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Location of Beijing Municipality within China
Location of Beijing Municipality within China
Coordinates (
Postal codes
Area code10
ISO 3166 codeCN-BJ
 - Total¥4.161 trillion
$618.648 billion (nominal)
$1.016 trillion (PPP)
Chinese arborvitae (Platycladus orientalis)
Pagoda tree
(Sophora japonica)
Hanyu Pinyin
Eastern Min
Fuzhou BUCBáe̤k-gĭng

Beijing (

national capital region of China.[15]

Beijing is a

second busiest in the world by passenger traffic (Asia's busiest) since 2010,[19] and, as of 2016, the city's subway network is the busiest and longest in the world. The Beijing Daxing International Airport, a second international airport in Beijing, is the largest single-structure airport terminal in the world.[20][21]

Combining both modern and traditional style

Great Wall and the Grand Canal—all of which are popular tourist locations.[26] Siheyuans, the city's traditional housing style, and hutongs
, the narrow alleys between siheyuans, are major tourist attractions and are common in urban Beijing.

Beijing CBD is a center for Beijing's economic expansion, with the ongoing or recently completed construction of multiple skyscrapers. Beijing's Zhongguancun area is a world leading center of scientific and technological innovation as well as entrepreneurship. Beijing has been ranked the city with the largest scientific research output by the Nature Index since 2016.[31][32] The city has hosted numerous international and national sporting events, the most notable being the 2008 Summer Olympics and 2008 Summer Paralympics Games. In 2022, Beijing became the first city ever to host both the Summer and Winter Olympics,[33] and also the Summer and Winter Paralympics.[34] Beijing hosts 175 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many organizations, including the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Silk Road Fund, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Chinese Academy of Engineering, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, the Central Academy of Fine Arts, the Central Academy of Drama, the Central Conservatory of Music, and the Red Cross Society of China


Over the past 3,000 years, the city of Beijing has had

Standard Mandarin. An older English spelling, Peking(北平 in Chinese meaning), was used by Jesuit missionary Martino Martini in a popular atlas published in Amsterdam in 1655.[36] Although Peking is no longer the common name for the city, some of the city's older locations and facilities, such as Beijing Capital International Airport, with the IATA Code PEK, and Peking University
, still retain the former romanization.

The single Chinese character abbreviation for Beijing is , which appears on automobile license plates in the city. The official Latin alphabet abbreviation for Beijing is "BJ".[37]


Early history

The earliest traces of human habitation in the Peking municipality were found in the caves of

Homo sapiens also lived there more recently, about 27,000 years ago.[38] Archaeologists have found neolithic settlements throughout the municipality, including in Wangfujing
, located in central Peking.

The first

state of Yan and made its capital.[40]

Early Imperial China

Tianning Pagoda, built around 1120 during the Liao dynasty

After the

Western Jin demoted the town, placing the prefectural seat in neighboring Zhuozhou. During the Sixteen Kingdoms period when northern China was conquered and divided by the Wu Hu, Jicheng was briefly the capital of the Xianbei Former Yan Kingdom.[41]

After China was reunified by the

Tianning Pagoda

The Liao fell to the

Line 10 subway. Remnants of the Yuan rammed earth wall still stand and are known as the Tucheng.[44]

Ming dynasty

One of the corner towers of the Forbidden City, built by the Yongle Emperor during the early Ming dynasty

In 1368, soon after declaring the new

The early death of

Tian'anmen. On 28 October 1420, the city was officially designated the capital of the Ming dynasty in the same year that the Forbidden City was completed.[49] Beijing became the empire's primary capital, and Yingtian, also called Nanjing ("Southern Capital"), became the co-capital. (A 1425 order by Zhu Di's son, the Hongxi Emperor, to return the primary capital to Nanjing was never carried out: he died, probably of a heart attack, the next month. He was buried, like almost every Ming emperor to follow him, in an elaborate necropolis
to Beijing's north.)

By the 15th century, Beijing had essentially taken its current shape. The

Nantang Cathedral was later built upon the same site.[52]

The capture of Beijing by Li Zicheng's peasant army in 1644 ended the dynasty, but he and his Shun court abandoned the city without a fight when the Manchu army of Prince Dorgon arrived 40 days later.

Qing dynasty

Chinese novel Dream of the Red Chamber. Northwest of the city, Qing emperors built several large palatial gardens including the Old Summer Palace and the Summer Palace

During the

permanent diplomatic presences within the city. From 14 to 15 August 1900 the Battle of Peking was fought. This battle was part of the Boxer Rebellion
. The attempt by the
Chinese Christian converts, led to Beijing's reoccupation by eight foreign powers.[55] During the fighting, several important structures were destroyed, including the Hanlin Academy and the (new) Summer Palace
. A
peace agreement was concluded between the Eight-Nation Alliance and representatives of the Chinese government Li Hung-chang and Prince Ching on 7 September 1901. The treaty required China to pay an indemnity of US$335 million (over US$4 billion in current dollars) plus interest over a period of 39 years. Also required was the execution or exile of government supporters of the Boxers and the destruction of Chinese forts and other defenses in much of northern China. Ten days after the treaty was signed the foreign armies left Peking, although legation guards would remain there until World War II.[56]

With the treaty signed the

Qing dynasty over China was restored, albeit much weakened by the defeat it had suffered in the Boxer Rebellion and by the indemnity and stipulations of the peace treaty.[57]
The Dowager died in 1908 and the dynasty imploded in 1911.

Republic of China