Coordinates: 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35
Extended-protected article
Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

State of Israel
מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל‎ (Hebrew)
دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل‎ (Arabic)
Anthem: הַתִּקְוָה (
Knesset Speaker
Amir Ohana
Uzi Vogelman (acting)
Independence from Mandatory Palestine
14 May 1948
11 May 1949
• Total
21,937[12][13] km2 (8,470 sq mi)[a] (149th)
• Water (%)
2.71 (as of 2015)[14]
• 2023 estimate
9,818,240[15][fn 4] (93rd)
• 2008 census
7,412,200[16][fn 4]
• Density
445/km2 (1,152.5/sq mi) (29th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $537.140 billion[17] (47th)
• Per capita
Increase $54,771[17] (30th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $521.688 billion[17] (29th)
• Per capita
Increase $53,195[17] (18th)
Gini (2018)34.8[fn 4][18]
HDI (2021)Increase 0.919[19]
very high · 22nd
CurrencyNew shekel () (ILS)
Time zoneUTC+2:00 (IST)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3:00 (IDT)
Date format
  • יי-חח-שששש (AM)
  • dd-mm-yyyy (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+972
ISO 3166 codeIL
  1. ^ 20,770 km2 is Israel within the Green Line. 22,072 km2 includes the occupied Golan Heights (c. 1,200 km2 (460 sq mi)) and East Jerusalem (c. 64 km2 (25 sq mi)).

Israel (

Arabic: إِسْرَائِيل ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel (מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל Medīnat Yisrāʾēl [mediˈnat jisʁaˈʔel]; دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل Dawlat Isrāʾīl [dawla ʔisraːʔiːl]), is a country in West Asia. It is bordered by Lebanon to the north, by Syria to the northeast, by Jordan to the east, by the Red Sea to the south, by Egypt to the southwest, by the Mediterranean Sea to the west, and by the Palestinian territories – the West Bank along the east and the Gaza Strip along the southwest. Tel Aviv is the economic and technological center of the country, while its seat of government is in its proclaimed capital of Jerusalem, although Israeli sovereignty over East Jerusalem is unrecognized internationally.[20][fn 5] With a population of nearly 10 million people, as of 2023, Israel is the only country where Jews constitute a majority of the population.[22]

Israel is located in the

Arab rule. In the Middle Ages, it was part of the Islamic Caliphates, the Crusader Kingdom, and the Ottoman Empire. The late 19th century saw the rise of Zionism, a movement advocating for the establishment of a Jewish homeland, during which the Jewish people began purchasing land in Palestine. Under the British Mandate placed by the League of Nations after World War I, Jewish immigration to the region increased considerably, leading to tensions between Jews and the Arab majority population. The UN-approved 1947 partition plan triggered a civil war between these two peoples. The British terminated the Mandate on 14 May 1948, and Israel declared independence
on the same day.

On 15 May 1948, the armies of five neighboring Arab states invaded the area of the former Mandatory Palestine, starting the

settlements across the occupied territories, actions which violate international law. Since the 1973 Yom Kippur War, Israel has signed peace treaties with Egypt, returning the Sinai Peninsula, and with Jordan, and more recently normalized relations with several Arab countries, though efforts to resolve the Israeli–Palestinian conflict have not succeeded. Israel's practices, in the longest military occupation in modern history, have drawn international condemnation for violating the human rights of Palestinians.[26]

The country has a parliamentary system elected by means of proportional representation. The prime minister serves as head of government, and is elected by the Knesset, Israel's unicameral legislature.[27] Israel is the most developed and one of the richest countries in the Middle East,[28][29][30] and an OECD member since 2010.[31] It has the highest standards of living in the Middle East, and is one of the most advanced and technological countries,[32][33][34] It has the world's 29th-largest economy by nominal GDP and 18th by nominal GDP per capita.[17]


biblical archeologists
translate a set of hieroglyphs as "Israel", the first instance of the name in the record.

Under the

Minister of Foreign Affairs Moshe Sharett.[38]

The names

entire Jewish people respectively.[39] The name 'Israel' (Hebrew: Yīsrāʾēl; Septuagint Greek: Ἰσραήλ, Israēl, 'El (God) persists/rules', though after Hosea 12:4 often interpreted as 'struggle with God')[40] in these phrases refers to the patriarch Jacob who, according to the Hebrew Bible, was given the name after he successfully wrestled with the angel of the Lord.[41][42][43][44][non-primary source needed] Jacob's twelve sons became the ancestors of the Israelites, also known as the Twelve Tribes of Israel or Children of Israel. According to the Bible, Jacob and his sons had lived in Canaan but were forced by famine to go into Egypt for four generations, lasting 430 years,[45][46][a] until Moses, a great-great-grandson of Jacob,[47][non-primary source needed] led the Israelites back into Canaan during the "Exodus". The earliest known archaeological artefact to mention the word "Israel" as a collective is the Merneptah Stele of ancient Egypt (dated to the late 13th century BCE).[48]


anatomically modern humans outside of Africa.[50] The Natufian culture emerged in the southern Levant by the 10th millennium BCE,[51] followed by the Ghassulian culture by around 4,500 BCE.[52]

Bronze and Iron Ages

Canaanite wall of Jerusalem in the City of David


Late Bronze Age (1550–1200 BCE), large parts of Canaan formed vassal states paying tribute to the New Kingdom of Egypt.[56] As a result of the Late Bronze Age collapse, Canaan fell into chaos, and Egyptian control over the region collapsed completely.[57][58] There is evidence that urban centers such as Hazor, Beit She'an, Megiddo, Ekron, Ashdod, and Ashkelon were damaged or destroyed.[59]

A people named Israel appear for the first time in the Merneptah Stele, an ancient Egyptian inscription which dates to about 1200 BCE.[60][61][fn 7][63] Ancestors of the Israelites are thought to have included ancient Semitic-speaking peoples native to this area.[64]: 78–79  Modern archaeological accounts suggest that the Israelites and their culture branched out of the Canaanite peoples and their cultures through the development of a distinct monolatristic—and later monotheistic—religion centered on Yahweh.[65][66][67] They spoke an archaic form of the Hebrew language, known as Biblical Hebrew.[68] Around the same time, the Philistines settled on the southern coastal plain.[69][70]

Modern archaeology has largely discarded the historicity of the narrative in the Torah concerning the patriarchs, The Exodus and the tales of conquest described in the Book of Joshua, and instead views the narrative as constituting the Israelites' national myth.[71] However, some elements of these traditions do appear to have historical roots.[72][73][74]

Map of Israel and Judah in the 9th century BCE

There is debate about the earliest existence of the

Omride dynasty, it controlled Samaria, Galilee, the upper Jordan Valley, the Sharon and large parts of the Transjordan.[82] Samaria, the capital, was home to one of the largest Iron Age structures in the Levant.[83][84]

The Kingdom of Israel was destroyed around 720 BCE, when it was conquered by the

Iron Age II.[86] In 587/6 BCE, following a revolt in Judah, King Nebuchadnezzar II besieged and destroyed Jerusalem and Solomon's Temple,[87][88] dissolved the kingdom and exiled much of the Judean elite to Babylon, beginning the Babylonian captivity.[89] The defeat was also recorded in the Babylonian Chronicles.[90][91] After capturing Babylon in 539 BCE, Cyrus the Great, founder of the Achaemenid Empire, issued a proclamation allowing the exiled Judean population to return to Judah.[92][93]
The returned Jewish population was permitted to self-govern and rebuild the Temple.

Classical antiquity

The construction of the Second Temple was completed c. 520 BCE.[92] The Achaemenids ruled the region as the province of Yehud Medinata,[94] which had a population of around 30,000 people in the 5th to 4th centuries BCE.[77]: 308 

In 332 BCE, Alexander the Great of Macedon conquered the region as part of his campaign against the Achaemenid Empire. After his death, the area was controlled by the Ptolemaic and Seleucid empires as a part of Coele-Syria. Over the ensuing centuries, the Hellenization of the region led to cultural tensions that came to a head during the reign of Antiochus IV, giving rise to the Maccabean Revolt of 167 BCE. The civil unrest weakened Seleucid rule and in the late 2nd century the semi-autonomous Hasmonean Kingdom of Judea arose, eventually attaining full independence and expanding into neighboring regions.[95][96][97]

Masada fortress, the location of a 1st-century Roman siege


Roman province of Judaea, a period that heralded tensions with Roman rule, and led to a series of Jewish–Roman wars, resulting in widespread destruction. The First Jewish–Roman War (66–73 CE) resulted in the destruction of Jerusalem and the Second Temple and a sizable portion of the population being killed or displaced.[98]

A second uprising known as the Bar Kokhba revolt took place during 132–136 CE. Initial successes allowed the Jews to form an independent state in Judea, but the Romans massed large forces and brutally crushed the rebellion, devastating and depopulating Judea's countryside.[98][99][100][101][102] Jerusalem was rebuilt as a Roman colony under the name of Aelia Capitolina, and the province of Judea was renamed Syria Palaestina.[103][104] Jews were expelled from the districts surrounding Jerusalem,[105][101] and joined communities in the diaspora.[106] Nevertheless, there was a continuous small Jewish presence and Galilee became its religious center.[107][108] Jewish communities also continued to reside in the southern Hebron Hills and on the coastal plain.[101]

Late antiquity and the medieval period

3rd-century Kfar Bar'am synagogue in the Galilee[109]

With the transition of Roman rule into that of the

conversion of Constantine in the 4th century, the situation for the Jewish majority in Palestine "became more difficult".[106] A series of laws were passed that discriminated against Jews and Judaism, and Jews were persecuted by both the church and the authorities.[111] Many Jews had emigrated to flourishing Diaspora communities,[112] while locally there was both Christian immigration and local conversion. By the middle of the 5th century, there was a Christian majority.[113][114] Towards the end of the 5th century, Samaritan revolts erupted, continuing until the late 6th century and resulting in a large decrease in the Samaritan population.[115] After the Sasanian conquest of Jerusalem and the short-lived Jewish revolt against Heraclius in 614 CE, the Byzantine Empire reconsolidated control of the area in 628.[116]

In 634–641 CE, the

Modern period and the emergence of Zionism

Jews at the Western Wall in the 1870s

In 1516, the region was conquered by the Ottoman Empire and proceeded to be ruled as a part of Ottoman Syria for the next four centuries. In 1660, a Druze revolt led to the destruction of Safed and Tiberias.[123] In the late 18th century, local Arab Sheikh Zahir al-Umar created a de facto independent Emirate in the Galilee. Ottoman attempts to subdue the Sheikh failed, but after Zahir's death the Ottomans regained control of the area. In 1799 governor Jazzar Pasha successfully repelled an assault on Acre by troops of Napoleon, prompting the French to abandon the Syrian campaign.[124] In 1834, a revolt by Palestinian Arab peasants broke out against Egyptian conscription and taxation policies under Muhammad Ali. Although the revolt was suppressed, Muhammad Ali's army retreated and Ottoman rule was restored with British support in 1840.[125] Shortly after, the Tanzimat reforms were implemented across the Ottoman Empire.

Since the existence of the earliest Jewish diaspora, many Jews have aspired to return to "Zion" and the "Land of Israel",[126] though the amount of effort that should be spent towards such an aim was a matter of dispute.[127] Although the Jewish population shrank dramatically throughout the periods of Roman, Byzantine, Crusader, and Islamic rule, a Jewish presence continued to survive in the region. The Jewish population of Palestine from the outset of Ottoman rule to the beginning of the Zionist movement, known as the Old Yishuv, comprised a minority of the predominantly Muslim and Christian population and fluctuated in size throughout the centuries. During the 16th century, Jewish communities struck roots in the Four Holy CitiesJerusalem, Tiberias, Hebron, and Safed—and in 1697, Rabbi Yehuda Hachasid led a group of 1,500 Jews to Jerusalem.[128] In the second half of the 18th century, Eastern European Jews who were opponents of Hasidism, known as the Perushim, settled in Palestine.[129][130]

The First Zionist Congress (1897) in Basel, Switzerland

The first wave of modern Jewish migration to

Orthodox Jews,[136] although the Second Aliyah included socialist groups who established the kibbutz movement.[137] Though the immigrants of the Second Aliyah largely sought to create communal agricultural settlements, the period saw the establishment of Tel Aviv as the first planned Jewish town in 1909. This period also saw the emergence of Jewish armed militias, the first being Bar-Giora, a guard founded in 1907. Two years later, the larger Hashomer
organization was founded as its replacement.

British Mandate

In 1917, during World War I, British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour sent the Balfour Declaration to Lord Rothschild, a leader of the British Jewish community, that stated that Britain intended for the creation of a Jewish "national home" in Palestine.[138][139]

In 1918, the

Lehi paramilitaries later split off.[143] In 1922, the League of Nations granted Britain the Mandate for Palestine under terms which included the Balfour Declaration with its promise to the Jews, and with similar provisions regarding the Arab Palestinians.[144] The population of the area at this time was predominantly Arab and Muslim, with Jews accounting for about 11%,[145] and Arab Christians about 9.5% of the population.[146]

"Jews and Arabs in Grim Struggle for Holy Land", article from 1938


Jewish refugees fleeing the Holocaust, a clandestine movement known as Aliyah Bet was organized to bring Jews to Palestine. By the end of World War II, the Jewish population of Palestine had increased to 31% of the total population.[151]

After World War II, the UK found itself facing a Jewish guerrilla campaign over Jewish immigration restrictions, as well as continued conflict with the Arab community over limit levels. The Haganah joined Irgun and Lehi in an armed struggle against British rule.[152] At the same time, hundreds of thousands of Jewish Holocaust survivors and refugees sought a new life far from their destroyed communities in Europe. The Haganah attempted to bring these refugees to Palestine in a programme called Aliyah Bet in which tens of thousands of Jewish refugees attempted to enter Palestine by ship. Most of the ships were intercepted by the Royal Navy and the refugees rounded up and placed in detention camps in Atlit and Cyprus by the British.[153][154]

UN Map, "Palestine plan of partition with economic union"

On 22 July 1946, Irgun

General Assembly of the United Nations resolved that the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine be created "to prepare for consideration at the next regular session of the Assembly a report on the question of Palestine."[161] In the Report of the Committee dated 3 September 1947 to the General Assembly,[162] the majority of the Committee in Chapter VI proposed a plan to replace the British Mandate with "an independent Arab State, an independent Jewish State, and the City of Jerusalem [...] the last to be under an International Trusteeship System."[163] Meanwhile, the Jewish insurgency continued and peaked in July 1947, with a series of widespread guerrilla raids culminating in the Sergeants affair, in which the Irgun took two British sergeants hostage as attempted leverage against the planned execution of three Irgun operatives. After the executions were carried out, the Irgun killed the two British soldiers, hanged their bodies from trees, and left a booby trap at the scene which injured a British soldier. The incident caused widespread outrage in the UK.[164]

In September 1947, the British cabinet decided that the Mandate was no longer tenable and to evacuate Palestine. According to Colonial Secretary Arthur Creech Jones, four major factors led to the decision to evacuate Palestine: the inflexibility of Jewish and Arab negotiators who were unwilling to compromise on their core positions over the question of a Jewish state in Palestine, the economic pressure that stationing a large garrison in Palestine to deal with the Jewish insurgency, the possibility of a wider Jewish rebellion, and the possibility of an Arab rebellion put on a British economy already strained by World War II, the "deadly blow to British patience and pride" caused by the hangings of the sergeants, and the mounting criticism the government faced in failing to find a new policy for Palestine in place of the White Paper of 1939.[164]

On 29 November 1947, the General Assembly adopted

a number of factors.[179]

State of Israel

Independence and the early years

Raising of the Ink Flag on 10 March 1949, marking the end of the 1948 war

On 14 May 1948, the day before the expiration of the British Mandate,

Syria, Transjordan and Iraq—entered into parts of what had been British Mandatory Palestine, launching the 1948 Arab–Israeli War;[183][184][185] contingents from Yemen, Morocco, Saudi Arabia and Sudan joined the war.[186][187] The apparent purpose of the invasion was to prevent the establishment of the Jewish state at inception, and some Arab leaders talked about "driving the Jews into the sea".[171][188][189] According to Benny Morris, Jews were worried that the invading Arab armies held the intent to slaughter them.[190] The Arab league stated the invasion was to restore law and order and to prevent further bloodshed.[191]

After a year of fighting, a

expelled by or fled from advancing Israeli forces during the conflict—what would become known in Arabic as the Nakba ("catastrophe").[193] Some 156,000 remained and became Arab citizens of Israel.[194]


Jordanian government.[196] In the early years of the state, the Labor Zionist movement led by Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion dominated Israeli politics.[197][198]

Immigration to Israel during the late 1940s and early 1950s was aided by the Israeli Immigration Department and the non-government sponsored Mossad LeAliyah Bet (lit. "Institute for Immigration B") which organized illegal and clandestine immigration.[199] Both groups facilitated regular immigration logistics like arranging transportation, but the latter also engaged in clandestine operations in countries, particularly in the Middle East and Eastern Europe, where the lives of Jews were believed to be in danger and exit from those places was difficult. Mossad LeAliyah Bet was disbanded in 1953.[200] The immigration was in accordance with the One Million Plan. The immigrants came for differing reasons: some held Zionist beliefs or came for the promise of a better life in Israel, while others moved to escape persecution or were expelled.[201][202]


reparations agreement with West Germany that triggered mass protests by Jews angered at the idea that Israel could accept monetary compensation for the Holocaust.[208]

Arab–Israeli conflict

During the 1950s, Israel was frequently attacked by Palestinian fedayeen, nearly always against civilians,[209] mainly from the Egyptian-occupied Gaza Strip,[210] leading to several Israeli reprisal operations. In 1956, the United Kingdom and France aimed at regaining control of the Suez Canal, which the Egyptians had nationalized. The continued blockade of the Suez Canal and Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping, together with the growing amount of Fedayeen attacks against Israel's southern population, and recent Arab grave and threatening statements, prompted Israel to attack Egypt.[211][212][213] Israel joined a secret alliance with the United Kingdom and France and overran the Sinai Peninsula but was pressured to withdraw by the UN in return for guarantees of Israeli shipping rights in the Red Sea via the Straits of Tiran and the Canal.[214][215][216] The war, known as the Suez Crisis, resulted in significant reduction of Israeli border infiltration.[217]

U.S. newsreel on the trial of Adolf Eichmann

In the early 1960s, Israel captured Nazi war criminal

Israeli civilian court.[220] During the spring and summer of 1963 Israel was engaged in a diplomatic standoff with the United States due to the Israeli nuclear programme.[221][222]

Since 1964, Arab countries, concerned over Israeli plans to divert waters of the

Arab nationalists led by Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser refused to recognize Israel and called for its destruction.[224][225][226] By 1966, Israeli-Arab relations had deteriorated to the point of actual battles taking place between Israeli and Arab forces.[227]

Territory held by Israel:
  before the Six-Day War
  after the war
The Sinai Peninsula was returned to Egypt in 1982.

In May 1967, Egypt massed its army near the border with Israel, expelled UN peacekeepers, stationed in the Sinai Peninsula since 1957, and blocked Israel's access to the Red Sea.[228][229][230] Other Arab states mobilized their forces.[231] Israel reiterated that these actions were a casus belli and, on 5 June, launched a pre-emptive strike against Egypt. Jordan, Syria and Iraq responded and attacked Israel. In a Six-Day War, Israel captured and occupied the West Bank from Jordan, the Gaza Strip and Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, and the Golan Heights from Syria.[232] Jerusalem's boundaries were enlarged, incorporating East Jerusalem, and the 1949 Green Line became the administrative boundary between Israel and the occupied territories.[citation needed]

Following the 1967 war and the "

raid on the PLO headquarters in Lebanon

On 6 October 1973, as Jews were observing

an operation
in which 102 out of 106 Israeli hostages were successfully rescued.

Peace process


Anwar El Sadat made a trip to Israel and spoke before the Knesset in what was the first recognition of Israel by an Arab head of state.[240] In the two years that followed, Sadat and Begin signed the Camp David Accords (1978) and the Egypt–Israel peace treaty (1979).[241] In return, Israel withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula and agreed to enter negotiations over an autonomy for Palestinians in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.[241]

On 11 March 1978, a PLO guerilla raid from Lebanon led to the Coastal Road massacre. Israel responded by launching an invasion of southern Lebanon to destroy the PLO bases south of the Litani River. Most PLO fighters withdrew, but Israel was able to secure southern Lebanon until a UN force and the Lebanese army could take over. The PLO soon resumed its policy of attacks against Israel. In the next few years, the PLO infiltrated the south and kept up a sporadic shelling across the border. Israel carried out numerous retaliatory attacks by air and on the ground.

Israel's 1980 law declared that "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel".[242]

Meanwhile, Begin's government provided incentives for Israelis to

immigration from the post-Soviet states increased Israel's population by twelve percent.[248]

On 7 June 1981, during the

Defense minister Ariel Sharon as bearing "personal responsibility" for the massacre.[250] Sharon was forced to resign as Defense Minister.[251] In 1985, Israel responded to a Palestinian terrorist attack in Cyprus by bombing the PLO headquarters in Tunisia. Israel withdrew from most of Lebanon in 1986, but maintained a borderland buffer zone in southern Lebanon until 2000, from where Israeli forces engaged in conflict with Hezbollah. The First Intifada, a Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule,[252] broke out in 1987, with waves of uncoordinated demonstrations and violence occurring in the occupied West Bank and Gaza. Over the following six years, the Intifada became more organized and included economic and cultural measures aimed at disrupting the Israeli occupation. More than a thousand people were killed in the violence.[253] During the 1991 Gulf War, the PLO supported Saddam Hussein and Iraqi Scud missile attacks against Israel. Despite public outrage, Israel heeded American calls to refrain from hitting back and did not participate in that war.[254][255]

Shimon Peres (left) with Yitzhak Rabin (center) and King Hussein of Jordan (right), prior to signing the Israel–Jordan peace treaty in 1994

In 1992,

better source needed] In 1994, the Israel–Jordan peace treaty was signed, making Jordan the second Arab country to normalize relations with Israel.[260] Arab public support for the Accords was damaged by the continuation of Israeli settlements[261] and checkpoints, and the deterioration of economic conditions.[262] Israeli public support for the Accords waned as Israel was struck by Palestinian suicide attacks.[263] In November 1995, Yitzhak Rabin was assassinated as he left a peace rally by Yigal Amir, a far-right Jew who opposed the Accords.[264]


Palestinian state. The proposed state included the entirety of the Gaza Strip and over 90% of the West Bank with Jerusalem as a shared capital.[268]
Each side blamed the other for the failure of the talks.

21st century

Rocket attacks fired at Israel from the Gaza Strip, 2001-2021[269]

In late 2000, after a controversial visit by Likud leader

Suicide bombings were a recurrent feature of the Intifada, causing Israeli civilian life to become a battlefield.[270] Some commentators contend that the Intifada was pre-planned by Arafat due to the collapse of peace talks.[271][272][273][274] Sharon became prime minister in a 2001 special election. During his tenure, Sharon carried out his plan to unilaterally withdraw from the Gaza Strip and also spearheaded the construction of the Israeli West Bank barrier,[275] ending the Intifada.[276] Between 2000 and 2008, 1,063 Israelis, 5,517 Palestinians and 64 foreign citizens had been killed.[277]

In 2006, a Hezbollah artillery assault on Israel's northern border communities and a

Second Lebanon War.[278][279] In 2007, the Israeli Air Force destroyed a nuclear reactor in Syria. In 2008, Israel entered another conflict as a ceasefire between Hamas and Israel collapsed. The 2008–2009 Gaza War lasted three weeks and ended after Israel announced a unilateral ceasefire.[280][281] Hamas announced its own ceasefire, with its own conditions of complete withdrawal and opening of border crossings. Despite neither the rocket launchings nor Israeli retaliatory strikes having completely stopped, the fragile ceasefire remained in order.[282] In what Israel described as a response to more than a hundred Palestinian rocket attacks on southern Israeli cities,[283] Israel began an operation in the Gaza Strip in 2012, lasting eight days.[284] Israel started another operation in Gaza following an escalation of rocket attacks by Hamas in July 2014.[285] In May 2021, another round of fighting took place in Gaza and Israel, lasting eleven days.[286]

By the 2010s, the

Over 200 hostages, including elders, women, and children as young as 9 months, were kidnapped and taken to the Gaza Strip.[288][289][290]

Geography and environment

Satellite images of Israel and neighboring territories during the day and night

Israel is located in the Levant area of the Fertile Crescent region. The country is at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea, bounded by Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan and the West Bank to the east, and Egypt and the Gaza Strip to the southwest. It lies between latitudes 29° and 34° N, and longitudes 34° and 36° E.

The sovereign territory of Israel (according to the demarcation lines of the 1949 Armistice Agreements and excluding all territories captured by Israel during the 1967 Six-Day War) is approximately 20,770 square kilometers (8,019 sq mi) in area, of which two percent is water.[291] However Israel is so narrow (100 km at its widest, compared to 400 km from north to south) that the exclusive economic zone in the Mediterranean is double the land area of the country.[292] The total area under Israeli law, including East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights, is 22,072 square kilometers (8,522 sq mi),[293] and the total area under Israeli control, including the military-controlled and partially Palestinian-governed territory of the West Bank, is 27,799 square kilometers (10,733 sq mi).[294]

Despite its small size, Israel is home to a variety of geographic features, from the

Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests, Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests, Arabian Desert, and Mesopotamian shrub desert.[299] It had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 4.14/10, ranking it 135th globally out of 172 countries.[300]

Israel's modern forests are all hand-planted. Since 1901, Israel's government reforestation program has planted over 260 million trees across Israel to replace the original "cedars of Lebanon" that were cut down long ago.[301][302][303]

Tectonics and seismicity

The Jordan Rift Valley is the result of tectonic movements within the Dead Sea Transform (DSF) fault system. The DSF forms the transform boundary between the African Plate to the west and the Arabian Plate to the east. The Golan Heights and all of Jordan are part of the Arabian Plate, while the Galilee, West Bank, Coastal Plain, and Negev along with the Sinai Peninsula are on the African Plate. This tectonic disposition leads to a relatively high seismic activity in the region. The entire Jordan Valley segment is thought to have ruptured repeatedly, for instance during the last two major earthquakes along this structure in 749 and 1033. The deficit in slip that has built up since the 1033 event is sufficient to cause an earthquake of Mw ~7.4.[304]

The most catastrophic known earthquakes occurred in 31 BCE,

363, 749, and 1033 CE, that is every ca. 400 years on average.[305] Destructive earthquakes leading to serious loss of life strike about every 80 years.[306] While stringent construction regulations are currently in place and recently built structures are earthquake-safe, as of 2007 the majority of the buildings in Israel were older than these regulations and many public buildings as well as 50,000 residential buildings did not meet the new standards and were "expected to collapse" if exposed to a strong earthquake.[306]


Köppen climate classification map of Israel and the Golan Heights

Temperatures in Israel vary widely, especially during the winter. Coastal areas, such as those of Tel Aviv and Haifa, have a typical Mediterranean climate with cool, rainy winters and long, hot summers. The area of Beersheba and the Northern Negev have a semi-arid climate with hot summers, cool winters, and fewer rainy days than the Mediterranean climate. The Southern Negev and the Arava areas have a desert climate with very hot, dry summers, and mild winters with few days of rain. The highest temperature in the world outside Africa and North America as of 2021, 54 °C (129 °F), was recorded in 1942 in the Tirat Zvi kibbutz in the northern Jordan River valley.[307][308]

At the other extreme, mountainous regions can be windy and cold, and areas at elevation of 750 metres (2,460 ft) or more (same elevation as Jerusalem) will usually receive at least one

better source needed] Israelis also take advantage of the considerable sunlight available for solar energy, making Israel the leading nation in solar energy use per capita—practically every house uses solar panels for water heating.[313]

The projections of the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report show clearly the impacts of climate change on Israel even at 2 degrees of warming.

There are four different

phytogeographic regions in Israel, due to the country's location between the temperate and tropical zones, bordering the Mediterranean Sea in the west and the desert in the east. For this reason, the flora and fauna of Israel are extremely diverse. There are 2,867 known species of plants found in Israel. Of these, at least 253 species are introduced and non-native.[314] There are 380 Israeli nature reserves.[315]

The Israeli Ministry of Environmental Protection has reported that climate change "will have a decisive impact on all areas of life, including: water, public health, agriculture, energy, biodiversity, coastal infrastructure, economics, nature, national security, and geostrategy", and will have the greatest effect on vulnerable populations such as the poor, the elderly, and the chronically ill.[316]


Population pyramid of Israel

Israel hosts the largest Jewish population in the world and is the only country where Jews comprise the majority of the population.

African migrants had entered Israel.[320] About 93% of Israelis live in urban areas.[321] 90% of Palestinian Israelis reside in 139 densely populated towns and villages concentrated in the Galilee, Triangle and Negev regions, with the remaining 10% in mixed cities and neighbourhoods.[322][323][324][325][326] Data published by the OECD in 2016 estimated the average life expectancy of Israelis at 82.5 years, making it the 6th-highest in the world.[327] Israeli Arab life expectancy lags behind by 3 to 4 years,[328][329] still higher than almost every majority Arab or Muslim country in the world.[330][331]

Immigration to Israel
in the years 1948–2015. The two peaks were in 1949 and 1990.

Israel was established as a

Israeli citizenship.[332] Retention of Israel's population since 1948 is about even or greater, when compared to other countries with mass immigration.[333] Jewish emigration from Israel (called yerida in Hebrew), primarily to the United States and Canada, is described by demographers as modest,[334] but is often cited by Israeli government ministries as a major threat to Israel's future.[335][336]

Approximately 80% of

Russian descendants of Jewish origin or family who are not Jewish according to rabbinical law, but were eligible for Israeli citizenship under the Law of Return.[342][343][344]

The total number of

Israeli Arabs (including the Arab population of East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights) comprise 21.1% of the population or 1,995,000 people.[349] In a 2017 telephone poll, 40% of Arab citizens of Israel identified as "Arab in Israel" or "Arab citizen of Israel", 15% identified as "Palestinian", 8.9% as "Palestinian in Israel" or "Palestinian citizen of Israel", and 8.7% as "Arab"; 60% of Israeli Arabs have a positive view of the state.[350][351] According to Sammy Smooha, "The identity of 83.0% of the Arabs in 2019 (up from 75.5% in 2017) has an Israeli component and 61.9% (unchanged from 60.3%) has a Palestinian component. However, when these two components were presented as competitors, 69.0% of the Arabs in 2019 chose exclusive or primary Palestinian identity, compared with 29.8% who chose exclusive or primary Israeli Arab identity."[352]

Major urban areas

Tel Aviv Metropolitan Area

Israel has four major metropolitan areas:

Jerusalem metropolitan area (population 1,253,900), Haifa metropolitan area (population 924,400), and Beersheba metropolitan area (population 377,100).[353]

Israel's largest municipality, in population and area, is Jerusalem with 966,210 residents in an area of 125 square kilometres (48 sq mi).[354] Israeli government statistics on Jerusalem include the population and area of East Jerusalem, the status of which is in international dispute, with Israel claiming it as part of its sovereign territory, while some countries consider it to be occupied Palestinian territory.[355] Tel Aviv and Haifa rank as Israel's next most populous cities, with populations of 467,875 and 282,832, respectively.[354] The (mainly

Haredi) city of Bnei Brak is the most densely populated city in Israel and one of the 10 most densely populated cities in the world.[356]

Israel has 16

planned city to be built in the Negev, and Harish, originally a small town that is being built into a large city since 2015.[359]

^a This number includes East Jerusalem and West Bank areas, which had a total population of 573,330 inhabitants in 2019.[360] Israeli sovereignty over East Jerusalem is internationally unrecognized.


Road sign in Hebrew, Arabic, and English

Israel's sole official language is Hebrew. Until 2018, Arabic was also one of two official languages of the State of Israel;[8] in 2018 it was downgraded to having a 'special status in the state' with its use by state institutions to be set in law.[9][10] Hebrew is the primary language of the state and is spoken every day by the majority of the population. Arabic is spoken by the Arab minority, with Hebrew taught in Arab schools.

As a country of

better source needed


Religion in Israel (2016)[370]

  JudaismHiloni (33.1%)
  Judaism–Masorti (24.3%)
  Judaism–Dati (8.8%)
  Judaism–Haredi (7.3%)
  Islam (18.1%)
  Christianity (1.9%)
  Druze (1.6%)
  Others and unclassified (4.8%)

Israel comprises a major part of the Holy Land, a region of significant importance to all Abrahamic religions, including Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Samaritanism, the Druze Faith and the Baháʼí Faith.

The religious affiliation of the Israeli population as of 2022 was 73.6% Jewish, 18.1% Muslim, 1.9% Christian, and 1.6% Druze. The remaining 4.8% included faiths such as Samaritanism and Baháʼí, as well as "religiously unclassified".[371]


Dati (religious) and 9% as Haredi (ultra-Orthodox).[372] Haredi Jews are expected to represent more than 20% of Israel's Jewish population by 2028.[373]

immigrants from the former Soviet Union, about 300,000 are considered not Jewish by the Chief Rabbinate of Israel.[376]

A large open area with people bounded by old stone walls. To the left is a mosque with large golden dome.
The Dome of the Rock and the Western Wall, Jerusalem

The city of

Upper Nazareth.[381][382]


Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center at Bar-Ilan University

Education is highly valued in the Israeli culture and was viewed as a fundamental block of ancient Israelites.[383] Jewish communities in the Levant were the first to introduce compulsory education for which the organized community, not less than the parents was responsible.[384] Many international business leaders such as Microsoft founder Bill Gates have praised Israel for its high quality of education in helping spur Israel's economic development and technological boom.[385][386][387] In 2015, the country ranked third among OECD members (after Canada and Japan) for the percentage of 25–64 year-olds that have attained tertiary education with 49% compared with the OECD average of 35%.[388] In 2012, the country ranked third in the world in the number of academic degrees per capita (20 percent of the population).[389]

Israel has a

Bagrut matriculation exams. Proficiency in core subjects such as mathematics, the Hebrew language, Hebrew and general literature, the English language, history, Biblical scripture and civics is necessary to receive a Bagrut certificate.[392]

Israel's Jewish population maintains a relatively high level of educational attainment where just under half of all Israeli Jews (46%) hold post-secondary degrees. This figure has remained stable in their already high levels of educational attainment over recent generations.

former Soviet Union, the bagrut pass rate is higher amongst those families from European FSU states at 62.6% and lower amongst those from Central Asian and Caucasian FSU states.[401] In 2020, 68.7% of all Israeli twelfth graders earned a matriculation certificate.[402]

Mount Scopus Campus of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem

Israel has a tradition of higher education where its quality university education has been largely responsible in spurring the nation's modern economic development.

Technion,[406][407] houses the National Library of Israel, the world's largest repository of Judaica and Hebraica.[408] The Technion and the Hebrew University consistently ranked among world's 100 top universities by the prestigious ARWU academic ranking.[409] Other major universities in the country include the Weizmann Institute of Science, Tel Aviv University, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Bar-Ilan University, the University of Haifa and the Open University of Israel. Ariel University, in the West Bank
, is the newest university institution, upgraded from college status, and the first in over thirty years.

Government and politics

Political system of Israel
The Knesset chamber, home to the Israeli parliament

Israel has a parliamentary system, proportional representation and universal suffrage. A member of parliament supported by a parliamentary majority becomes the prime minister—usually this is the chair of the largest party. The prime minister is the head of government and head of the cabinet.[410][411]

Israel is governed by a 120-member parliament, known as the

better source needed] with a 3.25% electoral threshold, which in practice has resulted in coalition governments. Residents of Israeli settlements in the West Bank are eligible to vote[413] and after the 2015 election, 10 of the 120 members of the Knesset (8%) were settlers.[414] Parliamentary elections are scheduled every four years, but unstable coalitions or a no-confidence vote by the Knesset can dissolve a government earlier.[27] The first Arab-led party was established in 1988[415] and as of 2022, Arab-led parties hold about 10% of the parliament's seats.[416]


constitution based on these laws.[291][418]

The president of Israel is head of state, with limited and largely ceremonial duties.[410]

Israel has no official religion,[419][420][421] but the definition of the state as "Jewish and democratic" creates a strong connection with Judaism, as well as a conflict between state law and religious law. Interaction between the political parties keeps the balance between state and religion largely as it existed during the British Mandate.[422]

On 19 July 2018, the Knesset passed a Basic Law that characterizes the State of Israel as principally a "Nation State of the Jewish People", and Hebrew as its official language. The bill ascribes "special status" to the Arabic language. The same bill gives Jews a unique right to national self-determination, and views the developing of Jewish settlement in the country as "a national interest", empowering the government to "take steps to encourage, advance and implement this interest."[423]

Legal system

Supreme Court of Israel, Givat Ram, Jerusalem

Israel has a

High Court of Justice. In the latter role, the Supreme Court rules as a court of first instance, allowing individuals, both citizens and non-citizens, to petition against the decisions of state authorities.[424]

Israel's legal system combines three legal traditions:

Enclave law", large portions of Israeli civil law are applied to Israeli settlements and Israeli residents in the occupied territories.[427]

Administrative divisions

The State of Israel is divided into six main administrative districts, known as mehozot (Hebrew: מחוזות; singular: mahoz) – Center, Haifa, Jerusalem, North, South, and Tel Aviv districts, as well as the Judea and Samaria Area in the West Bank. All of the Judea and Samaria Area and parts of the Jerusalem and Northern districts are not recognized internationally as part of Israel. Districts are further divided into fifteen sub-districts known as nafot (Hebrew: נפות; singular: nafa), which are themselves partitioned into fifty natural regions.[428]

District Capital Largest city Population, 2021[346]
Jews Arabs Total note
Jerusalem Jerusalem 66% 32% 1,209,700 a
North Nof HaGalil Nazareth 42% 54% 1,513,600
Haifa Haifa 67% 25% 1,092,700
Center Ramla Rishon LeZion 87% 8% 2,304,300
Tel Aviv Tel Aviv 92% 2% 1,481,400
South Beersheba Ashdod 71% 22% 1,386,000
Judea and Samaria Area
Modi'in Illit 98% 0% 465,400 b
^a Including 361,700 Arabs and 233,900 Jews in East Jerusalem, as of 2020.[347]
^b Israeli citizens only.

Israeli-occupied territories

Overview of administration and sovereignty in Israel and the Palestinian territories
Area Administered by Recognition of governing authority Sovereignty claimed by Recognition of claim
Gaza Strip Palestinian National Authority (de jure) Controlled by Hamas (de facto) Witnesses to the Oslo II Accord State of Palestine 139 UN member states
West Bank Palestinian enclaves (Areas A and B) Palestinian National Authority and Israeli military
Area C Israeli enclave law (Israeli settlements) and Israeli military (Palestinians under Israeli occupation)
East Jerusalem Israeli administration Honduras, Guatemala, Nauru, and the United States China, Russia
West Jerusalem Russia, Czech Republic, Honduras, Guatemala, Nauru, and the United States United Nations as an international city along with East Jerusalem Various UN member states and the European Union; joint sovereignty also widely supported
Golan Heights United States Syria All UN member states except the United States
Israel (proper) 164 UN member states Israel 164 UN member states
Map of Israel showing the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and the Golan Heights

In 1967, as a result of the

Security Belt. Since Israel's capture of these territories, Israeli settlements
and military installations have been built within each of them, except Lebanon.


status of East Jerusalem in any future peace settlement has at times been a difficult issue in negotiations
between Israeli governments and representatives of the Palestinians, as Israel views it as its sovereign territory, as well as part of its capital.

Israeli West Bank barrier is a separation barrier built by Israel along the Green Line and inside parts of the West Bank.

The West Bank excluding East Jerusalem is known in Israeli law as the

cities have been under the internal jurisdiction of the Palestinian Authority, and only partial Israeli military control, although Israel has on several occasions redeployed its troops and reinstated full military administration during periods of unrest. In response to increasing attacks during the Second Intifada, the Israeli government started to construct the Israeli West Bank barrier.[436] When completed, approximately 13% of the barrier will be constructed on the Green Line or in Israel with 87% inside the West Bank.[437][438]

Israel's claim of universal suffrage has been questioned due to its blurred territorial boundaries and its simultaneous extension of voting rights to Israeli settlers in the occupied territories and denial of voting rights to their Palestinian neighbours. The claim has also been challenged due to the alleged ethnocratic nature of the state.[439][440]

under Oslo Accords
, in blue and red, in December 2011

The Gaza Strip is considered to be a "foreign territory" under Israeli law; Israel, along with Egypt operates a land, air, and sea

border with Egypt, and an agreement between Israel, the European Union, and the PA governed how border crossing would take place (it was monitored by European observers).[447] The application of democracy to its Palestinian citizens, and the selective application of Israeli democracy in the Israeli-controlled Palestinian territories, has been criticized.[448][449]

International opinion


excessive detail?

The international community widely regards Israeli settlements in the occupied territories illegal under international law.[481] United Nations Security Council Resolution 2334, passed on 23 December 2016 in a 14–0 vote by members of the U.N. Security Council (UNSC) with the United States abstaining. The resolution states that Israel's settlement activity constitutes a "flagrant violation" of international law, has "no legal validity" and demands that Israel stop such activity and fulfill its obligations as an occupying power under the Fourth Geneva Convention.[482] A United Nations special rapporteur concluded that settlement program was a war crime under the Rome Statute,[483] and Amnesty International found that the settlement program constitutes an illegal transfer of civilians into occupied territory as well as amounting to "pillage", which is prohibited by both the Hague Conventions and the Geneva Conventions as well as being a war crime under the Rome Statute.[484]

Apartheid accusations

Israel's treatment of the Palestinians within the occupied territories have drawn widespread

B'tselem, along with other international human rights groups, including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, with the criticism extending to its treatment of Palestinians within Israel as well.[489][490] Amnesty's report was criticised by politicians and representatives from Israel, the United States,[491] the United Kingdom,[492] the European Commission,[493] Australia,[494] Netherlands[495] and Germany,[496] while it was welcomed by Palestinians,[497] representatives from other states, and organizations such as the Arab League.[498] In 2022, Michael Lynk, a Canadian law professor appointed by the U.N. Human Rights Council said that the situation met the legal definition of apartheid.[499] Subsequent reports from his successor, Francesca Albanese and from Permanent United Nations Fact Finding Mission on the Israel Palestine conflict chair Navi Pillay echoed the opinion that Israel was committing the crime of apartheid.[500][501]

Foreign relations

  Diplomatic relations
  Diplomatic relations suspended
  Former diplomatic relations
  No diplomatic relations, but former trade relations
  No diplomatic relations

Israel maintains diplomatic relations with 164 

1994, respectively, but Israel remains formally in a state of war with Syria, a status that dates back uninterrupted to 1948. It has been in a similarly formal state of war with Lebanon since the end of the Lebanese Civil War
in 2000, with the Israel–Lebanon border remaining unagreed by treaty.

In late 2020, Israel normalized relations with four more Arab countries: the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain in September (known as the

2008–09 Gaza War, Mauritania, Qatar, Bolivia, and Venezuela suspended political and economic ties with Israel,[511] though Bolivia renewed ties in 2019.[512] China maintains good ties with both Israel and the Arab world.[513]

Yitzhak Rabin and Yasser Arafat at the signing ceremony of the Oslo Accords with then US President Bill Clinton


reparations to the Israeli state and individual Israeli Holocaust survivors.[524] Israel is included in the European Union's European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), which aims at bringing the EU and its neighbours closer.[525]

Although Turkey and Israel did not establish full diplomatic relations until 1991,[526] Turkey has cooperated with the Jewish state since its recognition of Israel in 1949. Turkey's ties to other Muslim-majority nations in the region have at times resulted in pressure from Arab and Muslim states to temper its relationship with Israel.[527] Relations between Turkey and Israel took a downturn after the 2008–09 Gaza War and Israel's raid of the Gaza flotilla.[528] Relations between Greece and Israel have improved since 1995 due to the decline of Israeli–Turkish relations.[529] The two countries have a defense cooperation agreement and in 2010, the Israeli Air Force hosted Greece's Hellenic Air Force in a joint exercise at the Uvda base. The joint Cyprus-Israel oil and gas explorations centered on the Leviathan gas field are an important factor for Greece, given its strong links with Cyprus.[530] Cooperation in the world's longest subsea electric power cable, the EuroAsia Interconnector, has strengthened relations between Cyprus and Israel.[531]

Israeli military equipment and Israel is the second-largest military partner of India after Russia.[537] Ethiopia is Israel's main ally in Africa due to common political, religious and security interests.[538] Israel provides expertise to Ethiopia on irrigation projects and thousands of Ethiopian Jews live in Israel

Foreign aid

Israel has a history of providing emergency

ranks low among OECD nations, spending less than 0.1% of its GNI on development assistance.[551] The UN has set a target of 0.7%. In 2015 six nations reached the UN target.[552] The country ranked 38th in the 2018 World Giving Index.[553]


F-35 fighter jets of the Israeli Air Force


Chief of General Staff, the Ramatkal, subordinate to the Cabinet. The IDF consists of the army, air force and navy. It was founded during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War by consolidating paramilitary organizations—chiefly the Haganah—that preceded the establishment of the state.[554] The IDF also draws upon the resources of the Military Intelligence Directorate (Aman), which works with Mossad and Shabak.[555] The Israel Defense Forces have been involved in several major wars and border conflicts in its short history, making it one of the most battle-trained armed forces in the world.[556]

Most Israelis are

exemption of yeshiva students has been a source of contention in Israeli society for many years.[558][559] An alternative for those who receive exemptions on various grounds is Sherut Leumi, or national service, which involves a programme of service in hospitals, schools and other social welfare frameworks.[560] A small minority of Israeli Arabs also volunteer to serve in the army.[561] As a result of its conscription programme, the IDF maintains approximately 176,500 active troops and an additional 465,000 reservists, giving Israel one of the world's highest percentage of citizens with military training.[562]

Iron Dome is the world's first operational anti-artillery rocket defense system.

The nation's military relies heavily on high-tech

reconnaissance satellites.[568] The success of the Ofeq programme has made Israel one of seven countries capable of launching such satellites.[569]

Israel is widely believed to

Iraqi Scud missiles, all homes in Israel are required to have a reinforced security room, Merkhav Mugan, impermeable to chemical and biological substances.[575]

Since Israel's establishment, military expenditure constituted a significant portion of the country's

by total military expenditure, with $24.3 billion, and 6th by defense spending as a percentage of GDP, with 5.2%.[577] Since 1974, the United States has been a particularly notable contributor of military aid to Israel.[578] Under a memorandum of understanding signed in 2016, the U.S. is expected to provide the country with $3.8 billion per year, or around 20% of Israel's defense budget, from 2018 to 2028.[579] Israel ranked 9th globally for arms exports in 2022.[580] The majority of Israel's arms exports are unreported for security reasons.[581] Israel is consistently rated low in the Global Peace Index, ranking 134th out of 163 nations for peacefulness in 2022.[582]


The Diamond Exchange District in Ramat Gan
Tel Aviv Stock Exchange

Israel is considered the most advanced country in

university education and the establishment of a highly motivated and educated populace is largely responsible for spurring the country's high technology boom and rapid economic development.[385] In 2010, it joined the OECD.[32][591] The country is ranked 20th in the World Economic Forum's Global Competitiveness Report[592] and 35th on the World Bank's Ease of Doing Business index.[593] Israel was also ranked fifth in the world by share of people in high-skilled employment.[594] Israeli economic data covers the economic territory of Israel, including the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank.[432]

Despite limited natural resources, intensive development of the

foreign-exchange reserves, the 17th highest in the world.[291] Since the 1970s, Israel has received military aid from the United States, as well as economic assistance in the form of loan guarantees, which now account for roughly half of Israel's external debt. Israel has one of the lowest external debts in the developed world, and is a lender in terms of net external debt (assets vs. liabilities abroad), which in 2015 stood at a surplus of $69 billion.[595]

Israel has the second-largest number of

Iscar for $4 billion, its first acquisition outside the United States.[605]

The days which are allocated to working times in Israel are Sunday through Thursday (for a five-day

workweek), or Friday (for a six-day workweek). In observance of Shabbat, in places where Friday is a work day and the majority of population is Jewish, Friday is a "short day", usually lasting until 14:00 in the winter, or 16:00 in the summer. Several proposals have been raised to adjust the work week with the majority of the world, and make Sunday a non-working day, while extending working time of other days or replacing Friday with Sunday as a work day.[606]

Science and technology

Matam high-tech park in Haifa

Israel's development of cutting-edge technologies in software, communications and the life sciences have

In 2012, Israel was ranked ninth in the world by the Futron's Space Competitiveness Index.[621] The Israel Space Agency coordinates all Israeli space research programmes with scientific and commercial goals, and have indigenously designed and built at least 13 commercial, research and spy satellites.[622] Some of Israel's satellites are ranked among the world's most advanced space systems.[623] Shavit is a space launch vehicle produced by Israel to launch small satellites into low Earth orbit.[624] It was first launched in 1988, making Israel the eighth nation to have a space launch capability. In 2003, Ilan Ramon became Israel's first astronaut, serving as payload specialist of STS-107, the fatal mission of the Space Shuttle Columbia.[625]

The ongoing shortage of

desalination facility in the world.[626] By 2014, Israel's desalination programmes provided roughly 35% of Israel's drinking water and it is expected to supply 40% by 2015 and 70% by 2050.[627] As of 2015, more than 50 percent of the water for Israeli households, agriculture and industry is artificially produced.[628] The country hosts an annual Water Technology and Environmental Control Exhibition & Conference (WATEC) that attracts thousands of people from across the world.[629][630] In 2011, Israel's water technology industry was worth around $2 billion a year with annual exports of products and services in the tens of millions of dollars. As a result of innovations in reverse osmosis technology, Israel is set to become a net exporter of water in the coming years.[631]

A horizontal parabolic dish, with a triangular structure on its top.
The world's largest solar parabolic dish at the Ben-Gurion National Solar Energy Center[632]

Israel has embraced

electric car infrastructure involving a countrywide network of charging stations to facilitate the charging and exchange of car batteries. It was thought that this would have lowered Israel's oil dependency and lowered the fuel costs of hundreds of Israel's motorists that use cars powered only by electric batteries.[638][639][640] The Israeli model was being studied by several countries and being implemented in Denmark and Australia.[641] However, Israel's trailblazing electric car company Better Place shut down in 2013.[642]


Israel began producing natural gas from its own offshore gas fields in 2004. Between 2005 and 2012, Israel had imported gas from Egypt via the al-

Egyptian Crisis of 2011–14. In 2009, a natural gas reserve, Tamar, was found near the coast of Israel. A second natural gas reserve, Leviathan, was discovered in 2010.[643] The natural gas reserves in these two fields (Leviathan has around 19 trillion cubic feet) could make Israel energy secure for more than 50 years. In 2013, Israel began commercial production of natural gas from the Tamar field. As of 2014, Israel produced over 7.5 billion cubic meters (bcm) of natural gas a year.[644] Israel had 199 billion cubic meters (bcm) of proven reserves of natural gas as of the start of 2016.[645] The Leviathan gas field started production in 2019.[646]

gigawatt-hours (GWh) of electricity per year.[647] In the next twenty years, the field will spare the production of some 125,000 metric tons of carbon dioxide.[648] The field was inaugurated on 15 June 2011.[649] On 22 May 2012 Arava Power Company announced that it had reached financial close on an additional 58.5 MW for 8 projects to be built in the Arava and the Negev valued at 780 million NIS or approximately $204 million.[650]


Ben Gurion International Airport

Israel has a modern transport system. The country has 19,224 kilometres (11,945 mi) of paved roads,[651] and 3 million motor vehicles.[652] The number of motor vehicles per 1,000 persons is 365, relatively low with respect to developed countries.[652] Israel has 5,715 buses on scheduled routes,[653] operated by several carriers, the largest and oldest of which is Egged, serving most of the country.[654] Railways stretch across 1,277 kilometres (793 mi) and are operated solely by government-owned Israel Railways.[655] Following major investments beginning in the early to mid-1990s, the number of train passengers per year has grown from 2.5 million in 1990, to 53 million in 2015; railways are also transporting 7.5 million tons of cargo, per year.[655]

Israel is served by three international

Ashdod Port; and the smaller Port of Eilat on the Red Sea


Ein Bokek resort on the shore of the Dead Sea

Tourism, especially religious tourism, is an important industry in Israel, with the country's temperate climate, beaches, archaeological, other historical and biblical sites, and unique geography also drawing tourists. Israel's security problems have taken their toll on the industry, but the number of incoming tourists is on the rebound.[657] In 2017, a record of 3.6 million tourists visited Israel, yielding a 25 percent growth since 2016 and contributed NIS 20 billion to the Israeli economy.[658][659][660][661]

Real estate

Housing prices in Israel are listed in the top third,[662] with an average of 150 salaries required to buy an apartment.[663] As of 2022, there are about 2.7 million properties in Israel, with an annual increase of more than 50,000.[664] However, the demand for housing exceeds supply, with a shortage of about 200,000 apartments as of 2021,[665] and thus rising house prices. As a result, by 2021 housing prices rose by 5.6%.[666] High prices do not stop Israelis from buying properties. In 2021, Israelis took a record of NIS 116.1 billion in mortgages, an increase of 50% from 2020.[667]


Israel's diverse culture stems from the diversity of its population. Jews from diaspora communities around the world brought their cultural and religious traditions back with them, creating a melting pot of Jewish customs and beliefs.

Jewish holidays, and the official day of rest is Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath.[674]


Shmuel Yosef Agnon, laureate of the Nobel Prize in Literature

Israeli literature is primarily poetry and prose written in Hebrew, as part of the renaissance of Hebrew as a spoken language since the mid-19th century, although a small body of literature is published in other languages, such as English. By law, two copies of all printed matter published in Israel must be deposited in the National Library of Israel at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. In 2001, the law was amended to include audio and video recordings, and other non-print media.[675] In 2016, 89 percent of the 7,300 books transferred to the library were in Hebrew.[676]

In 1966, Shmuel Yosef Agnon shared the Nobel Prize in Literature with German Jewish author Nelly Sachs.[677] Leading Israeli poets have been Yehuda Amichai, Nathan Alterman, Leah Goldberg, and Rachel Bluwstein.[678] Internationally famous contemporary Israeli novelists include Amos Oz, Etgar Keret and David Grossman.[679][680] Israel has been the home of Emile Habibi, whose novel The Secret Life of Saeed: The Pessoptimist, and other writings, won him the Israel prize for Arabic literature.[681][682]

Music and dance

Several dozen musicians in formal dress, holding their instruments, behind a conductor
Israel Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Zubin Mehta

Israeli music contains musical influences from all over the world; Mizrahi and Sephardic music, Hasidic melodies, Greek music, jazz, and pop rock are all part of the music scene.[683][684] Among Israel's world-renowned orchestras is the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra,[685][686] which has been in operation for over seventy years and today performs more than two hundred concerts each year.[687] Itzhak Perlman, Pinchas Zukerman and Ofra Haza are among the internationally acclaimed musicians born in Israel. Israel has participated in the Eurovision Song Contest nearly every year since 1973, winning the competition four times and hosting it twice.[688][689] Eilat has hosted its own international music festival, the Red Sea Jazz Festival, every summer since 1987.[690] The nation's canonical folk songs, known as "Songs of the Land of Israel", deal with the experiences of the pioneers in building the Jewish homeland.[691]

Cinema and theatre

Ten Israeli films

Mohammed Bakri's 2002 film Jenin, Jenin and The Syrian Bride

Continuing the strong theatrical traditions of the

repertory theater company and national theater.[693] The Ohel theatre, the Cameri and Gesher theatre all played important roles during different stages of Israel's cultural development.[694][695]

The arts

Although Israel's role in the world art scene has been relatively minor, Israel has several unique artistic traditions. Israeli Jewish art has been particularly influenced by the Kabbalah, the Talmud and the Zohar. Another art movement that held a prominent role in the 20th century was the School of Paris. In the late 19th and early 20th century, the Yishuv's art was dominated by art trends emanating Bezalel. Beginning in the 1920s, the local art scene was heavily influenced by modern French art, first introduced by Isaac Frenkel.[696][697] Jewish masters of the school of Paris (École de Paris), such as Soutine, Kikoine, Frenkel, Chagall heavily influenced the subsequent development of Israeli art.[698][699]

Common themes in Israeli art are the mystical cities of

Optical art, AI art, digital art and the use of salt in sculpture.[699]


Bauhaus Museum, Tel Aviv

Architecture in Israel is unique in the scope and diversity of architectural movements and fruitions of utopian plans in the 20th century. Due to the immigration of Jewish architects from different corners of the globe, architecture in Israel has come to reflect different styles. In the early 20th century Jewish architects sought to combine Occidental and Oriental architecture producing buildings that showcase a myriad of infused styles.

UNESCO heritage site thanks to its white international style buildings.[703] Following independence, multiple government projects were commissioned, a grand part built in a brutalist style with heavy emphasis on the use of concrete and the acclimatization to the Israel's desert climate.[704][705]

Several novel ideas such as the Garden City were implemented in Tel Aviv, Haifa, Jerusalem and more cities, the Geddes plan of Tel Aviv became renown internationally for its revolutionary design and adaptation to the local climate.[706] Furthermore, the design of kibbutzim also came to reflect ideology, such as the planning of the circular kibbutz Nahalal by Richard Kauffmann.[707] Today Israeli architecture continues to reflect world trends in architecture as well as the different backgrounds and heritage of Israeli architects.[708]


The 2017

Press Freedom Index by Reporters Without Borders, Israel (including "Israel extraterritorial" since 2013 ranking)[710] was placed 91st of 180 countries, first in the Middle East and North Africa region.[711] Reporters Without Borders noted that "Palestinian journalists are systematically subjected to violence as a result of their coverage of events in the West Bank".[712] More than fifty Palestinian journalists have been killed by Israel since 2001.[713]


Shrine of the Book, repository of the Dead Sea Scrolls in Jerusalem


ANU - Museum of the Jewish People on the campus of Tel Aviv University, is an interactive museum devoted to the history of Jewish communities around the world.[717] Apart from the major museums in large cities, there are high-quality art spaces in many towns and kibbutzim. Mishkan LeOmanut in kibbutz Ein Harod Meuhad is the largest art museum in the north of the country.[718]

Israel has the highest number of museums per capita in the world.

Galilee Man.[720] A cast of the skull is on display at the Israel Museum.[721]


A meal including falafel, hummus, French fries and Israeli salad

Ashkenazi styles of cooking. It incorporates many foods traditionally eaten in the Levantine, Arab, Middle Eastern and Mediterranean cuisines, such as falafel, hummus, shakshouka, couscous, and za'atar. Schnitzel, pizza, hamburgers, French fries, rice and salad
are common in Israel.

Roughly half of the Israeli-Jewish population attests to keeping

the influx of immigrants from the post-Soviet states during the 1990s.[725] Together with non-kosher fish, rabbits and ostriches, pork—often called "white meat" in Israel[725]—is produced and consumed, though it is forbidden by both Judaism and Islam.[726]


Maccabi Haifa F.C. fans at Sammy Ofer Stadium in the city of Haifa

The most popular spectator sports in Israel are

UEFA Cup quarter-finals. Israel hosted and won the 1964 AFC Asian Cup; in 1970 the Israel national football team qualified for the FIFA World Cup, the only time it participated in the World Cup. The 1974 Asian Games, held in Tehran, were the last Asian Games in which Israel participated, plagued by the Arab countries that refused to compete with Israel. Israel was excluded from the 1978 Asian Games and since then has not competed in Asian sport events.[729] In 1994, UEFA agreed to admit Israel, and its football teams now compete in Europe. Maccabi Tel Aviv B.C. has won the European championship in basketball six times.[730] In 2016, the country was chosen as a host for the EuroBasket 2017

Israel has won nine Olympic medals since its first win in 1992, including a gold medal in windsurfing at the 2004 Summer Olympics.[731] Israel has won over 100 gold medals in the Paralympic Games and is ranked 20th in the all-time medal count. The 1968 Summer Paralympics were hosted by Israel.[732] The Maccabiah Games, an Olympic-style event for Jewish and Israeli athletes, was inaugurated in the 1930s, and has been held every four years since then. Israeli tennis champion Shahar Pe'er ranked 11th in the world on 31 January 2011.[733] Krav Maga, a martial art developed by Jewish ghetto defenders during the struggle against fascism in Europe, is used by the Israeli security forces and police. Its effectiveness and practical approach to self-defense, have won it widespread admiration and adherence around the world.[734]

Boris Gelfand, chess Grandmaster

Chess is a leading sport in Israel and is enjoyed by people of all ages. There are many Israeli grandmasters and Israeli chess players have won a number of youth world championships.[735] Israel stages an annual international championship and hosted the World Team Chess Championship in 2005. The Ministry of Education and the World Chess Federation agreed upon a project of teaching chess within Israeli schools, and it has been introduced into the curriculum of some schools.[736] The city of Beersheba has become a national chess center, with the game being taught in the city's kindergartens. Owing partly to Soviet immigration, it is home to the largest number of chess grandmasters of any city in the world.[737][738] The Israeli chess team won the silver medal at the 2008 Chess Olympiad[739] and the bronze, coming in third among 148 teams, at the 2010 Olympiad. Israeli grandmaster Boris Gelfand won the Chess World Cup 2009[740] and the 2011 Candidates Tournament for the right to challenge the world champion. He lost the World Chess Championship 2012 to reigning world champion Anand after a speed-chess tie breaker.

See also



  1. ^ Recognition by other UN member states: Russia (West Jerusalem),[1] the Czech Republic (West Jerusalem),[2] Honduras,[3] Guatemala,[4] Nauru,[5] and the United States.[6]
  2. ^ Jerusalem is Israel's largest city if including East Jerusalem, which is widely recognized as occupied territory.[7]
  3. better source needed] In 2018 its classification was changed to a 'special status in the state' with its use by state institutions to be set in law.[9][10]
  4. ^ a b c d Israeli population and economic data covers the economic territory of Israel, including the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank.[432][433]
  5. ^ The Jerusalem Law states that "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel" and the city serves as the seat of the government, home to the President's residence, government offices, supreme court, and parliament. United Nations Security Council Resolution 478 (20 August 1980; 14–0, U.S. abstaining) declared the Jerusalem Law "null and void" and called on member states to withdraw their diplomatic missions from Jerusalem.[21] See Status of Jerusalem for more information.
  6. ^ Tens of thousands of Jews in Arab countries left their homes because of the 1948 war as well, pushed by a combination of antisemitic feeling and legislation, religious feeling, Zionist activity, economic factors, the end of colonial rule, and other reasons. The decision to leave varied by circumstance, as well as by country and social class. Approximately 260,000 Jews from the Arab world moved to Israel during and immediately after the war.[24]
  7. ^ The personal name "Israel" appears much earlier, in material from Ebla.[62]
  1. ^ According to Rabbinic literature, it was 210 years


  1. ^ "Foreign Ministry statement regarding Palestinian-Israeli settlement". 6 April 2017.
  2. ^ "Czech Republic announces it recognizes West Jerusalem as Israel's capital". The Jerusalem Post. 6 December 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017. The Czech Republic currently, before the peace between Israel and Palestine is signed, recognizes Jerusalem to be in fact the capital of Israel in the borders of the demarcation line from 1967." The Ministry also said that it would only consider relocating its embassy based on "results of negotiations.
  3. ^ "Honduras recognizes Jerusalem as Israel's capital". The Times of Israel. 29 August 2019.
  4. ^ "Guatemala se suma a EEUU y también trasladará su embajada en Israel a Jerusalén" [Guatemala joins US, will also move embassy to Jerusalem]. Infobae (in Spanish). 24 December 2017. Guatemala's embassy was located in Jerusalem until the 1980s, when it was moved to Tel Aviv.
  5. ^ "Nauru recognizes J'lem as capital of Israel". Israel National News. 29 August 2019.
  6. ^ "Trump Recognizes Jerusalem as Israel's Capital and Orders U.S. Embassy to Move". The New York Times. 6 December 2017. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  7. ^ The Legal Status of East Jerusalem (PDF), Norwegian Refugee Council, December 2013, pp. 8, 29
  8. ^ a b "Arabic in Israel: an official language and a cultural bridge". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 18 December 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  9. ^ a b "Israel Passes 'National Home' Law, Drawing Ire of Arabs". The New York Times. 19 July 2018.
  10. ^ a b Lubell, Maayan (19 July 2018). "Israel adopts divisive Jewish nation-state law". Reuters.
  11. ^ a b Population of Israel on the Eve of 2023 (Report). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 29 December 2022. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  12. ^ "Israel". Central Intelligence Agency. 27 February 2023. Archived from the original on 10 January 2021. Retrieved 24 February 2023 – via
  13. ^ "Israel country profile". BBC News. 24 February 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2021.
  14. ^ "Surface water and surface water change". OECD.Stat. OECD. Retrieved 11 October 2020.
  15. ^ "Home page". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 29 December 2022.
  16. ^ Population Census 2008 (PDF) (Report). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2008. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  17. ^ a b c d e "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2023 Edition. (Israel)". International Monetary Fund. 10 October 2023. Retrieved 11 October 2023.
  18. ^ "Income inequality". OECD Data. OECD. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  19. ^ "Human Development Report 2021/2022" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 8 September 2022. Retrieved 8 September 2022.
  20. ^ Akram, Susan M., Michael Dumper, Michael Lynk, and Iain Scobbie, eds. 2010. International Law and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Rights-Based Approach to Middle East Peace. Routledge. p. 119: "UN General Assembly Resolution 181 recommended the creation of an international zone, or corpus separatum, in Jerusalem to be administered by the UN for a 10-year period, after which there would be a referendum to determine its future. This approach applies equally to West and East Jerusalem and is not affected by the occupation of East Jerusalem in 1967. To a large extent it is this approach that still guides the diplomatic behaviour of states and thus has greater force in international law."
  21. ^ Kellerman 1993, p. 140.
  22. ^ STAFF, TOI (13 September 2023). "Israeli population rises to 9.795 million on Rosh Hashanah eve". The Times of Israel.
  23. ^ "Zionism | Definition, History, Examples, & Facts | Britannica". 19 October 2023. Retrieved 29 October 2023.
  24. ^ a b Fischbach 2008, p. 26–27.
  25. S2CID 150208821
    . The mass immigration from Arab countries began in mid-1949 and included three communities that relocated to Israel almost in their entirety: 31,000 Jews from Libya, 50,000 from Yemen, and 125,000 from Iraq. Additional immigrants arrived from Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia, Turkey, Iran, India, and elsewhere. Within three years, the Jewish population of Israel doubled. The ethnic composition of the population shifted as well, as immigrants from Muslim counties and their offspring now comprised one third of the Jewish population—an unprecedented phenomenon in global immigration history. From 1952–60, Israel regulated and restricted immigration from Muslim countries with a selective immigration policy based on economic criteria, and sent these immigrants, most of whom were North African, to peripheral Israeli settlements. The selective immigration policy ended in 1961 when, following an agreement between Israel and Morocco, about 100,000 Jews immigrated to the State. From 1952–68 about 600,000 Jews arrived in Israel, three quarters of whom were from Arab countries and the remaining immigrants were largely from Eastern Europe. Today fewer than 30,000 remain in Muslim countries, mostly concentrated in Iran and Turkey.
  26. . Retrieved 31 March 2023.
  27. ^ a b "How Israel's electoral system works". CNN International. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  28. ^ Human Development Report 2021-22 (Report). United Nations. 8 September 2022.
  29. ^ "30 Countries with Highest GDP per Capita". Yahoo Finance. 23 March 2023. Retrieved 23 November 2023.
  30. ^ "Global Wealth Report". Credit Suisse. Retrieved 23 November 2023.
  31. ^ "Israel to join prestigious OECD economic club". France 24. 27 May 2010. Retrieved 23 November 2023.
  32. ^ a b "Israel's accession to the OECD". OECD. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
  33. ^ "Top 15 Most Advanced Countries in the World". Yahoo Finance. 4 December 2022. Retrieved 27 October 2023.
  34. ^ Getzoff, Marc (9 August 2023). "Most Technologically Advanced Countries In The World 2023". Global Finance Magazine. Retrieved 8 November 2023.
  35. ^ Noah Rayman (29 September 2014). "Mandatory Palestine: What It Was and Why It Matters". TIME. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
  36. ^ "Popular Opinion". The Palestine Post. Jerusalem. 7 December 1947. p. 1. Archived from the original on 15 August 2012.
  37. ^ One Day that Shook the world Archived 12 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine The Jerusalem Post, 30 April 1998, by Elli Wohlgelernter
  38. ^ "On the Move". Time. New York. 31 May 1948. Archived from the original on 16 October 2007. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
  39. ^ Levine, Robert A. (7 November 2000). "See Israel as a Jewish Nation-State, More or Less Democratic". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
  40. ^ Geoffrey W. Bromiley, 'Israel,' in International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: E–J,Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1995 p. 907.
  41. ^ "And he said, Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel: for as a prince hast thou power with God and with men, and hast prevailed." (Genesis, 32:28, 35:10). See also Hosea 12:5.
  42. ^ "Israel as a Person, People, and Place". Bible Odyssey. Retrieved 3 December 2023.
  43. ^ "Why the Angel Asks Jacob His Name". My Jewish Learning. Retrieved 3 December 2023.
  44. ^ wrestling his 'angel' is our own struggle, Sean Foley · Posted: Sep 17, 2019
  45. ^ Exodus 12:40–41
  46. ^ THE DURATION OF THE ISRAELITE SOJOURN IN EGYPT PAUL J. RAY, JR. Berrien Springs, Michigan 49103, Autumn 1986, Vol. 24, No. 3,231-248. Copyright @ 1986 by Andrews University Press.
  47. ^ Exodus 6:16–20
  48. ^ Barton & Bowden 2004, p. 126. "The Merneptah Stele ... is arguably the oldest evidence outside the Bible for the existence of Israel as early as the 13th century BCE."
  49. .
  50. ^ Rincon, Paul (14 October 2015). "Fossil teeth place humans in Asia '20,000 years early'". BBC News. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
  51. S2CID 35814375
    . Retrieved 4 January 2017.
  52. ^ Steiglitz, Robert (1992). "Migrations in the Ancient Near East". Anthropological Science. 3 (101): 263. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
  53. ^ Jonathan M Golden, Ancient Canaan and Israel: An Introduction, Oxford University Press, 2009 pp. 3–4.
  54. ^ "Canaanites". obo. Retrieved 1 December 2023.
  55. , retrieved 1 December 2023
  56. .
  57. ^ Dever, William G. Beyond the Texts, Society of Biblical Literature Press, 2017, pp. 89–93
  58. ^ S. Richard, "Archaeological sources for the history of Palestine: The Early Bronze Age: The rise and collapse of urbanism", The Biblical Archaeologist (1987)
  59. S2CID 191385013
  60. ^ K.L. Noll, Canaan and Israel in Antiquity: A Textbook on History and Religion, A&C Black, 2012, rev.ed. pp. 137ff.
  61. ^ Thomas L. Thompson, Early History of the Israelite People: From the Written & Archaeological Sources, Brill, 2000 pp. 275–276: 'They are rather a very specific group among the population of Palestine which bears a name that occurs here for the first time that at a much later stage in Palestine's history bears a substantially different signification.'
  62. . As a West Semitic personal name it existed long before it became a tribal or a geographical name. This is not without significance, though is it rarely mentioned. We learn of a maryanu named ysr"il (*Yi¡sr—a"ilu) from Ugarit living in the same period, but the name was already used a thousand years before in Ebla. The word Israel originated as a West Semitic personal name. One of the many names that developed into the name of the ancestor of a clan, of a tribe and finally of a people and a nation.
  63. .
  64. .
  65. ^ Mark Smith in "The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel" states "Despite the long regnant model that the Canaanites and Israelites were people of fundamentally different culture, archaeological data now casts doubt on this view. The material culture of the region exhibits numerous common points between Israelites and Canaanites in the Iron I period (c. 1200–1000 BCE). The record would suggest that the Israelite culture largely overlapped with and derived from Canaanite culture... In short, Israelite culture was largely Canaanite in nature. Given the information available, one cannot maintain a radical cultural separation between Canaanites and Israelites for the Iron I period." (pp. 6–7). Smith, Mark (2002) "The Early History of God: Yahweh and Other Deities of Ancient Israel" (Eerdman's)
  66. ^ Rendsberg, Gary (2008). "Israel without the Bible". In Frederick E. Greenspahn. The Hebrew Bible: New Insights and Scholarship. NYU Press, pp. 3–5
  67. .
  68. ^ Killebrew 2005, p. 230.
  69. ^ Shahin 2005, p. 6.
  70. . After a century of exhaustive investigation, all respectable archaeologists have given up hope of recovering any context that would make Abraham, Isaac, or Jacob credible "historical figures" [...] archaeological investigation of Moses and the Exodus has similarly been discarded as a fruitless pursuit.
  71. ^ Faust 2015, p. 476: "While there is a consensus among scholars that the Exodus did not take place in the manner described in the Bible, surprisingly most scholars agree that the narrative has a historical core, and that some of the highland settlers came, one way or another, from Egypt.."
  72. ^ Redmount 2001, p. 61: "A few authorities have concluded that the core events of the Exodus saga are entirely literary fabrications. But most biblical scholars still subscribe to some variation of the Documentary Hypothesis, and support the basic historicity of the biblical narrative."
  73. . After a century of exhaustive investigation, all respectable archaeologists have given up hope of recovering any context that would make Abraham, Isaac, or Jacob credible "historical figures" [...] archaeological investigation of Moses and the Exodus has similarly been discarded as a fruitless pursuit.
  74. .
  75. .
  76. ^ .
  77. ^ Wright, Jacob L. (July 2014). "David, King of Judah (Not Israel)". The Bible and Interpretation. Archived from the original on 1 March 2021. Retrieved 15 May 2021.
  78. ^ Finkelstein, Israel, (2020). "Saul and Highlands of Benjamin Update: The Role of Jerusalem", in Joachim J. Krause, Omer Sergi, and Kristin Weingart (eds.), Saul, Benjamin, and the Emergence of Monarchy in Israel: Biblical and Archaeological Perspectives, SBL Press, Atlanta, GA, p. 48, footnote 57: "...They became territorial kingdoms later, Israel in the first half of the ninth century BCE and Judah in its second half..."
  79. ^ The Pitcher Is Broken: Memorial Essays for Gosta W. Ahlstrom, Steven W. Holloway, Lowell K. Handy, Continuum, 1 May 1995 Quote: "For Israel, the description of the battle of Qarqar in the Kurkh Monolith of Shalmaneser III (mid-ninth century) and for Judah, a Tiglath-pileser III text mentioning (Jeho-) Ahaz of Judah (IIR67 = K. 3751), dated 734–733, are the earliest published to date."
  80. ^ Finkelstein & Silberman 2002, pp. 146–7: Put simply, while Judah was still economically marginal and backward, Israel was booming. ... In the next chapter we will see how the northern kingdom suddenly appeared on the ancient Near Eastern stage as a major regional power.
  81. OCLC 949151323
  82. .
  83. .
  84. .
  85. ^ a b Broshi, M., & Finkelstein, I. (1992). "The Population of Palestine in Iron Age II". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, 287(1), 47–60.
  86. ^ Finkelstein & Silberman 2002, p. 307: "Intensive excavations throughout Jerusalem have shown that the city was indeed systematically destroyed by the Babylonians. The conflagration seems to have been general. When activity on the ridge of the City of David resumed in the Persian period, the-new suburbs on the western hill that had flourished since at least the time of Hezekiah were not reoccupied."
  87. ISSN 0334-4355
  88. .
  89. ^ "British Museum – Cuneiform tablet with part of the Babylonian Chronicle (605–594 BCE)". Archived from the original on 30 October 2014. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
  90. ^ "ABC 5 (Jerusalem Chronicle) – Livius". Archived from the original on 5 May 2019. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
  91. ^ a b "Second Temple Period (538 BCE to 70 CE) Persian Rule". Retrieved 15 March 2014.
  92. ^ Harper's Bible Dictionary, ed. by Achtemeier, etc., Harper & Row, San Francisco, 1985, p. 103
  93. .
  94. . The ensuing power struggle left Hyrcanus with a free hand in Judea, and he quickly reasserted Jewish sovereignty... Hyrcanus then engaged in a series of military campaigns aimed at territorial expansion. He first conquered areas in the Transjordan. He then turned his attention to Samaria, which had long separated Judea from the northern Jewish settlements in Lower Galilee. In the south, Adora and Marisa were conquered; (Aristobulus') primary accomplishment was annexing and Judaizing the region of Iturea, located between the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon mountains
  95. . The expansion of Hasmonean Judea took place gradually. Under Jonathan, Judea annexed southern Samaria and began to expand in the direction of the coast plain... The main ethnic changes were the work of John Hyrcanus... it was in his days and those of his son Aristobulus that the annexation of Idumea, Samaria and Galilee and the consolidation of Jewish settlement in Trans-Jordan was completed. Alexander Jannai, continuing the work of his predecessors, expanded Judean rule to the entire coastal plain, from the Carmel to the Egyptian border... and to additional areas in Trans-Jordan, including some of the Greek cities there.
  96. . From the beginning of the Second Temple period until the Muslim conquest—the land was part of imperial space. This was true from the early Persian period, as well as the time of Ptolemy and the Seleucids. The only exception was the Hasmonean Kingdom, with its sovereign Jewish rule—first over Judah and later, in Alexander Jannaeus's prime, extending to the coast, the north, and the eastern banks of the Jordan.
  97. ^ . The year 70 ce marked transformations in demography, politics, Jewish civic status, Palestinian and more general Jewish economic and social structures, Jewish religious life beyond the sacrificial cult, and even Roman politics and the topography of the city of Rome itself. [...] The Revolt's failure had, to begin with, a demographic impact on the Jews of Palestine; many died in battle and as a result of siege conditions, not only in Jerusalem. [...] As indicated above, the figures for captives are conceivably more reliable. If 97,000 is roughly correct as a total for the war, it would mean that a huge percentage of the population was removed from the country, or at the very least displaced from their homes. Nevertheless, only sixty years later, there was a large enough population in the Judaean countryside to stage a massively disruptive second rebellion; this one appears to have ended, in 135, with devastation and depopulation of the district.
  98. ^ Werner Eck, "Sklaven und Freigelassene von Römern in Iudaea und den angrenzenden Provinzen," Novum Testamentum 55 (2013): 1–21
  99. S2CID 245512193
    . Scholars have long doubted the historical accuracy of Cassius Dio's account of the consequences of the Bar Kokhba War (Roman History 69.14). According to this text, considered the most reliable literary source for the Second Jewish Revolt, the war encompassed all of Judea: the Romans destroyed 985 villages and 50 fortresses, and killed 580,000 rebels. This article reassesses Cassius Dio's figures by drawing on new evidence from excavations and surveys in Judea, Transjordan, and the Galilee. Three research methods are combined: an ethno-archaeological comparison with the settlement picture in the Ottoman Period, comparison with similar settlement studies in the Galilee, and an evaluation of settled sites from the Middle Roman Period (70–136CE). The study demonstrates the potential contribution of the archaeological record to this issue and supports the view of Cassius Dio's demographic data as a reliable account, which he based on contemporaneous documentation.
  100. ^ . Land confiscation in Judaea was part of the suppression of the revolt policy of the Romans and punishment for the rebels. But the very claim that the sikarikon laws were annulled for settlement purposes seems to indicate that Jews continued to reside in Judaea even after the Second Revolt. There is no doubt that this area suffered the severest damage from the suppression of the revolt. Settlements in Judaea, such as Herodion and Bethar, had already been destroyed during the course of the revolt, and Jews were expelled from the districts of Gophna, Herodion, and Aqraba. However, it should not be claimed that the region of Judaea was completely destroyed. Jews continued to live in areas such as Lod (Lydda), south of the Hebron Mountain, and the coastal regions. In other areas of the Land of Israel that did not have any direct connection with the Second Revolt, no settlement changes can be identified as resulting from it.
  101. ^ Oppenheimer, A'haron and Oppenheimer, Nili. Between Rome and Babylon: Studies in Jewish Leadership and Society. Mohr Siebeck, 2005, p. 2.
  102. , page 334: "In an effort to wipe out all memory of the bond between the Jews and the land, Hadrian changed the name of the province from Judaea to Syria-Palestina, a name that became common in non-Jewish literature."
  103. ^ Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History. 4:6.3-4
  104. ^ . Jews probably remained in the majority in Palestine until some time after the conversion of Constantine in the fourth century. [...] In Babylonia, there had been for many centuries a Jewish community which would have been further strengthened by those fleeing the aftermath of the Roman revolts.
  105. .
  106. ^ Lehmann, Clayton Miles (18 January 2007). "Palestine". Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces. University of South Dakota. Archived from the original on 7 April 2013. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  107. ^ Judaism in late antiquity, Jacob Neusner, Bertold Spuler, Hady R Idris, Brill, 2001, p. 155
  108. ^ The Darkening Age: The Christian Destruction of the Classical World by Catherine Nixey 2018
  109. ^ .
  110. ^ . The Jewish community strove to recover from the catastrophic results of the Bar Kokhva revolt (132–135 CE). Although some of these attempts were relatively successful, the Jews never fully recovered. During the Late Roman and Byzantine periods, many Jews emigrated to thriving centres in the diaspora, especially Iraq, whereas some converted to Christianity and others continued to live in the Holy Land, especially in Galilee and the coastal plain. During the Byzantine period, the three provinces of Palestine included more than thirty cities, namely, settlements with a bishop see. After the Muslim conquest in the 630s, most of these cities declined and eventually disappeared. As a result, in many cases the local ecclesiastical administration weakened, while in others it simply ceased to exist. Consequently, many local Christians converted to Islam. Thus, almost twelve centuries later, when the army led by Napoleon Bonaparte arrived in the Holy Land, most of the local population was Muslim.
  111. . Few would disagree that, in the century and a half before our period begins, the Jewish population of Judah () suffered a serious blow from which it never recovered. The destruction of the Jewish metropolis of Jerusalem and its environs and the eventual refounding of the city... had lasting repercussions. [...] However, in other parts of Palestine the Jewish population remained strong [...] What does seem clear is a different kind of change. Immigration of Christians and the conversion of pagans, Samaritans and Jews eventually produced a Christian majority
  112. . The dominant view of the history of Palestine during the Byzantine period links the early phases of the consecration of the land during the fourth century and the substantial external financial investment that accompanied the building of churches on holy sites on the one hand with the Christianisation of the population on the other. Churches were erected primarily at the holy sites, 12 while at the same time Palestine's position and unique status as the Christian 'Holy Land' became more firmly rooted. All this, coupled with immigration and conversion, allegedly meant that the Christianisation of Palestine took place much more rapidly than that of other areas of the Roman empire, brought in its wake the annihilation of the pagan cults and meant that by the middle of the fifth century there was a clear Christian majority.
  113. .
  114. ^ "Roman Palestine". Encyclopedia Britannica.
  115. ^
    JSTOR 23407269
  116. ^ . From the data given above it can be concluded that the Muslim population of Central Samaria, during the early Muslim period, was not an autochthonous population which had converted to Christianity. They arrived there either by way of migration or as a result of a process of sedentarization of the nomads who had filled the vacuum created by the departing Samaritans at the end of the Byzantine period [...] To sum up: in the only rural region in Palestine in which, according to all the written and archeological sources, the process of Islamization was completed already in the twelfth century, there occurred events consistent with the model propounded by Levtzion and Vryonis: the region was abandoned by its original sedentary population and the vacuum was apparently filled by nomads who, at a later stage, gradually became sedentarized
  117. .
  118. .
  119. ^ "crusades". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  120. ^ .
  121. ^ Joel Rappel, History of Eretz Israel from Prehistory up to 1882 (1980), vol. 2, p. 531. "In 1662 Sabbathai Sevi arrived to Jerusalem. It was the time when the Jewish settlements of Galilee were destroyed by the Druze: Tiberias was completely desolate and only a few of former Safed residents had returned...."
  122. ^ "Palestine – Ottoman rule". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  123. ^ Macalister, R. A. Stewart; Masterman, E. W. G. (1906). "The Modern Inhabitants of Palestine". Quarterly Statement - Palestine Exploration Fund: 40.
  124. ^ Rosenzweig 1997, p. 1. "Zionism, the urge of the Jewish people to return to Palestine, is almost as ancient as the Jewish diaspora itself. Some Talmudic statements ... Almost a millennium later, the poet and philosopher Yehuda Halevi ... In the 19th century ..."
  125. ^ "An invention called 'the Jewish people'". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 18 April 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
  126. .
  127. .
  128. .
  129. .
  130. .
  131. ^ Kornberg 1993. "How did Theodor Herzl, an assimilated German nationalist in the 1880s, suddenly in the 1890s become the founder of Zionism?"
  132. ^ Herzl 1946, p. 11.
  133. ^ "Chapter One". The Jewish Agency for Israel1. 21 July 2005. Archived from the original on 10 December 2018. Retrieved 21 September 2015.
  134. ^ Stein 2003, p. 88. "As with the First Aliyah, most Second Aliyah migrants were non-Zionist orthodox Jews ..."
  135. ^ Romano 2003, p. 30.
  136. ^ Macintyre, Donald (26 May 2005). "The birth of modern Israel: A scrap of paper that changed history". The Independent. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  137. .
  138. ^ Schechtman, Joseph B. (2007). "Jewish Legion". Encyclopaedia Judaica. Vol. 11. Detroit: Macmillan Reference. p. 304. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
  139. ^ "The Covenant of the League of Nations". Article 22. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  140. ^ "Mandate for Palestine," Encyclopaedia Judaica, Vol. 11, p. 862, Keter Publishing House, Jerusalem, 1972
  141. ^ Scharfstein 1996, p. 269. "During the First and Second Aliyot, there were many Arab attacks against Jewish settlements ... In 1920, Hashomer was disbanded and Haganah ("The Defense") was established."
  142. ^ "League of Nations: The Mandate for Palestine, July 24, 1922". Modern History Sourcebook. 24 July 1922. Archived from the original on 4 August 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2007.
  143. OCLC 311797790. Archived from the original
    on 27 August 2013.
  144. ^ "Report to the League of Nations on Palestine and Transjordan, 1937". British Government. 1937. Archived from the original on 23 September 2013. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  145. . Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  146. (PDF) on 21 February 2016.
  147. ^ Levenberg, Haim (1993). Military Preparations of the Arab Community in Palestine: 1945–1948. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-7146-3439-5, pp. 74-76
  148. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics, Village Statistics, 1945.
  149. ^ Fraser 2004, p. 27.
  150. .
  151. .
  152. ^ The Terrorism Ahead: Confronting Transnational Violence in the Twenty-First | By Paul J. Smith | M.E. Sharpe, 2007 | p. 27
  153. Harvey W. Kushner
    , Sage, 2003 p. 181
  154. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica article on the Irgun Zvai Leumi
  155. ^ The British Empire in the Middle East, 1945–1951: Arab Nationalism, the United States, and Postwar Imperialism. William Roger Louis, Oxford University Press, 1986, p. 430
  156. ^ a b c Clarke, Thurston. By Blood and Fire, G.P. Puttnam's Sons, New York, 1981
  157. ^ a b Bethell, Nicholas (1979). The Palestine Triangle. Andre Deutsch.
  158. ^ "A/RES/106 (S-1)". General Assembly resolution. United Nations. 15 May 1947. Archived from the original on 6 August 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
  159. ^ "A/364". Special Committee on Palestine. United Nations. 3 September 1947. Archived from the original on 10 June 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
  160. ^ "Background Paper No. 47 (ST/DPI/SER.A/47)". United Nations. 20 April 1949. Archived from the original on 3 January 2011. Retrieved 31 July 2007.
  161. ^ a b Hoffman, Bruce: Anonymous Soldiers (2015)
  162. ^ "Resolution 181 (II). Future government of Palestine". United Nations. 29 November 1947. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  163. ^ Avneri, Aryeh L. (1984). The Claim of Dispossession: Jewish Land-Settlement and the Arabs, 1878–1948. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-0-87855-964-0. Retrieved 2 May 2009, p. 224.
  164. ^ Stein, Kenneth W. (1987) [Original in 1984]. The Land Question in Palestine, 1917–1939. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-4178-5. Retrieved 2 May 2009, pp. 3-4, 247
  165. pp. 41,227 n.9.
  166. ^ Imseis 2021, pp. 13–14: 'As to territorial boundaries, under the plan the Jewish State was allotted approximately 57 percent of the total area of Palestine even though the Jewish population comprised only 33 percent of the country. In addition, according to British records relied upon by the ad hoc committee, the Jewish population possessed registered ownership of only 5.6 percent of Palestine, and was eclipsed by the Arabs in land ownership in every one of Palestine's 16 sub-districts. Moreover, the quality of the land granted to the proposed Jewish state was highly skewed in its favour. UNSCOP reported that under its majority plan "[t]he Jews will have the more economically developed part of the country embracing practically the whole of the citrus-producing area"—Palestine's staple export crop—even though approximately half of the citrus-bearing land was owned by the Arabs. In addition, according to updated British records submitted to the ad hoc committee's two sub-committees, "of the irrigated, cultivable areas" of the country, 84 per cent would be in the Jewish State and 16 per cent would be in the Arab State".'
  167. ^ Morris 2008, p. 75: "The night of 29–30 November passed in the Yishuv's settlements in noisy public rejoicing. Most had sat glued to their radio sets broadcasting live from Flushing Meadow. A collective cry of joy went up when the two-thirds mark was achieved: a state had been sanctioned by the international community."
  168. ^ a b Morris 2008, p. 396: "The immediate trigger of the 1948 War was the November 1947 UN partition resolution. The Zionist movement, except for its fringes, accepted the proposal."
  169. ^ Matthews, John: Israel-Palestine land division
  170. ^ Imseis 2021, pp. 14–15: 'Although the Zionists had coveted the whole of Palestine, the Jewish Agency leadership pragmatically, if grudgingly, accepted Resolution 181(II). Although they were of the view that the Jewish national home promised in the Mandate was equivalent to a Jewish state, they well understood that such a claim could not be maintained under prevailing international law..Based on its own terms, it is impossible to escape the conclusion that the partition plan privileged European interests over those of Palestine's indigenous people and, as such, was an embodiment of the Eurocentricity of the international system that was allegedly a thing of the past. For this reason, the Arabs took a more principled position in line with prevailing international law, rejecting partition outright . .This rejection has disingenuously been presented in some of the literature as indicative of political intransigence,69 and even hostility towards the Jews as Jews'
  171. ^ Morris 2008, p. 66: at 1946 "The League demanded independence for Palestine as a "unitary" state, with an Arab majority and minority rights for the Jews.", p. 67: at 1947 "The League's Political Committee met in Sofar, Lebanon, on 16–19 September, and urged the Palestine Arabs to fight partition, which it called "aggression," "without mercy." The League promised them, in line with Bludan, assistance "in manpower, money and equipment" should the United Nations endorse partition.", p. 72: at December 1947 "The League vowed, in very general language, "to try to stymie the partition plan and prevent the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine.""
  172. ^ Bregman 2002, pp. 40–41.
  173. .
  174. ^ Morris 2008, p. 77–78.
  175. .
  176. ^ Morris 2008.
  177. ^ "Declaration of Establishment of State of Israel". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 14 May 1948. Archived from the original on 17 March 2017. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  178. ^ Clifford, Clark, "Counsel to the President: A Memoir", 1991, p. 20.
  179. ^ Jacobs, Frank (7 August 2012). "The Elephant in the Map Room". Borderlines. The New York Times. Retrieved 3 September 2012.
  180. ^ Henry Laurens (2007). La Question de Palestine. Vol. 3. Paris: Fayard. p. 104. L'entrée en guerre des pays arabes pose un problem juridique complexe. Le franchissement des frontières peut constituer un acte d'aggression ou une menace contre la paix, justifiant une condannation et une intervention des Nations unies, mais si les armées pénètrent seulement dans la partie arabe du plan de partage, elles peuvent être considérées comme appelées par la population et à ce stade leur intervention ne serait pas par elle-même une menace contre la paix. Elle ne commencerait qu'avec l'attaque de la partie juive. Or, en certains points, les armées arabes menacent directement le territoire juif et dans d'autres les Juifs se sont déjà largement installés en territoire arabe. [The entry into (the) war of the Arab countries poses a complex legal problem. The crossing of the borders can constitute an act of aggression or a threat against peace, justifying a condemnation and an intervention by the United Nations, but if the armies penetrate only the Arab part of the partition plan, they can be considered as called on (to do so) by the population and at this stage their intervention would not in itself be a threat against the peace. That would only start were the Jewish part attacked. Now, the Arab armies do directly threaten Jewish territory at certain points while in others the Jews have already largely taken up positions in Arab territory.]
  181. .
  182. ^ Ben-Sasson 1985, p. 1058.
  183. ^ Morris 2008, p. 205.
  184. .
  185. . some of the Arab armies invaded Palestine in order to prevent the establishment of a Jewish state, Transjordan...
  186. ^ Morris 2008, p. 187: "A week before the armies marched, Azzam told Kirkbride: "It does not matter how many [Jews] there are. We will sweep them into the sea." ... Ahmed Shukeiry, one of Haj Amin al-Husseini's aides (and, later, the founding chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization), simply described the aim as "the elimination of the Jewish state." ... al-Quwwatli told his people: "Our army has entered ... we shall win and we shall eradicate Zionism""
  187. ^ Morris 2008, p. 198: "the Jews felt that the Arabs aimed to reenact the Holocaust and that they faced certain personal and collective slaughter should they lose"
  188. ^ "PDF copy of Cablegram from the Secretary-General of the League of Arab States to the Secretary-General of the United Nations: S/745: 15 May 1948". 9 September 2002. Archived from the original on 7 January 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
  189. .
  190. .
  191. ^ "עיצוב יחסי יהודים - ערבים בעשור הראשון".
  192. ^ "Two Hundred and Seventh Plenary Meeting". The United Nations. 11 May 1949. Archived from the original on 12 September 2007. Retrieved 13 July 2007.
  193. . The transcript makes it clear that British policy acted as a brake on Jordan. "King Abdullah was personally anxious to come to agreement with Israel", Kirkbride stated, "and in fact it was our restraining influence which had so far prevented him from doing so". Knox Helm confirmed that the Israelis hoped to have a settlement with Jordan, and that they now genuinely wished to live peacefully within their frontiers, if only for economic reasons.
  194. ^ Lustick 1988, pp. 37–39.
  195. ^ "Israel (Labor Zionism)". Country Studies. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
  196. ^ Anita Shapira (1992). Land and Power. Stanford University Press. pp. 416, 419.
  197. ^ Segev, Tom. 1949: The First Israelis. "The First Million". Trans. Arlen N. Weinstein. New York: The Free Press, 1986. Print. pp. 105–107
  198. .
  199. ^ Laskier, Michael "Egyptian Jewry under the Nasser Regime, 1956–70" pp. 573–619 from Middle Eastern Studies, Volume 31, Issue # 3, July 1995 p. 579.
  200. ^ "Population, by Religion". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
  201. ^ Bard, Mitchell (2003). The Founding of the State of Israel. Greenhaven Press. p. 15.
  202. .; for ma'abarot population, see p. 269.
  203. ^ Clive Jones, Emma Murphy, Israel: Challenges to Identity, Democracy, and the State, Routledge 2002 p. 37: "Housing units earmarked for the Oriental Jews were often reallocated to European Jewish immigrants; Consigning Oriental Jews to the privations of ma'aborot (transit camps) for longer periods."
  204. ^ Segev 2007, pp. 155–157.
  205. ^ Shindler 2002, pp. 49–50.
  206. . Fedayeen to attack...almost always against civilians
  207. ^ Gilbert 2005, p. 58.
  208. . the removal of the Egyptian blockade of the Straits of Tiran at the entrance of the Gulf of Aqaba. The blockade closed Israel's sea lane to East Africa and the Far East, hindering the development of Israel's southern port of Eilat and its hinterland, the Nege. Another important objective of the Israeli war plan was the elimination of the terrorist bases in the Gaza Strip, from which daily fedayeen incursions into Israel made life unbearable for its southern population. And last but not least, the concentration of the Egyptian forces in the Sinai Peninsula, armed with the newly acquired weapons from the Soviet bloc, prepared for an attack on Israel. Here, Ben-Gurion believed, was a time bomb that had to be defused before it was too late. Reaching the Suez Canal did not figure at all in Israel's war objectives.
  209. . The escalation continued with the Egyptian blockade of the Straits of Tiran, and Nasser's nationalization of the Suez Canal in July 1956. On October 14, Nasser made clear his intent:"I am not solely fighting against Israel itself. My task is to deliver the Arab world from destruction through Israel's intrigue, which has its roots abroad. Our hatred is very strong. There is no sense in talking about peace with Israel. There is not even the smallest place for negotiations." Less than two weeks later, on October 25, Egypt signed a tripartite agreement with Syria and Jordan placing Nasser in command of all three armies. The continued blockade of the Suez Canal and Gulf of Aqaba to Israeli shipping, combined with the increased fedayeen attacks and the bellicosity of recent Arab statements, prompted Israel, with the backing of Britain and France, to attack Egypt on October 29, 1956.
  210. . Gamal Abdel Nasser, who declared in one speech that "Egypt has decided to dispatch her heroes, the disciples of Pharaoh and the sons of Islam and they will cleanse the land of Palestine....There will be no peace on Israel's border because we demand vengeance, and vengeance is Israel's death."...The level of violence against Israelis, soldiers and civilians alike, seemed to be rising inexorably.
  211. ^ "Suez Crisis: Key players". 21 July 2006. Retrieved 19 July 2018.
  212. ^ Schoenherr, Steven (15 December 2005). "The Suez Crisis". Retrieved 31 May 2013.
  213. .
  214. . [p. 300] In exchange (for Israeli withdrawal) the United states had indirectly promised to guarantee Israel's right of passage through the straits (to the Red sea) and its right to self defense if the Egyptian closed them....(p 301) The 1956 war resulted in a significant reduction of...Israeli border tension. Egypt refrained from reactivating the Fedaeen, and...Egypt and Jordan made great effort to curb infiltration
  215. ^ Bascomb 2009, p. 219–229.
  216. ^ Cole 2003, p. 27. "... the Eichmann trial, which did so much to raise public awareness of the Holocaust ..."
  217. S2CID 144734253
  218. ^ Cohen, Avner (3 May 2019). "How a Standoff with the U.S. Almost Blew up Israel's Nuclear Program". Haaretz.
  219. ^ "The Battle of the Letters, 1963: John F. Kennedy, David Ben-Gurion, Levi Eshkol, and the U.S. Inspections of Dimona | National Security Archive". 29 April 2019.
  220. ^ "The Politics of Miscalculation in the Middle East", by Richard B. Parker (1993 Indiana University Press) p. 38
  221. ^ Gilbert 2005, p. 1
  222. .
  223. ^ "On This Day 5 Jun". BBC. 5 June 1967. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
  224. ^ Segev 2007, p. 178.
  225. .
  226. , Cambridge University Press, 2013, p. 32.
  227. . Although Eshkol denounced the Egyptians, his response to this development was a model of moderation. His speech on 21 May demanded that Nasser withdraw his forces from Sinai but made no mention of the removal of UNEF from the Straits nor of what Israel would do if they were closed to Israeli shipping. The next day Nasser announced to an astonished world that henceforth the Straits were, indeed, closed to all Israeli ships
  228. ^ Segev 2007, p. 289.
  229. ^ Smith 2006, p. 126. "Nasser, the Egyptian president, decided to mass troops in the Sinai ... casus belli by Israel."
  230. ^ Bennet, James (13 March 2005). "The Interregnum". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved 11 February 2010.
  231. . Retrieved 8 March 2010.
  232. . Retrieved 8 March 2010.
  233. . The New York Times. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
  234. ^ "1973: Arab states attack Israeli forces". On This Day. BBC News. 6 October 1973. Retrieved 15 July 2007.
  235. ^ "Agranat Commission". Knesset. 2008. Retrieved 8 April 2010.
  236. ^ Bregman 2002, pp. 169–170: "In hindsight we can say that 1977 was a turning point ..."
  237. ^ Bregman 2002, pp. 171–174.
  238. ^ a b c Bregman 2002, pp. 186–187.
  239. ^ Wootliff, Raoul. "Final text of Jewish nation-state law, approved by the Knesset early on July 19". Retrieved 16 October 2023.
  240. .
  241. OCLC 4651987544. Archived from the original
    (PDF) on 20 November 2009. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
  242. ^ "Golan Heights profile". BBC News. 27 November 2015. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  243. . Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  244. . Retrieved 12 October 2021.
  245. .
  246. ^ Bregman 2002, p. 199.
  247. .
  248. .
  249. .
  250. ^ Stone & Zenner 1994, p. 246. "Toward the end of 1991 ... were the result of internal Palestinian terror."
  251. ^ Haberman, Clyde (9 December 1991). "After 4 Years, Intifada Still Smolders". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 March 2008.
  252. ^ Mowlana, Gerbner & Schiller 1992, p. 111.
  253. ^ Bregman 2002, p. 236.
  254. ^ "From the End of the Cold War to 2001". Boston College. Archived from the original on 27 August 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  255. ^ "The Oslo Accords, 1993". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 22 January 2010. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
  256. ^ "Israel–PLO Recognition – Exchange of Letters between PM Rabin and Chairman Arafat – Sept 9, 1993". Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 31 March 2010.
  257. ^ Harkavy & Neuman 2001, p. 270. "Even though Jordan in 1994 became the second country, after Egypt to sign a peace treaty with Israel ..."
  258. ^ "Sources of Population Growth: Total Israeli Population and Settler Population, 1991–2003". Settlements information. Foundation for Middle East Peace. Archived from the original on 26 August 2013. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  259. .
  260. .
  261. ^ "Israel marks Rabin assassination". BBC News. 12 November 2005.
  262. ^ Bregman 2002, p. 257.
  263. ^ Hanne Eggen Røislien, "Living with Contradiction: Examining the Worldview of the Jewish Settlers in Hebron", 2 October 2015 International Journal of Conflict and Violence, Vol.1 (2) 2007, pp.169–184
  264. U.S. Department of State
    . 23 October 1998. Retrieved 30 March 2010.
  265. ^ Gelvin 2005, p. 240.
  266. .
  267. ^ Sela-Shayovitz, R. (2007). Suicide bombers in Israel: Their motivations, characteristics, and prior activity in terrorist organizations. International Journal of Conflict and Violence (IJCV), 1(2), 163. "The period of the second Intifada significantly differs from other historical periods in Israeli history, because it has been characterized by intensive and numerous suicide attacks that have made civilian life into a battlefront."
  268. ^ Gross, Tom (16 January 2014). "The big myth: that he caused the Second Intifada". The Jewish Chronicle. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  269. ^ Hong, Nicole (23 February 2015). "Jury Finds Palestinian Authority, PLO Liable for Terrorist Attacks in Israel a Decade Ago". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 22 April 2016.
  270. ^ Ain, Stewart (20 December 2000). "PA: Intifada Was Planned". The Jewish Week. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007.
  271. ^ Samuels, David (1 September 2005). "In a Ruined Country". The Atlantic. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
  272. ^ "West Bank barrier route disputed, Israeli missile kills 2". USA Today. 29 July 2004. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
  273. . Retrieved 12 February 2012.
  274. ^ "Fatalities before Operation "Cast Lead"". B'Tselem. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
  275. ^ "Security Council Calls for End to Hostilities between Hizbollah, Israel, Unanimously Adopting Resolution 1701 (2006)". United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701. 11 August 2006.
    Escalation of hostilities in Lebanon and in Israel since Hizbollah's attack on Israel on 12 July 2006
  276. ^ Harel, Amos (13 July 2006). "Hezbollah kills 8 soldiers, kidnaps two in offensive on northern border". Haaretz. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  277. ^ Koutsoukis, Jason (5 January 2009). "Battleground Gaza: Israeli ground forces invade the strip". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 5 January 2009.
  278. ^ Ravid, Barak (18 January 2009). "IDF begins Gaza troop withdrawal, hours after ending 3-week offensive". Haaretz. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  279. ^ Azoulay, Yuval (1 January 2009). "Two IDF soldiers, civilian lightly hurt as Gaza mortars hit Negev". Haaretz. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  280. ^ Lappin, Yaakov; Lazaroff, Tovah (12 November 2012). "Gaza groups pound Israel with over 100 rockets". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
  281. ^ Stephanie Nebehay (20 November 2012). "UN rights boss, Red Cross urge Israel, Hamas to spare civilians". Reuters. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
    * al-Mughrabi, Nidal (24 November 2012). "Hamas leader defiant as Israel eases Gaza curbs". Reuters. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
    * "Israeli air strike kills top Hamas commander Jabari". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 14 November 2012.
  282. ^ "Israel and Hamas Trade Attacks as Tension Rises". The New York Times. 8 July 2014.
  283. ^ "Israel and Hamas agree Gaza truce, Biden pledges assistance". Reuters. 21 May 2021.
  284. ^ Martínez, Andrés R.; Bubola, Emma (10 October 2023). "What We Know About the Hamas Attack and Israel's Response". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 October 2023.
  285. ^ Gillett, Francesca (8 October 2023). "How an Israel music festival turned into a nightmare after Hamas attack". BBC News. Archived from the original on 8 October 2023. Retrieved 8 October 2023.
  286. ^ Tabachnick, Cara (8 October 2023). "Israelis search for loved ones with posts and pleas on social media". CBS News. Archived from the original on 8 October 2023. Retrieved 8 October 2023.
  287. ^ Amanda Borschel-Dan (7 October 2023). "Thousands flee rocket and gunfire at all-night desert 'Nature Party'; dozens missing". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 7 October 2023. Retrieved 8 October 2023.
  288. ^ a b c d e f g h "Israel". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 5 January 2017.
  289. ^ Cohen, Gili (9 January 2012). "Israel Navy to devote majority of missile boats to secure offshore drilling rafts". Haaretz.
  290. ^ "Area of Districts, Sub-Districts, Natural Regions and Lakes". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 11 September 2012. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
  291. ^ "Israel (Geography)". Country Studies. 7 May 2009. Retrieved 12 February 2010.
  292. ^ "The Coastal Plain". Israel Ministry of Tourism. Archived from the original on 7 January 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  293. . Retrieved 20 July 2007.
  294. . Retrieved 19 September 2007.
  295. ^ Rinat, Zafrir (29 May 2008). "More endangered than rain forests?". Haaretz. Tel Aviv. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  296. PMID 28608869
  297. .
  298. ^ "Forestry and Green Innovations". Jewish National Fund. Retrieved 13 November 2023.
  299. ^ "Israel | Facts, History, Population, & Map | Britannica". 12 November 2023. Retrieved 13 November 2023.
  300. ^ "Israel". Britannica Kids. Retrieved 13 November 2023.
  301. .
  302. ^ American Friends of the Tel Aviv University, Earthquake Experts at Tel Aviv University Turn to History for Guidance (4 October 2007). Quote: The major ones were recorded along the Jordan Valley in the years 31 B.C.E., 363 C.E., 749 C.E., and 1033 C.E. "So roughly, we are talking about an interval of every 400 years. If we follow the patterns of nature, a major quake should be expected any time because almost a whole millennium has passed since the last strong earthquake of 1033." (Tel Aviv University Associate Professor Dr. Shmuel (Shmulik) Marco). [1] Archived 11 August 2020 at the Wayback Machine
  303. ^ a b Zafrir Renat, Israel Is Due, and Ill Prepared, for Major Earthquake, Haaretz, 15 January 2010. "On average, a destructive earthquake takes place in Israel once every 80 years, causing serious casualties and damage." [2]
  304. ^ Watzman, Haim (8 February 1997). "Left for dead". New Scientist. London. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  305. ^ "WMO Region 6: Highest Temperature". World Meteorological Organization's World Weather & Climate Extremes Archive. Arizona State University. Archived from the original on 13 September 2021. Retrieved 14 September 2021.
  306. ^ Goldreich 2003, p. 85.
  307. ^ "Average Weather for Tel Aviv-Yafo". The Weather Channel. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2007.
  308. ^ "Average Weather for Jerusalem". The Weather Channel. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 11 July 2007.
  309. ^ Sitton, Dov (20 September 2003). "Development of Limited Water Resources – Historical and Technological Aspects". Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 7 November 2007.
  310. ^ a b Grossman, Gershon; Ayalon, Ofira; Baron, Yifaat; Kauffman, Debby. "Solar energy for the production of heat Summary and recommendations of the 4th assembly of the energy forum at SNI". Samuel Neaman Institute for Advanced Studies in Science and Technology. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
  311. ^ "Flora of Israel Online". Archived from the original on 30 April 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2010.
  312. ^ "National Parks and Nature Reserves, Israel". Israel Ministry of Tourism. Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
  313. ^ "Climate Change Trends and Impact in Israel". Ministry of Environmental Protection. 2 November 2020. Retrieved 29 June 2021.
  314. ^ Dashefsky, Arnold; Della-Pergola, Sergio; Sheskin, Ira, eds. (2021). World Jewish Population (PDF) (Report). Berman Jewish DataBank. Retrieved 4 September 2023.
  315. ^ "ISRAEL: Crackdown on illegal migrants and visa violators". IRIN. 14 July 2009.
  316. ^ Adriana Kemp, "Labour migration and racialisation: labour market mechanisms and labour migration control policies in Israel", Social Identities 10:2, 267–292, 2004
  317. ^ "Israel rounds up African migrants for deportation". Reuters. 11 June 2012.
  318. ^ "Urban population (% of total population) – Israel". World Bank. Retrieved 11 February 2023.
  319. ^ Israel's Apartheid against Palestinians: Cruel System of Domnination and Crime Against Humanity, Amnesty International 2022 p.16: 'Today, Palestinian citizens and permanent residents of Israel comprise some 21% of Israel's population and number approximately 1.9 million. Some 90% of Palestinians with Israeli citizenship live in 139 densely populated towns and villages in the Galilee and Triangle regions in northern Israel and the Negev/Naqab region in the south, as a result of deliberate segregation policies. The vast majority of the remaining 10% live in "mixed cities".'
  320. ^ 'A Threshold Crossed,' Human Rights Watch 27 April 2021 pp.7,57–63:' This policy, which aims to maximize Jewish Israeli control over land, concentrates the majority of Palestinians who live outside Israel's major, predominantly Jewish cities into dense, under-served enclaves and restricts their access to land and housing, while nurturing the growth of nearby Jewish communities.'
  321. ^ Nimer Sultany, 'The Making of an Underclass: The Palestinian Citizens of Israel,' Israel Studies Review Vol. 27, No. 2, (Winter 2012), pp. 190–200 pp.191,194.'the Palestinian Israeli population grew from 156,000 in 1948 to 1.4 million in 2012. Their villages became overcrowded as their land reserves steadily decreased. The lands were transferred from Palestinian private hands to state control. . .While the state has established hundreds of Jewish communities, it has not established any new Palestinian communities since 1948—except in the forced concentration of the Bedouin communities in poor towns.'
  322. : ' With about 90 percent of Israel's Palestinian citizens living in Arab-only towns and villages, they suffer from the hypersegregation typical of African American urban neighborhoods and its attendant deleterious consequences. This remarkable similarity, however, has different origins...Palestinian residents in old mixed cities are congregated into distinct neighborhoods, whereas in new mixed cities they form distinct enclaves, distinguished by strong family and communal ties'
  323. ^ "Can Jews and Palestinians live peacefully in Israel? The data on mixed neighborhoods says yes". The Washington Post. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  324. ^ "Life expectancy at birth". OECD Data. OECD.
  325. Agence France Presse
    . 29 March 2020. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
  326. ^ Dov Chernichovsky, Bishara Bisharat, Liora Bowers, Aviv Brill, and Chen Sharony, "The Health of the Arab Israeli Population". Taub Center for Social Policy Studies in Israel December 2017 pp.1–50, 13 (2015)
  327. ^ "Saudi writer: 'Why is life expectancy in Israel better?'". BBC News. 9 October 2012.
  328. ^ "Taub Center report shows discrepancy in Jewish, Arab life expectancy". Ynetnews. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  329. ^ Omer-Man, Michael (7 August 2011). "This Week in History: Jewish right to aliya becomes law". The Jerusalem Post.
  330. .
  331. ^ Herman, Pini (1 September 1983). "The Myth of the Israeli Expatriate". Moment Magazine. Vol. 8, no. 8. pp. 62–63.
  332. SSRN 2180400
  333. ^ Rettig Gur, Haviv (6 April 2008). "Officials to US to bring Israelis home". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  334. ^ "Jews, by Continent of Origin, Continent of Birth and Period of Immigration" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 15 September 2022. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  335. .
  336. ^ "The myth of the Mizrahim". The Guardian. London. 3 April 2009.
  337. ^ Joel Schalit (31 August 2009). "The Missing Mizrahim". Jewcy.
  338. ^ Okun, Barbara S.; Khait-Marelly, Orna (2006). "Socioeconomic Status and Demographic Behavior of Adult Multiethnics: Jews in Israel" (PDF). Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 26 May 2013.
  339. ^ DellaPergola, Sergio (2011). "Jewish Demographic Policies" (PDF). The Jewish People Policy Institute.
  340. ^ "Israel (people)". 2007.
  341. ^ Yoram Ettinger (5 April 2013). "Defying demographic projections". Israel Hayom. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  342. ^ Gorenberg, Gershom (26 June 2017). "Settlements: The Real Story". The American Prospect. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
  343. ^ a b c "Localities and Population, by Population Group, District, Sub-District and Natural Region" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 15 September 2022. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  344. ^ a b Yaniv, Omer; Haddad, Netta; Assaf-Shapira, Yair (2022). Jerusalem Facts and Trends 2022 (PDF) (Report). Jerusalem Institute for Policy Research. p. 25. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  345. ^ "Settlements in the Gaza Strip". Settlement Information. Archived from the original on 26 August 2013. Retrieved 12 December 2007.
  346. ^ "Population of Israel on the Eve of 2022". Retrieved 13 February 2022.
  347. ^ Citizenship, Identity and Political Participation: Measuring the Attitudes of the Arab Citizens in Israel (Report). Konrad Adenauer Foundation. December 2017. pp. 22, 25, 28. (p.28) "The positions of the participants in the focus groups reflect the strength of Palestinian-Arab identity among Arab citizens and the fact that they do not see a contradiction between Palestinian-Arab national identity and Israeli civic identity. The designation "Israeli-Arab" aroused great opposition in the focus groups, as did Israel's Independence Day. A comparison of views expressed in the focus groups with the general results of the survey points to differences between collective positions and memory and individual feelings and attitudes. The collective position presented in the focus group discussions finds expression in the public sphere and emphasizes the Palestinian national identity. Conversely, the responses of the survey participants reveal individual attitudes that assign a broader (albeit secondary, identity) dimension to the component of Israeli civic identity"; quote (p.25): "Amongst the participants there was consensus that Palestinian identity occupies a central place in their consciousness. The definition "Palestinian" has national and emotional importance, as it embodies the heritage of Arab citizens and their culture. This was expressed explicitly in the words of the participants: "We are Palestinian Arabs and we say this with pride;""We are Palestinian citizens of Israel. The emphasis is on the word 'Palestinians'"; "I am first and foremost a Palestinian and nothing more." The designation "Arab citizens of Israel" was acceptable to them on the basis of the understanding that it is impossible to live without citizenship, and as long as Israeli citizenship does not harm the national consciousness. Conversely, the participants spoke out against the designation "Arab-Israeli" and made statements such as "I am an Arab, I belong to a larger culture than the State of Israel"; "We are not the Arabs of Israel, I am an Arab who does not belong to the State of Israel. My roots and my Arabness existed before them." "[Arab-Israeli] is an inappropriate expression because our ancestors were here before '48."
  348. ^ Lynfield, Ben (27 September 2017). "Survey: 60% of Arab Israelis have positive view of state". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 23 October 2017.
  349. .
  350. ^ "Localities, Population and Density per Sq. Km., by Metropolitan Area and Selected Localities". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 6 September 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
  351. ^ a b c "Regional Statistics". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 22 February 2023.
  352. ^ Roberts 1990, p. 60 Although East Jerusalem and the Golan Heights have been brought directly under Israeli law, by acts that amount to annexation, both of these areas continue to be viewed by the international community as occupied, and their status as regards the applicability of international rules is in most respects identical to that of the West Bank and Gaza.
  353. ^ "Population Density by City".
  354. ^ 2.22 Localities and Population, by Municipal Status and District, 2018
  355. ^ "List of Cities in Israel".
  356. ^ "New town Harish harbors hopes of being more than another Pleasantville". The Times of Israel. 25 August 2015. Retrieved 2 July 2018.
  357. ^ Choshen, Maya (2021). "Population of Jerusalem, by Age, Religion and Geographical Spreading, 2019" (PDF). Jerusalem Institute for Policy Research. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
  358. ^ Israel Central Bureau of Statistics: The Ethiopian Community in Israel
  359. ^ "Israel may admit 3,000 Ethiopia migrants if Jews". Reuters. 16 July 2009.
  360. ^ Meyer, Bill (17 August 2008). "Israel's welcome for Ethiopian Jews wears thin". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
  361. ^ "Study: Soviet immigrants outperform Israeli students". Haaretz. 10 February 2008.
  362. ^ "French radio station RFI makes aliyah". Ynetnews. 5 December 2011.
  363. . In 1948, the newly independent state of Israel took over the old British regulations that had set English, Arabic, and Hebrew as official languages for Mandatory Palestine but, as mentioned, dropped English from the list. In spite of this, official language use has maintained a de facto role for English, after Hebrew but before Arabic.
  364. . English is not considered official but it plays a dominant role in the educational and public life of Israeli society. ... It is the language most widely used in commerce, business, formal papers, academia, and public interactions, public signs, road directions, names of buildings, etc. English behaves 'as if' it were the second and official language in Israel.
  365. . In terms of English, there is no connection between the declared policies and statements and de facto practices. While English is not declared anywhere as an official language, the reality is that it has a very high and unique status in Israel. It is the main language of the academy, commerce, business, and the public space.
  366. ^ "English programs at Israeli universities and colleges". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
  367. ^ "Israel's Religiously Divided Society". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 8 March 2016. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  368. ^ "Table 2.1 — Population, by Religion and Population. As of may 2011 estimate the population was 76.0 Jewish. Group". Statistical Abstract of Israel 2006 (No. 57). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 September 2012.
  369. ^ Starr, Kelsey Jo; Masci, David (8 March 2016). "In Israel, Jews are united by homeland but divided into very different groups". Pew Research Center. Retrieved 14 January 2017.
  370. ^ Shahar Ilan (24 November 2009). "At the edge of the abyss". Haaretz.
  371. ^ Bassok, Moti (25 December 2006). "Israel's Christian population numbers 148,000 as of Christmas Eve". Haaretz. Retrieved 26 April 2012.
  372. ^ "National Population Estimates" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. p. 27. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
  373. ^ "Israel's disputatious Avigdor Lieberman: Can the coalition hold together?". The Economist. 11 March 2010. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
  374. .
  375. .
  376. ^ "The Baháʼí World Centre: Focal Point for a Global Community". The Baháʼí International Community. Archived from the original on 29 June 2007. Retrieved 2 July 2007.
  377. ^ "Teaching the Faith in Israel". Baháʼí Library Online. 23 June 1995. Retrieved 6 August 2007.
  378. ^ "Kababir and Central Carmel – Multiculturalism on the Carmel". Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  379. ^ "Visit Haifa". Retrieved 8 January 2015.
  380. ^ "Education in Ancient Israel". American Bible Society. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
  381. ^ Moaz, Asher (2006). "Religious Education in Israel". University of Detroit Mercy Law Review. 83 (5): 679–728.
  382. ^ a b David Adler (10 March 2014). "Ambitious Israeli students look to top institutions abroad". ICEF. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  383. ^ Karin Kloosterman (30 October 2005). "Bill Gates – Israel is a high tech superpower". ISRAEL21c. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
  384. ^ Gary Shapiro (11 July 2013). "What Are The Secrets Behind Israel's Growing Innovative Edge?". Forbes. Retrieved 3 July 2015.
  385. ^ Education at a Glance: Israel (Report). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. 15 September 2016. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
  386. ^ "Israel: IT Workforce". Information Technology Landscape in Nations Around the World. Archived from the original on 13 September 2006. Retrieved 14 August 2007.
  387. ^ Israeli Schools: Religious and Secular Problems. Education Resources Information Center. 10 October 1984. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  388. ^ Kashti, Or; Ilan, Shahar (18 July 2007). "Knesset raises school dropout age to 18". Haaretz. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  389. ^ a b Shetreet, Ida Ben; Woolf, Laura L. (2010). "Education" (PDF). Publications Department. Ministry of Immigrant Absorption. Retrieved 30 August 2012.
  390. ^ "Religion and Education Around the World". 13 December 2016.
  391. ^ "6. Jewish educational attainment". 13 December 2016.
  392. ^ "How Religious Groups Differ in Educational Attainment". 13 December 2016.
  393. ^ "Jews at top of class in first-ever global study of religion and education". 13 December 2016.
  394. ^ "The Israeli Matriculation Certificate". United States-Israel Educational Foundation via the University of Szeged University Library. January 1996. Archived from the original on 15 September 2017. Retrieved 5 August 2007.
  395. ^ "המגזר הערבי נוצרי הכי מצליח במערכת החינוך)". Retrieved 30 October 2014.
  396. ^ Druckman, Yaron (23 December 2012). "Christians in Israel: Strong in education". Ynetnews. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
  397. ^ Konstantinov, Viacheslav (2015). "Patterns of Integration into Israeli Society among Immigrants from the Former Soviet Union over the Past Two Decades". Myers-JDC-Brookdale Institute. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
  398. ^ "עולים מחבר העמים מצליחים יותר בבגרויות". וואלה! חדשות. 10 February 2008.
  399. ^ "Students in Grade 12 – Matriculation Examinees and Those Entitled to a Certificate" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 2023. Retrieved 19 October 2023.
  400. ^ Silver, Stefan (11 May 2017). "Israel's educational tradition drives economic growth". Kehlia News Israel.
  401. ^ "Higher Education in Israel". Embassy of Israel In India. Archived from the original on 25 July 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
  402. ^ Paraszczuk, Joanna (17 July 2012). "Ariel gets university status, despite opposition". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 21 December 2013.
  403. ^ "About Technion". Technion. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2013.
  404. ^ "Israel". Monash University. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2013.
  405. ^ "History of the Library". National Library of Israel. Retrieved 22 August 2014.
  406. ^ a b "Israel". Academic Ranking of World Universities. 2016. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  407. ^ a b "Field Listing — Executive Branch". The World Factbook. 19 June 2007. Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 20 July 2007.
  408. ^ In 1996, direct elections for the prime minister were inaugurated, but the system was declared unsatisfactory and the old one reinstated. See "Israel's election process explained". BBC News. 23 January 2003. Retrieved 31 March 2010.
  409. ^ "The Electoral System in Israel". The Knesset. Retrieved 8 August 2007.
  410. ^ Jewish settlers can vote in Israeli elections, though West Bank is officially not Israel, Fox News, February 2015: "When Israelis go to the polls next month, tens of thousands of Jewish settlers in the West Bank will also be casting votes, even though they do not live on what is sovereign Israeli territory. This exception in a country that doesn't allow absentee voting for citizens living abroad is a telling reflection of Israel's somewhat ambiguous and highly contentious claim to the territory, which has been under military occupation for almost a half century."
  411. ^ The Social Composition of the 20th Knesset, Israeli Democracy Institute, 30 March 2015
  412. ^ Halbfinger, David M.; McCann, Allison (28 February 2020). "As Israel Votes Again (and Again), Arabs See an Opportunity". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 January 2022.
  413. ^ Abu Much, Afif (7 November 2022). "Arab Israeli parties trade blame for election fiasco". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 12 May 2023.
  414. ^ "Israel". Freedom in the World. Freedom House. 2020. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
  415. ^ Mazie 2006, p. 34.
  416. . The compromise, therefore, was to choose constructive ambiguity: as surprising as it may seem, there is no law that declares Judaism the official religion of Israel. However, there is no other law that declares Israel's neutrality toward all confessions. Judaism is not recognized as the official religion of the state, and even though the Jewish, Muslim and Christian clergy receive their salaries from the state, this fact does not make Israel a neutral state. This apparent pluralism cannot dissimulate the fact that Israel displays a clear and undoubtedly hierarchical pluralism in religious matters. ... It is important to note that from a multicultural point of view, this self-restrained secularism allows Muslim law to be practiced in Israel for personal matters of the Muslim community. As surprising as it seems, if not paradoxical for a state in war, Israel is the only Western democratic country in which Sharia enjoys such an official status.
  417. . It is true that Jewish Israelis, and secular Israelis in particular, conceive of religion as shaped by a state-sponsored religious establishment. There is no formal state religion in Israel, but the state gives its official recognition and financial support to particular religious communities, Jewish, Islamic and Christian, whose religious authorities and courts are empowered to deal with matters of personal status and family law, such as marriage, divorce, and alimony, that are binding on all members of the communities.
  418. . Although there is no official religion in Israel, there is also no clear separation between religion and state. In Israeli public life, tensions frequently arise among different streams of Judaism: Ultra-Orthodox, National-Religious, Mesorati (Conservative), Reconstructionist Progressive (Reform), and varying combinations of traditionalism and non-observance. Despite this variety in religious observances in society, Orthodox Judaism prevails institutionally over the other streams. This boundary is an historical consequence of the unique evolution of the relationship between Israel nationalism and state building. ... Since the founding period, in order to defuse religious tensions, the State of Israel has adopted what is known as the 'status quo,' an unwritten agreement stipulating that no further changes would be made in the status of religion, and that conflict between the observant and non-observant sectors would be handled circumstantially. The 'status quo' has since pertained to the legal status of both religious and secular Jews in Israel. This situation was designed to appease the religious sector, and has been upheld indefinitely through the disproportionate power of religious political parties in all subsequent coalition governments. ... On one hand, the Declaration of Independence adopted in 1948 explicitly guarantees freedom of religion. On the other, it simultaneously prevents the separation of religion and state in Israel.
  419. . The great political and ideological importance of religion in the state of Israel manifests itself in the manifold legal provisions concerned with religions phenomenon. ... It is not a system of separation between state and religion as practiced in the U.S.A and several other countries of the world. In Israel a number of religious bodies exercise official functions; the religious law is applied in limited areas
  420. ^ "Jewish nation state: Israel approves controversial bill". BBC. 19 July 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2018.
  421. ^ "Israel's high court unique in region". Boston Herald. 9 September 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2013.
  422. ^ "The Judiciary: The Court System". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 1 August 2005. Retrieved 5 August 2007.
  423. ^ "Yariv Levin". Ministry of Justice. Retrieved 21 November 2023..
  424. .
  425. ^ "Introduction to the Tables: Geophysical Characteristics". Central Bureau of Statistics. Archived from the original (doc) on 21 February 2011. Retrieved 4 September 2007.
  426. ^ "Resolution 497 (1981)". United Nations. 1981. Archived from the original on 12 June 2012. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  427. ^ "East Jerusalem: UNSC Res. 478". UN. 1980. Archived from the original on 31 December 2010. Retrieved 10 April 2010.
  428. ^ a b c Gilead Sher, The Application of Israeli Law to the West Bank: De Facto Annexation?, INSS Insight No. 638, 4 December 2014
  429. ^ a b OECD 2011.
  430. ^ Quarterly Economic and Social Monitor Archived 9 October 2021 at the Wayback Machine, Volume 26, October 2011, p. 57: "When Israel bid in March 2010 for membership in the 'Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development'... some members questioned the accuracy of Israeli statistics, as the Israeli figures (relating to gross domestic product, spending and number of the population) cover geographical areas that the Organization does not recognize as part of the Israeli territory. These areas include East Jerusalem, Israeli settlements in the West Bank and the Golan Heights."
  431. ISBN 978-0-19-968542-4. Although the basic philosophy behind the law of military occupation is that it is a temporary situation modem occupations have well demonstrated that rien ne dure comme le provisoire A significant number of post-1945 occupations have lasted more than two decades such as the occupations of Namibia by South Africa and of East Timor by Indonesia as well as the ongoing occupations of Northern Cyprus by Turkey and of Western Sahara by Morocco. The Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories, which is the longest in all occupation's history has already entered its fifth decade.
    * Azarova, Valentina. 2017, Israel's Unlawfully Prolonged Occupation: Consequences under an Integrated Legal Framework
    , European Council on Foreign Affairs Policy Brief: "June 2017 marks 50 years of Israel's belligerent occupation of Palestinian territory, making it the longest occupation in modern history."
  432. ^ "UNRWA in Figures: Figures as of 30 June 2009" (PDF). United Nations. June 2009. Retrieved 27 September 2007.
  433. ^ "Questions and Answers". Israel's Security Fence. 22 February 2004. Archived from the original on 3 October 2013. Retrieved 17 April 2007.
  434. ^ United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. "Refworld | West Bank Barrier Route Projections, July 2008". Retrieved 11 April 2014.
  435. ^ "Under the Guise of Security: Routing the Separation Barrier to Enable Israeli Settlement Expansion in the West Bank". Publications. B'Tselem. December 2005. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  436. . Israel's political structure and settlement activity have [...] in effect undermined the existence of universal suffrage (as Jewish settlers in the Occupied Territories can vote to the parliament that governs them, but their Palestinian neighbours cannot).
  437. . settlers remain fully enfranchised Israeli citizens while their Palestinian neighbors have no voting rights and no impact on Israeli policies
  438. ^ "Situation Report on the Humanitarian Situation in the Gaza Strip". Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. 23 January 2009. Archived from the original on 12 June 2012.
  439. ^ "The occupied Palestinian territories: Dignity Denied". International Committee of the Red Cross. 13 December 2007.
  440. ^ "World Report 2013: Israel/Palestine". Israel/Palestine. Human Rights Watch. 2013. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
  441. ^ "Human Rights in Palestine and Other Occupied Arab Territories: Report of the United Nations Fact Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict" (PDF). United Nations Human Rights Council. 15 September 2009. p. 85.
  442. ^ "Israel/Occupied Territories: Road to nowhere". Amnesty International. 1 December 2006.
  443. ^ a b "The scope of Israeli control in the Gaza Strip". B'Tselem. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  444. ^ "Agreed documents on movement and access from and to Gaza". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 15 November 2005. Retrieved 13 June 2013.
  445. . It is now clear that Israel is a true democracy in its broadest sense only for its Jewish citizens. The Arab-Israeli (or, as some prefer, the Palestinian-Israeli) peoples, roughly 20 percent of the total population of Israel its pre-1967 boundaries, are citizens and have voting rights, but they face political, economic, and social discrimination. And, of course, Israeli democracy is inapplicable to the nearly 4 million Palestinian Arabs in the West Bank and Gaza, conquered by Israel in June 1967, who are occupied, repressed, and in many ways, directly and indirectly, effectively ruled by Israel.
  446. .
  447. ^ "Arabs will ask U.N. to seek razing of Israeli wall". NBC News. 9 July 2004. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
  448. ^ "Olmert: Willing to trade land for peace". Ynetnews. 16 December 2006. Retrieved 26 September 2007.
  449. ^ "Syria ready to discuss land for peace". The Jerusalem Post. 12 June 2007. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  450. ^ "Egypt: Israel must accept the land-for-peace formula". The Jerusalem Post. 15 March 2007. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  451. ^ "A/RES/36/147. Report of the Special Committee to Investigate Israeli Practices Affecting the Human Rights of the Population of the Occupied Territories". Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  452. ^ Rudoren, Jodi; Sengupta, Somini (22 June 2015). "U.N. Report on Gaza Finds Evidence of War Crimes by Israel and by Palestinian Militants". The New York Times. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  453. ^ "Human Rights Council establishes Independent, International Commission of Inquiry for the Occupied Palestinian Territory". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 23 July 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  454. ^ "UN condemns Israel's West Bank settlement plans". BBC News. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  455. ^ "The Avalon Project: United Nations Security Council Resolution 605". 22 December 1987. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  456. ^ "Faced with Israeli denial of access to Occupied Palestinian Territory, UN expert resigns". 4 January 2016. Archived from the original on 5 December 2016.
  457. ^ "Human Rights Council adopts six resolutions and closes its thirty-first regular session". Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  458. ^ 'Significant human rights issues included credible reports of: unlawful or arbitrary killings; arbitrary detention, often extraterritorial detention of Palestinians from the occupied territories in Israel; restrictions on Palestinians residing in Jerusalem including arbitrary or unlawful interference with privacy, family, and home; substantial interference with the freedom of association; arbitrary or unlawful interference with privacy; harassment of nongovernmental organizations; significant restrictions on freedom of movement within the country; violence against asylum seekers and irregular migrants; violence or threats of violence against national, racial, or ethnic minority groups; and labor rights abuses against foreign workers and Palestinians from the West Bank.' Israel 2021 Human Rights Report, United States Department of State 17 April 2021.
  459. ^ 'With respect to Israeli security forces in the West Bank: credible reports of unlawful or arbitrary killings due to unnecessary or disproportionate use of force by Israeli officials; torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment by Israeli officials; arbitrary arrest or detention; arbitrary or unlawful interference with privacy; restrictions on free expression and media, including violence, threats of violence, unjustified arrests and prosecutions against journalists, and censorship; restrictions on internet freedom; restrictions on Palestinians residing in Jerusalem, including arbitrary or unlawful interference with privacy, family, and home; substantial interference with the rights of peaceful assembly and freedom of association, including harassment of nongovernmental organizations; and restrictions on freedom of movement and residence.' 2021 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Israel, West Bank and Gaza, United States Department of State 12 April 2022
  460. ^ Heyer, Julia Amalia (7 October 2014). "Kids Behind Bars: Israel's Arbitrary Arrests of Palestinian Minors". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  461. ^ "Israel and Occupied Palestinian Territories 2016/2017". Amnesty International. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  462. ^ "Eight hundred dead Palestinians. But Israel has impunity". The Independent. 26 July 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  463. ^ Isfahan, Ali (11 August 2014). "Why Israel's Impunity Goes Unpunished by International Authorities". Foreign Policy Journal. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  464. ^ "How impunity defines Israel and victimises Palestinians". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  465. ^ Barghouti, Marwan (16 April 2017). "Why We Are on Hunger Strike in Israel's Prisons". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  466. ^ Dorfman, Zach. "George Mitchell wrote 'A Path to Peace' about Israel and Palestine. Is there one?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  467. ^ "Outrage over Maimane's visit to Israel". Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  468. ^ "The subordination of Palestinian rights must stop". The National. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  469. ^ "Palestine-Israel Journal: Settlements and the Palestinian Right to Self-Determination". Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  470. ^ Hammond, Jeremy R. "The Rejection of Palestinian Self Determination" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 February 2017. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  471. ^ "Top US senator clashes with Netanyahu over Israeli rights record". Politico. 31 March 2016. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  472. ^ "Allegations of Israeli Human Rights Violations Closely Scrutinized, Says U.S. State Department". Haaretz. 6 May 2017. Retrieved 12 February 2017.
  473. S2CID 143245560
  474. ^ Nikki Haley urges UN to shift its criticism from Israel to Iran, 20 April 2017, Times of Israel
  475. ^ U.N. Ambassador Nikki Haley: 'The Days of Israel-Bashing Are Over', 28 March 2017, National Review
  476. ^ "Ban Ki-moon recognizes bias against Israel in last Security Council speech". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 23 April 2017.
  477. ^ "Annan: Solution for refugees in Palestinian state". Ynetnews. Retrieved 27 April 2017.
  478. . The real controversy hovering over all the litigation on the security barrier concerns the fate of the Israeli settlements in the occupied territories. Since 1967, Israel has allowed and even encouraged its citizens to live in the new settlements established in the territories, motivated by religious and national sentiments attached to the history of the Jewish nation in the land of Israel. This policy has also been justified in terms of security interests, taking into consideration the dangerous geographic circumstances of Israel before 1967 (where Israeli areas on the Mediterranean coast were potentially threatened by Jordanian control of the West Bank ridge). The international community, for its part, has viewed this policy as patently illegal, based on the provisions of the Fourth Geneva Convention that prohibit moving populations to or from territories under occupation.
  479. ^ "Choosing not to veto, Obama lets anti-settlement resolution pass at UN Security Council". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  480. ^ Nebehay, Stephanie (9 July 2021). "Israeli settlements amount to war crime - U.N. rights expert". Reuters. Retrieved 6 April 2023.
  481. ^ "Chapter 3: Israeli Settlements and International Law". Amnesty International. 30 January 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2023.
  482. ^ "Here's how experts on the Middle East see the region's key issues, our new survey finds". The Washington Post. 16 February 2021.
  483. ^ "Academic experts believe that Middle East politics are actually getting worse". The Washington Post. 17 September 2021.
  484. ^ Shakir, Omar (27 April 2021). "A Threshold Crossed". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 6 April 2023.
  485. ^ "Israel committing crimes of apartheid and persecution - HRW". BBC News. 27 April 2021. Retrieved 6 April 2023.
  486. ^ Rosenfeld, Arno (27 April 2021). "Israel is committing 'crime of apartheid,' Human Rights Watch says". The Forward. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  487. ^ Berger, Miriam (1 February 2022). "Amnesty International, joining other human rights groups, says Israel is 'committing the crime of apartheid'". The Washington Post. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  488. ^ "U.S. State Department Rejects Amnesty's Apartheid Claim Against Israel". Haaretz. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  489. ISSN 0261-3077
    . Retrieved 25 October 2023.
  490. ^ "Parliamentary question E-000932/2022(ASW) | Answer given by High Representative/Vice-President Borrell i Fontelles on behalf of the European Commission". European Parliament. 20 January 2023. Retrieved 25 October 2023.
  491. ^ Andrew Tillett (2 February 2022). "PM, Labor defend Israel over apartheid claim". Australian Financial Review. Retrieved 25 October 2023.
  492. ^ "Netherlands rejects Amnesty report accusing Israel of apartheid". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2 May 2022.
  493. ^ "Germany rejects use of word 'apartheid' in connection with Israel". Reuters. 2 February 2022. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  494. ^ "Israeli policies against Palestinians amount to apartheid – Amnesty". BBC News. 1 February 2022. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
  495. ^ "Arab League, OIC welcome Amnesty's report on Israel's 'apartheid' against Palestinians". Arab News. 3 February 2022.
  496. ^ Kingsley, Patrick (23 March 2022). "U.N. Investigator Accuses Israel of Apartheid, Citing Permanence of Occupation". The New York Times.
  497. ^ "UN report urges plan to 'end Israeli colonialism, apartheid'". The New Arab. 19 October 2022.
  498. ^ Tress, Luke (28 October 2022). "UN commission says it will investigate 'apartheid' charges against Israel". The Times of Israel.
  499. ^ "Israel's Diplomatic Missions Abroad: Status of relations". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 20 April 2016. Retrieved 25 April 2016.
  500. ^ Mohammed Mostafa Kamal (21 July 2012). "Why Doesn't the Muslim World Recognize Israel?". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 30 November 2015.
  501. ^ Liebermann, Oren (16 September 2020). "Two Gulf nations recognized Israel at the White House. Here's what's in it for all sides". CNN.
  502. ^ Hansler, Jennifer (23 October 2020). "Trump announces that Israel and Sudan have agreed to normalize relations". CNN. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  503. ^ "Morocco latest country to normalise ties with Israel in US-brokered deal". BBC News. 11 December 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  504. ^ "Massive Israel protests hit universities" (Egyptian Mail, 16 March 2010) "According to most Egyptians, almost 31 years after a peace treaty was signed between Egypt and Israel, having normal ties between the two countries is still a potent accusation and Israel is largely considered to be an enemy country"
  505. ^ Abadi 2004, pp. 37–39, 47.
  506. ^ Abadi 2004, pp. 47–49.
  507. ^ הוראות הדין הישראלי (in Hebrew). Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2004. Archived from the original on 1 July 2007. Retrieved 9 August 2007.
  508. ^ "Qatar, Mauritania cut Israel ties". Al Jazeera English. 17 January 2009. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  509. ^ Flores, Paola (29 November 2019). "Bolivia to renew Israel ties after rupture under Morales". ABC News. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
  510. ^ Kuo, Mercy A. (17 July 2018). "Israel-China Relations: Innovation, Infrastructure, Investment". The Diplomat.
  511. S2CID 147342045
  512. ^ Yaakov, Saar (18 October 2017). "There Were Times (Hayu Zemanim)" (in Hebrew). Israel Hayom. p. 30.
  513. ^ "U.S. Relations With Israel Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs Fact Sheet March 10, 2014". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 30 October 2014.
  514. ^ "Israel: Background and Relations with the United States Updated" (PDF). Defense Technical Information Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2011. Retrieved 19 October 2009.
  515. ^ a b "U.S. Overseas Loans and Grants" (PDF).
  516. ^ "U.S. Government Foreign Grants and Credits by Type and Country: 2000 to 2010" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October 2011.
  517. ^ "Foreign Aid". Archived from the original on 25 December 2007.
  518. Gallup, Inc
    . 17 March 2022.
  519. ^ "Friend or Enemy — Israel". YouGov. 2 February 2022.
  520. ^ "The bilateral relationship". UK in Israel. Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  521. ^ "Congressional Research Service: Germany's Relations with Israel: Background and Implications for German Middle East Policy, Jan 19, 2007. (p. CRS-2)" (PDF). Retrieved 29 September 2010.
  522. ^ Eric Maurice (5 March 2015). "EU to Revise Relations with Turbulent Neighbourhood". EUobserver. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  523. ^ Abadi 2004, p. 3. "However, it was not until 1991 that the two countries established full diplomatic relations."
  524. ^ Abadi 2004, pp. 4–6.
  525. . Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  526. ^ "Israel woos Greece after rift with Turkey". BBC News. 16 October 2010.
  527. ^ "Turkey, Greece discuss exploration off Cyprus". Haaretz. Associated Press. 26 September 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  528. ^ Benari, Elad (5 March 2012). "Israel, Cyprus Sign Deal for Underwater Electricity Cable". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 7 January 2017.
  529. ^ a b "In Muslim Azerbaijan, Self-Interest Prompts Support for Israel on Gaza". Eurasianet. 7 August 2014.
  530. ^ "The Israel-Kazakhstan Partnership". The Diplomat. 19 July 2016. Archived from the original on 18 May 2022.
  531. ^ Kumar, Dinesh. "India and Israel: Dawn of a New Era" (PDF). Jerusalem Institute for Western Defense. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
  532. ^ Eichner, Itamar (4 March 2009). "From India with love". Ynetnews. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  533. ^ "Nitin Gadkari to visit Israel tomorrow". World Snap. 13 December 2010. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
  534. ^ "India to hold wide-ranging strategic talks with US, Israel". The Times of India. 19 January 2010. Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  535. ^ "Iran and Israel in Africa: A search for allies in a hostile world". The Economist. 4 February 2010. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  536. ^ Pfeffer, Anshel (28 April 2015). "The Downsides of Israel's Missions of Mercy Abroad". Haaretz. Retrieved 22 November 2015. And even when no Israelis are involved, few countries are as fast as Israel in mobilizing entire delegations to rush to the other side of the world. It has been proved time and again in recent years, after the earthquake in Haiti, the typhoon in the Philippines and the quake/tsunami/nuclear disaster in Japan. For a country of Israel's size and resources, without conveniently located aircraft carriers and overseas bases, it is quite an impressive achievement.
  537. ^ . israel international aid africa 1970.
  538. ^ "About MASHAV". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
  539. . Israel foreign aid 1958 burundi.
  540. .
  541. .
  542. ^ Ki-moon, Ban (1 December 2016). "Secretary-General's remarks at reception in honour of ZAKA International Rescue Unit [as prepared for delivery]". United Nations. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
  543. ^ Ueriel Hellman,"Israeli aid effort helps Haitians – and Israel's image", Jewish Telegraphic Agency 19 January 2010
  544. ^ Jenny Hazan (12 March 2006). "Israel's 'superwoman' takes flight to help others". ISRAEL21c.
  545. ^ "Wolfson cardiac surgeons save lives of more Gazan children". The Jerusalem Post.
  546. ^ "Earthquake in Haiti – Latet Organization deploys for immediate relief to victims". ReliefWeb (Press release). 17 January 2010.
  547. ^ "When catastrophe strikes the IDF is there to help". Israel Today. 20 May 2015. Archived from the original on 19 January 2016. Retrieved 24 November 2015.
  548. ^ "Israel's Official Development Assistance (ODA)". OECD. Retrieved 30 March 2023.
  549. ^ Ben Quinn (4 January 2017). "UK among six countries to hit 0.7% UN aid spending target". The Guardian.
  550. ^ World Giving Index (PDF) (Report). Charities Aid Foundation. October 2018. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
  551. ^ "History: 1948". Israel Defense Forces. 2007. Archived from the original on 12 April 2008. Retrieved 31 July 2007.
  552. ^ Henderson 2003, p. 97.
  553. ^ "The State: Israel Defense Forces (IDF)". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 13 March 2009. Retrieved 9 August 2007.
  554. ^ "The Israel Defense Forces". Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 21 October 2006.
  555. ^ Stendel 1997, pp. 191–192.
  556. ^ Shtrasler, Nehemia (16 May 2007). "Cool law, for wrong population". Haaretz. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
  557. ^ "Sherut Leumi (National Service)". Nefesh B'Nefesh. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  558. ^ "Israel's Arab soldiers who fight for the Jewish state". BBC News. 8 November 2016.
  559. ^ IISS 2018, pp. 339–340
  560. ^ Katz, Yaakov (30 March 2007). "Arrow can fully protect against Iran". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  561. ^ Israeli Mirage III and Nesher Aces, By Shlomo Aloni, (Osprey 2004), p. 60
  562. ^ Spike Anti-Tank Missile, Israel
  563. ^ Robert Johnson (19 November 2012). "How Israel Developed Such A Shockingly Effective Rocket Defense System". Business Insider. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
  564. ^ Sarah Tory (19 November 2012). "A Missile-Defense System That Actually Works?". Slate. Retrieved 20 November 2012.
  565. ^ Zorn, E.L. (8 May 2007). "Israel's Quest for Satellite Intelligence". Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 26 April 2010. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
  566. ^ Katz, Yaakov (11 June 2007). "Analysis: Eyes in the sky". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  567. ^ ElBaradei, Mohamed (27 July 2004). "Transcript of the Director General's Interview with Al-Ahram News". International Atomic Energy Agency. Archived from the original on 18 April 2012. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  568. ^ "Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction: Assessing the Risks" (PDF). Office of Technology Assessment. August 1993. pp. 65, 84. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
  569. ^ "Background Information". 2005 Review Conference of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). United Nations. 27 May 2005. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
  570. ^ Ziv, Guy, "To Disclose or Not to Disclose: The Impact of Nuclear Ambiguity on Israeli Security", Israel Studies Forum, Vol. 22, No. 2 (Winter 2007): 76–94
  571. ^ "Popeye Turbo". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
  572. ^ "Glossary". Israel Homeowner. Archived from the original on 17 May 2012. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  573. ^ Defence Expenditure in Israel, 1950–2015 (PDF) (Report). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 29 May 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 June 2017. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
  574. ^ Trends in World Military Expenditure, 2021 (PDF) (Report). Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. April 2022. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  575. ^ Sharp, Jeremy M. (22 December 2016). U.S. Foreign Aid to Israel (PDF) (Report). Congressional Research Service. p. 36. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 July 2015. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
  576. ^ Lake, Eli (15 September 2016). "The U.S.-Israel Memorandum of Misunderstanding". Bloomberg. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
  577. ^ "Top List TIV Tables". Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Retrieved 18 April 2023.
  578. ^ Israel reveals more than $7 billion in arms sales, but few names By Gili Cohen | 9 January 2014, Haaretz
  579. ^ Global Peace Index 2022 (PDF) (Report). Institute for Economics and Peace. June 2022. p. 11. Retrieved 21 February 2023.
  580. .
  581. .
  582. ^ "Israel". IMF data mapper. International Monetary Fund. October 2023. Retrieved 21 November 2023.
  583. ^ Team, FAIR (6 September 2023). "Top 10 Richest Countries in Asia [2023]". FAIR. Retrieved 20 November 2023.
  584. ^ "Global wealth report". Credit Suisse. Retrieved 20 September 2022.
  585. ^ Wrobel, Sharon (26 December 2022). "Israel ranked 4th-best-performing economy among OECD countries in 2022". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 8 February 2023.
  586. ^ Chang, Richard J. "The Countries With The Most Billionaires 2022". Forbes. Retrieved 29 March 2023.
  587. ^ "Israel". OECD Data. OECD. Retrieved 13 October 2023.
  588. ^ "List of OECD Member countries — Ratification of the Convention on the OECD". OECD. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
  589. ^ "The Global Competitiveness Report 2019" (PDF). Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  590. ^ "Rankings". World Bank. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  591. ^ "Global Human Capital Report 2017". World Economic Forum. 13 September 2017. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  592. ^ "Israel's International Investment Position (IIP), June 2015" (Press release). Bank of Israel. 20 September 2015. Archived from the original on 15 December 2018. Retrieved 29 January 2017.
  593. .
  594. ^ Richard Behar (11 May 2016). "Inside Israel's Secret Startup Machine". Forbes. Retrieved 30 October 2016.
  595. ^ "The Israeli technological Eco-system". Deloitte Israel. Retrieved 26 February 2023.
  596. ^ Yerman, Jordan (22 May 2019). "A Startup Nation: Why Israel Has Become The New Silicon Valley". APEX. Retrieved 22 October 2023.
  597. ISSN 0013-0613
    . Retrieved 22 October 2023.
  598. ^ Ioniță, Antoanela (3 February 2023). "Lessons from Tel Aviv: What Has Fueled Israel's Startup Ecosystem's Growth". Retrieved 22 October 2023.
  599. ^ "Israel: Start-up nation comes of age". Financial Times. 6 January 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2023.
  600. ^ Krawitz, Avi (27 February 2007). "Intel to expand Jerusalem R&D". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  601. ^ "Microsoft Israel R&D center: Leadership". Microsoft. Archived from the original on 13 March 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2012. Avi returned to Israel in 1991, and established the first Microsoft R&D Center outside the US ...
  602. ^ "Berkshire Announces Acquisition". The New York Times. 6 May 2006. Retrieved 15 May 2010.
  603. ^ Koren, Orah (26 June 2012). "Instead of 4 work days: 6 optional days to be considered half day-outs". The Marker. Retrieved 26 June 2012. (in Hebrew)
  604. ^ "Israel keen on IT tie-ups". Business Line. Chennai, India. 10 January 2001. Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 19 March 2012.
  605. ^ "Israel's technology industry: Punching above its weight". The Economist. 10 November 2005. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  606. ^ "Research and development (R&D) – Gross domestic spending on R&D". OECD Data. OECD. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
  607. ISBN 978-92-805-3321-7. Retrieved 17 October 2023. Overview
  608. ISBN 979-10-95870-14-2. Retrieved 2 September 2021. Overview
  609. ^ "These Are the World's Most Innovative Countries". 22 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  610. ^ Shteinbuk, Eduard (22 July 2011). "R&D and Innovation as a Growth Engine" (PDF). National Research University – Higher School of Economics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 August 2019. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
  611. ^ Augusto Lopez-Claros; Irene Mia (2006). Israel: Factors in the Emergence of an ICT Powerhouse (PDF) (Report). Geneva: Foreign Direct Investment Database. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 July 2015 – via
  612. ^ "Investing in Israel". New York Jewish Times. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2016.
  613. ^ Haviv Rettig Gur (9 October 2013). "Tiny Israel a Nobel heavyweight, especially in chemistry". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 30 January 2017.
  614. ^ Heylin, Michael (27 November 2006). "Globalization of Science Rolls On" (PDF). Chemical & Engineering News. pp. 29–31. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
  615. ^ Gordon, Evelyn (24 August 2006). "Kicking the global oil habit". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  616. ^ Yarden Skop (2 September 2013). "Israel's scientific fall from grace: Study shows drastic decline in publications per capita". Haaretz.
  617. ^ Stafford, Ned (21 March 2006). "Stem cell density highest in Israel". The Scientist. Retrieved 18 October 2012.
  618. ^ "Futron Releases 2012 Space Competitiveness Index". Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 21 December 2013.
  619. ^ O'Sullivan, Arieh (9 July 2012). "Israel's domestic satellite industry saved". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 9 December 2012. The Amos 6 will be IAI's 14th satellite
  620. ^ Tran, Mark (21 January 2008). "Israel launches new satellite to spy on Iran". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  621. ^ "Space launch systems – Shavit". Deagel. Retrieved 19 November 2013.
  622. ^ e-Teacher (9 February 2010). "Learning Hebrew Online – Colonel Ilan Ramon". The Jerusalem Post. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 1 December 2015.
  623. ^ Talbot, David (2015). "Megascale Desalination". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  624. ^ Federman, Josef (30 May 2014). "Israel solves water woes with desalination". Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2 June 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
  625. ^ Kershner, Isabel (29 May 2015). "Aided by the Sea, Israel Overcomes an Old Foe: Drought". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 May 2015.
  626. ^ "What You Israelis Have Done With Water Tech is Simply Amazing". Arutz Sheva. 16 November 2011. Retrieved 16 November 2011.
  627. ^ "Ashkelon, Israel".
  628. ^ Rabinovitch, Ari (6 December 2011). "Desalination plant could make Israel water exporter". Reuters. Jerusalem.
  629. ^ Lettice, John (25 January 2008). "Giant solar plants in Negev could power Israel's future". The Register.
  630. ^ a b Gradstein, Linda (22 October 2007). "Israel Pushes Solar Energy Technology". NPR.
  631. ^ a b Parry, Tom (15 August 2007). "Looking to the sun". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Archived from the original on 24 September 2008.
  632. ^ a b Sandler, Neal (26 March 2008). "At the Zenith of Solar Energy". Bloomberg Businessweek. Archived from the original on 5 November 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
  633. ^ Del Chiaro, Bernadette; Telleen-Lawton, Timothy. "Solar Water Heating: How California Can Reduce Its Dependence on Natural Gas" (PDF). Environment California. Retrieved 20 March 2012.
  634. ^ Berner, Joachim (January 2008). "Solar, what else?!" (PDF). Sun & Wind Energy. Israel Special. p. 88. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2010.
  635. ^ "Will Israel's Electric Cars Change the World?". Time. 26 April 2011. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
  636. ^ "Electric cars are all the rage in Israel". Financial Times. 17 September 2010. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
  637. ^ "Israel to keep electric car recharging fees low". Haaretz. 13 March 2012. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
  638. ^ "Baby you can drive my electric car". Jpost. 4 March 2012. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
  639. ^ "Electric Car Company Folds After Taking $850 Million From GE And Others". Business Insider. 26 May 2013.
  640. ^ Wainer, David; Ben-David, Calev (22 April 2010). "Israel Billionaire Tshuva Strikes Gas, Fueling Expansion in Energy, Hotels". Bloomberg News. Archived from the original on 12 January 2011.
  641. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". Archived from the original on 15 March 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  642. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". Archived from