Cape Town

Coordinates: 33°55′31″S 18°25′26″E / 33.92528°S 18.42389°E / -33.92528; 18.42389
Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Cape Town
  • Kaapstad (
    Afrikaans
    )
  • iKapa (Xhosa)
V&A Waterfront
US$121 billion[6]
GMP per capita (2011)US$19,656[7]
Websitecapetown.gov.za

Cape Town[8][9] is the legislative capital of South Africa. It is the country's oldest city and the seat of the Parliament of South Africa.[10] It is the country's second-largest city, after Johannesburg, and the largest in the Western Cape.[11] The city is part of the City of Cape Town metropolitan municipality.

The city is known for its harbour, its natural setting in the Cape Floristic Region, and for landmarks such as Table Mountain and Cape Point. In 2014, Cape Town was named the best place in the world to visit by The New York Times[12] and similarly by The Daily Telegraph in 2016.[13]

Located on the shore of Table Bay, the City Bowl area of Cape Town is the oldest urban area in the Western Cape, with a significant cultural heritage. It was founded by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) as a supply station for Dutch ships sailing to East Africa, India, and the Far East. Jan van Riebeeck's arrival on 6 April 1652 established the VOC Cape Colony, the first permanent European settlement in South Africa. Cape Town outgrew its original purpose as the first European outpost at the Castle of Good Hope, becoming the economic and cultural hub of the Cape Colony. Until the Witwatersrand Gold Rush and the development of Johannesburg, Cape Town was the largest city in southern Africa.

The metropolitan area has a long coastline on the Atlantic Ocean, which includes False Bay, and extends to the Hottentots Holland mountains to the east. The Table Mountain National Park is within the city boundaries and there are several other nature reserves and marine-protected areas within, and adjacent to, the city, protecting the diverse terrestrial and marine natural environment.

History

Early period

Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias planting the cross at Cape Point, 1488.

The earliest known remnants of human occupation in the region were found at Peers Cave in Fish Hoek and have been dated to between 15,000 and 12,000 years old.[14]

Little is known of the history of the region's first residents, since there is no written history from the area before it was first mentioned by

Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias. Dias, the first European to reach the area, arrived in 1488 and named it "Cape of Storms" (Cabo das Tormentas). It was later renamed by John II of Portugal as "Cape of Good Hope" (Cabo da Boa Esperança) because of the great optimism engendered by the opening of a sea route to the Indian subcontinent and East Indies
.

In 1497, Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama recorded a sighting of the Cape of Good Hope.

In 1510, at the Battle of Salt River, the Portuguese admiral Francisco de Almeida and sixty-four of his men were killed and his party was defeated[15] by the !Uriǁ’aekua ("Goringhaiqua" in Dutch approximate spelling) using specially trained cattle[citation needed]. The !Uriǁ’aekua were one of the so-called Khoekhoe clans who inhabited the area.

In the late 16th century French, Danish, Dutch and English, but mainly Portuguese, ships regularly continued to stop over in Table Bay en route to the Indies. They traded tobacco, copper, and iron with the Khoekhoe clans of the region in exchange for fresh meat and other essential travelling provisions.

Dutch period

Dutch period
Jan van Riebeeck and Dutch colonists arriving in Table Bay in 1652.
A diorama of Cape Town as it would have appeared in 1800 at the end of Dutch rule by the VOC.

In 1652, Jan van Riebeeck and other employees of the United East India Company (Dutch: Verenigde Oost-indische Compagnie, VOC) were sent to the Cape Colony to establish a way-station for ships travelling to the Dutch East Indies, and the Fort de Goede Hoop (later replaced by the Castle of Good Hope). The settlement grew slowly during this period, as it was hard to find adequate labour. This labour shortage prompted the local authorities to import enslaved people from Indonesia and Madagascar. Many of these people are ancestors of modern-day Cape Coloured communities.[16][17]

Under Van Riebeeck and his successors, as VOC commanders and later governors at the Cape, a wide range of agricultural plants were introduced to the Cape. Some of these, including grapes, cereals, ground nuts, potatoes, apples and citrus, had a large and lasting influence on the societies and economies of the region.[18]

British period

Adderley Street in 1897 was an important commercial hub in Cape Town at a time when the city was the most important centre of economic activity in the Southern Africa region.

With the

Revolutionary France's vassal Batavian Republic
, Great Britain moved to take control of Dutch colonies, including the colonial possessions of the VOC.

Britain captured Cape Town in 1795, but it was returned to the Dutch by treaty in 1803. British forces occupied the Cape again in 1806 following the Battle of Blaauwberg when the successor state to the Batavian Republic, the Kingdom of Holland, allied with France during the Napoleonic Wars.

In the

Cape Colony, whose territory expanded very substantially through the 1800s. With expansion came calls for greater independence from the UK, with the Cape attaining its own parliament (1854) and a locally accountable Prime Minister (1872). Suffrage was established according to the non-racial Cape Qualified Franchise.[19][20]

During the 1850s and 1860s, additional plant species were introduced from Australia by the British authorities. Notably rooikrans was introduced to stabilise the sand of the Cape Flats to allow for a road connecting the peninsula with the rest of the African continent[21] and eucalyptus was used to drain marshes.[22]

In 1859 the first railway line was built by the Cape Government Railways and a system of railways rapidly expanded in the 1870s. The discovery of diamonds in Griqualand West in 1867, and the Witwatersrand Gold Rush in 1886, prompted a flood of immigration into South Africa.[23] In 1895 the city's first public power station, the Graaff Electric Lighting Works, was opened.

Conflicts between the

Boer republics in the interior and the British colonial government resulted in the Second Boer War of 1899–1902. Britain's victory in this war led to the formation of a united South Africa. From 1891 to 1901, the city's population more than doubled from 67,000 to 171,000.[24]

As the 19th century came to an end, the economic and political dominance of Cape Town in the Southern Africa region during the 19th century started to gave way to the dominance of Johannesburg and Pretoria in the 20th century.[25]

South African period

An aerial photograph of the newly completed Cape Town foreshore in 1945. Visible in this photograph as the large area of empty land between the City Centre and the newly constructed harbour out of reclaimed land from Table Bay.[26]

In 1910, Britain established the

Republic of South Africa
.

By the time of the

1936 census
, Johannesburg had overtaken Cape Town as the largest city in the country.

In 1945 the expansion of the Cape Town foreshore was completed adding an additional 194 ha (480 acres) to the City Bowl area to the city centre.[27]

Apartheid era

Prior to the mid-twentieth century, Cape Town was one of the most racially integrated cities in South Africa.[28][29] In the 1948 national elections, the National Party won on a platform of apartheid (racial segregation) under the slogan of "swart gevaar" (Afrikaans for "black danger"). This led to the erosion and eventual abolition of the Cape's multiracial franchise.

In 1950, the apartheid government first introduced the

District Six. After it was declared a whites-only area in 1965, all housing there was demolished and over 60,000 residents were forcibly removed.[30] Many of these residents were relocated to the Cape Flats
.

The earliest of the Cape Flats forced removals saw the expulsion of Black South Africans to the

Native Urban Areas Act
.

Under apartheid, the Cape was considered a "

Langa, Gugulethu and Nyanga in Cape Town reacted to the news of the protests against Bantu Education by organising gatherings and marches of their own. A number of school buildings were burnt down and the protest action was met with forceful resistance from the police.[32][33]

Cape Town has been home to many leaders of the

penitentiary island was the site of a maximum security prison where many famous apartheird-era political prisoners served long prison sentences. Famous prisoners include activist, lawyer and future president Nelson Mandela who served 18 of his 27 years of imprisonment on the island, as well as two other future presidents, Kgalema Motlanthe and Jacob Zuma.[citation needed
]

In one of the most famous moments marking the end of apartheid,

first democratic election, was held four years later, on 27 April 1994.[citation needed
]

]

Post-apartheid era

Cape Town faced a severe water shortage from 2015 to 2018.[34]

Since the 2010s, Cape Town and the wider Western Cape province have seen the rise of a small secessionist movement.[35] Support for parties "which have formally adopted Cape independence" was around 5% in the 2021 municipal elections.[36]

Geography and the natural environment

Devil's Peak, Table Mountain and Lion's Head
Satellite image of Cape Town showing the Cape Peninsula (left), Cape Flats and False Bay
Satellite image 3D of the City Bowl and Table Mountain

Cape Town is located at latitude 33.55° S (approximately the same as Sydney and Buenos Aires and equivalent to Casablanca and Los Angeles in the northern hemisphere) and longitude 18.25° E.

Table Mountain, with its near vertical cliffs and flat-topped summit over 1,000 m (3,300 ft) high, and with Devil's Peak and Lion's Head on either side, together form a dramatic mountainous backdrop enclosing the central area of Cape Town, the so-called City Bowl. A thin strip of cloud, known colloquially as the "tablecloth" ("Karos" in Afrikaans), sometimes forms on top of the mountain. To the immediate south of the city, the Cape Peninsula is a scenic mountainous spine jutting 40 km (25 mi) southward into the Atlantic Ocean and terminating at Cape Point.

There are over 70 peaks above 300 m (980 ft) within Cape Town's official metropolitan limits. Many of the city's suburbs lie on the large plain called the Cape Flats, which extends over 50 km (30 mi) to the east and joins the peninsula to the mainland. The Cape Town region is characterised by an extensive coastline, rugged mountain ranges, coastal plains and inland valleys.

Extent

The extent of Cape Town has varied considerably over time. It originated as a small settlement at the foot of Table Mountain and has grown beyond its city limits as a metropolitan area to encompass the entire Cape Peninsula to the south, the Cape Flats, the Helderberg basin and part of the Steenbras catchment area to the east, and the Tygerberg hills, Blouberg and other areas to the north. Robben Island in Table Bay is also part of Cape Town. It is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and False Bay to the south. To the north and east, the extent is demarcated by boundaries of neighbouring municipalities within the Western Cape province.

The official boundaries of the city proper extend between the City Bowl and the Atlantic Seaboard to the east and the Southern Suburbs to the south. The City of Cape Town, the metropolitan municipality that takes its name from the city covers the Greater Cape Town metropolitan area, known as the Cape Metropole, extending beyond the city proper itself to include a number of satellite towns, suburbs and rural areas such as Milnerton, Atlantis, Bellville, Brackenfell, Durbanville, Goodwood, Gordon’s Bay, Hout Bay, Kraaifontein, Kuilsrivier, Muizenberg, Simon’s Town, Somerset West and Strand among others.[37][38]

The

Cape Supergroup, of which parts of the Graafwater and Peninsula Formations remain, were uplifted between 280 and 21S million years ago, and were largely eroded away during the Mesozoic. The region was geologically stable during the Tertiary, which has led to slow denudation of the durable sandstones. Erosion rate and drainage has been influenced by fault lines and fractures, leaving remnant steep-sided massifs like Table Mountain surrounded by flatter slopes of deposits of the eroded material overlaying the older rocks,[40]

There are two internationally notable landmarks, Table Mountain and Cape Point, at opposite ends of the Peninsula Mountain Chain, with the Cape Flats and False Bay to the east and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The landscape is dominated by sandstone plateaux and ridges, which generally drop steeply at their margins to the surrounding debris slopes, interrupted by a major gap at the Fish Hoek–Noordhoek valley. In the south much of the area is a low sandstone plateau with sand dunes. Maximum altitude is 1113 m on Table Mountain.[40] The Cape Flats (Afrikaans: Kaapse Vlakte) is a flat, low-lying, sandy area, area to the east the Cape Peninsula, and west of the Helderberg much of which was wetland and dunes within recent history. To the north are the Tygerberg Hills and the Stellenbosch district.

The

Cape Supergroup
strata on a basement of Tygerberg Formation rocks intruded by part of the Stellenbosch granite pluton. The region includes the entire catchment of the Lourens and Sir Lowry's rivers, separated by the Schapenberg hill, and a small part of the catchment of the Eerste River to the west. The Helderberg is ecologically highly diverse, rivaling the Cape Peninsula, and has its own endemic ecoregions and several conservation areas.

To the east of the Hottentots Holland mountains is the valley of the Steenbras River, in which the Steenbras Dam was built as a water supply for Cape Town. The dam has been supplemented by several other dams around the western Cape, some of them considerably larger. This is almost entirely a conservation area, of high biodiversity. Bellville, Brackenfell, Durbanville, Kraaifontein, Goodwood and Parow are a few of the towns that make up the Northern Suburbs of Cape Town. In current popular culture these areas are often referred to as being beyond the "boerewors curtain," a play on the term "iron curtain."

prison where people were isolated, banished, and exiled for nearly 400 years. It was also used as a leper colony, a post office, a grazing ground, a mental hospital, and an outpost.[41]

Cape Town's "City Bowl" viewed from Lion's Head in May (late autumn)

Geology

Geological map of the Cape Peninsula and False Bay

The Cape Peninsula is a rocky and mountainous peninsula that juts out into the Atlantic Ocean at the south-western extremity of the continent. At its tip is Cape Point and the Cape of Good Hope. The peninsula forms the west side of False Bay and the Cape Flats. On the east side are the Helderberg and Hottentots Holland mountains. The three main rock formations are the late-Precambrian Malmebury group (sedimentary and metamorphic rock), the Cape Granite suit, comprising the huge Peninsula, Kuilsrivier-Helderberg, and Stellenbosch batholiths, that were intruded into the Malmesbury Group about 630 million years ago, and the Table Mountain group sandstones that were deposited on the eroded surface of the granite and Malmesbury series basement about 450 million years ago.

The sand, silt and mud deposits were lithified by pressure and then folded during the Cape Orogeny to form the Cape Fold Belt, which extends in an arc along the western and southern coasts. The present landscape is due to prolonged erosion having carved out deep valleys, removing parts of the once continuous Table Mountain Group sandstone cover from over the Cape Flats and False Bay, and leaving high residual mountain ridges.[42]

At times the sea covered the Cape Flats and Noordhoek valley and the Cape Peninsula was then a group of islands. During glacial periods the sea level dropped to expose the bottom of False Bay to weathering and erosion, with the last major regression leaving the entire bottom of False Bay exposed. During this period an extensive system of dunes was formed on the sandy floor of False Bay. At this time the drainage outlets lay between Rocky Bank Cape Point to the west, and between Rocky Bank and Hangklip Ridge to the east, with the watershed roughly along the line of the contact zone east of Seal Island and Whittle Rock.[42][43]: Ch2 

Climate

Llandudno, Western Cape during a sunny day

Cape Town has a warm Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csb),[44][45][46] with mild, moderately wet winters and dry, warm summers. Winter, which lasts from the beginning of June to the end of August, may see large cold fronts entering for limited periods from the Atlantic Ocean with significant

precipitation and strong north-westerly winds. Winter months in the city average a maximum of 18 °C (64 °F) and minimum of 8.5 °C (47 °F)[47]
Total annual rainfall in the city averages 515 mm (20.3 in) although in the Southern Suburbs, close to the mountains, rainfall is significantly higher and averages closer to 1,000 mm (39.4 in).

Summer, which lasts from December to March, is warm and dry with an average maximum of 26 °C (79 °F) and minimum of 16 °C (61 °F). The region can get uncomfortably hot when the

South Atlantic to the west of Cape Town, known as the South Atlantic High, which shifts latitude seasonally, following the sun, and influencing the strength of the fronts and their northward reach. Cape Town receives about 3,100 hours of sunshine per year.[48]

Water temperatures range greatly, between 10 °C (50 °F) on the Atlantic Seaboard, to over 22 °C (72 °F) in False Bay. Average annual ocean surface temperatures are between 13 °C (55 °F) on the Atlantic Seaboard (similar to Californian waters, such as San Francisco or Big Sur), and 17 °C (63 °F) in False Bay (similar to Northern Mediterranean temperatures, such as Nice or Monte Carlo).

Unlike other parts of the country the city does not have many thunderstorms, and most of those that do occur, happen around October to December and March to April.

Climate data for Cape Town (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 45.2
(113.4)
38.3
(100.9)
43.0
(109.4)
38.6
(101.5)
33.5
(92.3)
29.8
(85.6)
29.0
(84.2)
32.0
(89.6)
33.1
(91.6)
37.2
(99.0)
39.9
(103.8)
41.4
(106.5)
45.2
(113.4)
Mean maximum °C (°F) 33.6
(92.5)
34.1
(93.4)
33.2
(91.8)
31.7
(89.1)
29.1
(84.4)
26.3
(79.3)
25.1
(77.2)
26.9
(80.4)
28.3
(82.9)
31.0
(87.8)
31.6
(88.9)
32.5
(90.5)
34.1
(93.4)
Average high °C (°F) 26.1
(79.0)
26.5
(79.7)
25.4
(77.7)
23.0
(73.4)
20.3
(68.5)
18.1
(64.6)
17.5
(63.5)
17.8
(64.0)
19.2
(66.6)
21.3
(70.3)
23.5
(74.3)
24.9
(76.8)
22.0
(71.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 20.4
(68.7)
20.4
(68.7)
19.2
(66.6)
16.9
(62.4)
14.4
(57.9)
12.5
(54.5)
11.9
(53.4)
12.4
(54.3)
13.7
(56.7)
15.6
(60.1)
17.9
(64.2)
19.5
(67.1)
16.2
(61.2)
Average low °C (°F) 15.7
(60.3)
15.6
(60.1)
14.2
(57.6)
11.9
(53.4)
9.4
(48.9)
7.8
(46.0)
7.0
(44.6)
7.5
(45.5)
8.7
(47.7)
10.6
(51.1)
13.2
(55.8)
14.9
(58.8)
11.4
(52.5)
Mean minimum °C (°F) 10.3
(50.5)
9.9
(49.8)
7.6
(45.7)
5.7
(42.3)
2.8
(37.0)
1.3
(34.3)
1.0
(33.8)
1.3
(34.3)
2.3
(36.1)
4.4
(39.9)
7.0
(44.6)
9.5
(49.1)
1.0
(33.8)
Record low °C (°F) 7.4
(45.3)
6.4
(43.5)
4.6
(40.3)
2.4
(36.3)
0.9
(33.6)
−1.2
(29.8)
−1.3
(29.7)
−0.4
(31.3)
0.2
(32.4)
1.0
(33.8)
3.9
(39.0)
6.2
(43.2)
−1.3
(29.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 15
(0.6)
17
(0.7)
20
(0.8)
41
(1.6)
69
(2.7)
93
(3.7)
82
(3.2)
77
(3.0)
40
(1.6)
30
(1.2)
14
(0.6)
17
(0.7)
515
(20.4)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 5.5 4.6 4.8 8.3 11.4 13.3 11.8 13.7 10.4 8.7 4.9 6.3 103.7
Average
relative humidity
(%)
71 72 74 78 81 81 81 80 77 74 71 71 76
Mean monthly sunshine hours 337.9 297.4 292.9 233.5 205.3 175.4 193.1 212.1 224.7 277.7 309.8 334.2 3,094
Average ultraviolet index 12 11 8 5 3 2 2 4 6 8 10 12 7
Source:
NOAA,[48] South African Weather Service,[49] eNCA[50]

Climate change

A 2019 paper published in PLOS One estimated that under Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5, a "moderate" scenario of climate change where global warming reaches ~2.5–3 °C (4.5–5.4 °F) by 2100, the climate of Cape Town in the year 2050 would most closely resemble the current climate of Perth in Australia. The annual temperature would increase by 1.1 °C (2.0 °F), and the temperature of the coldest month by 0.3 °C (0.54 °F), while the temperature of the warmest month would be 2.3 °C (4.1 °F) higher.[51][52] According to Climate Action Tracker, the current warming trajectory appears consistent with 2.7 °C (4.9 °F), which closely matches RCP 4.5.[53]

Moreover, according to the 2022 IPCC Sixth Assessment Report, Cape Town is one of 12 major African cities (Abidjan, Alexandria, Algiers, Cape Town, Casablanca, Dakar, Dar es Salaam, Durban, Lagos, Lomé, Luanda and Maputo) which would be the most severely affected by future sea level rise. It estimates that they would collectively sustain cumulative damages of USD 65 billion under RCP 4.5 and USD 86.5 billion for the high-emission scenario RCP 8.5 by the year 2050. Additionally, RCP 8.5 combined with the hypothetical impact from marine ice sheet instability at high levels of warming would involve up to 137.5 billion USD in damages, while the additional accounting for the "low-probability, high-damage events" may increase aggregate risks to USD 187 billion for the "moderate" RCP4.5, USD 206 billion for RCP8.5 and USD 397 billion under the high-end ice sheet instability scenario.[54] Since sea level rise would continue for about 10,000 years under every scenario of climate change, future costs of sea level rise would only increase, especially without adaptation measures.[55]

Hydrology

Sea surface temperatures

Charts of sea surface temperature in and near False Bay in summer and winter[56]

Cape Town's coastal water ranges from cold to mild, and the difference between the two sides of the peninsula can be dramatic. While the Atlantic Seaboard averages annual sea surface temperatures around 13 °C (55 °F), the

Benguela current
which originates off the Cape Peninsula, while the water at False Bay beaches may occasionally be warmer by up to 10 °C (18 °F) at the same time in summer.

In summer False Bay is thermally stratified, with a vertical temperature variation of 5 to 9˚C between the warmer surface water and cooler depths below 50 m, while in winter the water column is at nearly constant temperature at all depths. The development of a thermocline is strongest around late December and peaks in late summer to early autumn.[57]: 8  In summer the south easterly winds generate a zone of upwelling near Cape Hangklip, where surface water temperatures can be 6 to 7 °C colder than the surrounding areas, and bottom temperatures below 12 °C.[57]: 10 

In the summer to early autumn (January–March), cold water upwelling near Cape Hangklip causes a strong surface temperature gradient between the south-western and north-eastern corners of the bay. In winter the surface temperature tends to be much the same everywhere. In the northern sector surface temperature varies a bit more (13 to 22 °C) than in the south (14 to 20 °C) during the year.[56]

Surface temperature variation from year to year is linked to the El Niño–Southern Oscillation. During El Niño years the South Atlantic high is shifted, reducing the south-easterly winds, so upwelling and evaporative cooling are reduced and sea surface temperatures throughout the bay are warmer, while in La Niña years there is more wind and upwelling and consequently lower temperatures. Surface water heating during El Niño increases vertical stratification. The relationship is not linear.[56] Occasionally eddies from the Agulhas current will bring warmer water and vagrant sea life carried from the south and east coasts into False Bay.

Flora and fauna

Peninsula Sandstone Fynbos growing in Table Mountain National Park.

Located in a Conservation International biodiversity hotspot as well as the unique Cape Floristic Region, the city of Cape Town has one of the highest levels of biodiversity of any equivalent area in the world.[58][59] These protected areas are a World Heritage Site, and an estimated 2,200 species of plants are confined to Table Mountain – more than exist in the whole of the United Kingdom which has 1200 plant species and 67 endemic plant species.[60][61][62] Many of these species, including a great many types of proteas, are endemic to the mountain and can be found nowhere else.[63]

It is home to a total of 19 different vegetation types, of which several are endemic to the city and occur nowhere else in the world.[64] It is also the only habitat of hundreds of endemic species,[65] and hundreds of others which are severely restricted or threatened. This enormous species diversity is mainly because the city is uniquely located at the convergence point of several different soil types and micro-climates.[66][67]

Table Mountain has an unusually rich biodiversity. Its vegetation consists predominantly of several different types of the unique and rich Cape

occur in smaller portions on the mountain.

Rapid

extinct. The Cape Peninsula, which lies entirely within the city of Cape Town, has the highest concentration of threatened species of any continental area of equivalent size in the world.[68]
Tiny remnant populations of
near extinct plants sometimes survive on road sides, pavements and sports fields.[69] The remaining ecosystems are partially protected through a system of over 30 nature reserves – including the massive Table Mountain National Park.[70]

Cape Town reached first place in the 2019 iNaturalist City Nature Challenge in two out of the three categories: Most Observations, and Most Species. This was the first entry by Capetonians in this annual competition to observe and record the local biodiversity over a four-day long weekend during what is considered the worst time of the year for local observations.[71] A worldwide survey suggested that the extinction rate of endemic plants from the City of Cape Town is one of the highest in the world, at roughly three per year since 1900 – partly a consequence of the very small and localised habitats and high endemicity.[72]

Government

Cape Town is governed by a 231-member city council elected in a system of

party lists so that the total number of councillors for each party is proportional to the number of votes received by that party.[73][74]

In the 2021 Municipal Elections, the Democratic Alliance (DA) kept its majority, this time diminished, taking 136 seats. The African National Congress lost substantially, receiving 43 of the seats.[75][76] The Democratic Alliance candidate for the Cape Town mayoralty, Geordin Hill-Lewis was elected mayor.[77]

International relations

Cape Town has nineteen active sister city agreements[78]

2022 invasion of Ukraine

Cape Town City hall lit up in the colours of the Ukrainian flag as a gesture of solidarity with the country.

The City of Cape Town has expressed explicit support for Ukraine during the

2022 invasion of the country by Russia.[79] To show this support the City of Cape Town lit up the Old City Hall in the colours of the Ukrainian flag on 2 March 2022.[80][81] This has differentiated the city from the officially neutral foreign policy position taken by the South African national government.[80]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1658360—    
17313,157+3.02%
183620,000+1.77%
187545,000+2.10%
189167,000+2.52%
1901171,000+9.82%
1936344,223+2.02%
1950618,000+4.27%
1955705,000+2.67%
1960803,000+2.64%
1965945,000+3.31%
YearPop.±% p.a.
19701,114,000+3.35%
19751,339,000+3.75%
19801,609,000+3.74%
19851,933,000+3.74%
19902,296,000+3.50%
19962,565,018+1.86%
20012,892,243+2.43%
20073,497,097+3.22%
20113,740,025+1.69%
20183,776,001+0.14%
Note: Census figures (1996–2011) cover figures after 1994 reflect the greater Cape Town metropolitan municipality reflecting post-1994 reforms. Sources: 1658–1904,[24] 1936,[82] 1950–1990,[83] 1996,[84] 2001, and 2011 Census;[85] 2007,[86] 2018 Census estimates.[87]
Cape Town population pyramid in 2011
Population density in Cape Town

According to the

previous census in 2001 which found a population of 2,892,243 people.[88]
: 54  Of those residents who were asked about their first language, 35.7% spoke Afrikaans, 29.8% spoke Xhosa and 28.4% spoke English. 24.8% of the population is under the age of 15, while 5.5% is 65 or older.[88]: 64  The sex ratio is 96, meaning that there are slightly more women than men.[88]: 55 

Of those residents aged 20 or older, 1.8% have no schooling, 8.1% have some schooling but did not finish primary school, 4.6% finished primary school but have no secondary schooling, 38.9% have some secondary schooling but did not finish

Grade 12, 29.9% finished Grade 12 but have no higher education, and 16.7% have higher education. Overall, 46.6% have at least a Grade 12 education.[88]: 74  Of those aged between 5 and 25, 67.8% are attending an educational institution.[88]: 78  Amongst those aged between 15 and 65 the unemployment rate is 23.7%.[88]: 79  The average annual household income is R161,762.[88]
: 88 

The total number of households grew from 653,085 in 1996 to 1,068,572 in 2011, which represents an increase of 63.6%.

refuse collection service.[88]: 86  91.4% of households have a flush toilet or chemical toilet, while 4.5% still use a bucket toilet.[88]: 87  82.1% of households have a refrigerator, 87.3% have a television and 70.1% have a radio. Only 34.0% have a landline telephone, but 91.3% have a cellphone. 37.9% have a computer, and 49.3% have access to the Internet (either through a computer or a cellphone).[88]

In 2011 over 70% of cross provincial South African migrants coming into the Western Cape settled in Cape Town; 53.64% of South African migrants into the Western Cape came from the Eastern Cape and 20.95% came from Gauteng province.[91]

According to the 2016 City of Cape Town community survey, there were 4,004,793 people in the City of Cape Town metro. Out of this population, 42.6% identified as Black African, 39.9% identified as Coloured, 16.5% identified as White and 1.1% identified as Asian.[92]

During the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in South Africa, local media reported that increasing numbers of wealthy and middle-class South Africans have started moving from inland areas to coastal regions of the country, most notably Cape Town, in a phenomenon referred to as "semigration."[93][94][95] Declining municipal services in the rest of the country and the South African energy crisis are other cited reasons for semigration.[96]

The city's population is expected to grow by an additional 400,000 residents between 2020 and 2025 with 76% of those new residents falling into the low-income bracket earning less than R 13,000 a month.[97]

Religion

St George's Anglican Cathedral is one of the largest and oldest religious sites in the city.

In the 2015 General Household Survey 82.3% of respondents self identified as Christian, 8% as Muslim, 3.8% as following a traditional African religion and 3.1% as "nothing in particular."[98]

Most

places of worship in the city are Christian churches and cathedrals: Zion Christian Church, Apostolic Faith Mission of South Africa, Assemblies of God, Baptist Union of Southern Africa (Baptist World Alliance), Methodist Church of Southern Africa (World Methodist Council), Anglican Church of Southern Africa (Anglican Communion), Presbyterian Church of Africa (World Communion of Reformed Churches), Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cape Town (Catholic Church),[99] the Orthodox Archbishopric of Good Hope (Greek Orthodox Cathedral of St George[100]) and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).[101] The LDS Church announced 4 April 2021[102]
the construction of a temple with groundbreaking dates yet to be announced.

]

Crime

Smash and grab Hot Spot in Retreat, Road M5

In recent years,[

drugs, a surge in violent drug-related crime and more recently gang violence. In the Cape Flats alone, there were approximately 100,000 people in over 130 different gangs in 2018. While there are some alliances, this multitude and division is also cause for conflict between groups.[105] At the same time, the economy has grown due to the boom in the tourism and the real estate industries.[106] Since July 2019 widespread violent crime in poorer gang dominated areas of greater Cape Town has resulted in an ongoing military presence in these neighbourhoods.[107][108] Cape Town had the highest murder rate among large South African cities at 77 murders per 100,000 people in the period April 2018 to March 2019, with 3157 murders mostly occurring in poor townships created under the apartheid regime.[109] [110] In 2022 the Mexican Council for Public Security and Criminal Justice ranked Cape Town as one of the 50 most violent cities in the world.[111]

Economy

Top publicly traded companies
in the Cape Town/Stellenbosch
region for 2021

(ranked by market capitalisation)
with Metropolitan and
JSE
ranks
Metro corporation JSE
1 Naspers 4
2
Capitec
14
3 Sanlam 20
4
Shoprite
24
5 Pepkor 30
6 Clicks 32
7
Woolworths
35
8 Remgro 37
Source: JSE top 40[112]

The metropolis is

global financial crisis of 2007 the city's economic growth rate has mirrored South Africa's decline in growth whilst the population growth rate for the city has remained steady at around 2% a year.[113] Around 80% of the city's economic activity is generated by the tertiary sector of the economy with the finance, retail, real-estate, food and beverage industries being the four largest contributors to the city's economic growth rate.[113]

In 2008 the city was named as the most entrepreneurial city in South Africa, with the percentage of Capetonians pursuing business opportunities almost three times higher than the national average. Those aged between 18 and 64 were 190% more likely to pursue new business, whilst in Johannesburg, the same demographic group was only 60% more likely than the national average to pursue a new business.[115]

With the highest number of successful information technology companies in Africa, Cape Town is an important centre for the industry on the continent.[116] This includes an increasing number of companies in the space industry.[117] Growing at an annual rate of 8.5% and an estimated worth of R77 billion in 2010, nationwide the high tech industry in Cape Town is becoming increasingly important to the city's economy.[116] A number of entrepreneurship initiatives and universities hosting technology startups such as Jumo, Yoco, Aerobotics, Luno, Rain telecommunication and The Sun Exchange are located in the city.[118]

Skyscrapers in City Bowl

The city has the largest film industry in the Southern Hemisphere[119] generating R5 billion (US$476.19 million) in revenue and providing an estimated 6,058 direct and 2,502 indirect jobs in 2013.[120] Much of the industry is based out of the Cape Town Film Studios.

Major companies

The Naspers Centre is the headquarters of Naspers, the largest listed company headquartered in Cape Town.

Most companies headquartered in the city are insurance companies, retail groups, publishers, design houses, fashion designers, shipping companies, petrochemical companies, architects and advertising agencies.

eTV, multinational mass media giant Naspers, and financial services giant Sanlam[125] and Old Mutual Park.[126]

Other notable companies include

GlaxoSmithKline, Levi Strauss & Co., Adidas, Bokomo Foods, Yoco and Nampak.[citation needed] Amazon Web Services maintains one of its largest facilities in the world in Cape Town with the city serving as the Africa headquarters for its parent company Amazon.[127][128]

Inequality

The city of Cape Town's Gini coefficient of 0.58[129] is lower than South Africa's Gini coefficient of 0.7 making it more equal than the rest of the country or any other major South Africa city although still highly unequal by international standards.[130][131] Between 2001 and 2010 the city's Gini coefficient, a measure of inequality, improved by dropping from 0.59 in 2007 to 0.57 in 2010[132] only to increase to 0.58 by 2017.[133]

Tourism

Clifton Beach is one of Cape Town's most famous beaches
Table Mountain from the Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden
African penguins at Boulders Penguin Colony

The Western Cape is a highly important tourist region in South Africa; the tourism industry accounts for 9.8% of the GDP of the province and employs 9.6% of the province's workforce. In 2010, over 1.5 million international tourists visited the area.

Hout Bay, for the views of the Atlantic Ocean and nearby mountains. It is possible to either drive or hike up Signal Hill for closer views of the City Bowl and Table Mountain.[137]

Many tourists also visit Cape Town's beaches, which are popular with local residents.[138] It is possible to visit several different beaches in the same day, each with a different setting and atmosphere. Both coasts are popular, although the beaches in affluent

Llandudno, with the route ending in Hout Bay, a diverse suburb with a fishing and recreational boating harbour near a small island with a breeding colony of African fur seals. This suburb is also accessible by road from the Constantia valley over the mountains to the northeast, and via the picturesque Chapman's Peak drive from the residential suburb Noordhoek in the Fish Hoek valley to the south-east.[139] Boulders Beach near Simon's Town is known for its colony of African penguins.[140]

The city has several notable cultural attractions. The

Cape fur seal colonies on Seal and Duiker Islands. Several companies offer tours of the Cape Flats, a region of mostly Coloured & Black townships.[144]

The most popular areas for visitors to stay within the metropolitan area include Camps Bay,

skydiving, snorkelling and scuba diving, boat trips, game-fishing, hiking, mountain biking and rock climbing. Surfing is popular and the city hosts the Red Bull Big Wave Africa surfing competition every year, and there is some local and international recreational scuba tourism.[147]

The City of Cape Town works closely with Cape Town Tourism to promote the city both locally and internationally. The primary focus of Cape Town Tourism is to represent Cape Town as a tourist destination.

Franschhoek are popular day trips from the city for sightseeing and wine tasting.[152][153]

Infrastructure and services

Most goods are handled through the Port of Cape Town or

Koeberg nuclear power station providing energy for the Western Cape's needs.[155]

Greater Cape Town has four major commercial nodes, with Cape Town Central Business District containing the majority of job opportunities and office space.[

Bellville/Tygervalley strip and Claremont
commercial nodes are well established and contain many offices and corporate headquarters.

Health

Groote Schuur Hospital
  • The Alexandra Hospital is a specialist mental health care hospital in Cape Town, it provides care for complex mental health issues and intellectual disability.[156]
  • Groote Schuur Hospital is a large, government-funded, teaching hospital situated on the slopes of Devil's Peak. It was founded in 1938 and is famous for being the institution where the first human-to-human heart transplant took place. Groote Schuur is the chief academic hospital of the University of Cape Town's medical school, providing tertiary care and instruction in all the major branches of medicine. The hospital underwent major extension in 1984 when two new wings were added.
  • The Hottentots Holland Hospital, also known as Helderberg Hospital, is a district hospital for the Helderberg basin located in Somerset West, and also serves surrounding areas in the Overberg district.
  • Vergelegen Medi-clinic – Private hospital in Somerset West

Education

University of Cape Town with the Devil's Peak
The Cape Town Campus of the Cape Peninsula University of Technology, with Table Mountain in the background

Public primary and secondary schools in Cape Town are run by the Western Cape Education Department. This provincial department is divided into seven districts; four of these are "Metropole" districts – Metropole Central, North, South, and East – which cover various areas of the metropolis.[157] There are also many private schools, both religious and secular. Cape Town has a well-developed higher system of public universities. Cape Town is served by three public universities: the University of Cape Town (UCT), the University of the Western Cape (UWC) and the Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT). Stellenbosch University, while not based in the metropolitan area itself, has its main campus and administrative section 50 kilometres from the City Bowl and has additional campuses, such as the Tygerberg Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences and the Bellville Business Park, north-west of the city in the town of Bellville.

Both the University of Cape Town and Stellenbosch University are leading universities in South Africa. This is due in large part to substantial financial contributions made to these institutions by both the public and private sector. UCT is an English-language tuition institution. It has over 21,000 students and has an MBA programme that was ranked 51st by the Financial Times in 2006.[158] It is also the top-ranked university in Africa, being the only African university to make the world's Top 200 university list at number 146.[159] Since the African National Congress has become the country's ruling party, some restructuring of Western Cape universities has taken place and as such, traditionally non-white universities have seen increased financing, which has evidently benefitted the University of the Western Cape.[160][161]

The Cape Peninsula University of Technology was formed on 1 January 2005, when two separate institutions –

SEDS, Students for the Exploration and Development of Space. This is the South African SEDS, and there are many SEDS branches in other countries, preparing enthusiastic students and young professionals for the growing Space industry.[citation needed] As well as the Universities, there are also several colleges in and around Cape Town. Including the College of Cape Town, False Bay College and Northlink College. Many students use NSFAS funding to help pay for tertiary education at these TVET colleges.[162] Cape Town has also become a popular study abroad destination for many international college students. Many study abroad providers
offer semester, summer, short-term, and internship programs in partnership with Cape Town universities as a chance for international students to gain intercultural understanding.

Water supply

Water crisis of 2017 to 2018

Water crisis warning in Cape Town in 2008

The Cape Town water crisis of 2017 to 2018 was a period of severe water shortage in the Western Cape region, most notably affecting the City of Cape Town. While dam water levels had been declining since 2015, the Cape Town water crisis peaked during mid-2017 to mid-2018 when water levels hovered between 15 and 30 percent of total dam capacity.

In late 2017, there were first mentions of plans for "Day Zero", a shorthand reference for the day when the water level of the major dams supplying the city could fall below 13.5 percent.[163][164][165] "Day Zero" would mark the start of Level 7 water restrictions, when municipal water supplies would be largely switched off and it was envisioned that residents could have to queue for their daily ration of water. If this had occurred, it would have made the City of Cape Town the first major city in the world to run out of water.[166][167]

The city of Cape Town implemented significant water restrictions in a bid to curb water usage, and succeeded in reducing its daily water usage by more than half to around 500 million litres (130,000,000 US gal) per day in March 2018.[168] The fall in water usage led the city to postpone its estimate for "Day Zero", and strong rains starting in June 2018 led to dam levels recovering.[169] In September 2018, with dam levels close to 70 percent, the city began easing water restrictions, indicating that the worst of the water crisis was over.[170] Good rains in 2020 effectively broke the drought and resulting water shortage when dam levels reached 95 percent.[171] Concerns have been raised, however, that unsustainble demand and limited water supply could result in future drought events.[172]

Transport

Air

Cape Town International Airport

Cape Town International Airport serves both domestic and international flights. It is the second-largest airport in South Africa and serves as a major gateway for travelers to the Cape region. Cape Town has regularly scheduled services to Southern Africa, East Africa, Mauritius, Middle East, Far East, Europe and the United States as well as eleven domestic destinations.[173] Cape Town International Airport opened a brand new central terminal building that was developed to handle an expected increase in air traffic as tourism numbers increased in the lead-up to the tournament of the 2010 FIFA World Cup.[174] Other renovations include several large new parking garages, a revamped domestic departure terminal, a new Bus Rapid Transit system station and a new double-decker road system. The airport's cargo facilities are also being expanded and several large empty lots are being developed into office space and hotels.

Cape Town is one of five internationally recognised

Central Business District[177]

Sea

The Port of Cape Town is a major transport node in southern Africa. In addition to moving freight it also serves as a major repair site for ships and oil rigs.

Cape Town has a long tradition as a port city. The Port of Cape Town, the city's main port, is in Table Bay directly to the north of the CBD. The port is a hub for ships in the southern Atlantic: it is located along one of the busiest shipping corridors in the world, and acts as a stopover point for goods en route to or from Latin America and Asia. It is also an entry point into the South African market.[178] It is the second-busiest container port in South Africa after Durban. In 2004, it handled 3,161 ships and 9.2 million tonnes of cargo.[179]

Simon's Town Harbour on the False Bay coast of the Cape Peninsula is the main operational base of the South African Navy.

Until the 1970s the city was served by the

St Helena Airport.[181]

The cargo vessel M/V Helena, under AW Shipping Management, takes a limited number of passengers,[182] between Cape Town and St Helena and Ascension Island on its voyages.[183] Multiple vessels also take passengers to and from Tristan da Cunha, inaccessible by aircraft, to and from Cape Town.[184] In addition NSB Niederelbe Schiffahrtsgesellschaft [de] takes passengers on its cargo service to the Canary Islands and Hamburg, Germany.[182]

Rail

Metrorail train leaving Kalk Bay
station

The

Kimberley, Bloemfontein and Pietermaritzburg. These trains terminate at Cape Town railway station and make a brief stop at Bellville. Cape Town is also one terminus of the luxury tourist-oriented Blue Train as well as the five-star Rovos Rail
.

service in Cape Town and the surrounding area. The Metrorail network consists of 96 stations throughout the suburbs and outskirts of Cape Town.

Road

Cape Town is the origin of three

Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban. An older at-grade road, the R102, runs parallel to the N1 initially, before veering south at Bellville, to join the N2 at Somerset West via the suburbs of Kuils River and Eerste River
. The N7 originates from the N1 at Wingfield Interchange near Edgemead. It begins, initially as a highway, but becoming an at-grade road from the intersection with the M5 onward.

The N2 as it enters the city centre.

There are also a number of

R44 enters the east of the metro from the north, from Stellenbosch. It connects Stellenbosch to Somerset West, then crosses the N2 to Strand and Gordon's Bay. It exits the metro heading south hugging the coast, leading to the towns of Betty's Bay and Kleinmond
.

Of the three-digit routes, the

R310 originates from Muizenberg
and runs along the coast, to the south of Mitchell's Plain and Khayelitsha, before veering north-east, crossing the N2 west of Macassar, and exiting the metro heading to Stellenbosch.

Cape Town, like most South African cities, uses Metropolitan or "M" routes for important intra-city routes, a layer below National (N) roads and Regional (R) routes. Each city's M roads are independently numbered. Most are at-grade roads. The M3 splits from the N2 and runs to the south along the eastern slopes of Table Mountain, connecting the City Bowl with Muizenberg. Except for a section between Rondebosch and Newlands that has at-grade intersections, this route is a highway. The M5 splits from the N1 further east than the M3, and links the Cape Flats to the CBD. It is a highway as far as the interchange with the M68 at Ottery, before continuing as an at-grade road. Cape Town has the worst traffic congestion in South Africa.[185][186]

Buses

Golden Arrow Bus Services operates scheduled bus services in the Cape Town metropolitan area. Several companies run long-distance bus services from Cape Town to the other cities in South Africa.

MyCiTi
MyCiTi station and bus

Cape Town has a public transport system in about 10% of the city, running north to south along the west coastline of the city, comprising Phase 1 of the IRT system. This is known as the MyCiTi service.[187]

MyCiTi Phase 1 includes services linking the Airport to the Cape Town inner city, as well as the following areas:

Hout Bay.[citation needed
]

The MyCiTi N2 Express service consists of two routes each linking the Cape Town inner city and Khayelitsha and Mitchells Plain on the Cape Flats.[citation needed]

The service use high floor articulated and standard size buses in dedicated busways, low floor articulated and standard size buses on the N2 Express service, and smaller 9 m (30 ft)

Optare buses in suburban and inner city areas. It offers universal access through level boarding and numerous other measures, and requires cashless fare payment using the EMV compliant smart card system, called myconnect. Headway of services (i.e. the time between buses on the same route) range from three to twenty minutes in peak times to an hour in off-peak times.[citation needed
]

Taxis

Cape Town Taxicab in Camps Bay

Cape Town has taxis as well as e-hailing services such as Uber. Taxis are either

minibus taxis. Unlike many cities, metered taxis can be found at transport hubs as well as other tourist establishments, while minibus taxis can be found at taxi ranks or travelling along main streets.[188] Minibus taxis can be hailed from the road.[189]

Cape Town metered taxi cabs mostly operate in the city bowl, suburbs and Cape Town International Airport areas. Large companies that operate fleets of cabs can be reached by phone and are cheaper than the single operators that apply for hire from taxi ranks and

Victoria and Alfred Waterfront. There are about one thousand meter taxis in Cape Town. Their rates vary from R8 per kilometre to about R15 per kilometre. The larger taxi companies in Cape Town are Excite Taxis, Cabnet and Intercab and single operators are reachable by cellular phone. The seven seated Toyota Avanza are the most popular with larger Taxi companies. Meter cabs are mostly used by tourists and are safer to use than minibus taxis.[citation needed
]

Minibus taxis are the standard form of transport for the majority of the population who cannot afford private vehicles.[190] Although essential, these taxis are often poorly maintained and are frequently not road-worthy. These taxis make frequent unscheduled stops to pick up passengers, which can cause accidents.[191][192] With the high demand for transport by the working class of South Africa, minibus taxis are often filled over their legal passenger allowance. Minibuses are generally owned and operated in fleets.[193]

Culture

Cape Town Minstrel Carnival (2017)

Cape Town is noted for its architectural heritage, with the highest density of

International Council of Societies of Industrial Design.[197]

Holi festival at the Grand Parade

The city also encloses the 36 hectare Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden that contains protected natural forest and fynbos along with a variety of animals and birds. There are over 7,000 species in cultivation at Kirstenbosch, including many rare and threatened species of the Cape Floristic Region. In 2004 this Region, including Kirstenbosch, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[198]

Whale watching is popular amongst tourists: southern right whales and humpback whales are seen off the coast during the breeding season (August to November) and Bryde's whales and orca can be seen any time of the year.[199] The nearby town of Hermanus is known for its Whale Festival, but whales can also be seen in False Bay.[199] Heaviside's dolphins are endemic to the area and can be seen from the coast north of Cape Town; dusky dolphins live along the same coast and can occasionally be seen from the ferry to Robben Island.[199]

The only complete windmill in South Africa is Mostert's Mill, Mowbray. It was built in 1796 and restored in 1935 and again in 1995.

Cuisine

A gatsby sandwich, freshly prepared

Food originating from or synonymous with Cape Town includes the savoury sweet spiced meat dish

Cape Brandy Pudding, is also associated with the city and surrounding region.[203] Cape Town is also the home of the South African wine industry with the first wine produced in the country being bottled in the city; a number of notable wineries still exist in the city including Groot Constantia and Klein Constantia
.

Media

A news van owned by Cape Town TV outside the Houses of Parliament

Several newspapers, magazines and printing facilities have their offices in the city.

Independent News and Media publishes the major English language papers in the city, the Cape Argus and the Cape Times. Naspers, the largest media conglomerate in South Africa, publishes Die Burger, the major Afrikaans language paper.[204]

Cape Town has many local community

Tygerburger
. Vukani, based in the Cape Flats, is published in Xhosa.[205]

Cape Town is a centre for major broadcast media with several radio stations that only broadcast within the city.

MW) are the major talk radio stations in the city.[207] Bokradio (98.9 MHz FM) is an Afrikaans music station.[208] The University of Cape Town also runs its own radio station, UCT Radio
(104.5 MHz FM).

The SABC has a small presence in the city, with satellite studios located at Sea Point. e.tv has a greater presence, with a large complex located at Longkloof Studios in Gardens. M-Net is not well represented with infrastructure within the city. Cape Town TV is a local TV station, supported by numerous organisation and focusing mostly on documentaries. Numerous productions companies and their support industries are located in the city, mostly supporting the production of overseas commercials, model shoots, TV-series and movies.[209] The local media infrastructure remains primarily in Johannesburg.

Sport and recreation

Cape Town Stadium in Green Point
Newlands Cricket Ground
Newlands Stadium
Kitesurfing in Table Bay

Cape Town's most popular sports by participation are

World Rugby 7s.[211] It will also be host to the 2023 Netball World Cup.[212]

Cape Town Spurs and resurrected Cape Town City F.C. Cape Town was also the location of several of the matches of the FIFA 2010 World Cup including a semi-final,[213] held in South Africa. The Mother City built a new 70,000-seat stadium (Cape Town Stadium
) in the Green Point area.

In

Standard Bank Cup Series
. The Newlands Cricket Ground regularly hosts international matches.

Cape Town has had Olympic aspirations. For example, in 1996, Cape Town was one of the five candidate cities shortlisted by the

awarded the 2020 Games to Tokyo.

The city of Cape Town has vast experience in hosting major national and international sports events. The

Port Elizabeth for the 2011 edition, and then to Cape Town in 2015. The event usually takes place in mid-December, and is hosted at the Cape Town Stadium in Green Point.[215]

There are several golf courses in Cape Town. The Clovelly Country Club and Metropolitan Golf Club are two of the best Golf Courses in Cape Town both offering superb views while playing the 18 holes.[216]

The coastline of Cape Town is relatively long, and the varied exposure to weather conditions makes it fairly common for water conditions to be conducive to recreational scuba diving at some part of the city's coast. There is considerable variation in the underwater environment and regional ecology as there are dive sites on reefs and wrecks on both sides of the Cape Peninsula and False Bay, split between two coastal marine ecoregions by the Cape Peninsula, and also variable by depth zone.

Surfing in Sandy Bay

False Bay is open to the south, and the prevailing open ocean swell arrives from the southwest, so the exposure varies considerably around the coastline. The inshore bathymetry near Cape Point is shallow enough for a moderate amount of refraction of long period swell, but deep enough to have less effect on short period swell, and acts as a filter to pass mainly the longer swell components to the Western shores, although they are significantly attenuated. The eastern shores get more of the open ocean spectrum, and this results in very different swell conditions between the two sides at any given time. The fetch is generally too short for southeasterly winds to produce good surf. There are more than 20 named breaks in False Bay. The north-wester can have a long fetch and can produce large waves, but they may also be associated with local wind and be very poorly sorted. The Atlantic coast is exposed to the full power of the South-westerly swell produced by the westerly winds of the southern ocean, often a long way away, so the swell has time to separate into similar wavelengths, and there are some world class big wave breaks among the named breaks of the Atlantic shore.[217][218][219]

See also

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