Statt, Nick (April 18, 2017). "Facebook's bold and bizarre VR hangout app is now available for the Oculus Rift". THE VERGE. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
- ^ Roettgers, Janko (April 18, 2017). "A Closer Look at Facebook Spaces, the Company's First Social VR App". Variety. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
- ^ Etherington, Darrell. "Facebook plans to spend up to $1B on original shows in 2018". TechCrunch. Retrieved January 29, 2018.
- ^ Constine, Josh. "Facebook acquires anonymous teen compliment app tbh, will let it run". TechCrunch. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
- ^ "Facebook has bought tbh, the anonymous app loved by teens". Business Insider. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
- ^ "Facebook Buys TBH App Popular With Teens for Anonymous Messaging". Bloomberg.com. October 16, 2017. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
- ^ "tbh has a new home!". tbh. Archived from the original on October 17, 2017. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
- ^ a b Frenkel, Sheera; Confessore, Nicholas; Kang, Cecilia; Rosenberg, Matthew; Nicas, Jack (November 14, 2018). "Delay, Deny and Deflect: How Facebook's Leaders Fought Through Crisis". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 14, 2018. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
- ^ Wong, Julia Carrie (November 15, 2018). "Facebook reportedly discredited critics by linking them to George Soros". the Guardian. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
- ^ Isaac, Mike; Nicas, Jack (November 15, 2018). "Facebook Cuts Ties With Definers Public Affairs Following Outcry". The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 15, 2018. Retrieved November 15, 2018.
- ^ Johnson, Eliana; Vogel, Kenneth P.; Dawsey, Josh (April 5, 2017). "Mega-donor urged Bannon not to resign". Politico. Archived from the original on April 6, 2017. Retrieved November 11, 2022.
- ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved May 5, 2022.
According to CrowdTangle, a Facebook-owned tool that tracks how web content is shared on social media, the two most popular American media outlets on the site last month (..) were Fox News and Breitbart, two right-wing news sites.
- ^ Ellison, Sarah; Izadi, Elahe (October 26, 2021). "'Definitely not the results we want': Facebook staff lamented 'perverse incentives' for media". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 5, 2022.
An August article from Breitbart, an early and loyal media ally of former president Donald Trump, touted three months of CrowdTangle data to boast that it was 'demolishing its establishment foes on Facebook.'
- . Retrieved May 5, 2022.
At the top was Fox News (with a 25 percent share of the conversation), followed by Breitbart (15 percent of the conversation) and then the conservative commentator Ben Shapiro (12 percent share).
- . Retrieved May 5, 2022.
- ^ Darcy, Oliver (May 28, 2020). "Trump says right-wing voices are being censored. The data says something else". CNN. Retrieved May 5, 2022.
The second top US political media page belonged to Breitbart, with 23% of total interactions.
- ^ "Facebook F8: Zuckerberg's dating service takes on Tinder". BBC News. May 2, 2018. Retrieved May 2, 2018.
- ^ "Facebook unveils plans for new dating service". CBC News. May 1, 2018. Retrieved August 5, 2021.
- ^ "Facebook faces maximum fine for data misuse". BBC News. July 11, 2018. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
- ^ "Facebook sets up China subsidiary". Channel News Asia. July 24, 2018. Archived from the original on July 25, 2018. Retrieved July 24, 2018.
- ^ Mozur, Paul (July 25, 2018). "China Said to Quickly Withdraw Approval for New Facebook Venture". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 25, 2018.
- ^ Imbert, Fred; Francolla, Gina (July 26, 2018). "Facebook's $100 billion-plus rout is the biggest loss in stock market history". CNBC. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
- ^ Newton, Casey (July 26, 2018). "Facebook's stock market decline is the largest one-day drop in US history". The Verge. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
- ^ a b Menn, Joseph (September 19, 2018). "Facebook expands fake election news fight, but falsehoods still rampant". Reuters. Reuters. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
- ^ "Facebook Portal brings Alexa and Messenger video chats to one device". CNET. October 8, 2018. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
- ^ "You can buy Facebook's Portal smart displays starting today". CNET. November 7, 2018. Retrieved November 10, 2018.
- ^ "Why everybody's doing the 10-year challenge (with the best so far)". January 15, 2019.
- ^ "Facebook '10-year challenge' could be used for good and evil thanks to AI". Daily Mirror. January 16, 2019.
- ^ Graham, Jefferson (March 7, 2019). "Facebook announces anti-vaxx crackdown, will block ads with vaccine misinformation". USA Today. Retrieved March 8, 2019.
- PMID 31732327.
- ^ "Majority of anti-vaxx ads on Facebook are funded by just two organizations". The Guardian. November 14, 2019. Retrieved November 14, 2019.
- ^ Feinberg, Askley (March 14, 2019). "Facebook, Axios And NBC Paid This Guy To Whitewash Wikipedia Pages". Huffington Post. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
- ^ Anderson, Charles (March 24, 2019). "Censor bans 'manifesto' of Christchurch mosque shooter". The Guardian – via www.theguardian.com.
- ^ Romm, Tony; Dwoskin, Elizabeth (March 27, 2019). "Facebook says it will now block white-nationalist, white-separatist posts". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
- ^ O'Sullivan, Donie (March 27, 2019). "Facebook bans white nationalism two weeks after New Zealand attack". CNN. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
- ^ "Facebook bans far right groups and leaders". BBC News. April 18, 2019. Retrieved April 18, 2019.
- ^ Vincent, James (April 18, 2019). "Facebook bans UK's biggest far-right organizations, including EDL, BNP, and Britain First". The Verge. Retrieved April 18, 2019.
- ^ "Sri Lanka bombings 'retaliation' for Christchurch mosque attacks, minister says". NZ Herald. April 23, 2019.
- ^ "Sri Lanka 'bombing mastermind' named as Moulvi Zahran Hashim". The Daily Telegraph. April 23, 2019. Archived from the original on January 10, 2022.
- ^ Statt, Nick (April 30, 2019). "Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg says the "future is private"". The Verge. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
- ^ "Facebook pivots to what it wishes it was". TechCrunch. May 2019. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
- ^ "Analysis | The Technology 202: Facebook's new emphasis on groups could leave it more vulnerable to disinformation". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
- . Retrieved May 4, 2019.
- . Retrieved May 4, 2019.
- ^ "All the important stuff from Facebook's F8 keynote". Engadget. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
- ^ "Takeaways from F8 and Facebook's next phase". TechCrunch. May 2, 2019. Retrieved May 4, 2019.
- ^ "Facebook Reality Labs- UCSF working on tech that reads your mind". Preview Tech. August 17, 2019.
- ^ "Facebook paid hundreds of contractors to transcribe users' audio". Los Angeles Times. August 13, 2019.
- ^ a b c "Facebook Paid Contractors to Transcribe Users' Audio Chats". Bloomberg.com. August 13, 2019. Retrieved July 10, 2020.
- ^ a b Haselton, Todd (August 13, 2019). "Facebook hired people to transcribe voice calls made on Messenger". CNBC.
- ^ "Facebook Dating launches in the US, adds Instagram integration". TechCrunch. September 5, 2019. Retrieved September 5, 2019.
- ^ Dwyer, Colin; Chappell, Bill (October 25, 2019). "Facebook News: App Will Offer Hand-Picked Stories From NPR, Other Outlets". NPR. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
- ^ Robertson, Adi (October 25, 2019). "Mark Zuckerberg is struggling to explain why Breitbart belongs on Facebook News". The Verge. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
- ^ Ellefson, Lindsey; Burch, Sean (October 25, 2019). "Facebook News Criticized for Including Breitbart as 'Trusted' Source". TheWrap. Retrieved October 29, 2019.
- ^ Lee, Dami (December 13, 2019). "A thief stole unencrypted hard drives filled with 29,000 Facebook employees' information". The Verge. Retrieved December 14, 2019.
- ^ "Facebook Names Two New Directors, Making Board 40% Women". BloombergQuint. March 9, 2020. Retrieved March 10, 2020.
- ^ Wakefield, Jane (June 30, 2020). "UK hotel and insurance giants pause Facebook ads". BBC News. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
- ^ Clayton, James (June 29, 2020). "Could a boycott kill Facebook?". BBC News. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
- ^ "Facebook begins merging Instagram and Messenger chats in new update". The Verge. August 14, 2020. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
- ^ "Facebook launches climate information centre following California wildfires and misinformation criticisms". Sky News. Retrieved September 15, 2020.
- ^ Roose, Kevin (December 16, 2020). "Facebook reverses postelection algorithm changes that boosted news from authoritative sources". The New York Times. Retrieved December 5, 2021.
- ^ "FTC Sues Facebook for Illegal Monopolization". Federal Trade Commission. December 9, 2020. Retrieved January 11, 2021.
- . Retrieved January 11, 2021.
- ^ Kelly, Makena; Brandom, Russell (June 28, 2021). "Federal court dismisses FTC's bid to unwind Instagram from Facebook". The Verge. Retrieved June 28, 2021.
- ^ Brandom, Russell; Kelly, Makena (August 19, 2021). "FTC says Facebook has been a monopoly 'since at least 2011' in amended antitrust complaint". The Verge. Retrieved August 19, 2021.
- ^ "Facebook restores health, emergency pages". 7NEWS.com.au. February 17, 2021. Retrieved February 20, 2021.
- ^ "Facebook blocks Australian users from viewing or sharing news". BBC News. February 18, 2021.
- ^ "Treasury Laws Amendment (News Media and Digital Platforms Mandatory Bargaining Code)". of February 25, 2021 (PDF). The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia.
- ^ Choudhury, Saheli Roy (February 22, 2021). "Facebook to restore news pages for Australian users in coming days". CNBC. Retrieved February 22, 2021.
- ^ Van Boom, Daniel (February 22, 2021). "Facebook will reverse news block in Australia". CNET. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
- ^ "Protests About Indian Farming Reforms Have Reached Facebook's Headquarters". BuzzFeed News. December 17, 2020. Archived from the original on May 6, 2023.
- ^ "Online censorship claims shadow Indian farmer solidarity protests". Global News. December 19, 2020.
- ^ "Farmers' protest page was flagged as spam, clarifies Facebook a day after blocking account". Scroll.in. December 21, 2020. Archived from the original on December 21, 2020.
- ^ "India has reportedly threatened to jail Twitter, Facebook, and WhatsApp employees if the firms don't give up data regarding the farmers protests". Business Insider. March 5, 2021.
- ^ "Facebook Brings Another TikTok-Like App Specifically for Creating Raps". NDTV Gadgets 360. February 27, 2021. Retrieved July 6, 2021.
- ^ Brown, Campbell (June 29, 2021). "Introducing Bulletin, A Platform for Independent Writers". Facebook. Archived from the original on June 30, 2021. Retrieved July 6, 2021.
- ^ "Facebook Bulletin". Bulletin. Archived from the original on June 29, 2021.
- ^ Oremus, Will (July 6, 2021). "A classic Silicon Valley tactic – losing money to crush rivals – comes in for scrutiny". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 6, 2021. Retrieved July 6, 2021.
- ^ Dwoskin, Elizabeth (October 28, 2021). "Facebook is changing its name to Meta as it focuses on the virtual world". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 28, 2021.
- ^ Brodkin, Jon (November 10, 2021). "Facebook to stop targeting ads based on race, sexual orientation, and politics". ArsTechnica. Retrieved November 14, 2021.
- ^ "Facebook: Daily active users fall for first time in 18-year history". BBC News. February 3, 2022. p. 1. Retrieved February 3, 2022.
- ^ "Facebook eases rules to allow violent speech against 'Russian invaders'". France 24. March 11, 2022. Retrieved March 11, 2022.
- ^ "How War in Ukraine Roiled Facebook and Instagram". The New York Times. March 30, 2022. Retrieved May 5, 2022.
- ^ Vanian, Jonathan (September 30, 2022). "Facebook scrambles to escape stock's death spiral as users flee, sales drop". CNBC. Retrieved September 30, 2022.
- ^ Subin, Samantha (October 4, 2021). "Facebook is suffering its worst outage since 2008". CNBC. Retrieved October 4, 2021.
- ^ "Facebook, WhatsApp, Instagram suffer worldwide outage". Associated Press News. October 4, 2021. Retrieved October 4, 2021.
- ^ Patnaik, Subrat; Mathews, Eva (October 4, 2021). "Facebook, Instagram, WhatsApp hit by global outage". Reuters. Retrieved October 4, 2021.
- ^ Duffy, Clare; Lyngaas, Sean (October 4, 2021). "Facebook, Instagram, WhatsApp go down". CNN Business. Retrieved October 4, 2021.
- ^ a b Lawler, Richard (October 4, 2021). "Facebook is down, along with Instagram, WhatsApp, Messenger, and Oculus VR". The Verge. Retrieved October 4, 2021.
- ^ Metz, Rachel. "Facebook is shutting down its facial recognition software". CNN. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
- ^ a b Hamilton, Isobel Asher (November 4, 2021). "Meta says it's getting rid of facial recognition on Facebook — but that won't apply to the metaverse". Business Insider. Retrieved November 10, 2021.
- ^ Dellatto, Marisa. "Meta Launching $12-Per-Month Verification Service—Following Twitter's Lead". Forbes. Retrieved March 24, 2023.
- ^ Smith, Zadie (November 25, 2010). "Generation Why?". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- ^ Jose Antonio Vargas (September 20, 2010). "LETTER FROM PALO ALTO: THE FACE OF FACEBOOK". The New Yorker. Condé Nast. Retrieved February 15, 2014.
- ^ Zhao, Haiping (February 2, 2010). "Developer Blog – HipHop for PHP: Move Fast". Facebook Developers. Facebook. Retrieved November 11, 2013.
- ^ a b Paul, Ryan (April 5, 2012). "Exclusive: a behind-the-scenes look at Facebook release engineering". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- ^ a b c "Facebook's New Real-time Analytics System: HBase To Process 20 Billion Events Per Day". Highscalability.com. March 22, 2011. Retrieved December 26, 2012.
- ^ "The Evolution of Advanced Caching in the Facebook CDN". April 7, 2016.
- ^ Dwarakanath, Navya (August 12, 2019), What I Learned About How Facebook Infrastructure Serves Our Photos
- ^ "An Analysis of Facebook Photo Caching – Meta Research". Meta Research.
- ^ "Does Facebook use any other CDN apart from Akamai? Encountered fbcdn.net subdomain that does not belong to Akamai". Web Applications Stack Exchange.
- S2CID 7987529.
- ^ Metz, Cade (March 20, 2014). "Facebook Introduces 'Hack', the Programming Language of the Future". Wired.
- ^ Knibbs, Kate (December 11, 2015). "How Facebook's design has changed over the last 10 years". The Daily Dot. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- ^ Schulman, Jacob (September 22, 2011). "Facebook introduces Timeline: 'a new way to express who you are'". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- ^ Gayomali, Chris (September 22, 2011). "Facebook Introduces 'Timeline': The 'Story' of Your Life". Time. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- ^ a b c Panzarino, Matthew (September 22, 2011). "Facebook introduces radical new profile design called Timeline: The story of your life [Video]". The Next Web. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- ^ Weaver, Jason (March 30, 2012). "The Evolution of Facebook for Brands". Mashable. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- ^ "Before Graph Search: Facebook's Biggest Changes". PC Magazine. Ziff Davis. January 15, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- ^ Hof, Rob (November 6, 2007). "Facebook Declares New Era for Advertising". Bloomberg. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- ^ Parr, Ben (June 9, 2009). "Facebook to Launch Vanity URLs for All". Mashable. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- ^ O'Neill, Nick (June 9, 2009). "Facebook Begins Rolling Out Free Profile Usernames For Vanity URLs". Adweek. Beringer Capital. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- ^ Crook, Jordan; Constine, Josh (February 13, 2014). "Facebook Opens Up LGBTQ-Friendly Gender Identity And Pronoun Options". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- ^ "Facebook expands gender options: transgender activists hail 'big advance'". The Guardian. February 14, 2014. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- ^ Oreskovic, Alexei (February 13, 2014). "In new profile feature, Facebook offers choices for gender identity". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- ^ Machkovech, Sam (May 16, 2014). "Facebook adds naggy "ask" button to profile pages". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- ^ Stampler, Laura (May 19, 2014). "Facebook's New 'Ask' Button Gives You a Whole New Way to Badger Friends About Their Relationship Status". Time. Retrieved June 14, 2017.
- ^ Sanghvi, Ruchi (September 6, 2006). "Facebook Gets a Facelift". The Facebook Blog. Retrieved February 11, 2008.
- ^ "Facebook: Celebrate Your Birthday Every Day". Colnect blog. Retrieved March 9, 2010.
- ^ Lacy, Sarah (September 8, 2006). "Facebook Learns from Its Fumble". BusinessWeek. New York. Archived from the original on November 6, 2006. Retrieved June 28, 2008.
- ^ Gonsalves, Antone (September 8, 2006). "Facebook Founder Apologizes in Privacy Flap; Users Given More Control". InformationWeek. New York. Retrieved June 28, 2008.
- ^ US patent 7669123
- ^ "US Patent No. 7669123". Social Media. March 1, 2010. Archived from the original on May 15, 2011. Retrieved March 9, 2010.
- ^ "EdgeRank". EdgeRank. October 29, 2007. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
- ^ Arrington, Michael (May 24, 2007). "Facebook Launches Facebook Platform; They are the Anti-MySpace". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- ^ "Share More Memories with Larger Photo Albums". Retrieved January 4, 2010.
- ^ "Photos". Facebook. Archived from the original on July 31, 2008. Retrieved March 15, 2008.
- ^ Shontell, Alyson (May 13, 2011). "The First 20 Facebook Employees: Where Are They Now?". Business Insider. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
- ^ Cutler, Kim-Mai (May 17, 2011). "Facebook Wins Patents For Tagging in Photos, Other Digital Media". Adweek. Retrieved September 10, 2019.
- ^ "Facebook to launch App Center". The Times Of India. June 8, 2012. Archived from the original on June 8, 2012.
- ^ "Introducing Instant Articles – Facebook Media". fb.com. Archived from the original on May 14, 2015. Retrieved May 15, 2015.
- ^ "Facebook launches "Instant Articles"". Preview Tech. May 14, 2015.
- ^ Constine, Josh (January 25, 2017). "Facebook Stories puts a Snapchat clone above the News Feed". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved March 23, 2017.
- ^ Franklin, Rachel (October 11, 2017). "Building Connections Through Creativity and Opening VR to Everyone". Oculus. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
- . Retrieved January 17, 2018.
- . Retrieved February 24, 2021.
- ^ "UPDATE 1-Facebook says it inadvertently blocked content during Australia news ban". finance.yahoo.com. February 24, 2021. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
- ^ Barker, Alex. "Facebook pledges to pay $1bn for news". The Irish Times. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
- ^ "Facebook Takes Out Full-Page Newspaper Ads to Attack Apple's iOS Privacy Changes". MacRumors. December 16, 2020. Retrieved May 12, 2021.
- ^ Datti, Sharmishte (May 12, 2021). "Apple's App Tracking Transparency Becomes Facebook's Nightmare: Only 4% Allow Tracking". gizbot.com. Retrieved May 12, 2021.
- ^ "Apple Might Have Just Put and End to Facebook". www.msn.com. Retrieved May 12, 2021.
- ^ "Apple vs Facebook: 96 Percent Users Disabling App Tracking So Far, Claims Report". www.news18.com. May 9, 2021. Retrieved May 12, 2021.
- ^ Heisler, Yoni (May 11, 2021). "New data shows how devastating Apple's new anti-tracking feature is for Facebook". BGR. Retrieved May 12, 2021.
- ^ "Facebook Says Impact of iOS 14.5's App Tracking Transparency Will Be 'Manageable'". MacRumors. April 28, 2021. Retrieved May 12, 2021.
- ^ Kincaid, Jason (February 9, 2009). "Facebook Activates "Like" Button; FriendFeed Tires Of Sincere Flattery". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- ^ Mangalindan, JP (April 21, 2015). "Facebook Likes don't go as far as they used to in News Feed update". Mashable. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- ^ Constine, Josh (September 6, 2016). "How Facebook News Feed Works". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- ^ "Like and React to Posts". Facebook Help Center. Facebook. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- ^ Albanesius, Chloe (June 17, 2010). "Facebook Adds Ability to 'Like' Comments". PC Magazine. Ziff Davis. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- ^ Newton, Casey (February 24, 2016). "Facebook rolls out expanded Like button reactions around the world". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- Wired. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- ^ Garun, Natt (May 3, 2017). "Facebook reactions have now infiltrated comments". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- ^ Cohen, David (May 3, 2017). "Facebook Just Extended Reactions to Comments". Adweek. Beringer Capital. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- ^ Hendrickson, Mark (April 6, 2008). "Facebook Chat Launches, For Some". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- ^ Siegler, MG (November 15, 2010). "Facebook's Modern Messaging System: Seamless, History, And A Social Inbox". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- ^ Kincaid, Jason (August 9, 2011). "Facebook Launches Standalone iPhone/Android Messenger App (And It's Beluga)". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- ^ King, Hope (April 27, 2015). "Facebook Messenger now lets you make video calls". CNN. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- ^ Statt, Nick (December 19, 2016). "Facebook Messenger now lets you video chat with up to 50 people". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- ^ Hamburger, Ellis (January 16, 2013). "Facebook launches free calling for all iPhone users in the US". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- ^ Constine, Josh (April 27, 2015). "Facebook Messenger Launches Free VOIP Video Calls Over Cellular And Wi-Fi". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- ^ Arthur, Charles (December 4, 2012). "Facebook turns Messenger into a text message killer". The Guardian. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- ^ "Chat Heads come to Facebook Messenger for Android". The Verge. Vox Media. April 12, 2013. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- ^ Perez, Sarah (February 11, 2016). "Facebook Tests SMS Integration in Messenger, Launches Support For Multiple Accounts". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- Wired. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- ^ Constine, Josh (November 29, 2016). "Facebook Messenger launches Instant Games". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- ^ a b Constine, Josh (March 17, 2015). "Facebook Introduces Free Friend-To-Friend Payments Through Messages". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- ^ Hawkins, Andrew J. (December 16, 2015). "Facebook Messenger now lets you hail an Uber car". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- ^ Vincent, James (March 9, 2017). "Facebook's Snapchat stories clone, Messenger Day, is now rolling out globally". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- ^ a b Vincent, James (March 23, 2017). "Facebook Messenger gets reactions for individual messages and @ notifications". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- ^ King, Hope (March 25, 2015). "7 big changes coming to Facebook". CNN. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- ^ Newton, Casey (April 12, 2016). "Facebook launches a bot platform for Messenger". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- ^ Statt, Nick (April 6, 2017). "Facebook's AI assistant will now offer suggestions inside Messenger". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- ^ Constine, Josh (April 6, 2017). "Facebook Messenger's AI 'M' suggests features to use based on your convos". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- ^ Constine, Josh (April 18, 2017). "Facebook Messenger launches group bots and bot discovery tab". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 2, 2017.
- ^ a b c d ""Data Policy"". Facebook.com. Retrieved October 20, 2021.
- ^ "Search Privacy". Facebook. Retrieved June 13, 2009.
- ^ "Choose Your Privacy Settings". Facebook. Retrieved September 10, 2009.
- ^ . Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- ^ "Facebook". Facebook. Retrieved August 4, 2014.
- ^ "Facebook Offers $500 Bounty for Reporting Bugs: Why So Cheap". PC Magazine. Retrieved January 18, 2015.
- ^ Bug Bounty, Facebook. "Facebook Bug Bounty". Facebook Security. Retrieved April 3, 2014.
- ^ Schroeder, Stan (August 26, 2008). "Facebook's 100 Million Users: How Much are They Worth?". Mashable. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- ^ Kiss, Jemima (October 4, 2012). "Facebook hits 1 billion users a month". The Guardian. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- ^ Welch, Chris (June 27, 2017). "Facebook crosses 2 billion monthly users". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 27, 2017.
- ^ Constine, Josh (June 27, 2017). "Facebook now has 2 billion monthly users ... and responsibility". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved July 1, 2017.
- ^ Cohen, David (November 6, 2015). "Facebook Changes Definition of Monthly Active Users". Adweek. Beringer Capital. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- ^ a b Abrar Al-Heeti, Facebook lost 15 million US users in the past two years, report says, CNET (March 6, 2019).
- ^ a b Nick Statt, Facebook's US user base declined by 15 million since 2017, according to survey, The Verge (March 6, 2019).
- ^ "Facebook: Daily active users fall for first time in 18-year history". BBC News. February 3, 2022.
- ^ "Daily Facebook users up again after first-ever decline". BBC News. April 27, 2022.
- ^ Heaven, Will (June 14, 2011). "Is this the beginning of the end for Facebook?". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012.
- ^ Silverman, Matt (June 13, 2012). "The End of Facebook: What Will It Take to Kill the King of Social?". Mashable.
- ^ Bilton, Nick (October 27, 2017). "This Could Be the End of Facebook". Vanity Fair.
- ^ "December Data on Facebook's US Growth by Age and Gender: Beyond 100 Million – Inside Facebook". Inside Facebook. Retrieved October 7, 2014.
- ^ Khan, Aarzu (August 19, 2018). "Number of Facebook Monthly Active Users Worldwide, By Region – DGraph". Dazeinfo. Retrieved February 4, 2019.
- ^ Wauters, Robin (July 7, 2009). "China Blocks Access To Twitter, Facebook After Riots". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ "Iranian government blocks Facebook access". The Guardian. May 24, 2009. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ "MAP: Here Are the Countries That Block Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube". Mother Jones. March 28, 2014.
- ^ "Pakistan lifts Facebook ban but 'blasphemous' pages stay hidden". The Guardian. May 31, 2010.
- ^ "Syria Restores Access to Facebook and YouTube". The New York Times. February 9, 2011. Archived from the original on February 10, 2011.
- ^ "Facebook to be banned in Papua New Guinea for a month". BBC News. BBC. May 29, 2018. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
- ^ Kaya Yurieff (December 18, 2019). "Instagram influencers can no longer promote vaping and guns". CNN. Retrieved December 19, 2019.
- ^ "Facebook whistleblower hearing: Frances Haugen calls for more regulation of tech giant – live updates". The Guardian. October 5, 2021. Archived from the original on October 5, 2021. Retrieved October 5, 2021.
- ^ Hamilton, Isobel Asher (October 6, 2021). "Mark Zuckerberg says whistleblower's claims that Facebook places profit over people 'don't make any sense.' Read his full response to the whistleblower's testimony" – via businessinsider.com.
- ^ Aspen, Maria (February 11, 2008). "How Sticky Is Membership on Facebook? Just Try Breaking Free". The New York Times. Archived from the original on February 12, 2008. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Anthony, Sebastian (March 19, 2014). "Facebook's facial recognition software is now as accurate as the human brain, but what now?". ExtremeTech. Ziff Davis. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Gannes, Liz (June 8, 2011). "Facebook facial recognition prompts EU privacy probe". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Robinson, Bill (February 10, 2014). "Facebook: The World's Biggest Waste of Time?". Huffington Post. Retrieved March 3, 2018.
- ^ Friedman, Matt (March 21, 2013). "Bill to ban companies from asking about job candidates' Facebook accounts is headed to governor". NJ.com. Advance Digital. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Wauters, Robin (September 16, 2010). "Greenpeace Slams Zuckerberg For Making Facebook A "So Coal Network" (Video)". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Neate, Rupert (December 23, 2012). "Facebook paid £2.9m tax on £840m profits made outside US, figures show". The Guardian. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Grinberg, Emanuella (September 18, 2014). "Facebook 'real name' policy stirs questions around identity". CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Doshi, Vidhi (July 19, 2016). "Facebook under fire for 'censoring' Kashmir-related posts and accounts". The Guardian. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Arrington, Michael (November 22, 2007). "Is Facebook Really Censoring Search When It Suits Them?". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Greenwald, Glenn; MacAskill, Ewen (June 7, 2013). "NSA Prism program taps in to user data of Apple, Google and others". The Guardian. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ "Paradise Papers reveal hidden wealth of global elite". The Express Tribune. November 6, 2017.
- ^ "How Facebook Breeds Jealousy". Seeker. Group Nine Media. February 10, 2010. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Matyszczyk, Chris (August 11, 2009). "Study: Facebook makes lovers jealous". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Ngak, Chenda (November 27, 2012). "Facebook may cause stress, study says". CBS News. CBS. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Smith, Dave (November 13, 2015). "Quitting Facebook will make you happier and less stressed, study says". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Bugeja, Michael J. (January 23, 2006). "Facing the Facebook". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Archived from the original on February 20, 2008. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Hough, Andrew (April 8, 2011). "Student 'addiction' to technology 'similar to drug cravings', study finds". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on January 10, 2022. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ "Facebook and Twitter 'more addictive than tobacco and alcohol'". The Daily Telegraph. February 1, 2012. Archived from the original on February 16, 2015. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- S2CID 25726659.
- ^ Osnos, Evan (September 17, 2018). "Can Mark Zuckerberg Fix Facebook Before It Breaks Democracy?". The New Yorker. Retrieved September 15, 2018.
- ^ Setalvad, Ariha (August 7, 2015). "Why Facebook's video theft problem can't last". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ "Facebook, Twitter and Google grilled by MPs over hate speech". BBC News. BBC. March 14, 2017. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Toor, Amar (September 15, 2015). "Facebook will work with Germany to combat anti-refugee hate speech". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Sherwell, Philip (October 16, 2011). "Cyber anarchists blamed for unleashing a series of Facebook 'rape pages'". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on January 10, 2022. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ "20,000 Israelis sue Facebook for ignoring Palestinian incitement". The Times of Israel. October 27, 2015. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ "Israel: Facebook's Zuckerberg has blood of slain Israeli teen on his hands". The Times of Israel. July 2, 2016. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Burke, Samuel (November 19, 2016). "Zuckerberg: Facebook will develop tools to fight fake news". CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Staff, Our Foreign (June 1, 2017). "Hillary Clinton says Facebook 'must prevent fake news from creating a new reality'". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on January 10, 2022. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Fiegerman, Seth (May 9, 2017). "Facebook's global fight against fake news". CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Grinberg, Emanuella; Said, Samira (March 22, 2017). "Police: At least 40 people watched teen's sexual assault on Facebook Live". CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Grinberg, Emanuella (January 5, 2017). "Chicago torture: Facebook Live video leads to 4 arrests". CNN. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Sulleyman, Aatif (April 27, 2017). "Facebook Live killings: Why the criticism has been harsh". The Independent. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Medrano, Kastalia (January 25, 2018). "Facebook Spreads Viral Fake News Story About Vaccines". Newsweek.
- ^ Raphael, Rina (February 4, 2019). "A shockingly large majority of health news shared on Facebook is fake or misleading". Fast Company.
- ^ "Facebook will not remove fake news – but will 'demote' it". BBC News. July 13, 2018.
- ^ Funke, Daniel (March 6, 2019). "Forget fake news stories. False text posts are getting massive engagement on Facebook". Poynter.
- ^ "Russia-Ukraine war: Facebook temporarily allows posts allowing violent speech against Russian 'invaders'". India Today. Reuters. March 11, 2022. Retrieved April 10, 2022.
- ^ Vengattil, Munsif; Culliford, Elizabeth (March 11, 2022). "Facebook Allows Ukraine War Posts Urging Violence Against Invading Russians, Putin". The Wire.
- ^ "Sri Lanka Riots: Sri Lanka imposes nationwide curfew after anti-Muslim riots". Times of India. Reuters. May 13, 2019. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
- ^ "Sri Lanka blocks social media after worst anti-Muslim violence since Easter Sunday attacks". The National. May 13, 2019. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
- ^ a b Sullivan, Mark (May 23, 2019). "Facebook catches 3 billion fake accounts, but the ones it misses are the real problem". Fast Company.
- ^ Cox, Kate (July 25, 2019). "The FTC is investigating Facebook. Again". ars Technica. Retrieved August 11, 2019.
- ^ "Facebook still being used to arrange fake reviews - Which?". BBC.
- ^ a b c Ingram, David; Fioretti, Julia (March 29, 2018). "Facebook cuts ties to data brokers in blow to targeted ads". Reuters. Retrieved February 5, 2019.
- ^ Simpson, David; Brown, Pamela (September 30, 2013). "NSA mines Facebook, including Americans' profiles". cnn.com. Retrieved September 30, 2013.
- ^ Johnson, Kevin; Martin, Scott; O'Donnell, Jayne; Winter, Michael (June 15, 2013). "Reports: NSA Siphons Data from 9 Major Net Firms". USA Today. Archived from the original on June 7, 2013. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
- ^ "Facebook Settles FTC Charges That It Deceived Consumers By Failing To Keep Privacy Promises". FTC. November 29, 2011. Retrieved November 29, 2011.
- ^ "Social networks: can robots violate user privacy?". August 27, 2013. Archived from the original on September 3, 2013. Retrieved January 5, 2014.
- CNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved March 16, 2015.
- ^ "Facebook bug set 14 million users' sharing settings to public". June 7, 2018. Retrieved June 7, 2018.
- ^ "Millions of Facebook Records Found On Amazon Servers". Hack Hex. April 4, 2019. Archived from the original on June 4, 2019. Retrieved June 4, 2019.
- ^ "Facebook confirms 419 m phone numbers exposed in latest privacy lapse". The Guardian. September 5, 2019. Retrieved September 7, 2019.
- ^ Reaz, Shaer (August 28, 2020). "Cutting ties with a giant: Viber CEO on Facebook relations and #StopHateForProfit". The Daily Star. Retrieved September 27, 2020.
- ^ "We're proud to join #StopHateForProfit". Mozilla Corporation. Mozilla Foundation. June 24, 2020. Retrieved September 27, 2020.
- ^ "Facebook faces US investigation for 'systemic' racial bias in hiring". The Guardian. March 6, 2021. Retrieved March 6, 2021.
- ^ a b Brandom, Russell (April 11, 2018). "Shadow profiles are the biggest flaw in Facebook's privacy defense". The Verge. Retrieved June 28, 2019.
- ^ "How Facebook can have your data even if you're not on Facebook". USA Today. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
- ^ Hill, Kashmir (November 7, 2017). "How Facebook Figures Out Everyone You've Ever Met". Gizmodo. Retrieved June 28, 2019.
- ^ Lewis, Paul; Wong, Julia Carrie (March 18, 2018). "Facebook employs psychologist whose firm sold data to Cambridge Analytica". the Guardian. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
- ^ Franceschi-Bicchierai, Lorenzo (March 19, 2018). "Why We're Not Calling the Cambridge Analytica Story a 'Data Breach'". Motherboard. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
- ^ Rosenberg, Matthew; Confessore, Nicholas; Cadwalladr, Carole (March 17, 2018). "How Trump Consultants Exploited the Facebook Data of Millions". The New York Times.
- . Retrieved March 25, 2018.
- ^ "UK High Court grants Cambridge Analytica search warrant to ICO". CNBC. March 23, 2018. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved March 23, 2018.
- ^ "Facebook boss apologises in newspaper ads". BBC News. March 25, 2018. Retrieved March 25, 2018.
- ^ Ivanova, Irina (March 26, 2018). "Facebook stock rebounds after FTC investigation news". CBS News. Retrieved March 26, 2018.
- ^ Feiner, Lauren (April 24, 2019). "Facebook estimates up to $5 billion loss in FTC privacy inquiry". www.cnbc.com. Retrieved April 25, 2019.
- ^ Solon, Olivia (April 12, 2018). "Fact-checking Mark Zuckerberg's testimony about Facebook privacy". The Guardian. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
- ^ "Zuckerberg says Facebook will offer GDPR privacy controls everywhere". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
- ^ Brodkin, Jon (April 12, 2018). "Facebook exits anti-privacy alliance it formed with Comcast and Google". Ars Technica. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
- ^ "Funny, When Obama Harvested Facebook Data On Millions Of Users To Win In 2012, Everyone Cheered". Investor's Business Daily. March 19, 2018.
- ^ a b "Why Are We Only Now Talking About Facebook And Elections?". Forbes. March 19, 2018.
- ^ a b "Former Facebook staffer, Obama campaign boss reveal concerns about Facebook data". News.com.au. March 21, 2018.
- ^ "Comparing Facebook data use by Obama, Cambridge Analytica". PolitiFact. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
- ^ "Everything you need to know about Facebook's data breach affecting 50M users". TechCrunch. Retrieved October 2, 2018.
- ^ Isaac, Mike; Frenkel, Sheera (September 28, 2018). "Facebook Security Breach Exposes Accounts of 50 Million Users". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 28, 2018. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
- ^ Wong, Julia Carrie (September 28, 2018). "Facebook says nearly 50 m users compromised in huge security breach". The Guardian. Retrieved September 29, 2018.
- ^ "Not Tens of Thousands, But Millions of Instagram Passwords Exposed, Admits Facebook". News18. April 19, 2019. Retrieved April 19, 2019.
- ^ Ghoshal, Abhimanyu (December 20, 2019). "267 million Facebook users' data has reportedly been leaked". The Next Web. Retrieved December 21, 2019.
- ^ "Facebook's Twitter account hacked". NBC News. Retrieved February 7, 2020.
- ^ "Another huge data breach, another stony silence from Facebook". The Guardian. April 11, 2021. Retrieved April 21, 2021.
- . Retrieved August 15, 2017.
- ^ "The New Copycats: How Facebook Squashes -2-". Fox Business. August 9, 2017. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
- ^ "Facebook knew about Snap's struggles months before the public". Engadget. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
- ^ "Apple makes Facebook pull its spyware(ish) VPN from the App Store". Fast Company. August 23, 2018. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
- ^ McKay, Tom (August 22, 2018). "Facebook Pulls Its Data-Harvesting Onavo VPN From App Store After Apple Says It Violates Rules". Gizmodo. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
- ^ Morse, Jack (August 22, 2018). "Facebook to pull its creepy VPN Onavo from App Store after Apple pushback". Mashable. Retrieved September 3, 2018.
- ^ "Apple removed Facebook's Onavo from the App Store for gathering app data". TechCrunch. Retrieved August 23, 2018.
- ^ "Facebook will pull its data-collecting VPN app from the App Store over privacy concerns". The Verge. Retrieved August 23, 2018.
- ^ Spadafora, Anthony (December 16, 2020). "Facebook sued for using VPN to spy on users". TechRadar. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
- ^ Duckett, Chris (December 16, 2020). "Facebook dragged to court by ACCC over deceptive VPN conduct allegations". ZDNet. Retrieved January 7, 2021.
- ^ Constine, John (January 29, 2019). "Facebook pays teens to install VPN that spies on them". TechCrunch. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
- ^ a b Wagner, Kurt (January 30, 2019). "Apple says it's banning Facebook's research app that collects users' personal information". Recode. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
- ^ Warren, Tom (January 30, 2019). "Apple blocks Facebook from running its internal iOS apps". The Verge. Retrieved January 30, 2019.
- . Retrieved February 2, 2019 – via NYTimes.com.
- ^ Gallagher, Sean (March 24, 2018). "Facebook scraped call, text message data for years from Android phones [Updated]". Ars Technica. Retrieved January 31, 2019.
- ^ Rosenberg, Adam (March 25, 2018). "Facebook's app has been collecting Android phone data for years on some devices". Mashable. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- ^ Facebook has been collecting call history and SMS data from Android devices The Verge
- ^ "Android users file lawsuit against Facebook for invasion of privacy". jurist.org. May 11, 2018.
- ^ Buckner, Gabriella (May 14, 2018). "Facebook faces class action lawsuit for Android call and message data scraping". itpro.co.uk. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
- ^ "Off-Facebook Activity". Facebook for Business.
- ^ Fowler, Geoffrey A. "Perspective | Facebook will now show you exactly how it stalks you – even when you're not using Facebook". The Washington Post.
- ^ "Facebook continuing to surveil teens for ads, says report". TechCrunch. November 16, 2021. Retrieved November 16, 2021.
- ^ Naomi Nix (July 27, 2021). "Facebook Reduces Advertising Targeting for Teenagers". Bloomberg. Retrieved November 16, 2021.
- ^ Klar, Rebecca (July 27, 2021). "Facebook, Instagram to limit targeted ads for teen users". TheHill. Retrieved November 16, 2021.
- ISBN 978-1-118-02062-3.
- ^ ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- ^ Statt, Nick (March 25, 2018). "Mark Zuckerberg apologizes for Facebook's data privacy scandal in full-page newspaper ads". The Verge. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- ^ "Social Media/polls Show Low Trust in Facebook". www.digitaltrends.com. March 26, 2018. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- ^ Christofides, E.; Muise, A.; Desmarais, S. (March 31, 2010). "Privacy and Disclosure on Facebook: Youth & Adults' Information Disclosure and Perceptions of Privacy Risks – Contributions Program 2009–2010". www.priv.gc.ca. Office of the Privacy Commissioner of. Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- . Retrieved February 6, 2019.
- ^ Roose, Kevin (July 27, 2018). "Facebook and YouTube Give Alex Jones a Wrist Slap". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 27, 2018. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- . Retrieved April 15, 2022.
- ^ Gowen, Annie; Bearak, Max. "Fake news on Facebook fans the flames of hate against the Rohingya in Burma". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- . Retrieved April 15, 2022.
- ^ Waldman, Scott. "Climate Denial Spreads on Facebook as Scientists Face Restrictions". Scientific American. E&E News. Retrieved August 6, 2020.
- ^ Guynn, Jessica. "Climate change denial on Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and TikTok is 'as bad as ever'". USA Today. Retrieved April 15, 2022.
- ^ Waldman, Scott (February 23, 2022). "Climate denial still flourishes on Facebook — report". E&E News. Retrieved April 15, 2022.
- ^ Pozner, Leonard; Rosa, Veronique De La; Pozner, parents of Noah (July 25, 2018). "An open letter to Mark Zuckerberg from the parents of a Sandy Hook victim". the Guardian. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- ^ Taub, Amanda; Fisher, Max (August 21, 2018). "Facebook Fueled Anti-Refugee Attacks in Germany, New Research Suggests". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 21, 2018. Retrieved August 21, 2018.
- SSRN 3082972.
- ^ Beauchamp, Zack (January 22, 2019). "Social media is rotting democracy from within". Vox. Archived from the original on January 25, 2019.
- ^ Etter, Lauren (December 7, 2017). "What Happens When the Government Uses Facebook as a Weapon?". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on January 24, 2019.
- ^ Hunt, Elle (March 22, 2017). "'Disputed by multiple fact-checkers': Facebook rolls out new alert to combat fake news". The Guardian. Retrieved November 4, 2019.
- ^ Sherman, Amy. "In phony Facebook ad, Warren said most TV networks will refuse ads with a 'lie' but that's wrong". Politifact. Retrieved November 4, 2019.
- ^ a b Levin, Sam (December 13, 2018). "'They don't care': Facebook factchecking in disarray as journalists push to cut ties". The Guardian. San Francisco. Retrieved April 15, 2022.
- ^ Scola, Nancy (May 24, 2019). "Facebook on fake Pelosi video: Being 'false' isn't enough for removal". Politico.
- ^ Frenkel, Sheera (July 18, 2018). "Facebook to Remove Misinformation That Leads to Violence". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 18, 2018. Retrieved August 9, 2018.
- ^ a b c d e f Darcy, Oliver (July 20, 2018). "Facebook's rhetoric on misinformation doesn't match its actions". CNNMoney. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- ^ Darcy, Oliver (May 2, 2019). "Facebook bans Louis Farrakhan, Milo Yiannopoulos, InfoWars and others from its platforms as 'dangerous'". CNN.
- ^ Michael Cappetta and Ben Collins (May 2, 2019). "Alex Jones, Louis Farrakhan, others banned from Facebook and Instagram". NBC News.
- ^ Newton, Casey (May 12, 2020). "Facebook will pay $52 million in settlement with moderators who developed PTSD on the job". The Verge. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
- ^ Newton, Casey (February 25, 2019). "The secret lives of Facebook moderators in America". The Verge. Retrieved May 16, 2020.
- ^ "Facebook Content Moderators Win $52m Compensation Settlement". ModeratorRights.com. May 13, 2020. Retrieved May 13, 2020.
- ^ "Thailand takes first legal action against Facebook, Twitter over content". Reuters. September 24, 2020. Retrieved September 24, 2020.
- ^ "Mail Bomber Cesar Sayoc Threatened Me on Facebook – Volokh Conspiracy". October 27, 2018.
- ^ "Pakistani PM asks Facebook CEO to ban Islamophobic content". Reuters. October 25, 2020. Retrieved October 25, 2020.
- ^ Grenoble, Ryan (October 12, 2020). "Facebook Decides Holocaust Denial Content Is Bad, Actually". HuffPost. Retrieved October 12, 2020.
- ^ a b Carter, Camden (October 13, 2022). "Meta is still profiting off ads that use the anti-LGBTQ 'groomer' slur, despite the platform's ban". Media Matters. Retrieved October 22, 2022.
- ^ Assunção, Muri (October 14, 2022). "Facebook parent company Meta still cashing in on ads using anti-LGBTQ slur 'groomers' despite platform's ban: report". New York Daily News. Retrieved October 22, 2022.
- ^ Wakefield, Lily (October 14, 2022). "Facebook has made thousands from hateful 'groomer' adverts in 2022". PinkNews. Retrieved October 22, 2022.
- ^ Villarreal, Daniel (October 14, 2022). "Facebook & Instagram are making money off ads calling LGBTQ people 'groomers' despite policy". LGBTQ Nation. Retrieved October 22, 2022.
- ^ Baker-White, Emily. "Facebook And Instagram Are Full Of Violent Erotica Ads From ByteDance- And Tencent-Backed Apps". Forbes. Retrieved September 30, 2022.
- ^ Kelly, Heather (July 18, 2018). "Mark Zuckerberg clarifies his Holocaust comments". CNNMoney. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- ^ a b "Media – both on the left and right – are pressing Facebook to define what journalism is". Recode. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- ^ Kosoff, Maya. "Why Facebook Won't Actually Ban Fake News". The Hive. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- ^ "Facebook Said Alex Jones' Threatening Rant Against Robert Mueller Doesn't Violate Its Rules". BuzzFeed News. Archived from the original on April 30, 2023. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- ^ Darcy, Oliver. "Facebook suspends personal profile of InfoWars founder Alex Jones". CNNMoney. Retrieved August 4, 2018.
- ^ Ross, Jamie (August 6, 2018). "Facebook and Apple iTunes Ban Alex Jones as Internet Giants Silence Infowars". The Daily Beast. Retrieved August 6, 2018.
- ^ a b Ex-Facebook employee on the company's dangerous loophole: 'Autocrats don't bother to hide', archived from the original on December 19, 2021, retrieved April 15, 2021
- ^ . Retrieved April 15, 2021.
- ^ a b "Revealed: the Facebook loophole that lets world leaders deceive and harass their citizens". the Guardian. April 12, 2021.
- ^ Gleicher, Nathaniel; Rodriguez, Oscar (October 11, 2018). "Removing Additional Inauthentic Activity from Facebook". Facebook Newsroom. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
- ^ "Snowden Docs: British Spies Used Sex and 'Dirty Tricks'". NBC News. February 7, 2014.
- ^ "Snowden leaks: GCHQ 'attacked Anonymous' hackers". BBC. February 5, 2014.
- ^ "China's 'troll factory' targeting Taiwan with disinformation prior to election". Taiwan News. May 11, 2018.
- ^ "Trolls, bots and shutdowns: This is how Turkey manipulates public opinion". Ahval. November 17, 2017. Archived from the original on November 11, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
- ^ "Jewish Internet Defense Force 'seizes control' of anti-Israel Facebook group". The Jerusalem Post. July 29, 2008.
- better source needed]
- ^ "Social media manipulation rising globally, new report warns". University of Oxford. July 20, 2018.
- ^ "Facebook: Most political trolls are American, not Russian". The Daily Telegraph. October 12, 2018. Archived from the original on January 10, 2022.
- ^ "Facebook suspends five accounts, including that of a social media researcher, for misleading tactics in Alabama election". The Washington Post. December 22, 2018.
- ^ "Democratic operatives created fake Russian bots designed to link Kremlin to Roy Moore in Alabama race". Fox News. December 20, 2018.
- ^ "Facebook Says It Removed 783 Accounts Tied to an Iranian Manipulation Campaign". Fortune. January 31, 2019.
- ^ Madowo, Larry (May 24, 2019). "Is Facebook undermining democracy in Africa?". Retrieved June 8, 2019.
- ^ Debre, Isabel; Satter, Raphael (May 16, 2019). "'Change reality': Facebook busts Israel-based campaign to disrupt elections". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved June 8, 2019.
- ^ "Removing Coordinated Inauthentic Behavior From Israel | Facebook Newsroom". May 16, 2019. Retrieved June 8, 2019.
- ^ O'Sullivan, Donie; Gold, Hadas (May 16, 2019). "Facebook says Israeli company used fake accounts to target African elections". CNN Business. CNN. Retrieved June 8, 2019.
- . Retrieved June 8, 2019.
- ^ Romo, Vanessa; Held, Amy (May 23, 2019). "Facebook Removed Nearly 3.4 Billion Fake Accounts in 6 Months". NPR. National Public Radio. Retrieved May 23, 2019.
- ^ "Facebook removes fake accounts from Thailand, Russia, Ukraine, Honduras". Reuters. Retrieved July 25, 2019.
- ^ "Russia blocks access to Facebook". TechCrunch. March 4, 2022. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
- ^ "Facebook deletes accounts of workers at NSO Israeli firm". Quds News Network. November 2019. Archived from the original on August 17, 2020. Retrieved November 1, 2019.
- ^ Romm, Tony (May 12, 2020). "Facebook Helps Launch American Edge, a Dark-Money Advocacy Group for Big Tech". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 12, 2020.
- ^ "Facebook prepares legal action against Thai government's order to block group". CNN International. August 24, 2020. Retrieved August 25, 2020.
- ^ "Facebook removes main page of Myanmar military for 'incitement of violence'". ABC News. February 21, 2021. Retrieved February 21, 2021.
- ^ "Facebook bans Myanmar military accounts from its platforms, citing coup". France 24. February 25, 2021. Retrieved February 25, 2021.
- . Retrieved March 7, 2021.
- ^ "Facebook guidelines allow for users to call for death of public figures". the Guardian. March 23, 2021. Retrieved March 23, 2021.
- ^ "Facebook leak underscores strategy to operate in repressive regimes". the Guardian. March 23, 2021. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
- ^ Brewster, Thomas (February 7, 2021). "Sheryl Sandberg Downplayed Facebook's Role In The Capitol Hill Siege—Justice Department Files Tell A Very Different Story". Forbes. Retrieved March 9, 2022.
- ^ Timberg, Craig; Dwoskin, Elizabeth; Albergotti, Reed (October 22, 2021). "Inside Facebook, Jan. 6 violence fueled anger, regret over missed warning signs". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 9, 2022.
- ^ "Internet Research Agency indicted: Who is the Russian company behind the fake Facebook ads?". Fox News. February 16, 2018.
- ^ "13 Russians Indicted as Mueller Reveals Effort to Aid Trump Campaign". The New York Times. February 16, 2018. Archived from the original on February 16, 2018.
- ^ "Exposing Russia's Effort to Sow Discord Online: The Internet Research Agency and Advertisements". intelligence.house.gov. Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. Archived from the original on January 28, 2021. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
- . Retrieved September 15, 2017.
- ^ "Facebook sold $100,000 of political ads to fake Russian accounts during 2016 US election". The Independent. September 6, 2017. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
- ^ "Facebook Says Russian Accounts Bought $100,000 in Ads During the 2016 Election". Time. September 6, 2017.
- ^ "New Studies Show Pundits Are Wrong About Russian Social-Media Involvement in US Politics". The Nation. December 28, 2018. Archived from the original on June 3, 2019. Retrieved June 2, 2019.
- ^ Castillo, Michelle (September 6, 2017). "Facebook gave special counsel Robert Mueller data on Russian ads, report says". CNBC. Retrieved September 7, 2017.
- . Retrieved September 19, 2017.
- ^ "Russians trolls organized a protest in the US". CNN. June 25, 2018.
- ^ "Did Russian hackers organize Philando Castile protest? Activists say no". Star Tribune. November 1, 2017.
- ^ Collins, Ben; Poulsen, Kevin; Ackerman, Spencer (September 12, 2017). "Exclusive: Russia Used Facebook Events to Organize Anti-Immigrant Rallies on U.S. Soil". The Daily Beast. Retrieved September 12, 2017.
- ^ "Shuttered Facebook group that organized anti-Clinton, anti-immigrant rallies across Texas was linked to Russia". Business Insider. Archived from the original on September 13, 2017. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
- ^ "Russians Staged Rallies For and Against Trump to Promote Discord, Indictment Says". Fortune. February 17, 2018.
- ^ Collins, Ben; Resnick, Gideon; Poulsen, Kevin; Ackerman, Spencer (September 20, 2017). "Exclusive: Russians Appear to Use Facebook to Push Trump Rallies in 17 U.S. Cities". The Daily Beast. Retrieved September 20, 2017.
- . Retrieved September 25, 2017.
- ^ "Exclusive: Russian-bought Black Lives Matter ad on Facebook targeted Baltimore and Ferguson". CNN. September 28, 2017.
- ^ Collins, Ben; Poulsen, Kevin; Ackerman, Spencer (September 27, 2017). "Exclusive: Russians Impersonated Real American Muslims to Stir Chaos on Facebook and Instagram". The Daily Beast. Retrieved September 28, 2017.
- ^ Shinal, John (September 27, 2017). "Mark Zuckerberg responds to Trump, regrets he dismissed election concerns". CNBC. Retrieved September 27, 2017.
- ^ "Kremlin-owned Firms Linked to Major Investments in Twitter and Facebook". International Consortium of Investigative Journalists – ICIJ. November 5, 2017.
- ^ "Disinformation and 'fake news': Final Report". publications.parliament.uk. Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee – House of Commons. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
- ^ Gleicher, Nathaniel (January 17, 2019). "Removing Coordinated Inauthentic Behavior from Russia". Facebook Newsroom. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
- ^ Cuthbertson, Antony (March 26, 2019). "Facebook removes thousands more Russian accounts". The Independent. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
- ^ "Disinformation and 'fake news': Interim Report". publications.parliament.uk. Digital, Culture, Media and Sport Committee – House of Commons.
- ^ Cadwalladr, Carole (July 28, 2018). "A withering verdict: MPs report on Zuckerberg, Russia and Cambridge Analytica". The Observer. Retrieved May 24, 2019.
- ^ a b "Facebook labelled 'digital gangsters' by report on fake news". the Guardian. February 18, 2019. Retrieved September 24, 2020.
- ^ "NBC News, to Claim Russia Supports Tulsi Gabbard, Relies on Firm Just Caught Fabricating Russia Data for the Democratic Party". The Intercept. February 3, 2019.
- ^ "Secret Experiment in Alabama Senate Race Imitated Russian Tactics". The New York Times. December 19, 2018. Archived from the original on December 20, 2018.
- ^ "Removing Myanmar Military Officials From Facebook". Facebook Newsroom. August 28, 2018. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
- ^ Mozur, Paul (October 15, 2018). "A Genocide Incited on Facebook, With Posts From Myanmar's Military". The New York Times. Retrieved May 27, 2019.
- ^ "The Past and Future of Facebook and BJP's Mutually Beneficial Relationship". The Wire.
- ^ "A Facebook Executive Who Shared An Anti-Muslim Post Has Apologized To Employees". BuzzFeed News. August 24, 2020. Archived from the original on April 26, 2023. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
- . Retrieved September 2, 2020.
- ^ a b "Watch | Why Did Facebook Not Remove BJP-Linked Anti-Muslim Hate Posts?". The Wire. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- . Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- ^ "New Report Says Facebook's Ankhi Das Supported Modi, Hoped for BJP's Victory". The Wire. Retrieved September 1, 2020.
- . Retrieved August 16, 2020.
- ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
- ^ Deol, Taran (August 31, 2020). "Delhi assembly panel wants Facebook named co-accused in communal riots, hints at 'conspiracy'". ThePrint. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
- ^ "Delhi city lawmakers summon Facebook India chief over February riots". Reuters. September 12, 2020. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
- ^ "Facebook India moves supreme court against Delhi assembly panel summons". Hindustan Times. September 23, 2020. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
- ^ "Facebook Skips Delhi Assembly Panel Hearing, "Insulting," Fume Members". NDTV.com. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
- ^ "Delhi Assembly panel issues fresh notice of appearance to Facebook India VP". The Indian Express. September 20, 2020. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
- ^ "Facebook India VP moves Supreme Court against Delhi Assembly panel summoning him". mint. September 22, 2020. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
- ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
- ^ "SC orders stay on summons to Facebook India V–P by Delhi Assembly panel on riots". ThePrint. September 23, 2020.
- ^ "Centre backs Facebook in SC row with Delhi Assembly over summons". The Economic Times. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
- ^ "Delhi riots could have been averted if firm had acted: Ex-Facebook employee". Business Standard. November 13, 2020. Retrieved July 5, 2021.
- ^ "Delhi Assembly peace panel moves SC for intervention in Facebook VP Ajit Mohan's case". The Economic Times. Retrieved July 9, 2021.
- ^ "Facebook gets new notice to appear before Delhi Assembly committee probing riots". Hindustan Times. February 5, 2021. Retrieved July 9, 2021.
- ^ "'Facebook, Twitter can't be accountable to state assemblies': Centre to SC". Hindustan Times. February 18, 2021. Retrieved July 9, 2021.
- ^ "[Delhi Riots] Committee formed by Delhi Assembly to probe social media giants' omissions unconstitutional: Centre, Facebook tell Supreme Court". Bar and Bench – Indian Legal news. February 2, 2021. Retrieved July 9, 2021.
- ^ ""Expansion Of Power Through Backdoor": Facebook Boss On Delhi Summons". NDTV.com. Retrieved July 9, 2021.
- ^ "Facebook asked to appear before Delhi assembly panel, Supreme Court refuses to quash summons". The Indian Express. July 8, 2021. Retrieved July 9, 2021.
- ^ Bissell, Tom (January 29, 2019). "An Anti-Facebook Manifesto, by an Early Facebook Investor". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 29, 2019.
- ^ Schneider, Nathan; Cheadle, Harry (March 27, 2018). "It's Time for Mark Zuckerberg to Give Up Control of Facebook".
- ^ Brown, Shelby. "Facebook co-founder Chris Hughes calls for company's breakup". CNET.
- ^ Hughes, Chris (May 9, 2019). "Opinion | It's Time to Break Up Facebook". The New York Times. Archived from the original on May 9, 2019.
- ^ Brown, Shelby. "More politicians side with Facebook co-founder on breaking up company". CNET.
- ^ Collins, Katie. "EU competition commissioner: Facebook breakup would be 'last resort'". CNET.
- ^ Farivar, Cyrus (January 7, 2016). "Appeals court upholds deal allowing kids' images in Facebook ads". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Levine, Dan; Oreskovic, Alexei (March 12, 2012). "Yahoo sues Facebook for infringing 10 patents". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Wagner, Kurt (February 1, 2017). "Facebook lost its Oculus lawsuit and has to pay $500 million". Recode. Vox Media. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Brandom, Rusell (May 19, 2016). "Lawsuit claims Facebook illegally scanned private messages". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Tryhorn, Chris (July 25, 2007). "Facebook in court over ownership". The Guardian. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Michels, Scott (July 20, 2007). "Facebook Founder Accused of Stealing Idea for Site". ABC News. ABC. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ Carlson, Nicholas (March 5, 2010). "How Mark Zuckerberg Hacked into Rival ConnectU In 2004". Business Insider. Axel Springer SE. Retrieved June 3, 2017.
- ^ "BlackBerry to Facebook: You stole our messaging technology". Fox News. March 7, 2018. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
- ^ Whitcomb, Dan. "Woman sues Facebook, claims site enabled sex trafficking". U.S. Retrieved October 4, 2018.
- ^ Whitcomb, Dan. "Facebook, responding to lawsuit, says sex trafficking banned on site". U.S. Retrieved October 4, 2018.
- ^ Jolly, Bradley (January 21, 2019). "Refugee 'waterboarded' by bullies to sue Facebook over Tommy Robinson claims". Mirror.
- ^ Halliday, Josh (January 21, 2019). "Bullied Syrian schoolboy to sue Facebook over Tommy Robinson claims". The Guardian.
- ^ Statt, Nick; Brandom, Russell (December 9, 2020). "The FTC is suing Facebook to unwind its acquisitions of Instagram and WhatsApp". The Verge. Retrieved December 9, 2020.
- Marketwatch. Retrieved December 9, 2020.
- ^ Rosemain, Mathieu (January 6, 2022). "Google hit with 150 mln euro French fine for cookie breaches". Reuters. Retrieved January 6, 2022.
- ^ a b c d Thompson, Elizabeth (January 4, 2023). "Class-action lawsuit against Facebook claiming discrimination gets the green light". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Quebec: CBC. Retrieved January 10, 2023.
- ^ "Metaverse app allows kids into virtual strip clubs". BBC News. February 23, 2022. Retrieved February 25, 2022.
- ^ "Metaverse app allows kids into virtual strip clubs". Yahoo.com. February 23, 2022. Archived from the original on February 25, 2022. Retrieved February 25, 2022.
- ^ Roper, Matt (February 9, 2022). "Predators use virtual reality chatroom to target children on popular gaming device." Mirror.co.uk. Retrieved February 27, 2022.
- ^ "New research shows Metaverse is not safe for kids". Counterhate.com. December 30, 2021. Retrieved February 25, 2022.
- ^ a b Gebelhoff, Robert (May 8, 2019). "Facebook is becoming a vast digital graveyard – and a gift to the future". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on May 8, 2019. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
- S2CID 37187854. Archived from the original(PDF) on August 8, 2017. Retrieved September 2, 2020.
- ^ "Greenpeace Declares Victory Over Facebook Data Centers". Wired. December 15, 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
- ^ "Achieving our goal: 100% renewable energy for our global operations". Facebook Technology. April 15, 2021.
- ^ "Facebook reaches its target of using 100 percent renewable energy". Engadget.
- ^ "The Facebook App Economy" (PDF). University of Maryland. September 19, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 1, 2020. Retrieved June 25, 2017.
- ^ "Facebook extends lead as news gateway: Study – The Economic Times". The Economic Times. May 26, 2016. Retrieved May 27, 2016.
- ^ Marche, Stephen (May 2012). "Is Facebook Making Us Lonely?". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on May 31, 2012. Retrieved December 3, 2022.
- ^ Konnikova, Maria (September 10, 2013). "How Facebook Makes Us Unhappy". The New Yorker. Condé Nast. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
- ^ Dent, Grace (March 6, 2017). "Social media is full of sad, lonely people pretending they're OK and perfectly fine attention-seekers pretending to be sad". The Independent. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
- ^ Sifferlin, Alexandra (January 24, 2013). "Why Facebook Makes You Feel Bad About Yourself". Time. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
- ^ Hobson, Katherine (March 6, 2017). "Feeling Lonely? Too Much Time On Social Media May Be Why". NPR. Retrieved December 15, 2017.
- ^ Goldsmith, Belinda (January 22, 2013). "RPT-Is Facebook envy making you miserable?". Reuters. Thomson Reuters. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
- ^ a b Kelly, Heather (August 15, 2013). "Study: Using Facebook can make you sad". CNN. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
- ^ Flacy, Mike (January 22, 2012). "Study: Why Facebook is making people sad". Digital Trends. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
- ^ Sachs, Wendy (February 8, 2012). "Facebook Envy: How Cruising Can Kill Self Esteem". HuffPost. AOL. Retrieved July 13, 2017.
- ^ Usigan, Ysolt (August 29, 2011).