King of Sweden
|Reign||8 December 1907 – 29 October 1950|
|Successor||Gustaf VI Adolf|
|Born||16 June 1858|
Drottningholm Palace, Stockholm, Sweden
|Died||29 October 1950 (aged 92)|
Drottningholm Palace, Stockholm, Sweden
|Burial||9 November 1950|
(m. 1881; died 1930)
Oscar II of Sweden
|Mother||Sophia of Nassau|
|Religion||Church of Sweden|
Gustaf V (Oscar Gustaf Adolf; 16 June 1858 – 29 October 1950) was
Gustaf's early reign saw the rise of
An avid hunter and sportsman, Gustaf presided over the
Gustaf V was born in
On 20 September 1881 he married Princess Victoria of Baden in Karlsruhe, Germany.
When he ascended the throne, Gustaf V was, at least on paper, a near-autocrat. The 1809 Instrument of Government made the king both head of state and head of government, and ministers were solely responsible to him. However, his father had been forced to accept a government chosen by the majority in Parliament in 1905. Since then, prime ministers had been de facto required to have the confidence of the Riksdag to stay in office.
Early in his reign, in 1910, Gustaf V refused to grant clemency to the convicted murderer Johan Alfred Ander, who thus became the last person to be executed in Sweden.
At first, Gustaf V seemed to be willing to accept parliamentary rule. After the Liberals won a massive landslide in 1911, Gustaf appointed Liberal leader Karl Staaff as Prime Minister. However, during the runup to World War I, the elites objected to Staaff's defence policy. In February 1914, a large crowd of farmers gathered at the royal palace and demanded that the country's defences be strengthened. In his reply, the so-called Courtyard Speech—which was actually written by explorer Sven Hedin, an ardent conservative—Gustaf promised to strengthen the country's defences. Staaff was outraged, telling the king that parliamentary rule called for the Crown to stay out of partisan politics. He was also angered that he had not been consulted in advance of the speech. However, Gustaf retorted that he still had the right to "communicate freely with the Swedish people." The Staaff government resigned in protest, and Gustaf appointed a government of civil servants headed by Hjalmar Hammarskjöld (father of future UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld) in its place.
The 1917 elections showed a heavy gain for the Liberals and
Gustaf V was considered to have German sympathies during World War I. His political stance during the war was highly influenced by his wife, who felt a strong connection to her German homeland. On 18 December 1914, he sponsored a meeting in Malmö with the other two kings of Scandinavia to demonstrate unity. Another of Gustaf V's objectives was to dispel suspicions that he wanted to bring Sweden into the war on Germany's side.
Although effectively stripped of political power, Gustaf was not completely without influence. In 1938, for instance, he personally summoned the German ambassador to Sweden and told him that if Hitler attacked Czechoslovakia over its refusal to give up the Sudetenland, it would trigger a world war that Germany would almost certainly lose. Additionally, his long reign gave him great moral authority as a symbol of the nation's unity.
Alleged Nazi sympathies
Both the King and his grandson
When Nazi Germany invaded the
During the war, Gustav invited Swedish Nazi leader Sven Olov Lindholm to Stockholm Palace. The Swedish king had friends in Lindholm's movement.
Midsummer crisis 1941
According to Prime Minister Hansson, during the
Confirmation of the King's action is contained in German Foreign Policy documents captured at the end of the war. On 25 June 1941, the German Minister in Stockholm sent a "Most Urgent-Top Secret" message to Berlin in which he stated that the King had just informed him that the
The King's words conveyed the joyful emotion he felt. He had lived through anxious days and had gone far in giving his personal support to the matter. He added confidentially that he had found it necessary to go so far as to mention his abdication.
Gustaf V was thin, and known for his height. He wore pince-nez eyeglasses and sported a pointed mustache for most of his teen years.
Gustaf V was a devoted tennis player, appearing under the pseudonym Mr G. As a player and promoter of the sport, he was elected into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1980. The King learned the sport during a visit in Britain in 1876 and founded Sweden's first tennis club on his return home. In 1936 he founded the King's Club. During his reign, Gustaf was often seen playing on the Riviera. On a visit to Berlin, Gustaf went straight from a meeting with Hitler to a tennis match with the Jewish player Daniel Prenn. During World War II, he interceded to obtain better treatment for Davis Cup stars Jean Borotra of France and his personal trainer and friend Baron Gottfried von Cramm of Germany, who had been imprisoned by the Nazi Government on the charge of a homosexual relationship with a Jew.
Allegations of a love affair between Gustav and
In 2021 the alleged events surrounding the Haijby affair were adapted into a fictional miniseries for Sveriges Television called En Kunglig Affär (A Royal Secret), directed by Lisa James Larsson and written by Bengt Braskered. 
After a reign of nearly 43 years, King Gustaf V died in
- National honours
- Knight and Commander of the Seraphim, 16 June 1858
- Knight of the Order of Charles XIII, 16 June 1858
- Commander Grand Cross of the Sword, 16 June 1858
- Commander Grand Cross of the Polar Star, 16 June 1858
- Commander Grand Cross of the Order of Vasa, 12 July 1886
- Honorary Member of the Johanniter Order
- Foreign military ranks
- Denmark: General à la suite in the Royal Danish Army, 1909
- Russia: Admiral à la suite in the Imperial Russian Navy, 1909
- United Kingdom: Honorary Admiral in the Royal Navy, 3 november 1908. 
- German Empire: General à la suite in the Imperial German Army, 1909
- German Empire: Admiral à la suite in the Imperial German Navy, 1909
- Spain: Admiral à la suite in the Spanish Navy, 1928
- German Empire: Honorary commander of the third Life Grenadier Regiment "Königin Elisabeth", 1909
- Foreign honours
- Grand Cross of St. Olav, with Collar, 16 June 1858
- Knight of the Norwegian Lion, 21 January 1904
- King Haakon VII Freedom Cross
- Knight of the Elephant, 22 June 1874
- Cross of Honour of the Order of the Dannebrog, 18 November 1912
- Grand Commander of the Dannebrog, in Diamonds, 29 October 1950
- Grand Cross of the Royal Hungarian Order of St. Stephen, 1879
- Regency Hungary: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit, with Holy Crown and Collar
- Knight of the Annunciation, 24 February 1879
- Grand Cross of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, 24 February 1879
- Spain: Knight of the Golden Fleece, 30 June 1881
- Siam: Knight of the Order of the Royal House of Chakri, 13 July 1897
- United Kingdom:
- Honorary Grand Cross of the Bath (civil), 19 February 1901
- Stranger Knight of the Garter, 25 November 1906
- Royal Victorian Chain, 27 April 1908
- Austria: Grand Cross of the Decoration of Honour for Services to the Republic of Austria
- Belgium: Grand Cordon of the Order of Leopold
- Brazil: Grand Cross of the Southern Cross
- Chile: Collar of the Order of Merit
- China: Order of Propitious Clouds, 1st Class
- Czechoslovakia: Collar of the White Lion, 1937
- Egypt: Collar of the Order of Muhammad Ali
- Cross of Liberty, Grade III Class I, 29 April 1925
- Collar of the White Star, 7 June 1938
- Ethiopia: Collar of the Order of Solomon, 1945
- Finland: Grand Cross of the White Rose, with Collar, 1919
- German Empire:
- Knight of the Black Eagle, 6 February 1873; with Collar
- Grand Cross of the Red Eagle
- Grand Commander's Cross of the Royal House Order of Hohenzollern, 10 March 1881
- Knight of the House Order of Fidelity, 1881
- Knight of the Order of Berthold the First, 1881
- Knight of St. Hubert, 1879
- Ernestine duchies: Grand Cross of the Saxe-Ernestine House Order
- Hesse and by Rhine: Grand Cross of the Ludwig Order, 20 September 1881
- Mecklenburg: Grand Cross of the Wendish Crown, with Crown in Ore and Collar
- Nassau Ducal Family: Knight of the Gold Lion of Nassau
- Oldenburg: Grand Cross of the Order of Duke Peter Friedrich Ludwig, with Golden Crown and Collar
- Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach: Grand Cross of the White Falcon, 1881
- Saxony: Knight of the Rue Crown, 1888
- Württemberg: Grand Cross of the Württemberg Crown, 1879
- Greece: Grand Cross of the Redeemer
- Qajar dynasty: House Order of the Imperial Effigy, 1st Class
- Pahlavi dynasty: Collar of the Order of Pahlavi
- Iraq: Grand Collar of the Order of the Hashimites
- Japan: Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum, 29 July 1881
- Latvia: Commander Grand Cross of the Three Stars, with Collar
- Monaco: Grand Cross of St. Charles, 6 April 1875
- Netherlands: Grand Cross of the Netherlands Lion
- Ottoman Empire:
- Order of Distinction
- Order of Osmanieh, 1st Class
- Peru: Grand Cross of the Sun of Peru, in Diamonds, 1923
- Poland: Knight of the White Eagle, 15 June 1928
- Grand Cross of the Tower and Sword
- Grand Cross of the Sash of the Three Orders
- Knight of St. Andrew, 1881
- Knight of St. Alexander Nevsky
- Knight of the White Eagle
- Knight of St. Anna, 1st Class
- Knight of St. Stanislaus, 1st Class
- Venezuela: Collar of the Order of the Liberator
- Yugoslavia: Grand Cross of the Star of Karađorđe
Upon his creation as Duke of Värmland, Gustaf V was granted a coat of arms with the Arms of Värmland in base. Upon his accession to the throne, he assumed the Arms of Dominion of Sweden.
Arms as crown prince from 1872 to 1905
Arms as crown prince from 1905 to 1907
Greater Coat of Arms of Sweden
Royal Monogram of King Gustaf V of Sweden
Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden
|11 November 1882||15 September 1973||Married 1) |
Lady Louise Mountbatten(1889–1965), had issue (a stillborn daughter)
|Prince Wilhelm, Duke of Södermanland||17 June 1884||5 June 1965||Married |
Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia(1890–1958), had issue
|Prince Erik, Duke of Västmanland||20 April 1889||20 September 1918||Died unmarried of the Spanish flu, no issue|
Swedish author Anders Lundebeck (1900–1976) allegedly was an extramarital son of King Gustaf V, an allegation purported by Lundebeck himself and to some extent supported by existing facts.
|Ancestors of Gustaf V|
- ^ "Gustaf V". NE Nationalencyklopedin AB (in Swedish). Retrieved 26 April 2021.
- ^ "Haijbyaffären". NE Nationalencyklopedin AB (in Swedish). Retrieved 26 April 2021.
- ^ "Kin Gustav V's No Nazi Sympathizer". Real Clear History. 7 December 2020. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
- ^ William Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (Touchstone Edition) (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1990)
- ^ Dagens Nyheter 070729 "Churchill fick vredesutbrott över svenske kungens svek". Debatt (in Swedish). 29 July 2007. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 29 July 2007.
- ^ "King Gustav V of Sweden: Nazi Sympathiser?". RoyaltyRobert Blogger and Writer. 15 June 2020. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
- ^ "Karaktärsmord på döda svenskar". Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). 18 September 2002. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
- ISBN 9789185057887
- ^ Operation Norrsken: Om Stasi och Sverige under kalla kriget, av Christoph Andersson
- ^ Hansson (Wahlbäck, Regeringen och kriget. Ur statsrådens dagböcker 1939–41)
- ^ Documents of German Foreign Policy 1918–1945 Series D Volume XIII The War Years 23 June 1941 – 11 December 1941, Published in UK by HMSO and in US By Government Printing Office.
- ISBN 91-1-787202-2.
- ^ "A Royal Secret: The intriguing true story of King Gustaf V, Sweden's first gay king". www.voguescandinavia.com. 2 December 2021. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
- ^ Sveriges statskalender (in Swedish), 1905, p. 438, retrieved 6 January 2018 – via runeberg.org
- ^ Sveriges statskalender (in Swedish), 1905, p. 525, retrieved 6 January 2018 – via runeberg.org
- ^ Almanach de Gotha (in French). Justus Perths Publishers. 1 January 1909. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
- ^ "Supplement 28192 in the London Gazette". The Gazette. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
- ^ Sveriges statskalender (in Swedish), vol. 2, 1950, p. 5, retrieved 6 January 2018 – via runeberg.org
- ^ Sveriges och Norges statskalender (in Swedish), 1870, p. 690, retrieved 6 January 2018 – via runeberg.org
- ^ "The Order of the Norwegian Lion", The Royal House of Norway. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
- ^ a b Bille-Hansen, A. C.; Holck, Harald, eds. (1944) [1st pub.:1801]. Statshaandbog for Kongeriget Danmark for Aaret 1944 [State Manual of the Kingdom of Denmark for the Year 1944] (PDF). Kongelig Dansk Hof- og Statskalender (in Danish). Copenhagen: J.H. Schultz A.-S. Universitetsbogtrykkeri. p. 16. Retrieved 1 May 2020 – via da:DIS Danmark.
- ^ Levin, Sergey (15 June 2018). "Order of the Dannebrog (Dannebrogordenen). Denmark". Tallinn Museum of Orders of Knighthood. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
- ^ "A Szent István Rend tagjai" Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Italia : Ministero dell'interno (1898). Calendario generale del Regno d'Italia. Unione tipografico-editrice. p. 54.
- ^ "Caballeros de la insigne orden del toisón de oro", Guía Oficial de España (in Spanish), 1887, p. 147, retrieved 21 March 2019
- Royal Thai Government Gazette (9 March 1898). "พระราชทานเครื่องราชอิสริยาภรณ์ ทีประเทศยุโรป" (PDF) (in Thai). Archived from the original(PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
- ^ "No. 27286". The London Gazette. 19 February 1901. p. 1226.
- ^ "Garter Knights Meet in Splendid Ceremony ... King Haakon is Invested," New York Times. 25 November 1906
- ^ "No. 28134". The London Gazette. 5 May 1908. p. 3311.
- ^ "Kolana Řádu Bílého lva aneb hlavy států v řetězech" (in Czech), Czech Medals and Orders Society. Retrieved 2018-08-09.
- ^ "Cross of Liberty: Gustav V of Sweden". Estonian State Decorations (in Estonian). Retrieved 22 June 2020.
- ^ "Order of the White Star: Gustav V of Sweden". Estonian State Decorations (in Estonian). Retrieved 22 June 2020.
- ^ "The Imperial Orders and Decorations of Ethiopia Archived 26 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine", The Crown Council of Ethiopia. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
- ^ "Suomen Valkoisen Ruusun Suurristi Ketjuineen". ritarikunnat.fi (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 May 2020.
- ^ a b "Königlich Preussische Ordensliste", Preussische Ordens-Liste (in German), Berlin, 1: 7, 936, 1886
- ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Baden (1896), "Großherzogliche Orden" pp. 62, 76
- ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreich Bayern (1908), "Königliche Orden" p. 7
- ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Hessen (1883), "Großherzogliche Orden und Ehrenzeichen", p. 14
- ^ Staatshandbuch für das Großherzogtum Sachsen / Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (1900), "Großherzogliche Hausorden" p. 16 Archived 6 September 2020 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Sachsen (1901). "Königlich Orden". Staatshandbuch für den Königreich Sachsen: 1901. Dresden: Heinrich. p. 4 – via hathitrust.org.
- ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreich Württemberg (1907), "Königliche Orden" p. 28
- ^ 刑部芳則 (2017). 明治時代の勲章外交儀礼 (PDF) (in Japanese). 明治聖徳記念学会紀要. p. 143.
- ^ Sovereign Ordonnance of 6 April 1875
- ^ Odznaczenie króla szwedzkiego [Awards of the King of Sweden] (in Polish), Gazeta Lwowska, 15 June 1928, p. 3, retrieved 1 May 2020
- ^ "Gemensamt ordenstecken för de tre förnämsta portugisiska ordnarna, Kristus-, S:t Bento d'Aviz- och S:t Jakobsorden" (in Swedish).
- ^ Article 2009-10-02 Om två uteblivna Nobelpris by Ivo Holmqvist in Dixikon (sponsored by the Swedish Arts Council)
- ISBN 91-0-058048-1p 35
- Gustaf V profile at the International Tennis Hall of Fame website
- . . 1914.
- Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). 1911. .
- Newspaper clippings about Gustaf V in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW