Mount Sinai, 49 days (seven weeks) after the Exodus from ancient Egypt. Commemorates the wheat harvesting in the Land of Israel. Culmination of the 49 days of the Counting of the Omer.
|Celebrations||Festive meals. All-night Torah study. Recital of Akdamut liturgical poem in Ashkenazic synagogues. Reading of the Book of Ruth. Eating of dairy products. Decoration of homes and synagogues with greenery (Orach Chayim, 494).|
|Begins||6th day of Sivan (or the Sunday following the 6th day of Sivan in Karaite Judaism)|
|Ends||7th (in Israel: 6th) day of Sivan|
|2022 date||Sunset, 4 June –|
nightfall, 6 June
|2023 date||Sunset, 25 May –|
nightfall, 27 May
|2024 date||Sunset, 11 June –|
nightfall, 13 June
|2025 date||Sunset, 1 June –|
nightfall, 3 June
|Related to||Passover, which precedes Shavuot|
|Part of a series on|
|Jews and Judaism|
The word Shavuot means "weeks", and it marks the conclusion of the Counting of the Omer. Its date is directly linked to that of Passover; the Torah mandates the seven-week Counting of the Omer, beginning on the second day of Passover, to be immediately followed by Shavuot. This counting of days and weeks is understood to express anticipation and desire for the giving of the Torah. On Passover, the people of Israel were freed from their enslavement to Pharaoh; on Shavuot, they were given the Torah and became a nation committed to serving God.
While Shavuot is sometimes referred to as Pentecost (in
One of the biblically ordained Three Pilgrimage Festivals, Shavuot is traditionally celebrated in Israel for one day, where it is a public holiday, and for two days in the diaspora.
In the Bible, Shavuot is called the "Festival of Weeks" (Hebrew: חג השבועות, Chag HaShavuot, Exodus 34:22, Deuteronomy 16:10); "Festival of Reaping" (חג הקציר, Chag HaKatzir, Exodus 23:16), and "Day of the First Fruits" (יום הבכורים, Yom HaBikkurim, Numbers 28:26).
Shavuot, the plural of a word meaning "week" or "seven", alludes to the fact that this festival happens exactly seven weeks (i.e. "a week of weeks") after Passover.
The Talmud refers to Shavuot as ʻAṣeret (Hebrew: עצרת, "refraining" or "holding back"), referring to the prohibition against work on this holiday and also to the conclusion of the Passover holiday-season. The other reason given for the reference ʻAṣeret is that just as Shemini ʻAṣeret brings the Festival of Succoth to a "close", in the same respect, Shavuot (ʻAṣeret) brings The Festival of Passover to its actual "close".
Since Shavuot occurs fifty days after Passover,
Giving of the Torah
Shavuot is not explicitly named in the Bible as the day on which the Torah was revealed by God to the Israelite nation at Mount Sinai, although this is commonly considered to be its main significance.
Unlike other major holidays, the Torah does not specify the date of Shavuot, but only that it falls 50 days after Passover, placing it at the 6th of Sivan according to the current fixed calendar (in earlier times when months were fixed by lunar observation, the date could vary by a day or two). The Torah states that the Israelites reached Sinai on the first day of the third month following the Exodus, i.e. Sivan. Then several events occurred, taking a total of at least three days, before the Torah was given. Thus, it is plausible that the giving of the Torah occurred on or about Shavuot, but no exact date is mentioned.
Besides the timing, scholars have pointed to thematic connections between Shavuot and the giving of the Torah, which are indicated by the Bible itself:
- Several aspects of the Shavuot Temple sacrifice (shtei halechem) suggest a connection to the Exodus and the giving of the Torah. The shtei halechem is the only holiday sacrifice which includes a communal shelamim ("peace") offering, recalling the communal shelamim offering which was offered after the acceptance of the Torah (Exodus 24:5–11). Also, the shtei halechem is one of the few sacrifices to include chametz, suggesting that Shavuot is a counterpoint to Passover and its historical events.
- From an early period, Shavuot was regarded as an appropriate time to make covenants between God and humanity. Asa chose to make his covenant (2 Chronicles 15:8–15) on or about Shavuot. (Similarly, according to Book of Jubilees, Noah made his covenant with God on Shavuot.) The association between Shavuot and covenants suggests a connection to the giving of the Torah, which itself was a covenant between God and Israel. In addition, the description of Asa's covenant repeatedly alludes both to the giving of the Torah and to the Shavuot holiday, suggesting a link between the two.
Most of the Talmudic sages agreed that the Torah was given on the 6 Sivan (the date of Shavuot), but Rabbi Jose holds that it was given on 7 Sivan. According to the classical timeline, the Israelites arrived at the wilderness of Sinai on the new moon (Exodus 19:1) and the Ten Commandments were given on the following Shabbat (i.e., Saturday). The question of whether the new moon fell on Sunday or Monday is undecided. In practice, Shavuot is observed on 6 Sivan in Israel and a second day is added in the Jewish diaspora (in keeping with a separate rabbinical ruling that applies to all biblical holidays, called Yom tov sheni shel galuyot, Second-Day Yom Tov in the diaspora). Thus, according to Rabbi Jose, only outside Israel does Shavuot fall out on the day the Torah was given.
What is textually connected in the Bible to the Feast of Shavuot is the season of the grain harvest, specifically of the wheat, in the
The last but one Qumran Scroll to be published has been discovered to contain two festival dates observed by the Qumran sect as part of their formally perfect 364-day calendar, and dedicated to "New Wine" and "New Oil", neither of which is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, but were known from another Qumran manuscript, the Temple Scroll. These festivals "constituted an extension of the festival of Shavuot ... which celebrates the New Wheat." All three festivals are calculated starting from the first Sabbath following Passover, by repeatedly adding exactly fifty days each time: first came New Wheat (Shavuot), then New Wine, and then New Oil. (See also below, at "The Book of Jubilees and the Essenes".)
Shavuot was one of the Three Pilgrimage Festivals on which Jews would visit the Temple in Jerusalem.
Shavuot was also the first day on which individuals could bring the Bikkurim (First-fruits) to the Temple in Jerusalem. Bikkurim were so important to Shavuot that the Torah twice describes the holiday as a day of bikkurim, testifying to the link between bikkurim and this holiday, at which time wheat was ready for harvest and summer fruit was beginning to ripen and bikkurim were brought.
The Torah prescribes a special sacrifice for Shavuot: the shtei halechem (two loaves of bread), which (atypically for sacrifices) must be chametz, and which are described as bikkurim of the wheat harvest. These loaves are accompanied by a set of other sacrifices.
Modern religious observances
Nowadays in the post-Temple era, Shavuot is the only biblically ordained holiday that has no specific
- אקדמות – Aqdamut, the reading of a piyyut (liturgical poem) during Shavuot morning synagogue services
- חלב – ḥalav (milk), the consumption of dairy products like milk and cheese
- רות – Rut, the reading of the Book of Ruth at morning services (outside Israel: on the second day)
- ירק – Yereq (greening), the decoration of homes and synagogues with greenery
- תורה – Torah, engaging in all-night Torah study.
The yahrzeit of King David is traditionally observed on Shavuot. Hasidic Jews also observe the yahrzeit of the Baal Shem Tov.
The Aqdamut (
There is an ancient tradition to recite poems known as Azharot (אזהרות listing the commandments. This was already considered a well-established custom in the 9th century. These piyyutim were originally recited during the chazzan's repetition of the Mussaf amidah, in some communities they were later moved to a different part of the service.
Some Ashkenazic communities maintain the original practice of reciting the Azharot during musaf; they recite "Ata hinchlata" on the first day and "Azharat Reishit" on the second, both from the early Geonic period. Italian Jews do the same except that they switch the piyyutim of the two day, and in recent centuries, "Ata hinchlata" has been truncated to include only one 22-line poem instead of eight. Many Sephardic Jews recite the Azharot of Solomon ibn Gabirol before the mincha service; in many communities, the positive commandments are recited on the first day and the negative commandments on the second day.
The liturgical poem Yatziv Pitgam (
Dairy foods such as
In keeping with the observance of other
Among the explanations given in rabbinic literature for the consumption of dairy foods on this holiday are:
- Before they received the Torah, the Israelites were not obligated to follow its laws, which include shechita (ritual slaughter of animals) and kashrut. Since all their meat pots and dishes now had to be made kosher before use, they opted to eat dairy foods.
- The Torah is compared to milk by King Solomon, who wrote: "Like honey and milk, it lies under your tongue" (Song of Songs 4:11).
- The gematria of the Hebrew word ḥalav (חלב) is 40, corresponding to the forty days and forty nights that Moses spent on Mount Sinai before bringing down the Torah.
- According to the 365 negative commandments. Shavuot corresponds to the commandment "Bring the first fruits of your land to the house of God your Lord; do not cook a kid in its mother's milk" (Exodus34:26). Since the first day to bring Bikkurim (the first fruits) is Shavuot, the second half of the verse refers to the custom to eat two separate meals – one milk, one meat – on Shavuot.
- Psalms 68:16–17 calls Mount Sinai[a] Har Gavnunim (הר גבננים, mountain of majestic peaks), which is possibly related to gevinah (גבינה, cheese).[b]
Book of Ruth
The Five Megillot – five books from the Hebrew Bible – are traditionally read in synagogue on various Jewish holidays. Of these, the Book of Ruth is read on Shavuot. Reasons given for this custom include:
- Shavuot is harvest time (Exodus 23:16), and the events of Book of Ruth occur at harvest time.
- Because Shavuot is traditionally cited as the day of the giving of the Torah, the entry of the entire Jewish people into the covenant of the Torah is a major theme of the day. Ruth's conversion to Judaism, and consequent entry into that covenant, is described in the book. This theme accordingly resonates with other themes of the day.
- King David (Ruth's descendant, whose genealogy appears at the end of the Book of Ruth) was traditionally born and died on Shavuot.
- The gematria (numerical value) of Ruth is 606. Added to the Seven Laws of Noah, the total equals the 613 commandments in the Torah.
- Another central theme of the book is ḥesed (loving-kindness), a major theme of the Torah.
According to tradition, Mount Sinai suddenly blossomed with flowers in anticipation of the giving of the Torah on its summit. This idea is first mentioned in medieval Ashkenazi sources such as
For this reason, many Jewish families traditionally decorate their homes and synagogues with plants, flowers and leafy branches in remembrance of the "sprouting of Mount Sinai". For the same reason, Persian Jews referred to the holiday as "The Mo'ed of Flowers" (موعد گل) in Persian, and never as "Shavuot".
Some synagogues decorate the bimah with a canopy of flowers and plants so that it resembles a chuppah, as Shavuot is mystically referred to as the day the matchmaker (Moses) brought the bride (the nation of Israel) to the chuppah (Mount Sinai) to marry the bridegroom (God); the ketubah (marriage contract) was the Torah. Some Eastern Sephardi communities read out a ketubah between God and Israel, composed by Rabbi Israel ben Moses Najara as part of the service. This custom was also adopted by some Hasidic communities, particularly from Hungary.
The Vilna Gaon cancelled the tradition of decorating with trees because it too closely resembles the Christian decorations for their holidays.
All-night Torah study
Some have the custom to learn Torah all night on the first night of Shavuot, a practice known as known as Tiqqun Leyl Shavuot (Hebrew: תקון ליל שבועות) ("Rectification for Shavuot Night").
The custom is first recorded c. 1300 in the Or Zarua II. According to that work, "Our righteous forebears, servants of the Most High, would never sleep on Shavuot eve—and now we do this on both nights—for all night they would read the Torah and the Nevi'im and the Ketuvim, and they would skip around the Talmud and the Aggadot, and they would read the secret wisdoms until dawn broke, and they would hold the legacy of their fathers in their very hands". The custom was later linked to a Midrash which relates that the night before the Torah was given, the Israelites retired early to be well-rested for the momentous day ahead. They overslept and Moses had to wake them up because God was already waiting on the mountaintop. To rectify this perceived flaw in the national character, many religious Jews stay up all night to learn Torah.
In 1533 Rabbi
It has been suggested that the introduction of
Any subject may be studied on Shavuot night, although
Modern secular observance
In secular agricultural communities in Israel, such as most kibbutzim and moshavim, Shavuot is celebrated as a harvest and first-fruit festival including a wider, symbolic meaning of joy over the accomplishments of the year. As such, not just agricultural produce and machinery is presented to the community, but also the babies born during the preceding twelve months.[failed verification]
In the 19th century several Orthodox synagogues in Britain and Australia held confirmation ceremonies for 12-year-old girls on Shavuot, a precursor to the modern
The Torah states that the Omer offering (i.e., the first day of counting the Omer) is the first day of the barley harvest. The omer count should begin "on the morrow after the Shabbat", and continue to be counted for seven weeks.
The Talmudic Sages determined that "Shabbat" here means a day of rest and refers to the first day of Passover. Thus, the counting of the Omer begins on the second day of Passover and continues for the next 49 days, or seven complete weeks, ending on the day before Shavuot. According to this calculation, Shavuot will fall on the day of the week after that of the first day of Passover (e.g., if Passover starts on a Thursday, Shavuot will begin on a Friday).
The Book of Jubilees and the Essenes
This literal interpretation of "Shabbat" as the weekly Shabbat was shared by the author of the Book of Jubilees, who was motivated by the priestly sabbatical solar calendar to have festivals and Sabbaths fall on the same day of the week every year. On this calendar (best known from the Book of Luminaries in the Book of Enoch), Shavuot fell on the 15th of Sivan, a Sunday. The date was reckoned fifty days from the first Shabbat after Passover (i.e. from the 25th of Nisan). Thus, Jub. 1:1 claims that Moses ascended Mount Sinai to receive the Torah "on the sixteenth day of the third month in the first year of the Exodus of the children of Israel from Egypt".
In Jub. 6:15–22 and 44:1–5, the holiday is traced to the appearance of the first rainbow on the 15th of Sivan, the day on which God made his covenant with Noah.
The Qumran community, commonly associated with the Essenes, held in its library several texts mentioning Shavuot, most notably a Hebrew original of the Book of Jubilees, which sought to fix the celebration of Shavuot on 15 Sivan, following their interpretation of Exodus 19:1. (See also above, at "Agricultural".)
Notes and references
- ^ The Christian observance of Pentecost is a different holiday, but was based on a New Testament event that happened around the gathering of Jesus's followers on this Jewish holiday (Acts of the Apostles 2:1 and following).
- ^ a b c d "Dates for Shavuot". Hebcal.com by Danny Sadinoff and Michael J. Radwin (CC-BY-3.0). Retrieved August 26, 2018.
- ^ Exodus 34:22
- ^ History Crash Course #36: Timeline: From Abraham to Destruction of the Temple, by Rabbi Ken Spiro, Aish.com. Retrieved 2010-08-19.
- ^ "What Is Shavuot (Shavuos)? – And How Is Shavuot Celebrated?". www.chabad.org.
- ^ "Is Shavuot the Jewish Pentecost?". My Jewish Learning. Retrieved April 22, 2021.
- ^ ISBN 978-0-664-25348-6.
The Feast of Weeks, Shavuot, or Pentecost, comes seven weeks after Passover. In the ancient Palestinian agricultural calendar, Shavuot marked the end of the grain harvest and was called the 'Feast of Harvest'
- ^ a b Goldberg, J.J. (May 12, 2010). "Shavuot: The Zeppo Marx of Jewish Holidays". The Forward. Retrieved May 24, 2011.
- ^ Berel Wein (May 21, 2010). "Shavuot Thoughts". The Jerusalem Post.
Here in Israel all Israelis are aware of Shavuot, even those who only honor it in its breach ... In the diaspora, Shavuot is simply ignored by many Jews ...
- ^ Jonathan Rosenblum (May 31, 2006). "Celebrating Shavuos Alone". Mishpacha. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
Yet most Jews have barely heard of Shavuos, the celebration of Matan Torah. In Eretz Yisrael, the contrast between Shavuos and the other yomim tovim could not be more stark. Shavuos is only about the acceptance of Torah. For those Israeli Jews for whom Torah has long since ceased to be relevant, the holiday offers nothing.
- ^ Wilson, Marvin (1989). Our Father Abraham: Jewish Roots of the Christian Faith. p. 43.
- ^ Goodman, Robert (1997). Teaching Jewish Holidays: History, Values, and Activities. p. 215.
- ^ "Shavuot 101".
- ^ Pesachim 68b
- ^ Bogomilsky, Rabbi Moshe (2009). "Dvar Torah Questions and Answers on Shavuot". Sichos in English. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
- ^ Wein, Rabbi Berel (2005). "Shavuos". torah.org. Retrieved June 6, 2011.
- ^ "Stop! It's Shavuot! by Rabbi Reuven Chaim Klein". Ohr Somayach.
- ^ See, for example, "BBC – Religions – Judaism:Shavuot". BBC. Retrieved May 18, 2018.
- ^ Z'man matan toratenu ("the time of the giving of our Torah [Law]") is a frequent liturgical cognomen for Shavuot. See, for example, "The Standard Prayer Book:Kiddush for Festivals". sacred-texts.com. Retrieved May 18, 2018.
- ^ The biblical phrase yom hazeh ("that very day"), following hodesh ("month" or "new month"), indicates the first day of the new month. See Yoel Bin-Nun and Shaul Baruchi, Mikraot: Iyun Rav Techumi Batorah: Yitro, p.118
- ^ Exodus 19:1
- ^ Exodus 19:2–16
- ^ Menachem Leibtag, Shavuot and Matan Torah
- ^ 2 Chronicles 15:10 places it in "the third month"; according to Targum Ketuvim, 2 Chronicles 15:11 the covenant occurred on Shavuot itself
- ^ Jubilees 6:1–21
- ^ Exodus 19:5
- ^ a b Neriah Klein, חג השבועות בימי אסא
- ^ e.g. "third month", "this day", "loud noise", "shofars", the people's agreement
- ^ The description of this covenant follows the same literary structure which Chronicles typically uses for pilgrimage holidays such as Shavuot, and repeatedly uses the words sheva and shevuah which recall Shavuot. (See S.J. De Vries, 'Festival Ideology in Chronicles', in: H.T.C. Sun and K.L. Eades (eds.), Problems in Biblical Theology: Essays in Honor of Rolf Knierim, Eugene 1997, pp. 104–124 [105–110])
- ^ a b Talmud, Shabbat 86b
- ISBN 9789652294500.
- ^ Kohn, Daniel. "Why Some Holidays Last Longer Outside Israel". My Jewish Learning. Retrieved May 31, 2017.
- ^ Press release based on work by Dr. Eshbal Ratson and Prof. Jonathan Ben-Dov, Department of Bible Studies (January 2018). "University of Haifa Researchers Decipher One of the Last Two Remaining Unpublished Qumran Scrolls". University of Haifa, Communications and Media Relations. Archived from the original on May 26, 2020. Retrieved June 6, 2020.
- ^ Sweeney, Marvin. "The Three Shavuot Festivals of Qumran: Wheat, Wine, and Oil". The Torah. Retrieved August 14, 2022.
- ^ Mishnah Bikkurim 1:3
- ^ Exodus 23:16; Numbers 28:26
- ^ Leviticus 23:17
- ^ Leviticus 23:18–20
- ^ להניף את העומר
- ^ "Customs of Shavuot". June 30, 2006.
- ^ "The Baal Shem Tov – A Brief Biography". Chabad. Retrieved June 12, 2016.
- ^ ""Akdamut" and "Ketubah"". June 30, 2006.
- ^ Yonah Frankel, Shavuot Machzor, page 11 of the introduction.
- ^ "YUTorah Online – Yatziv Pitgam, One of Our Last Aramaic Piyyutim (Dr. Lawrence Schiffman)".
- ^ Wein, Rabbi Berel (May 10, 2005). "Cheese & Flowers". Aish.com. Retrieved May 24, 2011.
- ^ a b "Shavuot – Hag ha'Bikkurim or Festival of the First Fruits". In Mama's Kitchen. Archived from the original on May 6, 2007. Retrieved May 24, 2011.
- ISBN 978-0-470-39130-3.
- ^ Marks, Encyclopedia of Jewish Food, p. 87.
- ^ a b c d Kaplan, Sybil. "Shavuot Foods Span Myriad Cultures". Jewish News of Greater Phoenix. Archived from the original on June 10, 2011. Retrieved May 24, 2011.
- ^ Kagan, Aaron (May 29, 2008). "Beyond Blintzes: A Culinary Tour of Shavuot". The Forward. Retrieved May 24, 2011.
- ^ "Shavuot Tidbits: An Overview of the Holiday". Torah Tidbits. ou.org. 2006. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
- ^ Simmons, Rabbi Shraga (May 27, 2006). "Why Dairy on Shavuot?". Aish.com. Retrieved May 24, 2011.
- ^ Erdstein, Rabbi Baruch E.; Kumer, Nechama Dina (2011). "Why do we eat dairy foods on Shavuot?". AskMoses.com. Archived from the original on August 9, 2011. Retrieved May 24, 2011.
- ^ a b David Abudarham, end of commentary to Passover Mussaf
- ^ Jerusalem Talmud Hagigah 2:3
- ^ מגילת רות – "אך טוב וחסד ירדפוני"
- ^ Rosenberg, Yael. "Reading Ruth: Rhyme and Reason". Mazor Guide. Mazornet, Inc. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
- ^ Sichot Talmidei Hachamim, siman 296 (p.499) (see Otzar thread)
- ^ המנהג לשטוח עשבים ואילנות בבית הכנסת בשבועות, ודעת ה'גר"א' בזה
- ^ Ross, Lesli Koppelman. "Shavuot Decorations". My Jewish Learning. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
- ^ Goodman, Philip. "The Shavuot Marriage Contract". My Jewish Learning. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
- ^ Ross, Lesli Koppelman. "Shavuot Decorations". My Jewish Learning. Retrieved May 30, 2017.
- ^ "אור זרוע : ניסיונו של האדם לפגוש בבורא : פירוש קבלי מפורט למחזור / רבי דוד בן יהודה החסיד נכדו של ... (רמב"ן) ; ההדיר בן ציון בן לוי הכהן ; ... עם הארות והערות של ... בן ציון בן לוי הכהן | דוד בן יהודה, החסיד (כהן, בן ציון בן לוי ) | כהן, בן ציון בן לוי | הספרייה הלאומית". www.nli.org.il (in Hebrew). Retrieved February 7, 2023.
- ^ Shir Hashirim Rabbah 1:57.
- ^ Ullman, Rabbi Yirmiyahu (May 22, 2004). "Sleepless Shavuot in Shicago". Ohr Somayach. Archived from the original on March 14, 2007. Retrieved September 5, 2007.
- ^ Altshuler, Dr. Mor (December 22, 2008). "Tikkun Leil Shavuot of R. Joseph Karo and the Epistle of Solomon ha-Levi Elkabetz". jewish-studies.info. Retrieved June 8, 2011.
- ^ Altshuler, Mor (May 22, 2007). "Let each help his neighbor". Haaretz. Retrieved September 5, 2007.
- ^ "Joseph Karo". Jewish Virtual Library. 2011. Retrieved June 8, 2011.
- ^ Sokolow, Moshe (May 24, 2012). "Sleepless on Shavuot". Jewish Ideas Daily. Retrieved July 22, 2013.
- JSTOR 1486283.
- ^ a b Fendel, Hillel (May 28, 2009). "Who Replaced My Cheese with Torah Study?". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved June 8, 2011.
- ^ "Learning on Shavuot Night – Tikun Leil Shavuot – an Insomniac's Preparation for the Torah".
- ^ "Tikkun Leil Shavuot".
- ^ Ross, Lesli Koppelman. "Tikkun Leil Shavuot". My Jewish Learning. Retrieved May 18, 2018.
- ^ Wein, Rabbi Berel (May 16, 2002). "Shavuot: Sleepless Nights". Torah Women.com. Archived from the original on September 23, 2011. Retrieved June 8, 2011.
- ^ "Shavuot". NSW Board of Jewish Education. 2011. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
- ^ Simmons, Rabbi Shraga (May 12, 2001). "ABC's of Shavuot". Aish.com. Retrieved June 8, 2011.
- ^ "What Do Jewish People Celebrate on Shavuot?". Learn Religions. Retrieved April 20, 2022.
- ^ Raymond Apple. "Origins of Bat-Mitzvah". OzTorah. Retrieved May 24, 2011.
- About.com. Archived from the originalon October 19, 2011. Retrieved May 24, 2011.
- ^ Deuteronomy 16:9
- ^ Leviticus 23:11
- Feast of Weeks. Qumran community was deeply researched by Flavius Josephus."
- David Qimhiad loc. and especially Tanhuma ed. Buber, Num. 7:1.
- HALOT is unsure. James Prosser proposed translating גבננים "cheese-like" in his 1838 dictionary. In religious texts this explanation is quoted in the name of Samson Ostropoli, who was apparently also the first to connect it to the Shavuot tradition.
- Brofsky, David (2013). Hilkhot Moadim: Understanding the Laws of the Festivals. Jerusalem: Koren Publishers. ISBN 9781592643523.
- ISBN 978-0-87306-151-3.
- ISBN 978-0-89906-014-9.
- Shavuot at Chabad.org
- Jewish Holidays: Shavuot at the Orthodox Union
- Jewish Confirmation at My Jewish Learning
- Shavous: Themes, Torah, Videos and More Aish.com
- Delicious Pasta Dishes for Shavuot, Mabasir.co.il, 17 March 2023