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Bornc. 6 to 4 BC[a]
DiedAD 30 or 33 (aged 33–38)
Jerusalem, Judaea,
Roman Empire
Cause of deathCrucifixion[b]
Known forCentral figure of Christianity


religious leader.[10] He is the central figure of Christianity, the world's largest religion. Most Christians believe Jesus to be the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited messiah, the Christ that is prophesied in the Hebrew Bible

Virtually all modern scholars of antiquity agree that

early Christian Church.[25] Accounts of his teachings and life were initially conserved by oral transmission, which was the source of the written Gospels.[26]

Easter Sunday. The world's most widely used calendar era—in which the current year is AD 2023 (or 2023 CE)—is based on the approximate birthdate of Jesus.[33]

Jesus is also revered in the

lawfully anointed and was neither divine nor resurrected.[40]


Counter-clockwise from top-right: Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, Latin, and English transcriptions of the name Jesus

Naming conventions

A typical

Joses and Judas and Simon", "the carpenter's son", or "Joseph's son"; In the Gospel of John, the disciple Philip refers to him as "Jesus son of Joseph from Nazareth". The English name Jesus, from Greek Iesous, is a rendering of Joshua (Hebrew Yehoshua, later Yeshua), and was not uncommon in Judea at the time of the birth of Jesus. Popular etymology linked the names Yehoshua and Yeshua to the verb meaning "save" and the noun "salvation".[42] The Gospel of Matthew tells of an angel that appeared to Joseph instructing him "to name him Jesus, for he will save his people from their sins".[43]

Jesus Christ

Since the early period of Christianity, Christians have commonly referred to Jesus as "Jesus Christ".[44] The word Christ was a title or office ("the Christ"), not a given name.[45][46] It derives from the Greek Χριστός (Christos),[47][48] a translation of the Hebrew mashiakh (משיח) meaning "anointed", and is usually transliterated into English as "messiah".[49] In biblical Judaism, sacred oil was used to anoint certain exceptionally holy people and objects as part of their religious investiture.[50]

Christians of the time designated Jesus as "the Christ" because they believed him to be the messiah, whose arrival is

prophesied in the Hebrew Bible and Old Testament. In postbiblical usage, Christ became viewed as a name—one part of "Jesus Christ". Etymons of the term Christian (meaning a follower of Christ) have been in use since the 1st century.[51]

Life and teachings in the New Testament

A four-page papyrus manuscript, which is torn in many places
A 3rd-century Greek papyrus of the Gospel of Luke

Canonical gospels

The four

canonical gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) are the foremost sources for the life and message of Jesus.[41] But other parts of the New Testament also include references to key episodes in his life, such as the Last Supper in 1 Corinthians 11:23–26.[52][53][54][55] Acts of the Apostles[56] refers to Jesus' early ministry and its anticipation by John the Baptist.[57][58] Acts 1:1–11[59] says more about the Ascension of Jesus[60] than the canonical gospels do.[61] In the undisputed Pauline letters, which were written earlier than the Gospels, Jesus' words or instructions are cited several times.[62][l]

Some early Christian groups had separate descriptions of Jesus' life and teachings that are not in the New Testament. These include the Gospel of Thomas, Gospel of Peter, and Gospel of Judas, the Apocryphon of James, and many other apocryphal writings. Most scholars conclude that these were written much later and are less reliable accounts than the canonical gospels.[65][66][67]

Authorship, date, and reliability

The canonical gospels are four accounts, each by a different author. The authors of the Gospels are all pseudonymous, attributed by tradition to the

beloved disciple".[70]

According to the Marcan priority, the first to be written was the Gospel of Mark (written AD 60–75), followed by the Gospel of Matthew (AD 65–85), the Gospel of Luke (AD 65–95), and the Gospel of John (AD 75–100).[71] Most scholars agree that the authors of Matthew and Luke used Mark as a source for their gospels. Since Matthew and Luke also share some content not found in Mark, many scholars assume that they used another source (commonly called the "Q source") in addition to Mark.[72]

One important aspect of the study of the Gospels is the literary genre under which they fall. Genre "is a key convention guiding both the composition and the interpretation of writings".[73] Whether the gospel authors set out to write novels, myths, histories, or biographies has a tremendous impact on how they ought to be interpreted. Some recent studies suggest that the genre of the Gospels ought to be situated within the realm of ancient biography.[74][75][76] Although not without critics,[77] the position that the Gospels are a type of ancient biography is the consensus among scholars today.[78][79]

Concerning the accuracy of the accounts, viewpoints run the gamut from considering them

inerrant descriptions of Jesus' life,[80] to doubting whether they are historically reliable on a number of points,[81] to considering them to provide very little historical information about his life beyond the basics.[82][83] According to a broad scholarly consensus, the Synoptic Gospels (the first three—Matthew, Mark, and Luke) are the most reliable sources of information about Jesus.[84][85][41]

Comparative structure and content

Matthew, Mark, and Luke are known as the Synoptic Gospels, from the Greek σύν (syn "together") and ὄψις (opsis "view"),[86][87][88] because they are similar in content, narrative arrangement, language and paragraph structure, and one can easily set them next to each other and synoptically compare what is in them.[86][87][89] Scholars generally agree that it is impossible to find any direct literary relationship between the Synoptic Gospels and the Gospel of John.[90] While the flow of many events (e.g., Jesus' baptism, transfiguration, crucifixion and interactions with his apostles) are shared among the Synoptic Gospels, incidents such as the transfiguration and Jesus' exorcizing demons[91] do not appear in John, which also differs on other matters, such as the Cleansing of the Temple.[92]

The Synoptics emphasize different aspects of Jesus. In Mark, Jesus is the

God's Kingdom.[69] He is a tireless wonder worker, the servant of both God and man.[93] This short gospel records few of Jesus' words or teachings.[69] The Gospel of Matthew emphasizes that Jesus is the fulfillment of God's will as revealed in the Old Testament, and the Lord of the Church.[94] He is the "Son of David", a "king", and the messiah.[93][95] Luke presents Jesus as the divine-human savior who shows compassion to the needy.[96] He is the friend of sinners and outcasts, come to seek and save the lost.[93] This gospel includes well-known parables, such as the Good Samaritan and the Prodigal Son.[96]

The prologue to the Gospel of John identifies Jesus as an incarnation of the divine Word (Logos).[97] As the Word, Jesus was eternally present with God, active in all creation, and the source of humanity's moral and spiritual nature.[97] Jesus is not only greater than any past human prophet but greater than any prophet could be. He not only speaks God's Word; he is God's Word.[98] In the Gospel of John, Jesus reveals his divine role publicly. Here he is the Bread of Life, the Light of the World, the True Vine and more.[93]

In general, the authors of the New Testament showed little interest in an absolute

the Passion.[102] The Gospels do not provide enough details to satisfy the demands of modern historians regarding exact dates, but it is possible to draw from them a general picture of Jesus' life story.[81][99][101]

Genealogy and nativity

Jesus was Jewish,[10] born to Mary, wife of Joseph.[103] The Gospels of Matthew and Luke offer two accounts of his genealogy. Matthew traces Jesus' ancestry to Abraham through David.[104][105] Luke traces Jesus' ancestry through Adam to God.[106][107] The lists are identical between Abraham and David, but differ radically from that point. Matthew has 27 generations from David to Joseph, whereas Luke has 42, with almost no overlap between the names on the two lists.[m][108] Various theories have been put forward to explain why the two genealogies are so different.[n]

A Nativity scene; men and animals surround Mary and newborn Jesus, who are covered in light
Adoration of the Shepherds by Gerard van Honthorst, 1622

Matthew and Luke each describe Jesus' birth, especially that Jesus was born to a virgin named Mary in

betrothed, in Bethlehem, and both support the doctrine of the virgin birth of Jesus, according to which Jesus was miraculously conceived by the Holy Spirit in Mary's womb when she was still a virgin.[112][113][114] At the same time, there is evidence, at least in the Lukan Acts of the Apostles, that Jesus was thought to have had, like many figures in antiquity, a dual paternity, since there it is stated he descended from the seed or loins of David.[115] By taking him as his own, Joseph will give him the necessary Davidic descent.[116]

74.9 x 102.2 cm
The Circumcision by Giovanni Bellini, ~1500. The work depicts the circumcision of Jesus.

In Matthew, Joseph is troubled because Mary, his betrothed, is pregnant,

flees to Egypt—later to return and settle in Nazareth.[118][119][120]

In Luke 1:31–38, Mary learns from the angel

presentation of Jesus at the Temple, Joseph, Mary and Jesus return to Nazareth.[110][112]

Early life, family, and profession

Mary and Joseph find Jesus in the Temple
The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple, by William Holman Hunt, 1860

Jesus' childhood home is identified in the Gospels of Luke and Matthew as the town of Nazareth in

Joses (or Joseph), Judas and Simon and his unnamed sisters—are mentioned in the Gospels and other sources.[125] Jesus' maternal grandparents are named Joachim and Anne in the Gospel of James.[126] The Gospel of Luke records that Mary was a relative of Elizabeth, the mother of John the Baptist.[127] Extra-biblical contemporary sources consider Jesus and John the Baptist to be second cousins through the belief that Elizabeth was the daughter of Sobe, the sister of Anne.[128][129][130]

The Gospel of Mark reports that at the beginning of his ministry, Jesus comes into conflict with his neighbors and family.[131] Jesus' mother and brothers come to get him[132] because people are saying that he is crazy.[133] Jesus responds that his followers are his true family. In the Gospel of John, Jesus and his mother attend a wedding at Cana, where he performs his first miracle at her request.[134] Later, she follows him to his crucifixion, and he expresses concern over her well-being.[135]

Jesus is called a τέκτων (

carpenter but it could cover makers of objects in various materials, including builders.[136][137] The Gospels indicate that Jesus could read, paraphrase, and debate scripture, but this does not necessarily mean that he received formal scribal training.[138]

When Jesus is presented as a baby in the Temple in Jerusalem per Jewish Law, a man named Simeon says to Mary and Joseph that Jesus "shall stand as a sign of contradiction, while a sword will pierce your own soul. Then the secret thoughts of many will come to light."[139] When Jesus, at the age of twelve, goes missing on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, his parents find him in the temple sitting among the teachers, listening to them and asking questions, and the people are amazed at his understanding and answers; Mary scolds Jesus for going missing, to which Jesus replies that he must "be in his father's house".[140]

Baptism and temptation

Jesus is baptised by John. The Holy Spirit in the form of a dove is overhead.
The Baptism of Christ by John the Baptist, by José Ferraz de Almeida Júnior, 1895


synoptic gospels describe Jesus' baptism in the Jordan River and the temptations he received while spending forty days in the Judaean Desert, as a preparation for his public ministry.[141] The accounts of Jesus' baptism are all preceded by information about John the Baptist.[142][143][144] They show John preaching penance and repentance for the remission of sins and encouraging the giving of alms to the poor[145] as he baptizes people in the area of the Jordan River around Perea and foretells the arrival of someone "more powerful" than he.[146][147]

Jesus and the Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854.

In the Gospel of Mark, John the Baptist baptizes Jesus, and as he comes out of the water he sees the Holy Spirit descending to him like a dove and a voice comes from heaven declaring him to be God's Son.[148] This is one of two events described in the Gospels where a voice from Heaven calls Jesus "Son", the other being the Transfiguration.[149][150] The spirit then drives him into the wilderness where he is tempted by Satan.[151] Jesus then begins his ministry in Galilee after John's arrest.[152]

In the Gospel of Matthew, as Jesus comes to him to be baptized, John protests, saying, "I need to be baptized by you."[153] Jesus instructs him to carry on with the baptism "to fulfill all righteousness".[154] Matthew details three temptations that Satan offers Jesus in the wilderness.[155]

In the Gospel of Luke, the Holy Spirit descends as a dove after everyone has been baptized and Jesus is praying.[156] Later John implicitly recognizes Jesus from prison after sending his followers to ask about him.[157] Luke also describes three temptations received by Jesus in the wilderness, before starting his ministry in Galilee.[158]

The Gospel of John leaves out Jesus' baptism and temptation.[159] Here, John the Baptist testifies that he saw the Spirit descend on Jesus.[160][161] John publicly proclaims Jesus as the sacrificial Lamb of God, and some of John's followers become disciples of Jesus.[85] Before John is imprisoned, Jesus leads his followers to baptize disciples as well,[162] and they baptize more people than John.[163]

Public ministry

Jesus sits atop a mount, preaching to a crowd
Sermon on the Mount, by Carl Bloch, 1877, depicts Jesus' important discourse.

The Synoptics depict two distinct geographical settings in Jesus' ministry. The first takes place north of Judea, in Galilee, where Jesus conducts a successful ministry, and the second shows Jesus rejected and killed when he travels to Jerusalem.[21] Often referred to as "rabbi",[21] Jesus preaches his message orally.[26] Notably, Jesus forbids those who recognize him as the messiah to speak of it, including people he heals and demons he exorcises (see Messianic Secret).[164]

John depicts Jesus' ministry as largely taking place in and around Jerusalem, rather than in Galilee; and Jesus' divine identity is openly proclaimed and immediately recognized.[98]

Scholars divide the ministry of Jesus into several stages. The Galilean ministry begins when Jesus returns to Galilee from the

his first disciples, who will eventually form the core of the early Church, encounter him and begin to travel with him.[144][165] This period includes the Sermon on the Mount, one of Jesus' major discourses,[165][166] as well as the calming of the storm, the feeding of the 5,000, walking on water and a number of other miracles and parables.[167] It ends with the Confession of Peter and the Transfiguration.[168][169]

As Jesus travels towards Jerusalem, in the Perean ministry, he returns to the area where he was baptized, about a third of the way down from the Sea of Galilee along the Jordan River.[170][171][172] The final ministry in Jerusalem begins with Jesus' triumphal entry into the city on Palm Sunday.[173] In the Synoptic Gospels, during that week Jesus drives the money changers from the Second Temple and Judas bargains to betray him. This period culminates in the Last Supper and the Farewell Discourse.[142][173][174]

Disciples and followers

The Exhortation to the Apostles, by James Tissot, portrays Jesus talking to his 12 disciples.

Near the beginning of his ministry, Jesus appoints twelve apostles. In Matthew and Mark, despite Jesus only briefly requesting that they join him, Jesus' first four apostles, who were fishermen, are described as immediately consenting, and abandoning their nets and boats to do so.[175] In John, Jesus' first two apostles were disciples of John the Baptist. The Baptist sees Jesus and calls him the Lamb of God; the two hear this and follow Jesus.[176][177] In addition to the Twelve Apostles, the opening of the passage of the Sermon on the Plain identifies a much larger group of people as disciples.[178] Also, in Luke 10:1–16 Jesus sends 70 or 72 of his followers in pairs to prepare towns for his prospective visit. They are instructed to accept hospitality, heal the sick, and spread the word that the Kingdom of God is coming.[179]

In Mark, the disciples are notably obtuse. They fail to understand Jesus' miracles,[180] his parables,[181] or what "rising from the dead" means.[182] When Jesus is later arrested, they desert him.[164]

Teachings and miracles

Jesus and the rich young man by Heinrich Hofmann, 1889

In the Synoptics, Jesus teaches extensively, often in

Kingdom of Heaven). The Kingdom is described as both imminent[184] and already present in the ministry of Jesus.[185] Jesus promises inclusion in the Kingdom for those who accept his message.[186] He talks of the "Son of Man", an apocalyptic figure who will come to gather the chosen.[41]

Jesus calls people to repent their sins and to devote themselves completely to God.

Jewish law, although he is perceived by some to have broken the law himself, for example regarding the Sabbath.[41] When asked what the greatest commandment is, Jesus replies: "You shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind ... And a second is like it: 'You shall love your neighbor as yourself.'"[187] Other ethical teachings of Jesus include loving your enemies, refraining from hatred and lust, turning the other cheek, and forgiving people who have sinned against you.[188][189]

John's Gospel presents the teachings of Jesus not merely as his own preaching, but as divine revelation. John the Baptist, for example, states in John 3:34: "He whom God has sent speaks the words of God, for he gives the Spirit without measure." In John 7:16 Jesus says, "My teaching is not mine but his who sent me." He asserts the same thing in John 14:10: "Do you not believe that I am in the Father and the Father is in me? The words that I say to you I do not speak on my own; but the Father who dwells in me does his works."[190][191]

The Return of the Prodigal Son by Pompeo Batoni, 1773

Approximately 30 parables form about one-third of Jesus' recorded teachings.[190][192] The parables appear within longer sermons and at other places in the narrative.[193] They often contain symbolism, and usually relate the physical world to the spiritual.[194][195] Common themes in these tales include the kindness and generosity of God and the perils of transgression.[196] Some of his parables, such as the Prodigal Son,[197] are relatively simple, while others, such as the Growing Seed,[198] are sophisticated, profound and abstruse.[199] When asked by his disciples why he speaks in parables to the people, Jesus replies that the chosen disciples have been given to "know the secrets of the kingdom of heaven", unlike the rest of their people, "For the one who has will be given more and he will have in abundance. But the one who does not have will be deprived even more", going on to say that the majority of their generation have grown "dull hearts" and thus are unable to understand.[200]

Jesus, his head surrounded by a halo, puts his hands on a leper, thereby healing him
Jesus cleansing a leper, medieval mosaic from the Monreale Cathedral, late 12th to mid-13th centuries

In the gospel accounts, Jesus devotes a large portion of his ministry to performing

Beelzebul, the prince of demons, Jesus counters that he performs them by the "Spirit of God" (Matthew 12:28) or "finger of God", arguing that all logic suggests that Satan would not let his demons assist the Children of God because it would divide Satan's house and bring his kingdom to desolation; furthermore, he asks his opponents that if he exorcises by Beel'zebub, "by whom do your sons cast them out?"[205][206][207] In Matthew 12:31–32, he goes on to say that while all manner of sin, "even insults against God" or "insults against the son of man", shall be forgiven, whoever insults goodness (or "The Holy Spirit
") shall never be forgiven; they carry the guilt of their sin forever.

In John, Jesus' miracles are described as "signs", performed to prove his mission and divinity.

raising of Jairus's daughter, for instance, the beneficiaries are told that their healing was due to their faith.[214][215]

Proclamation as Christ and Transfiguration

The Transfiguration of Jesus, depicted by Carl Bloch, 19th century

At about the middle of each of the three Synoptic Gospels are two significant events: the Confession of Peter and the Transfiguration of Jesus.[169][216][149][150] These two events are not mentioned in the Gospel of John.[217]

In his Confession, Peter tells Jesus, "You are the Messiah, the Son of the living God."[218][219][220] Jesus affirms that Peter's confession is divinely revealed truth.[221][222] After the confession, Jesus tells his disciples about his upcoming death and resurrection.[223]

In the Transfiguration,[224][149][150][169] Jesus takes Peter and two other apostles up an unnamed mountain, where "he was transfigured before them, and his face shone like the sun, and his clothes became dazzling white."[225] A bright cloud appears around them, and a voice from the cloud says, "This is my Son, the Beloved; with him I am well pleased; listen to him."[226][149]

Passion Week

The description of the last week of the life of Jesus (often called

Passion Week) occupies about one-third of the narrative in the canonical gospels,[102] starting with Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem and ending with his Crucifixion.[142][173]

Activities in Jerusalem

Jesus, riding a donkey colt, rides towards Jerusalem. A large crowd greets him outside the walls.
A painting of Jesus' final entry into Jerusalem, by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1897

In the Synoptics, the last week in Jerusalem is the conclusion of the journey through Perea and Judea that Jesus began in Galilee.[173] Jesus rides a young donkey into Jerusalem, reflecting the tale of the Messiah's Donkey, an oracle from the Book of Zechariah in which the Jews' humble king enters Jerusalem this way.[227][69] People along the way lay cloaks and small branches of trees (known as palm fronds) in front of him and sing part of Psalms 118:25–26.[228][229][230][231]

Jesus next expels the money changers from the Second Temple, accusing them of turning it into a den of thieves through their commercial activities. He then prophesies about the coming destruction, including false prophets, wars, earthquakes, celestial disorders, persecution of the faithful, the appearance of an "abomination of desolation", and unendurable tribulations.[232] The mysterious "Son of Man", he says, will dispatch angels to gather the faithful from all parts of the earth.[233] Jesus warns that these wonders will occur in the lifetimes of the hearers.[234][164] In John, the Cleansing of the Temple occurs at the beginning of Jesus' ministry instead of at the end.[235][98]

Jesus comes into conflict with the Jewish elders, such as when they

twelve apostles, secretly strikes a bargain with the Jewish elders, agreeing to betray Jesus to them for 30 silver coins.[236][237]

The Gospel of John recounts two other feasts in which Jesus taught in Jerusalem before the Passion Week.

raises Lazarus from the dead. This potent sign[98] increases the tension with authorities,[173] who conspire to kill him.[239][131] Mary of Bethany anoints Jesus' feet, foreshadowing his entombment.[240] Jesus then makes his messianic entry into Jerusalem.[131] The cheering crowds greeting Jesus as he enters Jerusalem add to the animosity between him and the establishment.[173] In John, Jesus has already cleansed the Second Temple during an earlier Passover visit to Jerusalem. John next recounts Jesus' Last Supper with his disciples.[131]

Last Supper

Juan de Juanes
, c. 1562

The Last Supper is the final meal that Jesus shares with his twelve apostles in Jerusalem before his crucifixion. The Last Supper is mentioned in all four canonical gospels; Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians[241] also refers to it.[54][55][242] During the meal, Jesus predicts that one of his apostles will betray him.[243] Despite each Apostle's assertion that he would not betray him, Jesus reiterates that the betrayer would be one of those present. Matthew 26:23–25 and John 13:26–27 specifically identify Judas as the traitor.[54][55][243]

In the Synoptics, Jesus takes bread, breaks it, and gives it to the disciples, saying, "This is my body, which is given for you". He then has them all drink from a cup, saying, "This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood,"

ordinance of the Eucharist is based on these events.[246] Although the Gospel of John does not include a description of the bread-and-wine ritual during the Last Supper, most scholars agree that John 6:22–59 (the Bread of Life Discourse) has a eucharistic character and resonates with the institution narratives in the Synoptic Gospels and in the Pauline writings on the Last Supper.[247]

In all four gospels, Jesus predicts that Peter will deny knowledge of him three times before the

rooster crows the next morning.[248][249] In Luke and John, the prediction is made during the Supper.[250] In Matthew and Mark, the prediction is made after the Supper; Jesus also predicts that all his disciples will desert him.[251][252] The Gospel of John provides the only account of Jesus washing his disciples' feet after the meal.[119] John also includes a long sermon by Jesus, preparing his disciples (now without Judas) for his departure. Chapters 14–17 of the Gospel of John are known as the Farewell Discourse and are a significant source of Christological content.[253][254]

Agony in the Garden, betrayal, and arrest

Judas kisses Jesus, and soldiers rush to seize the latter.
A depiction of the kiss of Judas and arrest of Jesus, by Caravaggio, c. 1602

In the Synoptics, Jesus and his disciples go to the garden Gethsemane, where Jesus prays to be spared his coming ordeal. Then Judas comes with an armed mob, sent by the chief priests, scribes and elders. He kisses Jesus to identify him to the crowd, which then arrests Jesus. In an attempt to stop them, an unnamed disciple of Jesus uses a sword to cut off the ear of a man in the crowd. After Jesus' arrest, his disciples go into hiding, and Peter, when questioned, thrice denies knowing Jesus. After the third denial, Peter hears the rooster crow and recalls Jesus' prediction about his denial. Peter then weeps bitterly.[252][164][248]

In John 18:1–11, Jesus does not pray to be spared his crucifixion, as the gospel portrays him as scarcely touched by such human weakness.[255] The people who arrest him are Roman soldiers and Temple guards.[256] Instead of being betrayed by a kiss, Jesus proclaims his identity, and when he does, the soldiers and officers fall to the ground. The gospel identifies Peter as the disciple who used the sword, and Jesus rebukes him for it.

Trials by the Sanhedrin, Herod, and Pilate

After his arrest, Jesus is taken late at night to the private residence of the high priest, Caiaphas, who had been installed by Pilate's predecessor, the Roman procurator Valerius Gratus.[257] The Sanhedrin was a Jewish judicial body,[258] The gospel accounts differ on the details of the trials.[259] In Matthew 26:57, Mark 14:53 and Luke 22:54, Jesus is taken to the house of the high priest, Caiaphas, where he is mocked and beaten that night. Early the next morning, the chief priests and scribes lead Jesus away into their council.[260][261][262] John 18:12–14 states that Jesus is first taken to Annas, Caiaphas's father-in-law, and then to the high priest.[260][261][262]

A depiction of Jesus' public trial
Ecce homo! Antonio Ciseri's 1871 depiction of Pontius Pilate presenting Jesus to the public

During the trials Jesus speaks very little, mounts no defense, and gives very infrequent and indirect answers to the priests' questions, prompting an officer to slap him. In Matthew 26:62, Jesus' unresponsiveness leads Caiaphas to ask him, "Have you no answer?"[260][261][262] In Mark 14:61 the high priest then asks Jesus, "Are you the Messiah, the Son of the Blessed One?" Jesus replies, "I am", and then predicts the coming of the Son of Man.[41] This provokes Caiaphas to tear his own robe in anger and to accuse Jesus of blasphemy. In Matthew and Luke, Jesus' answer is more ambiguous:[41][263] in Matthew 26:64 he responds, "You have said so", and in Luke 22:70 he says, "You say that I am".[264][265]

The Jewish elders take Jesus to

Tetrarch of Galilee and Perea.[269][270] Pilate sends Jesus to Herod to be tried,[271] but Jesus says almost nothing in response to Herod's questions. Herod and his soldiers mock Jesus, put an expensive robe on him to make him look like a king, and return him to Pilate,[269] who then calls together the Jewish elders and announces that he has "not found this man guilty".[271]

Observing a

INRI in depictions) to be affixed to Jesus' cross,[275][276] then scourges Jesus and sends him to be crucified. The soldiers place a crown of thorns on Jesus' head and ridicule him as the King of the Jews. They beat and taunt him before taking him to Calvary,[277] also called Golgotha, for crucifixion.[260][262][278]

Crucifixion and entombment

A depiction of Jesus on the cross
Pietro Perugino's depiction of the Crucifixion as Stabat Mater, 1482

Jesus' crucifixion is described in all four canonical gospels. After the trials, Jesus is led to Calvary carrying his cross; the route traditionally thought to have been taken is known as the Via Dolorosa. The three Synoptic Gospels indicate that Simon of Cyrene assists him, having been compelled by the Romans to do so.[279][280] In Luke 23:27–28, Jesus tells the women in the multitude of people following him not to weep for him but for themselves and their children.[279] At Calvary, Jesus is offered a sponge soaked in a concoction usually offered as a painkiller. According to Matthew and Mark, he refuses it.[279][280]

The soldiers then crucify Jesus and

beloved disciple and tells him to take care of her.[284]

In John 19:33–34, Roman soldiers break the two thieves' legs to hasten their death, but not those of Jesus, as he is already dead. Instead, one soldier pierces Jesus' side with a lance, and blood and water flow out.[281] The Synoptics report a period of darkness, and the heavy curtain in the Temple is torn when Jesus dies. In Matthew 27:51–54, an earthquake breaks open tombs. In Matthew and Mark, terrified by the events, a Roman centurion states that Jesus was the Son of God.[279][285]

On the same day,

rock-hewn tomb.[279] In Matthew 27:62–66, on the following day the chief Jewish priests ask Pilate for the tomb to be secured, and with Pilate's permission the priests place seals on the large stone covering the entrance.[279][286]

Resurrection and ascension

Jesus appearing to Mary Magdalene after his resurrection from the dead, depicted by Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov.
Appearance of Jesus Christ to Maria Magdalena by Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov, 1835

The Gospels do not describe the moment of the resurrection of Jesus. They describe the discovery of his empty tomb and several appearances of Jesus, with distinct differences in each narrative.[287]

In the four Gospels,

beloved disciple.[292] Matthew mentions Roman guards at the tomb,[293] who report to the priests of Jerusalem what happened. The priests bribe them to say that the disciples stole Jesus' body during the night.[294]

The four Gospels then describe various appearances of Jesus in his resurrected body. Jesus first reveals himself to Mary Magdalene in Mark 16:9 and John 20:14–17,[295] along with "the other Mary" in Matthew 28:9,[296] while in Luke the first reported appearance is to two disciples heading to Emmaus.[297] Jesus then reveals himself to the eleven disciples, in Jerusalem or in Galilee.[298] In Luke 24:36–43, he eats and shows them his tangible wounds to prove that he is not a spirit.[299] He also shows them to Thomas to end his doubts, in John 20:24–29.[300] In the Synoptics, Jesus commissions the disciples to spread the gospel message to all nations,[119][301] while in John 21, he tells Peter to take care of his sheep.[61][302]


ascension into Heaven is described in Luke 24:50–53, Acts 1:1–11 and mentioned in 1 Timothy 3:16. In the Acts of the Apostles, forty days after the Resurrection, as the disciples look on, "he was lifted up, and a cloud took him out of their sight". 1 Peter 3:22 states that Jesus has "gone into heaven and is at the right hand of God".[61]

The Acts of the Apostles describes several appearances of Jesus after his Ascension. In Acts 7:55, Stephen gazes into heaven and sees "Jesus standing at the right hand of God" just before his death.[303] On the road to Damascus, the Apostle Paul is converted to Christianity after seeing a blinding light and hearing a voice saying, "I am Jesus, whom you are persecuting."[304] In Acts 9:10–18, Jesus instructs Ananias of Damascus in a vision to heal Paul.[305] The Book of Revelation includes a revelation from Jesus concerning the last days of Earth.[306]

Early Christianity

A 3rd century depiction of Jesus as the Good Shepherd

After Jesus' life, his followers, as described in the first chapters of the

James, the brother of Jesus, and John the Apostle.[310]


separate religion from Judaism which itself was refined and developed further in the centuries after the destruction of the Second Temple.[312]

Numerous quotations in the New Testament and other Christian writings of the first centuries, indicate that early Christians generally used and revered the

Tanakh) as religious text, mostly in the Greek (Septuagint) or Aramaic (Targum) translations.[313]

Early Christians wrote many religious works, including the ones included in the

canon of the New Testament. The canonical texts, which have become the main sources used by historians to try to understand the historical Jesus and sacred texts within Christianity, were probably written between 50 and 120 AD.[314]

Historical views

Prior to the Enlightenment, the Gospels were usually regarded as accurate historical accounts, but since then scholars have emerged who question the reliability of the Gospels and draw a distinction between the Jesus described in the Gospels and the Jesus of history.[315] Since the 18th century, three separate scholarly quests for the historical Jesus have taken place, each with distinct characteristics and based on different research criteria, which were often developed during the quest that applied them.[91][316] While there is widespread scholarly agreement on the existence of Jesus,[f] and a basic consensus on the general outline of his life,[o] the portraits of Jesus constructed by various scholars often differ from each other, and from the image portrayed in the gospel accounts.[318][319]

Approaches to the historical reconstruction of the life of Jesus have varied from the "maximalist" approaches of the 19th century, in which the gospel accounts were accepted as reliable evidence wherever it is possible, to the "minimalist" approaches of the early 20th century, where hardly anything about Jesus was accepted as historical.[320] In the 1950s, as the second quest for the historical Jesus gathered pace, the minimalist approaches faded away, and in the 21st century, minimalists such as Price are a very small minority.[321][322] Although a belief in the inerrancy of the Gospels cannot be supported historically, many scholars since the 1980s have held that, beyond the few facts considered to be historically certain, certain other elements of Jesus' life are "historically probable".[321][323][324] Modern scholarly research on the historical Jesus thus focuses on identifying the most probable elements.[325][326]

Judea and Galilee in the 1st century

A map. See description
Judea, Galilee and neighboring areas at the time of Jesus

In AD 6,

Judea. A Roman prefect, rather than a client king, ruled the land. The prefect ruled from Caesarea Maritima, leaving Jerusalem to be run by the High Priest of Israel. As an exception, the prefect came to Jerusalem during religious festivals, when religious and patriotic enthusiasm sometimes inspired unrest or uprisings. Gentile lands surrounded the Jewish territories of Judea and Galilee, but Roman law and practice allowed Jews to remain separate legally and culturally. Galilee was evidently prosperous, and poverty was limited enough that it did not threaten the social order.[41]

This was the era of

Middle East and North Africa area, both founded at the end of the 4th century BCE in the wake of the conquests of Alexander the Great. Hellenistic Judaism also existed in Jerusalem during the Second Temple Period, where there was conflict between Hellenizers and traditionalists (sometimes called Judaizers). The Hebrew Bible was translated from Biblical Hebrew and Biblical Aramaic into Jewish Koine Greek; the Targum translations into Aramaic were also generated during this era, both due to the decline of knowledge of Hebrew.[327]

Jews based their faith and religious practice on the Torah, five books said to have been given by God to Moses. The three prominent religious parties were the Pharisees, the Essenes, and the Sadducees. Together these parties represented only a small fraction of the population. Most Jews looked forward to a time that God would deliver them from their pagan rulers, possibly through war against the Romans.[41]


Roman-Jewish historian who referred to Jesus[328]

New Testament scholars face a formidable challenge when they analyze the canonical Gospels.[329] The Gospels are not biographies in the modern sense, and the authors explain Jesus' theological significance and recount his public ministry while omitting many details of his life.[329] The reports of supernatural events associated with Jesus' death and resurrection make the challenge even more difficult.[329] Scholars regard the Gospels as compromised sources of information because the writers were trying to glorify Jesus.[81] Even so, the sources for Jesus' life are better than sources scholars have for the life of Alexander the Great.[81] Scholars use a number of criteria, such as the

criterion of discontinuity to judge the historicity of events.[330] The historicity of an event also depends on the reliability of the source; indeed, the Gospels are not independent nor consistent records of Jesus' life. Mark, which is most likely the earliest written gospel, has been considered for many decades the most historically accurate.[331] John, the latest written gospel, differs considerably from the Synoptic Gospels, and thus is generally considered less reliable, although more and more scholars now also recognize that it may contain a core of older material as historically valuable as the Synoptic tradition or even more so.[332]

Some scholars (most notably the Jesus Seminar) believe that the non-canonical Gospel of Thomas might be an independent witness to many of Jesus' parables and aphorisms. For example, Thomas confirms that Jesus blessed the poor and that this saying circulated independently before being combined with similar sayings in the Q source.[333] However, the majority of scholars are skeptical about this text and believe it should be dated to the 2nd century AD.[334][335]

Other select non-canonical Christian texts may also have value for historical Jesus research.[85]

Early non-Christian sources that attest to the historical existence of Jesus include the works of the historians Josephus and Tacitus.[p][328][337] Josephus scholar Louis Feldman has stated that "few have doubted the genuineness" of Josephus's reference to Jesus in book 20 of the Antiquities of the Jews, and it is disputed only by a small number of scholars.[338][339] Tacitus referred to Christ and his execution by Pilate in book 15 of his work Annals. Scholars generally consider Tacitus's reference to the execution of Jesus to be both authentic and of historical value as an independent Roman source.[340]

Non-Christian sources are valuable in two ways. First, they show that even neutral or hostile parties never show any doubt that Jesus actually existed. Second, they present a rough picture of Jesus that is compatible with that found in the Christian sources: that Jesus was a teacher, had a reputation as a miracle worker, had a brother James, and died a violent death.[341]

Archaeology helps scholars better understand Jesus' social world.[342] Recent archaeological work, for example, indicates that Capernaum, a city important in Jesus' ministry, was poor and small, without even a forum or an agora.[343][344] This archaeological discovery resonates well with the scholarly view that Jesus advocated reciprocal sharing among the destitute in that area of Galilee.[343]


Jesus was a Galilean Jew,

Judea.[345] The general scholarly consensus is that Jesus was a contemporary of John the Baptist and was crucified as ordered by the Roman governor Pontius Pilate, who held office from 26 to 36 AD.[22]

The Gospels offer several indications concerning the year of Jesus' birth. Matthew 2:1 associates the birth of Jesus with the reign of Herod the Great, who died around 4 BC, and Luke 1:5 mentions that Herod was on the throne shortly before the birth of Jesus,[346][347] although this gospel also associates the birth with the Census of Quirinius which took place ten years later.[348][349] Luke 3:23 states that Jesus was "about thirty years old" at the start of his ministry, which according to Acts 10:37–38 was preceded by John the Baptist's ministry, which was recorded in Luke 3:1–2 to have begun in the 15th year of Tiberius's reign (28 or 29 AD).[347][350] By collating the gospel accounts with historical data and using various other methods, most scholars arrive at a date of birth for Jesus between 6 and 4 BC,[350][351] but some propose estimates that include a wider range.[q]

The date range for Jesus' ministry has been estimated using several different approaches.

death of John the Baptist and the marriage of Herod Antipas to Herodias, based on the writings of Josephus, and correlates it with Matthew 14:4 and Mark 6:18.[357][358] Given that most scholars date the marriage of Herod and Herodias as AD 28–35, this yields a date about 28–29 AD.[353]

A number of approaches have been used to estimate the year of the crucifixion of Jesus. Most scholars agree that he died in 30 or 33 AD.

conversion of Paul (estimated to be 33–36 AD) acts as an upper bound for the date of Crucifixion. The dates for Paul's conversion and ministry can be determined by analyzing the Pauline epistles and the Acts of the Apostles.[363][364] Astronomers have tried to estimate the precise date of the Crucifixion by analyzing lunar motion and calculating historic dates of Passover, a festival based on the lunisolar Hebrew calendar. The most widely accepted dates derived from this method are 7 April 30 AD, and 3 April 33 AD (both Julian).[365]

Historicity of events

A white statue of a man
An apparently old document
Roman senator and historian Tacitus (pictured left) mentioned the execution of "Christus" (Jesus) by Pilate in a passage describing the Great Fire of Rome and Nero's persecution of Christians in the Annals, a history of the Roman Empire during the 1st century.

Nearly all historians (both modern and historical) agree that Jesus was a real person who historically existed.[f] Scholars have reached a limited consensus on the basics of Jesus' life.[366]


Many scholars agree that Joseph, Jesus' father, died before Jesus began his ministry. Joseph is not mentioned in the Gospels during Jesus' ministry. Joseph's death would explain why in Mark 6:3, Jesus' neighbors refer to Jesus as the "son of Mary" (sons were usually identified by their fathers).[367]

According to Theissen and Merz, it is common for extraordinary charismatic leaders, such as Jesus, to come into conflict with their ordinary families.[368] In Mark, Jesus' family comes to get him, fearing that he is mad (Mark 3:20–34), and this account is thought to be historical because early Christians would likely not have invented it.[369] After Jesus' death, many members of his family joined the Christian movement.[368] Jesus' brother James became a leader of the Jerusalem Church.[370]

Géza Vermes says that the doctrine of the virgin birth of Jesus arose from theological development rather than from historical events.[371] Despite the widely held view that the authors of the Synoptic Gospels drew upon each other (the so-called

synoptic problem), other scholars take it as significant that the virgin birth is attested by two separate gospels, Matthew and Luke.[372][373][374][375][376][377]

According to E. P. Sanders, the birth narratives in the Gospel of Matthew and the Gospel of Luke are the clearest case of invention in the Gospel narratives of Jesus' life. Both accounts have Jesus born in Bethlehem, in accordance with Jewish salvation history, and both have him growing up in Nazareth. But Sanders points that the two Gospels report completely different and irreconcilable explanations for how that happened. Luke's account of a census in which everyone returned to their ancestral cities is not plausible. Matthew's account is more plausible, but the story reads as though it was invented to identify Jesus as like a new Moses, and the historian Josephus reports Herod the Great's brutality without ever mentioning that he massacred little boys.[378] The contradictions between the two Gospels were probably apparent to the early Christians already, since attempts to harmonize the two narratives are already present in the earlier apocryphal infancy gospels (the Infancy Gospel of Thomas and the Gospel of James), which are dated to the 2nd century AD.[379][380]

Sanders says that the genealogies of Jesus are based not on historical information but on the authors' desire to show that Jesus was the universal Jewish savior.[105] In any event, once the doctrine of the virgin birth of Jesus became established, that tradition superseded the earlier tradition that he was descended from David through Joseph.[381] The Gospel of Luke reports that Jesus was a blood relative of John the Baptist, but scholars generally consider this connection to be invented.[105][382]


Baptism in the Jordan River, the river where Jesus was baptized

Most modern scholars consider Jesus' baptism to be a definite historical fact, along with his crucifixion.[6] Theologian James D. G. Dunn states that they "command almost universal assent" and "rank so high on the 'almost impossible to doubt or deny' scale of historical facts" that they are often the starting points for the study of the historical Jesus.[6] Scholars adduce the criterion of embarrassment, saying that early Christians would not have invented a baptism that might imply that Jesus committed sins and wanted to repent.[383][384] According to Theissen and Merz, Jesus was inspired by John the Baptist and took over from him many elements of his teaching.[385]

Ministry in Galilee

Most scholars hold that Jesus lived in Galilee and Judea and did not preach or study elsewhere.[386] They agree that Jesus debated with Jewish authorities on the subject of God, performed some healings, taught in parables and gathered followers.[22] Jesus' Jewish critics considered his ministry to be scandalous because he feasted with sinners, fraternized with women, and allowed his followers to pluck grain on the Sabbath.[68] According to Sanders, it is not plausible that disagreements over how to interpret the Law of Moses and the Sabbath would have led Jewish authorities to want Jesus killed.[387]

According to Ehrman, Jesus taught that a coming kingdom was everyone's proper focus, not anything in this life.[388] He taught about the Jewish Law, seeking its true meaning, sometimes in opposition to traditions.[389] Jesus put love at the center of the Law, and following that Law was an apocalyptic necessity.[389] His ethical teachings called for forgiveness, not judging others, loving enemies, and caring for the poor.[390] Funk and Hoover note that typical of Jesus were paradoxical or surprising turns of phrase, such as advising one, when struck on the cheek, to offer the other cheek to be struck as well.[391][392]

The Gospels portray Jesus teaching in well-defined sessions, such as the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew or the parallel Sermon on the Plain in Luke. According to Gerd Theissen and Annette Merz, these teaching sessions include authentic teachings of Jesus, but the scenes were invented by the respective evangelists to frame these teachings, which had originally been recorded without context.[85] While Jesus' miracles fit within the social context of antiquity, he defined them differently. First, he attributed them to the faith of those healed. Second, he connected them to end times prophecy.[393]

Jesus chose twelve disciples (the "Twelve"),[394] evidently as an apocalyptic message.[395] All three Synoptics mention the Twelve, although the names on Luke's list vary from those in Mark and Matthew, suggesting that Christians were not certain who all the disciples were.[395] The twelve disciples might have represented the twelve original tribes of Israel, which would be restored once God's rule was instituted.[395] The disciples were reportedly meant to be the rulers of the tribes in the coming Kingdom.[396][395] According to Bart Ehrman, Jesus' promise that the Twelve would rule is historical, because the Twelve included Judas Iscariot. In Ehrman's view, no Christians would have invented a line from Jesus, promising rulership to the disciple who betrayed him.[395] In Mark, the disciples play hardly any role other than a negative one. While others sometimes respond to Jesus with complete faith, his disciples are puzzled and doubtful.

foil to Jesus and to other characters.[397] The failings of the disciples are probably exaggerated in Mark, and the disciples make a better showing in Matthew and Luke.[397]

Sanders says that Jesus' mission was not about repentance, although he acknowledges that this opinion is unpopular. He argues that repentance appears as a strong theme only in Luke, that repentance was John the Baptist's message, and that Jesus' ministry would not have been scandalous if the sinners he ate with had been repentant.[398] According to Theissen and Merz, Jesus taught that God was generously giving people an opportunity to repent.[399]


Jesus taught that an apocalyptic figure, the "Son of Man", would soon come on clouds of glory to gather the elect, or chosen ones.[400] He referred to himself as a "son of man" in the colloquial sense of "a person", but scholars do not know whether he also meant himself when he referred to the heavenly "Son of Man". Paul the Apostle and other early Christians interpreted the "Son of Man" as the risen Jesus.[41]

The Gospels refer to Jesus not only as a messiah but in the absolute form as "the Messiah" or, equivalently, "the Christ". In early Judaism, this absolute form of the title is not found, but only phrases such as "his messiah". The tradition is ambiguous enough to leave room for debate as to whether Jesus defined his eschatological role as that of the messiah.[401] The Jewish messianic tradition included many different forms, some of them focused on a messiah figure and others not.[402] Based on the Christian tradition, Gerd Theissen advances the hypothesis that Jesus saw himself in messianic terms but did not claim the title "Messiah".[402] Bart Ehrman argues that Jesus did consider himself to be the messiah, albeit in the sense that he would be the king of the new political order that God would usher in,[403] not in the sense that most people today think of the term.[404]

Passover and crucifixion in Jerusalem

Around AD 30, Jesus and his followers traveled from Galilee to Jerusalem to observe Passover.[394] Jesus caused a disturbance in the Second Temple,[24] which was the center of Jewish religious and civil authority. Sanders associates it with Jesus' prophecy that the Temple would be totally demolished.[405] Jesus held a last meal with his disciples, which is the origin of the Sacrament of the Holy Eucharist. His words as recorded in the Synoptic gospels and Paul's First Letter to the Corinthians do not entirely agree, but this meal appears to have pointed to Jesus' place in the coming Kingdom of God when very probably Jesus knew he was about to be killed, although he may have still hoped that God might yet intervene.[406]

The Gospels say that Jesus was betrayed to the authorities by a disciple, and many scholars consider this report to be highly reliable.

Judaea.[24] Pilate most likely saw Jesus' reference to the Kingdom of God as a threat to Roman authority and worked with the Temple elites to have Jesus executed.[407] The Sadducean high-priestly leaders of the Temple more plausibly had Jesus executed for political reasons than for his teaching.[159] They may have regarded him as a threat to stability, especially after he caused a disturbance at the Second Temple.[159][40] Other factors, such as Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem, may have contributed to this decision.[408] Most scholars consider Jesus' crucifixion to be factual, because early Christians would not have invented the painful death of their leader.[6][409]

After crucifixion

The Resurrection of Christ from a 16th-century manuscript of La Passion de Nostre Seigneur

After Jesus' death, his followers said he was restored to life, although exact details of their experiences are unclear. The gospel reports contradict each other, possibly suggesting competition among those claiming to have seen him first rather than deliberate fraud.[410] On the other hand, L. Michael White suggests that inconsistencies in the Gospels reflect differences in the agendas of their unknown authors.[366] The followers of Jesus formed a community to wait for his return and the founding of his kingdom.[24]

Portraits of Jesus

Modern research on the historical Jesus has not led to a unified picture of the historical figure, partly because of the variety of academic traditions represented by the scholars.[411] Given the scarcity of historical sources, it is generally difficult for any scholar to construct a portrait of Jesus that can be considered historically valid beyond the basic elements of his life.[82][83] The portraits of Jesus constructed in these quests often differ from each other, and from the image portrayed in the Gospels.[318][412]

Jesus is seen as the founder of, in the words of Sanders, a "renewal movement within Judaism". One of the criteria used to discern historical details in the "third quest" is the criterion of plausibility, relative to Jesus' Jewish context and to his influence on Christianity. A disagreement in contemporary research is whether Jesus was

Burton Mack and John Dominic Crossan, advocate for a non-eschatological Jesus, one who is more of a Cynic sage than an apocalyptic preacher.[413] In addition to portraying Jesus as an apocalyptic prophet, a charismatic healer or a cynic philosopher, some scholars portray him as the true messiah or an egalitarian prophet of social change.[414][415] However, the attributes described in the portraits sometimes overlap, and scholars who differ on some attributes sometimes agree on others.[416]

Since the 18th century, scholars have occasionally put forth that Jesus was a political national messiah, but the evidence for this portrait is negligible. Likewise, the proposal that Jesus was a

Zealot does not fit with the earliest strata of the Synoptic tradition.[159]

Language, ethnicity, and appearance

Twelve depictions of Jesus from around the world
The ethnicity of Jesus in art has been influenced by cultural settings.[417][418]

Jesus grew up in Galilee and much of his ministry took place there.[419] The languages spoken in Galilee and Judea during the 1st century AD include Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, Hebrew, and Greek, with Aramaic being predominant.[420][421] There is substantial consensus that Jesus gave most of his teachings in Aramaic[422] in the Galilean dialect.[423][424] Other than Aramaic and Hebrew, it is likely that he was also able to speak in Koine Greek.[425][426][427]

Modern scholars agree that Jesus was a Jew of 1st-century Palestine.[428] Ioudaios in New Testament Greek[r] is a term which in the contemporary context may refer to religion (Second Temple Judaism), ethnicity (of Judea), or both.[430][431][432] In a review of the state of modern scholarship, Amy-Jill Levine writes that the entire question of ethnicity is "fraught with difficulty", and that "beyond recognizing that 'Jesus was Jewish', rarely does the scholarship address what being 'Jewish' means".[433]

The New Testament gives no description of the physical appearance of Jesus before his death—it is generally indifferent to racial appearances and does not refer to the features of the people it mentions.[434][435][436] Jesus probably looked like a typical Jewish man of his time and place; standing around 166 cm (5 ft 5 in) tall with a thin but fit build, olive-brown skin, brown eyes and short, dark hair. He also likely had a beard that was not particularly long or heavy.[437] His clothing may have suggested poverty consisting of a mantle (shawl) with tassels, a knee-length basic tunic and sandals.[438]

Christ myth theory

The Christ myth theory is the hypothesis that Jesus of Nazareth never existed; or if he did, that he had virtually nothing to do with the founding of Christianity and the accounts in the

gospels.[s] Stories of Jesus' birth, along with other key events, have so many mythic elements that some scholars have suggested that Jesus himself was a myth.[440]
Bruno Bauer (1809–1882) taught that the first Gospel was a work of literature that produced history rather than described it.[441] According to Albert Kalthoff (1850–1906), a social movement produced Jesus when it encountered Jewish messianic expectations.[441] Arthur Drews (1865–1935) saw Jesus as the concrete form of a myth that predated Christianity.[441]

Despite arguments put forward by authors who have questioned the existence of a historical Jesus, virtually all scholars of antiquity accept that Jesus was a historical figure and consider Christ myth theory fringe.[442][443][444][445][446][447][448]

Religious perspectives

Jesus' teachings and the retelling of his life story have significantly influenced the course of human history, and have directly or indirectly affected the lives of billions of people, even non-Christians.[449][450] He is considered by many people to be the most influential figure to have ever lived, finding a significant place in numerous cultural contexts.[451][452]

Apart from his own disciples and followers,[453] the Jews of Jesus' day generally rejected him as the messiah,[454] as does Judaism today.[455] Christian theologians, ecumenical councils, reformers and others have written extensively about Jesus over the centuries. Christian denominations have often been defined or characterized by their descriptions of Jesus. Meanwhile, Manichaeans, Gnostics, Muslims, Druzes,[35] the Baháʼí Faith, and others, have found prominent places for Jesus in their religions.[456][457][458]


God the Holy Spirit
Jesus is depicted with the Alpha and Omega letters in the Catacombs of Rome from the 4th century.

Jesus is the central figure of Christianity.

Johannine writings. These documents outline the key beliefs held by Christians about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life, and that he is the Christ and the Son of God.[462] Despite their many shared beliefs, not all Christian denominations agree on all doctrines, and both major and minor differences on teachings and beliefs have persisted throughout Christianity for centuries.[463]

The New Testament states that the

new and last Adam, whose obedience contrasts with Adam's disobedience.[468] Christians view Jesus as a role model, whose God-focused life believers are encouraged to imitate.[95]

At present, most Christians believe that Jesus is both human and the Son of God.

Socinians started questioning the ancient creeds that had established Jesus' two natures.[41] Nontrinitarian Christian groups include the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,[473] Unitarians and Jehovah's Witnesses.[470]

Christians revere not only Jesus himself, but also

his name. Devotions to the Holy Name of Jesus go back to the earliest days of Christianity.[474][475] These devotions and feasts exist in both Eastern and Western Christianity.[475]


Tanakh nor embodied the personal qualifications of the messiah.[477] Jews argue that Jesus did not fulfill prophesies to build the Third Temple,[478] gather Jews back to Israel,[479] bring world peace,[480] and unite humanity under the God of Israel.[481][482] Furthermore, according to Jewish tradition, there were no prophets after Malachi,[483] who delivered his prophesies in the 5th century BC.[484]

Judaic criticism of Jesus is long-standing, and includes a

Moses Maimonides, states that Jesus is a "stumbling block" who makes "the majority of the world to err and serve a god other than the Lord".[489]

Medieval Hebrew literature contains the anecdotal "Episode of Jesus" (known also as Toledot Yeshu), in which Jesus is described as being the son of Joseph, the son of Pandera (see: Episode of Jesus). The account portrays Jesus as an impostor.[490]


Gautama Buddha, and Mani.[494][495]


Persian miniature of Mary and Jesus

A major figure in Islam,

tawḥīd) and forbid the association of partners with God, which would be idolatry.[504]

The Quran describes the annunciation to Mary (

his spirit into Mary while she was chaste.[505][506] Jesus is called a "spirit from God" because he was born through the action of the Spirit,[505] but that belief does not imply his pre-existence.[507]

To aid in his ministry to the Jewish people, Jesus was given the ability to perform

ad-Dajjal) by killing him.[36]

According to the Quran, the coming of Muhammad was predicted by Jesus:

And ˹remember˺ when Jesus, son of Mary, said, “O children of Israel! I am truly Allah’s messenger to you, confirming the Torah which came before me, and giving good news of a messenger after me whose name will be Aḥmad.”1 Yet when the Prophet came to them with clear proofs, they said, “This is pure magic.”

Through this verse, early Arab Muslims claimed legitimacy for their new faith in the existing religious traditions and the alleged predictions of Jesus.[514]

Ahmadiyya Islam

The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community has several distinct teachings about Jesus.[515] Ahmadis believe that he was a mortal man who survived his crucifixion and died a natural death at the age of 120 in Kashmir, India, and is buried at Roza Bal.[516]

Druze faith

In the Druze faith, Jesus is considered and revered as one of the seven spokesmen or prophets (natiq), defined as messengers or intermediaries between God and mankind, along with Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Muhammad and Muhammad ibn Isma'il, each of them sent in a different period of history to preach the message of God.[35][517][518][519][520]

Baháʼí faith

In the

Buddha, Muhammad and Baháʼu'lláh. Baháʼís believe that these religious founders or leaders have contributed to the progressive revelation by bringing spiritual and moral values to humanity in their own time and place.[521][522][523][524][525] As a Manifestation of God, Jesus is believed to reflect God's qualities and attributes, but is not considered the only savior of humanity nor the incarnation of God.[526][527][528] Baháʼís believe in the virgin birth,[529][530] but see the resurrection and the miracles of Jesus as symbolic.[531][530]


Jesus depicted as the liberator of Black slaves, on the masthead of the abolitionist paper The Liberator
Enthroned Jesus image on a Manichaean temple banner from c. 10th-century Qocho

In Christian Gnosticism (now a largely extinct religious movement),[532] Jesus was sent from the divine realm and provided the secret knowledge (gnosis) necessary for salvation. Most Gnostics believed that Jesus was a human who became possessed by the spirit of "the Christ" at his baptism. This spirit left Jesus' body during the crucifixion, but was rejoined to him when he was raised from the dead. Some Gnostics, however, were docetics, believing that Jesus did not have a physical body, but only appeared to possess one.[533]


Atheists reject Jesus' divinity, but have different views about him – from challenging his mental health[542][543] to emphasizing his "moral superiority" (Richard Dawkins).[544]

Artistic depictions

An ancient wall painting depicting Jesus
Jesus healing a paralytic in one of the first known images of Jesus from Dura Europos in the 3rd century[545]

Some of the earliest depictions of Jesus at the

Early Christian art, the earliest depictions date to the late 2nd or early 3rd century, and surviving images are found especially in the Catacombs of Rome.[547]

The depiction of Christ in pictorial form was highly

In Eastern Christian art, the Transfiguration was a major theme, and every Eastern Orthodox monk who had trained in icon painting had to prove his craft by painting an icon depicting it.[558] Icons receive the external marks of veneration, such as kisses and prostration, and they are thought to be powerful channels of divine grace.[550]

Stories of life and passion of Christ, fresco by Gaudenzio Ferrari, 1513, Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie

In Western Europe, the Renaissance brought forth a number of artists who focused on depictions of Jesus; Fra Angelico and others followed Giotto in the systematic development of uncluttered images.[417] Before the Protestant Reformation, the crucifix was common in Western Christianity. It is a model of the cross with Jesus crucified on it. The crucifix became the central ornament of the altar in the 13th century, a use that has been nearly universal in Roman Catholic churches since then.[559]

Associated relics

The Shroud of Turin, Italy, is the best-known claimed relic of Jesus and one of the most studied artifacts in human history.[560]

The total destruction that ensued with the

siege of Jerusalem by the Romans in AD 70 made the survival of items from 1st-century Judea very rare and almost no direct records survive about the history of Judaism from the last part of the 1st century through the 2nd century.[561][562][v] Margaret M. Mitchell writes that although Eusebius reports (Ecclesiastical History III 5.3) that the early Christians left Jerusalem for Pella just before Jerusalem was subjected to the final lockdown, we must accept that no first-hand Christian items from the early Jerusalem Church have reached us.[564] Joe Nickell writes, "as investigation after investigation has shown, not a single, reliably authenticated relic of Jesus exists."[565][w]

However, throughout the history of Christianity, a number of

holy nails continue to be venerated as relics across Europe.[569]

Some relics, such as purported remnants of the

See also


  1. ^ John P. Meier writes that Jesus' birth year is c. 7 or 6 BC.[1] Karl Rahner states that the consensus among Christian scholars is c. 4 BC.[2] E. P. Sanders also favors c. 4 BC and refers to the general consensus.[3] Jack Finegan uses the study of early Christian traditions to support c. 3 or 2 BC.[4]
  2. Bart Ehrman states that the crucifixion of Jesus on the orders of Pontius Pilate is the most certain element about him.[7] John Dominic Crossan and Richard G. Watts state that the crucifixion of Jesus is as certain as any historical fact can be.[8] Paul R. Eddy and Gregory A. Boyd say that non-Christian confirmation of the crucifixion of Jesus is now "firmly established".[9]
  3. ^ Traditionally, Christians believe that Mary conceived her son miraculously by the agency of the Holy Spirit. Muslims believe that she conceived her son miraculously by the command of God. Joseph was from these perspectives and according to the canonical gospels the acting adoptive father of Jesus.
  4. Hebrew/Aramaic
    : יֵשׁוּעַ Yēšūaʿ
  5. Syriac
    : ܝܫܘܥ ܡܫܺܝܚܳܐ
  6. ^
    classicist) wrote in 1977, "In recent years, 'no serious scholar has ventured to postulate the non historicity of Jesus' or at any rate very few, and they have not succeeded in disposing of the much stronger, indeed very abundant, evidence to the contrary."[15] Robert E. Van Voorst states that biblical scholars and classical historians regard theories of non-existence of Jesus as effectively refuted.[16] Writing on The Daily Beast, Candida Moss and Joel Baden state that "there is nigh universal consensus among biblical scholars – the authentic ones, at least – that Jesus was, in fact, a real guy."[17]
  7. ^ Ehrman writes: "The notion that the Gospel accounts are not completely accurate but still important for the religious truths they try to convey is widely shared in the scholarly world, even though it's not so widely known or believed outside of it."[19]
    Sanders writes: "The earliest Christians did not write a narrative of Jesus' life, but rather made use of, and thus preserved, individual units—short passages about his words and deeds. These units were later moved and arranged by authors and editors. ... Some material has been revised and some created by early Christians."[20]
  8. ^ A small minority of Christian denominations reject trinitarianism, wholly or partly, as non-scriptural
  9. Eastern Christian churches celebrate Christmas on 25 December of the Julian calendar
    , which currently corresponds to 7 January in the Gregorian calendar. In many countries, Christmas is celebrated on 24 December.
  10. ^ Some medieval Muslims believed that Jesus was crucified, as do the members of the modern Ahmadiyya movement; see § Islamic perspectives.
  11. ^ This article uses quotes from the New Revised Standard Version of the Bible.
  12. ^ Powell writes: "[Paul] does cite words or instructions of Jesus in a few places,[63] but for the most part he displays little interest in the details of Jesus' earthly life and ministry."[64]
  13. ^ Compare Matthew 1:6–16 with Luke 3:23–31. See also Genealogy of Jesus § Comparison of the two genealogies.
  14. ^ For an overview of such theories, see Genealogy of Jesus § Explanations for divergence.
  15. ^ Amy-Jill Levine writes: "There is a consensus of sorts on a basic outline of Jesus' life. Most scholars agree that Jesus was baptized by John, debated with fellow Jews on how best to live according to God's will, engaged in healings and exorcisms, taught in parables, gathered male and female followers in Galilee, went to Jerusalem, and was crucified by Roman soldiers during the governorship of Pontius Pilate"[317]
  16. ^ Tuckett writes: "All this does at least render highly implausible any far-fetched theories that even Jesus' very existence was a Christian invention. The fact that Jesus existed, that he was crucified under Pontius Pilate (for whatever reason) and that he had a band of followers who continued to support his cause, seems to be part of the bedrock of historical tradition. If nothing else, the non-Christian evidence can provide us with certainty on that score."[336]
  17. ^ For example, John P. Meier states that Jesus' birth year is c. 7/6 BC,[1] while Finegan favors c. 3/2 BC.[4]
  18. ^ In the New Testament, Jesus is described as Jewish / Judean (Ioudaios as written in Koine Greek) on three occasions: by the Magi in Matthew 2, who referred to Jesus as "King of the Jews" (basileus ton ioudaion); by both the Samaritan woman at the well and by Jesus himself in John 4; and (in all four gospels) during the Passion, by the Romans, who also used the phrase "King of the Jews".[429]
  19. ^ Ehrman writes: "In simpler terms, the historical Jesus did not exist. Or if he did, he had virtually nothing to do with the founding of Christianity." Further quoting as authoritative the fuller definition provided by Earl Doherty in Jesus: Neither God Nor Man. Age of Reason, 2009, pp. vii–viii: it is "the theory that no historical Jesus worthy of the name existed, that Christianity began with a belief in a spiritual, mythical figure, that the Gospels are essentially allegory and fiction, and that no single identifiable person lay at the root of the Galilean preaching tradition."[439]
  20. early church on many interrelated issues. Christology was a major focus of these debates, and was addressed at every one of the first seven ecumenical councils. Some early beliefs viewed Jesus as ontologically subordinate to the Father (Subordinationism), and others considered him an aspect of the Father rather than a separate person (Sabellianism), both were condemned as heresies by the Catholic Church.[41][470] The Church resolved the issues in ancient councils, which established the Holy Trinity, with Jesus both fully human and fully God.[41]
  21. ^ Philip Schaff commenting on Irenaeus, wrote, 'This censure of images as a Gnostic peculiarity, and as a heathenish corruption, should be noted'. Footnote 300 on Contr. Her. .I.XXV.6. ANF
  22. Flavius Josephus writing (about 5 years later, c. AD 75) in The Jewish War (Book VII 1.1) stated that Jerusalem had been flattened to the point that "there was left nothing to make those that came thither believe it had ever been inhabited."[563] And once what was left of the ruins of Jerusalem had been turned into the Roman settlement of Aelia Capitolina, no Jews were allowed to set foot in it.[562]
  23. ^ Polarized conclusions regarding the Shroud of Turin remain.[566] According to former Nature editor Philip Ball, "it's fair to say that, despite the seemingly definitive tests in 1988, the status of the Shroud of Turin is murkier than ever. Not least, the nature of the image and how it was fixed on the cloth remain deeply puzzling".[567]



  1. ^ a b Meier 1991, p. 407.
  2. ^ Rahner 2004, p. 732.
  3. ^ Sanders 1993, pp. 10–11.
  4. ^ a b Finegan 1998, p. 319
  5. ^ Brown 1977, p. 513.
  6. ^ a b c d Dunn 2003, p. 339.
  7. ^ Ehrman 1999, p. 101.
  8. ^ Crossan & Watts 1999, p. 96.
  9. ^ Eddy & Boyd 2007, p. 173.
  10. ^ a b c d Vermes 1981, pp. 20, 26, 27, 29.
  11. ^ Ehrman 2011, p. 285.
  12. .
  13. from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  14. .
  15. .
  16. ^ Van Voorst 2000, p. 16.
  17. ^ Baden, Candida Moss (5 October 2014). "So-Called 'Biblical Scholar' Says Jesus a Made-Up Myth". The Daily Beast.
  18. ^ Powell 1998, pp. 168–73.
  19. ^ Bart D. Ehrman. Historical Jesus. 'Prophet of the New Millennium'. Archived 23 January 2019 at the Wayback Machine Course handbook, p. 10 (Lecture Three. V. B.) The Teaching Company, 2000, Lecture 24
  20. ^ Sanders 1993, p. 57.
  21. ^ a b c Orr, James, ed. (1939). "International Standard Bible Encyclopedia Online". Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
  22. ^ a b c d Levine 2006, p. 4.
  23. from the original on 8 October 2020. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  24. ^ a b c d Sanders 1993, p. 11.
  25. ^ Sanders 1993, pp. 11, 14.
  26. ^ a b Dunn, James D.G. (2013). The Oral Gospel Tradition. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 290–91.
  27. ^ Grudem 1994, pp. 568–603.
  28. ^ Wilhelm, Joseph (1911). "The Nicene Creed". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 11. Robert Appleton Company. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 11 April 2016.
  29. ^ .
  30. ^ Tabor, James (22 March 2013). "What the Bible Says About Death, Afterlife, and the Future". UNCC. Archived from the original on 23 August 2016. Retrieved 13 June 2015.
  31. from the original on 8 October 2020. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  32. from the original on 25 January 2020. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
  33. ^ "anno Domini". Merriam Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. 2003. Archived from the original on 22 December 2007. Retrieved 3 November 2016. Etymology: Medieval Latin, in the year of our Lord
  34. ^ "Who is Christ to Baha'is?". 13 June 2014.
  35. ^ .
  36. ^ from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  37. ^ "Surah Al-Kahf – 4". Retrieved 24 June 2021.
  38. ^ "Surah Al-Kahf – 5". Retrieved 24 June 2021.
  39. ^ .
  40. ^ a b c Jacobs, Joseph; Kohler, Kaufmann; Gottheil, Richard; Krauss, Samuel. "Jesus of Nazareth". Jewish Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 26 February 2016. See Avodah Zarah 17a:1, Sanhedrin 43a:20, Gittin 57a:3–4, and Sotah 47a:6.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Sanders, E. P.; Pelikan, Jaroslav J. "Jesus Christ". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 3 May 2015. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  42. ^ Hare 1993, p. 11.
  43. ^ Matthew 1:21
  44. ^ Doninger 1999, p. 212.
  45. ^ Pannenberg 1968, pp. 30–31.
  46. .
  47. ^ Maas, Anthony J. (1913). "Origin of the Name of Jesus Christ" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  48. from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  49. ^ Vine 1940, pp. 274–75.
  50. Exodus 30
  51. ^ Mills & Bullard 1998, p. 142.
  52. ^ 1 Corinthians 11:23–26
  53. ^ Blomberg 2009, pp. 441–42.
  54. ^ from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  55. ^ a b c Evans 2003, pp. 465–77.
  56. ^ Acts 10:37–38 and Acts 19:4
  57. .
  58. ^ Rausch 2003, p. 77.
  59. ^ Acts 1:1–11
  60. ^ also mentioned in 1 Timothy 3:16
  61. ^ a b c Evans 2003, pp. 521–30.
  62. ^ 1 Corinthians 7:10–11, 9:14, 11:23–25, 2 Corinthians 12:9
  63. ^ 1 Cor. 7:10–11; 9:14; 11:23–25; 2 Cor. 12:9; cf. Acts 20:35
  64. .
  65. ^ Brown 1997, pp. 835–40.
  66. ^ Evans, C.A. (2008). Exploring the Origins of the Bible. Baker Academic. p. 154.
  67. ^ Keener 2009, p. 56.
  68. ^ a b c d e Funk, Hoover & The Jesus Seminar 1993, p. 3.
  69. ^ a b c d May, Herbert G. and Bruce M. Metzger. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. 1977. "Mark" pp. 1213–39
  70. ^ Cross & Livingstone 2005, John, St..
  71. from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  72. ^ Licona 2010, pp. 210–21.
  73. ^ Burridge, R.A. (2006). Gospels. In J.W. Rogerson & Judith M. Lieu (Eds) The Oxford Handbook of Biblical Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 433
  74. ^ Talbert, C.H. (1977). What is a Gospel? The Genre of the Canonical Gospels. Philadelphia: Fortress Press.
  75. ^ Wills, L.M. (1997). The Quest of the Historical Gospel: Mark, John and the Origins of the Gospel Genre. London: Routledge. p. 10.
  76. ^ Burridge, R.A. (2004). What are the Gospels? A Comparison with Graeco-Roman Biography. rev. updated edn. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans.
  77. ^ e.g. Vines, M.E. (2002). The Problem of the Markan Genre: The Gospel of Mark and the Jewish Novel. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. pp. 161–62.
  78. from the original on 26 February 2020. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
  79. from the original on 25 December 2019. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
  80. ^ Grudem 1994, pp. 90–91.
  81. ^ a b c d Sanders 1993, p. 3.
  82. ^ a b Köstenberger, Kellum & Quarles 2009, pp. 117–25.
  83. ^ a b Ehrman 1999, pp. 22–23.
  84. ^ Sanders 1993, p. 71.
  85. ^ a b c d Theissen & Merz 1998, pp. 17–62.
  86. ^ .
  87. ^ .
  88. ^ "synoptic". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or participating institution membership required.)
  89. ^ "Synoptic Gospels | Definition & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 26 October 2020.
  90. .
  91. ^ a b c Witherington 1997, p. 113.
  92. from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  93. ^ a b c d Thompson, Frank Charles. The Thompson Chain-Reference Bible. Kirk bride Bible Co & Zondervan Bible Publishers. 1983. pp. 1563–64.
  94. ^ May, Herbert G. and Bruce M. Metzger. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. 1977. "Matthew" pp. 1171–1212.
  95. ^ a b c McGrath 2006, pp. 4–6.
  96. ^ a b May, Herbert G. and Bruce M. Metzger. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. 1977. "Luke" pp. 1240–85.
  97. ^ a b May, Herbert G. and Bruce M. Metzger. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. 1977. "John" pp. 1286–318.
  98. ^ a b c d Harris 1985, pp. 302–10.
  99. ^ a b Rahner 2004, pp. 730–31.
  100. .
  101. ^ .
  102. ^ .
  103. ^ Matthew 1; Luke 2
  104. ^ Matthew 1:1–16
  105. ^ a b c Sanders 1993, pp. 80–91.
  106. ^ Luke 3:23–38
  107. ^ Brown 1978, p. 163.
  108. from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2018. "From David the two lists diverge, as Matthew follows the line of succession to the throne of Judah from Solomon, whereas Luke's list goes through Nathan, ... and converges with Matthew's only for the two names of Shealtiel and Zerubabbel until Joseph is reached."
  109. ^ Mills & Bullard 1998, p. 556.
  110. ^ from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  111. ^ Morris 1992, p. 26.
  112. ^ from the original on 8 October 2020. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  113. ^ Cox & Easley 2007, pp. 30–37.
  114. .
  115. .
  116. ^ "Lincoln, Andrew T., "Conceiving Jesus: re-examining Jesus' conception in canon, Christology, and creed", Th Severn Forum, 5 March 2015, p. 4" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 May 2020. Retrieved 2 July 2019.
  117. ^ Matthew 1:1920
  118. ^ from the original on 8 October 2020. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  119. ^ a b c Harris 1985, pp. 272–85.
  120. from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  121. ^ Luke 2:1–7
  122. ^ Luke 2:8–20
  123. ^ Luke 2:21
  124. .
  125. .
  126. .
  127. ^ Luke 1:5, 36
  128. ^ PG 97.1325
  129. ^ PG 120.189
  130. Nicephorus Callistus
    , Historia ecclesiastica, 2.3)
  131. ^ a b c d e Harris 1985, pp. 270–72.
  132. ^ Mark 3:31–35
  133. ^ Mark 3:21
  134. ^ John 3:1–11
  135. ^ John 19:25–27
  136. ^ Liddell, Henry G.; Scott, Robert (1889). An Intermediate Greek–English Lexicon: The Seventh Edition of Liddell and Scott's Greek–English Lexicon. Clarendon Press. p. 797.
  137. ^ Dickson 2008, pp. 68–69.
  138. from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  139. ^ Luke 2:28–35
  140. ^ Luke 2:41–52
  141. from the original on 10 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  142. ^ a b c Blomberg 2009, pp. 224–29.
  143. ^ Köstenberger, Kellum & Quarles 2009, pp. 141–43.
  144. ^ a b McGrath 2006, pp. 16–22.
  145. ^ Luke 3:11
  146. ^ Luke 3:16
  147. .
  148. ^ Mark 1:9–11
  149. ^ a b c d Lee 2004, pp. 21–30.
  150. ^ .
  151. ^ Mark 1:12–13
  152. ^ Mark 1:14
  153. ^ Matthew 3:14
  154. ^ Matthew 3:15
  155. ^ Matthew 4:3–11
  156. ^ Luke 3:21–22
  157. ^ Luke 7:18–23
  158. ^ Luke 4:1–14
  159. ^ a b c d e Cross & Livingstone 2005, Jesus Christ.
  160. ^ John 1:32
  161. ^ Boring & Craddock 2004, p. 292.
  162. ^ John 3:22–24
  163. ^ John 4:1
  164. ^ a b c d Harris 1985, pp. 285–96.
  165. ^ a b Redford 2007, pp. 117–30.
  166. .
  167. ^ Redford 2007, pp. 143–60.
  168. from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  169. ^ .
  170. ^ John 10:40–42
  171. ^ Cox & Easley 2007, p. 137.
  172. ^ Redford 2007, pp. 211–29.
  173. ^ a b c d e f Cox & Easley 2007, pp. 155–70.
  174. ^ Redford 2007, pp. 257–74.
  175. ^ Matthew 4:18–22, Mark 1:16–20
  176. ^ Brown 1988, pp. 25–27.
  177. ^ Boring & Craddock 2004, pp. 292–93.
  178. ^ Luke 6:17
  179. from the original on 10 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  180. ^ Mark 4:35–41, Mark 6:52
  181. ^ Mark 4:13
  182. ^ Mark 9:9–10
  183. ^ Theissen & Merz 1998, pp. 316–46.
  184. ^ Mark 1:15
  185. ^ Luke 17:21
  186. ^ Mark 10:13–27
  187. ^ Matthew 22:37–39
  188. ^ Matthew 5–7
  189. from the original on 26 February 2020. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  190. ^ .
  191. .
  192. .
  193. .
  194. ^ Lisco, Friedrich G. (1850). The Parables of Jesus. Daniels and Smith Publishers. pp. 9–11.
  195. ^ Oxenden, Ashton (1864). The parables of our Lord?. William Macintosh Publishers. p. 6.
  196. from the original on 10 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  197. ^ Luke 15:11–32
  198. ^ Mark 4:26–29
  199. ^ Boucher, Madeleine I. "The Parables". BBC. Archived from the original on 10 August 2013. Retrieved 3 June 2013.
  200. ^ Matthew 13:10–17
  201. ^ Green, McKnight & Marshall 1992, p. 299.
  202. ^ Twelftree 1999, p. 350.
  203. ^ Theissen & Merz 1998, p. 298.
  204. ^ Green, McKnight & Marshall 1992, p. 300.
  205. ^ Luke 11:20
  206. ^ Sanders, E. P.; Pelikan, Jaroslav J. "Jesus Christ". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 3 May 2015. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  207. from the original on 10 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  208. ^ .
  209. ^ Ehrman 2009, p. 84.
  210. ^ Twelftree 1999, p. 236.
  211. ^ van der Loos, Hendrik (1965). The Miracles Of Jesus. Brill. p. 197. Archived from the original on 10 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  212. from the original on 10 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  213. ^ Twelftree 1999, p. 95.
  214. ^ Donahue & Harrington 2002, p. 182.
  215. .
  216. .
  217. ^ Cross & Livingstone 2005, John, Gospel of.
  218. .
  219. .
  220. ^ Donahue & Harrington 2002, p. 336.
  221. from the original on 8 October 2020. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  222. ^ Pannenberg 1968, pp. 53–54.
  223. ^ Matthew 16:21, Mark 8:31, Luke 9:22
  224. ^ Matthew 17:1–9, Mark 9:2–8, and Luke 9:28–36
  225. ^ Lee 2004, pp. 72–76.
  226. ^ Matthew 17:1–9
  227. ^ Zechariah 9:9
  228. ^ Psalms 118:25–26
  229. ^ a b Boring & Craddock 2004, pp. 256–58.
  230. ^ Majerník, Ponessa & Manhardt 2005, pp. 133–34.
  231. ^ a b Evans 2003, pp. 381–95.
  232. ^ Mark 13:1–23
  233. ^ Mark 13:24–27
  234. ^ Mark 13:28–32
  235. ^ John 2:13–16
  236. from the original on 29 February 2020. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
  237. .
  238. ^ John 7:1–10:42
  239. ^ John 11
  240. ^ Funk, Hoover & The Jesus Seminar 1993, pp. 401–70.
  241. ^ 11:23–26
  242. ^ Cox & Easley 2007, pp. 180–91.
  243. ^ a b Cox & Easley 2007, p. 182.
  244. ^ Luke 22:19–20
  245. ^ Cross & Livingstone 2005, Eucharist.
  246. ^ Pohle, Joseph (1913). "The Blessed Eucharist as a Sacrament" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  247. ^ Freedman 2000, p. 792.
  248. ^ .
  249. ^ Lange, Johann P. (1865). The Gospel according to Matthew, Volume 1. Charles Scribner Co. p. 499.
  250. ^ Luke 22:34, John 22:34
  251. ^ Matthew 26:31–34, Mark 14:27–30
  252. ^ a b Walvoord & Zuck 1983, pp. 83–85.
  253. .
  254. .
  255. ^ Cross & Livingstone 2005, Jesus.
  256. from the original on 26 February 2020. Retrieved 7 September 2017.
  257. ^ Josephus Antiquities 18.2.2
  258. ^ Brown 1997, p. 146.
  259. from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  260. ^ a b c d Evans 2003, pp. 487–500.
  261. ^ a b c Blomberg 2009, pp. 396–400.
  262. ^ .
  263. ^ Evans 2003, p. 495.
  264. ^ Blomberg 2009, pp. 396–98.
  265. .
  266. ^ Matthew: "claiming to be king of the Jews". Mark: "king of the Jews". Luke: "subverting nation, opposing payment of taxes to Caesar, claiming to be Christ, a king" John: "breaking Jewish law, claiming to be the son of God".
  267. .
  268. .
  269. ^ a b Niswonger 1992, p. 172.
  270. ^ Majerník, Ponessa & Manhardt 2005, p. 181.
  271. ^ a b Carter 2003, pp. 120–21.
  272. ^ Evans 2012b, p. 453.
  273. ^ Matthew 27:20
  274. ^ Blomberg 2009, pp. 400–01.
  275. ^ John 19:19–20
  276. ^ Brown 1988, p. 93.
  277. .
  278. ^ Blomberg 2009, p. 402.
  279. ^ a b c d e f g Evans 2003, pp. 509–20.
  280. ^ a b Köstenberger, Kellum & Quarles 2009, pp. 211–14.
  281. ^ a b Doninger 1999, p. 271.
  282. ^ Ehrman 2009, p. 82.
  283. ^ Luke 23:43
  284. ^ John 19:26–27
  285. ^ Köstenberger, Kellum & Quarles 2009, pp. 213–14.
  286. ^ Morris 1992, p. 727.
  287. .
  288. ^ Harris 1985, pp. 308–09.
  289. ^ Mark 16:5–6, Matthew 28:5–6, Luke 24:4–6
  290. ^ Mark 16:7, Matthew 28:7
  291. ^ Luke 24:12
  292. ^ John 20:2–8
  293. ^ Matthew 28:7
  294. ^ Matthew 28:11–15
  295. ^ Mark 16:9, John 20:14–17
  296. ^ Matthew 28:9–10
  297. ^ Luke 24:13–31
  298. ^ Mark 16:14, Matthew 28:16–17, John 20:19–23
  299. ^ Luke 24:36–43
  300. ^ John 20:24–29
  301. ^ Harris 1985, pp. 297–301.
  302. ^ Cox & Easley 2007, pp. 216–26.
  303. from the original on 8 October 2020. Retrieved 8 October 2020.
  304. ^ Acts 9:5
  305. .
  306. ^ Van den Biesen, Christian (1913). "Apocalypse" . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  307. New Testament epoch
  308. ^ Ehrman 2012, pp. 87–90.
  309. from the original on 17 December 2019. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  310. ^ Galatians 2:9, Acts 1:13; See Historical reliability of the Acts of the Apostles for details
  311. .
  312. pp. 224–25
  313. from the original on 26 June 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2018.
  314. from the original on 16 April 2019. Retrieved 1 May 2018. The New Testament contains twenty-seven books, written in Greek, by fifteen or sixteen different authors, who were addressing other Christian individuals or communities between the years 50 and 120 C.E. (see box 1.4). As we will see, it is difficult to know whether any of these books was written by Jesus' own disciples.
  315. ^ Levine 2006, p. 5.
  316. ^ Powell 1998, pp. 19–23.
  317. p. 4
  318. ^ a b Theissen & Winter 2002, p. 5.
  319. pp. 1–2
  320. ^ Keener 2012, p. 163.
  321. ^ a b Chilton & Evans 1998, p. 27.
  322. ^ Evans 2012a, pp. 4–5.
  323. .
  324. ^ Theissen & Winter 2002, pp. 142–143.
  325. from the original on 18 April 2017. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  326. ^ Meier 2006, p. 124.
  327. .
  328. ^ a b Blomberg 2009, pp. 431–36.
  329. ^ a b c Harris 1985, p. 263.
  330. ^ Rausch 2003, pp. 36–37.
  331. from the original on 10 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  332. from the original on 10 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  333. ^ Funk, Hoover & The Jesus Seminar 1993, pp. 471–532.
  334. .
  335. .
  336. .
  337. ^ Van Voorst 2000, pp. 39–53.
  338. ^ Van Voorst 2000, p. 83.
  339. from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  340. from the original on 10 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  341. ^ Theissen & Merz 1998.
  342. ^ Reed 2002, p. 18.
  343. ^ .
  344. from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
  345. ^ a b Humphreys & Waddington 1992, p. 340.
  346. ^ Maier 1989, pp. 115–18.
  347. ^ a b Niswonger 1992, pp. 121–22.
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