Gustaf V

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Gustaf V
King of Sweden
Reign8 December 1907 – 29 October 1950
PredecessorOscar II
SuccessorGustaf VI Adolf
Prime ministers
Born(1858-06-16)16 June 1858
Drottningholm Palace, Stockholm, Sweden
Died29 October 1950(1950-10-29) (aged 92)
Drottningholm Palace, Stockholm, Sweden
Burial9 November 1950
Spouse
(m. 1881; died 1930)
Issue
Names
Oscar Gustaf Adolf
HouseBernadotte
FatherOscar II
MotherSophia of Nassau
ReligionChurch of Sweden
SignatureGustaf V's signature

Gustaf V (Oscar Gustaf Adolf; 16 June 1858 – 29 October 1950) was

remaking of the Swedish constitution in 1974. He was the first Swedish king since the High Middle Ages not to have a coronation
and so never wore the king's crown, a practice that has continued ever since.

Gustaf's early reign saw the rise of

Social Democrats secured a parliamentary majority under Staaff's successor, Nils Edén, he allowed Edén to form a new government which de facto stripped the monarchy of virtually all powers and enacted universal and equal suffrage, including for women, by 1919. Bowing to the principles of parliamentary democracy, he remained a popular figurehead for the remaining 31 years of his rule, although not completely without influence. Gustaf V had pro-German and anti-Communist stances which were outwardly expressed during World War I and the Russian Civil War. During World War II, he allegedly urged Per Albin Hansson's coalition government to accept requests from Nazi Germany
for logistics support, arguing that refusing might provoke an invasion. His intervention remains controversial.

An avid hunter and sportsman, Gustaf presided over the

1912 Olympic Games and chaired the Swedish Association of Sports from 1897 to 1907. Most notably, he represented Sweden (under the alias of Mr G.) as a competitive tennis player, keeping up competitive tennis until his 80s, when his eyesight deteriorated rapidly.[1][2] He was succeeded by his son, Gustaf VI Adolf
.

Early life

First years

Prince Gustaf (far left) with his parents and brothers in 1865.

Gustaf V was born on 16 June 1858 in

Duke of Värmland, and on 12 July he was baptised Oscar Gustaf Adolf at the Royal Chapel of the Stockholm Palace by the Archbishop of Uppsala, Henrik Reuterdahl
.

The following year, his brother

Sofiero Castle near Helsingborg in Scania, which the father acquired in 1864. During his early years, the prince was considered to have a weak body constitution, and as a consequence he was treated with electrotherapy on May 10, 1871.[3]

The three eldest princes began their schooling at the newly founded Beskowska School in Östermalm in Stockholm in October 1869. Among the prince's classmates at the school was the future party leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party and three times Prime Minister of Sweden, Hjalmar Branting.

Crown Prince

On 18 September 1872 his uncle

King Charles XV
died, and Gustaf's father ascended the throne as King Oscar II. Upon his father's accession to the throne, Gustaf became crown prince of both Sweden and Norway at the age of 14. The new king and queen and their children now moved into the large Stockholm Palace, and the crown prince's schooling at the Beskowska School was interrupted, as he was now to receive his education as heir to the throne at the palace.

Wedding medal for Gustaf and Victoria in 1881

On 20 September 1881 in Karlsruhe, Germany, he married Princess Victoria of Baden, the only daughter of Frederick I, Grand Duke of Baden and Princess Louise of Prussia.

Crown Prince Gustaf wears the Coronet of the Heir Apparent in 1893
Photograph of Crown Prince Gustaf, c. 1897

On 8 December 1907 King Oscar II died and the 49-year-old Gustaf succeeded his father as King of Sweden as the fifth monarch from the House of Bernadotte.

Public life

Haakon VII of Norway, Gustaf V, and Christian X of Denmark
.
Wilhelm II and Gustaf V during the opening of the ferry between Sassnitz and Trelleborg.

When he ascended the throne, Gustaf V was, at least on paper, a

1809 Instrument of Government
made the King both head of state and head of government, and ministers were solely responsible to him. However, his father had been forced to accept a government chosen by the majority in Parliament in 1905. Since then, prime ministers had been de facto required to have the confidence of the Riksdag to stay in office.

Early in his reign, in 1910, Gustaf V refused to grant clemency to the convicted murderer Johan Alfred Ander, who thus became the last person to be executed in Sweden.

At first Gustaf V seemed to be willing to accept parliamentary rule. After the Liberals won a massive landslide victory in 1911, Gustaf appointed Liberal leader Karl Staaff as Prime Minister. However, during the run-up to World War I, the elites objected to Staaff's defence policy. In February 1914, a large crowd of farmers gathered at the royal palace and demanded that the country's defences be strengthened. In his reply, the so-called Courtyard Speech—which was actually written by explorer Sven Hedin, an ardent conservative—Gustaf promised to strengthen the country's defences. Staaff was outraged, telling the King that parliamentary rule called for the Crown to stay out of partisan politics. He was also angered that he had not been consulted in advance of the speech. However, Gustaf retorted that he still had the right to "communicate freely with the Swedish people". The Staaff government resigned in protest, and Gustaf appointed a government of civil servants headed by Hjalmar Hammarskjöld (father of future UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld) in its place.

Gustaf V and visiting L. K. Relander, the 2nd President of the Republic of Finland, pass an honour guard in 1925 in Stockholm.
Portrait of Gustaf V by Bernhard Österman, 1937/38

The 1917 elections showed a heavy gain for the Liberals and

Social Democrats, who between them held a decisive majority. Despite this, Gustaf initially tried to appoint a Conservative government headed by Johan Widén. However, Widén was unable to attract enough support for a coalition. It was now apparent that Gustaf could no longer appoint a government entirely of his own choosing, nor could he keep a government in office against the will of Parliament. With no choice but to appoint a Liberal as prime minister, he appointed a Liberal-Social Democratic coalition government headed by Staaff's successor as Liberal leader, Nils Edén
. The Edén government promptly arrogated most of the king's political powers to itself and enacted numerous reforms, most notably the institution of complete (male and female) universal suffrage in 1918–1919. While Gustaf still formally appointed the ministers, they now had to have the confidence of Parliament. He was now also bound to act on the ministers' advice. Although the provision in the Instrument of Government stating that "the King alone shall govern the realm" remained unchanged, the king was now bound by convention to exercise his powers through the ministers. Thus, for all intents and purposes, the ministers did the actual governing. While ministers were already legally responsible to the Riksdag under the Instrument of government, it was now understood that they were politically responsible to the Riksdag as well. Gustaf accepted his reduced role, and reigned for the rest of his life as a model limited constitutional monarch. Parliamentarianism had become a de facto reality in Sweden, even if it would not be formalised until 1974, when a new Instrument of Government stripped the monarchy of even nominal political power. Gustaf V was considered to have German sympathies during World War I. His political stance during the war was highly influenced by his wife, who felt a strong connection to her German homeland. On 18 December 1914, he sponsored a meeting in Malmö with the other two kings of Scandinavia to demonstrate unity. Another of Gustaf V's objectives was to dispel suspicions that he wanted to bring Sweden into the war on Germany's side.[4]

Although effectively stripped of political power, Gustaf was not completely without influence. In 1938, for instance, he personally summoned the German ambassador to Sweden and told him that if Hitler attacked Czechoslovakia over its refusal to give up the Sudetenland, it would trigger a world war that Germany would almost certainly lose.[5] Additionally, his long reign gave him great moral authority as a symbol of the nation's unity.

Alleged Nazi sympathies

Prince Gustaf Adolf, Hermann Göring, and King Gustaf V in Berlin, February 1939

Both the King and his grandson

Hitler during a visit to Berlin to soften his persecution of the Jews, according to historian Jörgen Weibull. He was also noted for appealing to the leader of Hungary
to save its Jews "in the name of humanity."

When Nazi Germany invaded the

Bolshevik[6] pest" and congratulating him on his "already achieved victories".[7] He was stopped from doing so by Prime Minister Per Albin Hansson.[8]

During the war Gustaf V invited Swedish Nazi leader Sven Olov Lindholm to Stockholm Palace. The King had friends in Lindholm's movement.[9][10][11]

Midsummer crisis 1941

According to Prime Minister Hansson, during the

Engelbrecht Division, through Swedish territory from southern Norway to northern Finland in June 1941, around Midsummer. The accuracy of the claim is debated, and the King's intention, if he really made the threat, is sometimes alleged to be his desire to avoid conflict with Germany. The event has received considerable attention from Swedish historians and is known as midsommarkrisen, the Midsummer Crisis.[12]

Confirmation of the King's action is contained in German Foreign Policy documents captured at the end of the war. On 25 June 1941, the German Ambassador in Stockholm sent a "Most Urgent-Top Secret" message to Berlin in which he stated that the King had just informed him that the

transit of German troops would be allowed. He added:

The King's words conveyed the joyful emotion he felt. He had lived through anxious days and had gone far in giving his personal support to the matter. He added confidentially that he had found it necessary to go so far as to mention his abdication.[13]

Personal life

Gustaf V playing tennis at Real Club de la Puerta de Hierro, 1927
Tennis shoes worn by Gustaf V.

Gustaf V was thin, and known for his height. He wore pince-nez eyeglasses and sported a pointed mustache for most of his teen years.

Gustaf V was a devoted tennis player, appearing under the pseudonym Mr G. As a player and promoter of the sport, he was elected to the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1980. The King learned to play tennis during a visit in Britain in 1876 and founded Sweden's first tennis club on his return home. In 1936 he founded the King's Club. During his reign, Gustaf was often seen playing on the Riviera. On a visit to Berlin, Gustaf went straight from a meeting with Hitler to a tennis match with the Jewish player Daniel Prenn. During World War II, he interceded to obtain better treatment for Davis Cup star Jean Borotra of France and his personal trainer and friend Baron Gottfried von Cramm of Germany, who had been imprisoned by the Nazi Government on the charge of a homosexual relationship with a Jew.

Swedish coastal defence ship HM Pansarskepp Gustaf V (1922–1957).

Haijby affair

Allegations of a love affair between Gustaf V and

Kurt Haijby led to the court paying 170,000 kronor under the threat of blackmail by Haijby. That led to the so-called Haijby Affair and several controversial trials and convictions against Haijby, which spawned considerable controversy about Gustaf V's alleged homosexuality.[14]

In 2021 the alleged events surrounding the Haijby Affair were adapted into a fictional miniseries for Sveriges Television called En Kunglig Affär (A Royal Secret), directed by Lisa James Larsson and written by Bengt Braskered.[15]

Death

After a reign of nearly 43 years, Gustaf V died in Stockholm of acute bronchitis with bronchietasis on 29 October 1950. His 67-year-old son Gustaf succeeded him as Gustaf VI Adolf.

Honours

National honours[16]
Foreign military ranks[18]
  •  Denmark: General à la suite in the Royal Danish Army, 1909
  •  Russian Empire: Admiral à la suite in the Imperial Russian Navy, 1909
  •  United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland: Honorary Admiral in the Royal Navy, 3 november 1908.[19]
  •  German Empire: General à la suite in the Imperial German Army, 1909
  •  German Empire: Admiral à la suite in the Imperial German Navy, 1909
  •  Restoration (Spain): Admiral à la suite in the Spanish Navy, 1928
  •  German Empire: Honorary commander of the third Life Grenadier Regiment "Königin Elisabeth", 1909
Foreign honours[20]

Arms

Upon his creation as Duke of Värmland, Gustaf V was granted a coat of arms with the Arms of Värmland in base. Upon his accession to the throne, he assumed the Arms of Dominion of Sweden.

  • Arms as crown prince from 1872 to 1905
    Arms as crown prince from 1872 to 1905
  • Arms as crown prince from 1905 to 1907
    Arms as crown prince from 1905 to 1907
  • Greater Coat of Arms of Sweden
    Greater Coat of Arms of Sweden
  • Royal Monogram of King Gustaf V of Sweden
    Royal Monogram of King Gustaf V of Sweden

Issue

Name Birth Death Notes
Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden
11 November 1882 15 September 1973 Married 1) Princess Margaret of Connaught (1882–1920), had issue (including Ingrid, Queen of Denmark);

Married 2)

Lady Louise Mountbatten
(1889–1965), had issue (a stillborn daughter)

Prince Wilhelm, Duke of Södermanland 17 June 1884 5 June 1965 Married
Grand Duchess Maria Pavlovna of Russia
(1890–1958), had issue
Prince Erik, Duke of Västmanland 20 April 1889 20 September 1918 Died unmarried of the Spanish flu, no issue

Swedish author Anders Lundebeck (1900–1976) allegedly was an extramarital son of King Gustaf V,[49] an allegation purported by Lundebeck himself[50] and to some extent supported by existing facts.[51]

Ancestry

References

  1. ^ "Gustaf V". NE Nationalencyklopedin AB (in Swedish). Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  2. ^ "Haijbyaffären". NE Nationalencyklopedin AB (in Swedish). Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  3. ^ von Dardel, Fritz (1913). Minnen, Fjärde delen 1871–1872 (in Swedish). Stockholm: P.A. Norstedt & Söners förlag. p. 37.
  4. ^ "Kin Gustav V's No Nazi Sympathizer". Real Clear History. 7 December 2020. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  5. ^ William Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (Touchstone Edition) (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1990)
  6. .
  7. ^ Dagens Nyheter 070729 "Churchill fick vredesutbrott över svenske kungens svek". Debatt (in Swedish). 29 July 2007. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 29 July 2007.
  8. ^ "King Gustav V of Sweden: Nazi Sympathiser?". RoyaltyRobert Blogger and writer. 15 June 2020. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  9. ^ "Karaktärsmord på döda svenskar". Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). 18 September 2002. Retrieved 26 April 2021.
  10. ^ Operation Norrsken: Om Stasi och Sverige under kalla kriget, av Christoph Andersson
  11. ^ Hansson (Wahlbäck, Regeringen och kriget. Ur statsrådens dagböcker 1939–41)
  12. ^ Documents of German Foreign Policy 1918–1945 Series D Volume XIII The War Years 23 June 1941 – 11 December 1941, Published in UK by HMSO and in US By Government Printing Office.
  13. .
  14. ^ "A Royal Secret: The intriguing true story of King Gustaf V, Sweden's first gay king". www.voguescandinavia.com. 2 December 2021. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  15. ^ Sveriges statskalender (in Swedish), 1905, p. 438, retrieved 6 January 2018 – via runeberg.org
  16. ^ Sveriges statskalender (in Swedish), 1905, p. 525, retrieved 6 January 2018 – via runeberg.org
  17. ^ Almanach de Gotha (in French). Justus Perths Publishers. 1 January 1909. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  18. ^ "Supplement 28192 in the London Gazette". The Gazette. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  19. ^ Sveriges statskalender (in Swedish), vol. 2, 1950, p. 5, retrieved 6 January 2018 – via runeberg.org
  20. ^ Sveriges och Norges statskalender (in Swedish), 1870, p. 690, retrieved 6 January 2018 – via runeberg.org
  21. ^ "The Order of the Norwegian Lion", The Royal House of Norway. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  22. ^ a b Bille-Hansen, A. C.; Holck, Harald, eds. (1944) [1st pub.:1801]. Statshaandbog for Kongeriget Danmark for Aaret 1944 [State Manual of the Kingdom of Denmark for the Year 1944] (PDF). Kongelig Dansk Hof- og Statskalender (in Danish). Copenhagen: J.H. Schultz A.-S. Universitetsbogtrykkeri. p. 16. Retrieved 1 May 2020 – via da:DIS Danmark.
  23. ^ Levin, Sergey (15 June 2018). "Order of the Dannebrog (Dannebrogordenen). Denmark". Tallinn Museum of Orders of Knighthood. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  24. ^ "A Szent István Rend tagjai" Archived 22 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  25. ^ Italia : Ministero dell'interno (1898). Calendario generale del Regno d'Italia. Unione tipografico-editrice. p. 54.
  26. ^ "Caballeros de la insigne orden del toisón de oro", Guía Oficial de España (in Spanish), 1887, p. 147, retrieved 21 March 2019
  27. (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  28. ^ "No. 27286". The London Gazette. 19 February 1901. p. 1226.
  29. ^ "No. 27806". The London Gazette (Supplement). 13 June 1905. p. 4249.
  30. ^ "Garter Knights Meet in Splendid Ceremony ... King Haakon is Invested," New York Times. 25 November 1906
  31. ^ "No. 28134". The London Gazette. 5 May 1908. p. 3311.
  32. ^ "Kolana Řádu Bílého lva aneb hlavy států v řetězech" (in Czech), Czech Medals and Orders Society. Retrieved 2018-08-09.
  33. ^ "Cross of Liberty: Gustav V of Sweden". Estonian State Decorations (in Estonian). Retrieved 22 June 2020.
  34. ^ "Order of the White Star: Gustav V of Sweden". Estonian State Decorations (in Estonian). Retrieved 22 June 2020.
  35. ^ "The Imperial Orders and Decorations of Ethiopia Archived 26 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine", The Crown Council of Ethiopia. Retrieved 7 September 2020.
  36. ^ "Suomen Valkoisen Ruusun Suurristi Ketjuineen". ritarikunnat.fi (in Finnish). Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  37. ^ a b "Königlich Preussische Ordensliste", Preussische Ordens-Liste (in German), 1, Berlin: 7, 936, 1886
  38. ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Baden (1896), "Großherzogliche Orden" pp. 62, 76
  39. ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreich Bayern (1908), "Königliche Orden" p. 7
  40. ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Großherzogtum Hessen (1883), "Großherzogliche Orden und Ehrenzeichen", p. 14
  41. ^ Staatshandbuch für das Großherzogtum Sachsen / Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach (1900), "Großherzogliche Hausorden" p. 16 Archived 6 September 2020 at the Wayback Machine
  42. ^ Sachsen (1901). "Königlich Orden". Staatshandbuch für den Königreich Sachsen: 1901. Dresden: Heinrich. p. 4 – via hathitrust.org.
  43. ^ Hof- und Staats-Handbuch des Königreich Württemberg (1907), "Königliche Orden" p. 28
  44. ^ 刑部芳則 (2017). 明治時代の勲章外交儀礼 (PDF) (in Japanese). 明治聖徳記念学会紀要. p. 143.
  45. ^ Sovereign Ordonnance of 6 April 1875
  46. ^ Odznaczenie króla szwedzkiego [Awards of the King of Sweden] (in Polish), Gazeta Lwowska, 15 June 1928, p. 3, retrieved 1 May 2020
  47. ^ "Gemensamt ordenstecken för de tre förnämsta portugisiska ordnarna, Kristus-, S:t Bento d'Aviz- och S:t Jakobsorden" (in Swedish).
  48. ^ Article 2009-10-02 Om två uteblivna Nobelpris by Ivo Holmqvist in Dixikon (sponsored by the Swedish Arts Council)
  49. .
  50. p 35

External links

Gustaf V
Born: 16 June 1858 Died: 29 October 1950
Regnal titles
Preceded by
King of Sweden

1907–1950
Succeeded by
Royal titles
Vacant
Title last held by
Charles
Crown Prince of Sweden

1872–1907
Succeeded by
Gustaf Adolf
Crown Prince of Norway

1872–1905
Vacant
Title next held by
Olav
Vacant
Title last held by
Carl Adolf
Duke of Värmland

1858–1907
Vacant
Title next held by
Carl Philip
Political offices
Vacant
Title last held by
Carl
Viceroy of Norway
1884
Vacant
Awards and achievements
Preceded by
Sir Cyril Newall
Cover of Time magazine

30 October 1939
Succeeded by