Federal subjects of Russia

Extended-protected article
Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Federal subjects
Субъекты федерации (Russian)
  Krais (territories)
  Oblasts (regions)
  Autonomous oblast
(autonomous region)
  Autonomous okrugs
(autonomous areas with a
substantial ethnic minority)
Diagonal stripes indicate territory internationally recognized as part of Ukraine
CategoryFederal semi-presidential constitutional republic
Location Russian Federation
Created
  • 12 December 1993
Number83
Populations41,431 (Nenets Autonomous Okrug) – 13,010,112 (Moscow)
Areas864 km2 (334 sq mi) (Sevastopol) – 3,103,200 km2 (1,198,200 sq mi) (Sakha Republic)
Government
Subdivisions

The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (Russian: субъекты Российской Федерации, romanizedsubyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (Russian: субъекты федерации, romanizedsubyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.[1] Kaliningrad Oblast is the only federal subject geographically separated from the rest of the Russian Federation by other countries.

According to the Russian Constitution, the Russian Federation consists of

Kolpino, etc.) within each federal city—keeping older structures of postal addresses. In 1993, the Russian Federation comprised 89 federal subjects. By 2008, the number of federal subjects had decreased to 83 because of several mergers. In 2014, after being annexed from Ukraine, the Russian government claimed Sevastopol and the Republic of Crimea to be the 84th and 85th federal subjects of Russia, a move that is not recognized internationally.[2][3] During the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, four Ukrainian oblasts were annexed by Russia, though they remain internationally recognized as part of Ukraine and are only partially occupied by Russia.[4]

Every federal subject has its own

autonomy
they enjoy; republics are offered more autonomy.

Post-Soviet Russia formed during the history of the

Soviet system of government introduced in 1918 by Vladimir Lenin and based on the right to secede from the country and on unlimited sovereignty of federal subjects (in practice secession was never allowed), which conflicts with the country's integrity and federal laws. The new constitution eliminated a number of legal conflicts, reserved the rights of the regions, introduced local self-government and did not grant the Soviet-era right to secede from the country. In the late 1990s and early 2000s the political system became de jure closer to other modern federal states with a republican form of government in the world. In the 2000s, following the policies of Vladimir Putin and of the ruling United Russia
party, the Russian parliament changed the distribution of tax revenues, reduced the number of elections in the regions and gave more power to the federal authorities.

Terminology

An official government translation of the Constitution of Russia from Russian to English uses the term "constituent entities of the Russian Federation". For example, Article 5 reads: "The Russian Federation shall consist of republics, krais, oblasts, cities of federal significance, an autonomous oblast, and autonomous okrugs, which shall have equal rights as constituent entities of the Russian Federation."[1] A translation provided by Garant-Internet instead uses the term "subjects of the Russian Federation".[6]

Tom Fennell, a translator, told the 2008 American Translators Association conference that "constituent entity of the Russian Federation" is a better translation than "subject".[7] This was supported by Tamara Nekrasova, Head of Translation Department at Goltsblat BLP, who said in a 2011 presentation at a translators conference that "constituent entity of the Russian Federation is more appropriate than subject of the Russian Federation (subject would be OK for a monarchy)".[8]

Rank (as given in constitution and ISO) Russian English translations of the constitution ISO 3166-2:RU (ISO 3166-2 Newsletter II-2 (2010-06-30))
(Cyrillic) (Latin) Official[1] Unofficial[6]
субъект Российской Федерации sub'yekt Rossiyskoy Federatsii constituent entity of the Russian Federation subject of the Russian Federation (not mentioned)
1 республика respublika
republic
2 край
kray
territory administrative territory
3 область oblastʹ oblast region administrative region
город федерального значения gorod federalʹnogo znacheniya city of federal significance city of federal importance autonomous city
(the Russian term used in ISO 3166-2 is автономный город avtonomnyy gorod)
5 автономная область avtonomnaya oblastʹ autonomous oblast autonomous region autonomous region
6 автономный округ avtonomnyy okrug autonomous okrug autonomous area autonomous district

Types

Each federal subject belongs to one of the following types:

Legend[9] Description
  21 republics
  3 unrecognized
Nominally autonomous,[10][11] each with its own constitution, language, and legislature, but represented by the federal government in international affairs. Most are designated as the home to a specific ethnic minority as their titular nation or nations.
Donetsk and Luhansk Oblast are internationally recognized as parts of Ukraine, but were partially occupied by Russian and Russian-controlled forces in 2014, and declared annexed by Russia as the Donetsk and Luhansk people's republics in 2022. The Autonomous Republic of Crimea is internationally recognized as part of Ukraine, but was occupied and annexed by Russia as the Republic of Crimea in 2014.
  9 krais
For all intents and purposes, krais are legally identical to oblasts. The title "krai" ("frontier" or "territory") is historic, related to geographic (frontier) position in a certain period of history. The current krais are not related to frontiers.
  46 oblasts
  2 unrecognized
The most common type, with a governor and locally elected legislature. Commonly named after their administrative centres.
Kherson and Zaporizhzhia Oblast are internationally recognized as parts of Ukraine, but were partially occupied by Russian forces and declared annexed in 2022.
  1 unrecognized
Major cities that function as separate regions.
Sevastopol is internationally recognized as part of Ukraine, but was occupied and annexed by Russia in 2014.
An Autonomous Oblast has increased powers compared to traditional oblasts, but not enough to be considered a Republic. The only one remaining is the Jewish Autonomous Oblast; however, Russia previously had 4 other Autonomous Oblasts that were changed into Republics on 3 July 1991.
Occasionally referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area" or "autonomous region", each with a substantial or predominant ethnic minority designated as its titular nation. With the exception of Chukotka, each of the autonomous okrugs is part of another oblast (Arkhangelsk or Tyumen), as well as functioning as a federal subject by itself.

List

Federal subjects of the Russian Federation
Code Name Capital/
Administrative centre[a]
Flag Coat
of arms
Type Head of subject Federal district Economic region Area
(km2)[12]
Population[13] Est.
Titular nation Total density (km2)
01 Adygea Maykop republic Circassians Murat Kumpilov (UR) Southern
North Caucasus
7,792 496,934 63.77 1922
02 Bashkortostan Ufa Bashkirs Radiy Khabirov (UR) Volga
Ural
142,947 4,091,423 28.62 1919
03 Buryatia Ulan-Ude Buryats Alexey Tsydenov (UR) Far Eastern
East Siberian
351,334 978,588 2.79 1923
04 Altai Republic Gorno-Altaysk Altai Oleg Khorokhordin (Ind.) Siberian
West Siberian
92,903 210,924 2.27 1922
05 Dagestan Makhachkala Aghuls, Avars, Azerbaijanis, Chechens, Dargins, Kumyks, Laks, Lezgins, Nogais, Rutuls, Tabasarans, Tats, Tsakhurs Sergey Melikov (Ind.) North Caucasian
North Caucasus
50,270 3,182,054 63.30 1921
06 Ingushetia Magas
(Largest city: Nazran)
Ingush Mahmud-Ali Kalimatov (UR) North Caucasian
North Caucasus
3,628 509,541 163.16 1992
07 Kabardino-Balkaria Nalchik Balkars, Kabardians Kazbek Kokov (UR) North Caucasian
North Caucasus
12,470 904,200 72.51 1936
08 Kalmykia Elista Kalmyks Batu Khasikov (UR) Southern
Volga
74,731 267,133 3.57 1957
09 Karachay-Cherkessia Cherkessk Abazins, Kabardians, Karachays, Nogais Rashid Temrezov (UR) North Caucasian
North Caucasus
14,277 469,865 32.91 1957
10 Karelia Petrozavodsk Karelians Artur Parfenchikov (UR) Northwestern
Northern
180,520 533,121 2.95 1956
11 Komi Republic Syktyvkar Komi Vladimir Uyba (UR) Northwestern
Northern
416,774 737,853 1.77 1921
12 Mari El Yoshkar-Ola Mari Yury Zaitsev (UR, acting) Volga
Volga-Vyatka
23,375 677,097 28.97 1920
13 Mordovia Saransk Mordvins Artyom Zdunov (UR) Volga
Volga-Vyatka
26,128 783,552 29.99 1930
14 Sakha (Yakutia) Yakutsk Yakuts Aysen Nikolayev (UR) Far Eastern
Far Eastern
3,083,523 995,686 0.32 1922
15 North Ossetia–Alania Vladikavkaz Ossetians Sergey Menyaylo (UR) North Caucasian
North Caucasus
7,987 687,357 86.06 1924
16 Tatarstan Kazan Tatars Rustam Minnikhanov (UR) Volga
Volga
67,847 4,004,809 59.03 1920
17 Tuva Kyzyl Tuvans Vladislav Khovalyg (UR) Siberian
East Siberian
168,604 336,651 2.00 1944
18 Udmurtia Izhevsk Udmurts Aleksandr Brechalov (UR) Volga
Ural
42,061 1,452,914 34.54 1920
19 Khakassia Abakan Khakas Valentin Konovalov (CPRF) Siberian
East Siberian
61,569 534,795 8.69 1930
20[e] Chechnya Grozny Chechens Ramzan Kadyrov (UR) North Caucasian
North Caucasus
16,165 1,510,824 93.43 1991
21 Chuvashia Cheboksary Chuvash
SRZP
)
Volga
Volga-Vyatka
18,343 1,186,909 64.71 1920
22 Altai Krai Barnaul krai Viktor Tomenko (UR) Siberian
West Siberian
167,996 2,163,693 12.88 1937
23 Krasnodar Krai Krasnodar Veniamin Kondratyev (UR) Southern
North Caucasus
75,485 5,838,273 77.34 1937
24 Krasnoyarsk Krai Krasnoyarsk Aleksandr Uss (UR) Siberian
East Siberian
2,366,797 2,856,971 1.21 1934
25 Primorsky Krai Vladivostok Oleg Kozhemyako (UR) Far Eastern
Far Eastern
164,673 1,845,165 11.21 1938
26 Stavropol Krai Stavropol Vladimir Vladimirov (UR) North Caucasian
North Caucasus
66,160 2,907,593 43.95 1934
27 Khabarovsk Krai Khabarovsk Mikhail Degtyarev (LDPR) Far Eastern
Far Eastern
787,633 1,292,944 1.64 1938
28 Amur Oblast Blagoveshchensk oblast Vasily Orlov (UR) Far Eastern
Far Eastern
361,908 766,912 2.12 1932
29 Arkhangelsk Oblast Arkhangelsk Alexander Tsybulsky (UR) Northwestern
Northern
413,103 978,873 2.37 1937
30 Astrakhan Oblast Astrakhan Igor Babushkin (Ind.) Southern
Volga
49,024 960,142 19.59 1943
31 Belgorod Oblast Belgorod Vyacheslav Gladkov (UR) Central
Central Black Earth
27,134 1,540,486 56.77 1954
32 Bryansk Oblast Bryansk Alexander Bogomaz (UR) Central
Central
34,857 1,169,161 33.54 1944
33 Vladimir Oblast Vladimir Aleksandr Avdeyev (UR, acting) Central
Central
29,084 1,348,134 46.35 1944
34 Volgograd Oblast Volgograd Andrey Bocharov (Ind.) Southern
Volga
112,877 2,500,781 22.15 1937
35 Vologda Oblast Vologda
(Largest city: Cherepovets)
Oleg Kuvshinnikov (UR) Northwestern
Northern
144,527 1,142,827 7.91 1937
36 Voronezh Oblast Voronezh Aleksandr Gusev (UR) Central
Central Black Earth
52,216 2,308,792 44.22 1934
37 Ivanovo Oblast Ivanovo Stanislav Voskresensky (Ind.) Central
Central
21,437 927,828 43.28 1936
38 Irkutsk Oblast Irkutsk Igor Kobzev (Ind.) Siberian
East Siberian
774,846 2,370,102 3.06 1937
39 Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad Anton Alikhanov (UR) Northwestern
Kaliningrad
15,125 1,029,966 68.10 1946
40 Kaluga Oblast Kaluga Vladislav Shapsha (UR) Central
Central
29,777 1,069,904 35.93 1944
41 Kamchatka Krai Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky krai Vladimir Solodov (Ind.) Far Eastern
Far Eastern
464,275 291,705 0.63 2007
42 Kemerovo Oblast Kemerovo oblast Sergey Tsivilyov (UR) Siberian
West Siberian
95,725 2,600,923 27.17 1943
43 Kirov Oblast Kirov Aleksandr Sokolov (UR, acting) Volga
Volga-Vyatka
120,374 1,153,680 9.58 1934
44 Kostroma Oblast Kostroma Sergey Sitnikov (Ind.) Central
Central
60,211 580,976 9.65 1944
45 Kurgan Oblast Kurgan Vadim Shumkov (Ind.) Ural
Ural
71,488 776,661 10.86 1943
46 Kursk Oblast Kursk Roman Starovoyt (UR) Central
Central Black Earth
29,997 1,082,458 36.09 1934
47 Leningrad Oblast Largest city: Gatchina[b] Aleksandr Drozdenko (UR) Northwestern
Northwestern
83,908 2,000,997 23.85 1927
48 Lipetsk Oblast Lipetsk Igor Artamonov (UR) Central
Central Black Earth
24,047 1,143,224 47.54 1954
49 Magadan Oblast Magadan Sergey Nosov (UR) Far Eastern
Far Eastern
462,464 136,085 0.29 1953
50 Moscow Oblast Largest city: Balashikha[c] Andrey Vorobyov (UR) Central
Central
44,329 8,524,665 192.30 1929
51 Murmansk Oblast Murmansk Andrey Chibis (UR) Northwestern
Northern
144,902 667,744 4.61 1938
52 Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Nizhny Novgorod Gleb Nikitin (UR) Volga
Volga-Vyatka
76,624 3,119,115 40.71 1936
53 Novgorod Oblast Veliky Novgorod Andrey Nikitin (UR) Northwestern
Northwestern
54,501 583,387 10.70 1944
54 Novosibirsk Oblast Novosibirsk Andrey Travnikov (UR) Siberian
West Siberian
177,756 2,797,176 15.74 1937
55 Omsk Oblast Omsk
SRZP
)
Siberian
West Siberian
141,140 1,858,798 13.17 1934
56 Orenburg Oblast Orenburg Denis Pasler (UR) Volga
Ural
123,702 1,862,767 15.06 1934
57 Oryol Oblast Oryol Andrey Klychkov (CPRF) Central
Central
24,652 713,374 28.94 1937
58 Penza Oblast Penza Oleg Melnichenko (UR) Volga
Volga
43,352 1,266,348 29.21 1939
59 Perm Krai Perm krai Dmitry Makhonin (Ind.) Volga
Ural
160,236 2,532,405 15.80 2005
60 Pskov Oblast Pskov oblast Mikhail Vedernikov (UR) Northwestern
Northwestern
55,399 599,084 10.81 1944
61 Rostov Oblast Rostov-on-Don Vasily Golubev (UR) Southern
North Caucasus
100,967 4,200,729 41.60 1937
62 Ryazan Oblast Ryazan Pavel Malkov (Ind.) Central
Central
39,605 1,102,810 27.85 1937
63 Samara Oblast Samara Dmitry Azarov (UR) Volga
Volga
53,565 3,172,925 59.24 1928
64 Saratov Oblast Saratov Roman Busargin (UR) Volga
Volga
101,240 2,442,575 24.13 1936
65 Sakhalin Oblast Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Valery Limarenko (UR) Far Eastern
Far Eastern
87,101 466,609 5.36 1947
66 Sverdlovsk Oblast Yekaterinburg Yevgeny Kuyvashev (UR) Ural
Ural
194,307 4,268,998 21.97 1935
67 Smolensk Oblast Smolensk Alexey Ostrovsky (LDPR) Central
Central
49,779 888,421 17.85 1937
68 Tambov Oblast Tambov Maksim Yegorov (UR, acting) Central
Central Black Earth
34,462 982,991 28.52 1937
69 Tver Oblast Tver Igor Rudenya (UR) Central
Central
84,201 1,230,171 14.61 1935
70 Tomsk Oblast Tomsk Vladimir Mazur (UR, acting) Siberian
West Siberian
314,391 1,062,666 3.38 1944
71 Tula Oblast Tula Aleksey Dyumin (UR) Central
Central
25,679 1,501,214 58.46 1937
72 Tyumen Oblast Tyumen Aleksandr Moor (UR) Ural
West Siberian
160,122 1,601,940 10.00 1944
73 Ulyanovsk Oblast Ulyanovsk Aleksey Russkikh (CPRF) Volga
Volga
37,181 1,196,745 32.19 1943
74 Chelyabinsk Oblast Chelyabinsk Aleksey Teksler (UR) Ural
Ural
88,529 3,431,224 38.76 1934
75 Zabaykalsky Krai Chita krai Aleksandr Osipov (Ind.) Far Eastern
East Siberian
431,892 1,004,125 2.32 2008
76 Yaroslavl Oblast Yaroslavl oblast Mikhail Yevrayev (Ind.) Central
Central
36,177 1,209,811 33.44 1936
77 Moscow federal city Sergey Sobyanin (UR) Central
Central
2,561 13,010,112 5,080.09 1147
78 Saint Petersburg Alexander Beglov (UR) Northwestern
Northwestern
1,403 5,601,911 3,992.81 1703
79 Jewish Autonomous Oblast Birobidzhan autonomous oblast Jews Rostislav Goldstein (UR) Far Eastern
Far Eastern
36,271 150,453 4.15 1934
80 Nenets Autonomous Okrug Naryan-Mar autonomous okrug
Nenets
Yury Bezdudny (UR) Northwestern
Northern
176,810 41,434 0.23 1929
81 Khanty–Mansi Autonomous Okrug – Yugra Khanty-Mansiysk
(Largest city: Surgut)
Khanty, Mansi Natalya Komarova (UR) Ural
West Siberian
534,801 1,711,480 3.20 1930
82 Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Anadyr Chukchi Roman Kopin (UR) Far Eastern
Far Eastern
721,481 47,490 0.07 1930
83 Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug Salekhard
(Largest city: Novy Urengoy)
Nenets Dmitry Artyukhov (UR) Ural
West Siberian
769,250 510,490 0.66 1930
Contested territories situated within the internationally recognised borders of Ukraine
84 Republic of Crimea[d] Simferopol republic Sergey Aksyonov (UR) Southern[14][15]
North Caucasus
26,081 1,934,630 74.18 2014
85 Sevastopol[d] federal city Mikhail Razvozhayev (UR) Southern[14][15]
North Caucasus
864 547,820 634.05 2014
86 Donetsk People's Republic[d][f] Donetsk republic Denis Pushilin (UR/ODDR) 26,517[g] 4,100,280[16][g] 154.63[g] 2022
87 Luhansk People's Republic[d][f] Luhansk
ML
)
26,684[g] 2,121,322[16][g] 79.50[g] 2022
88 Zaporizhzhia Oblast[d][f] Melitopol (de facto)
Zaporizhzhia (claimed)
oblast Yevgeny Balitsky (UR) 27,183[g] 1,666,515[16][g] 61.31[g] 2022
89 Kherson Oblast[d][f] Henichesk (de facto)
Kherson (claimed)
(Largest city: Kherson)
Vladimir Saldo (Ind.) 28,461[g] 1,016,707[16][g] 35.72[g] 2022

Notes

a. ^ The largest city is also listed when it is different from the capital/administrative centre.

b. ^ According to Article 13 of the Charter of Leningrad Oblast, the governing bodies of the oblast are located in the city of Saint Petersburg. However, Saint Petersburg is not officially the administrative centre of the oblast.

c. ^ According to Article 24 of the Charter of Moscow Oblast, the governing bodies of the oblast are located in the city of Moscow and throughout the territory of Moscow Oblast. However, Moscow is not officially the administrative centre of the oblast.

d. ^ Internationally recognized as part of Ukraine.

e. ^ In February 2000, the former code of 20 for the Chechen Republic was cancelled and replaced with code 95. License plate production was suspended due to the Chechen Wars, causing numerous issues, which in turn forced the region to use a new code.

f. ^ Claimed, but only partially controlled by Russia.

g. ^ As Russia only partially controls the region, this is a claimed figure.

Statistics of federal subjects

Mergers, splits and internal territorial changes

Map of the federal subjects of Russia highlighting those that merged in the first decade of the 21st century (in yellow), and those whose merger has been discussed in the same decade (in orange)

Starting in 2005, some of the federal subjects were merged into larger territories. In this process, six very sparsely populated subjects (comprising in total 0.3% of the population of Russia) were integrated into more populated subjects, with the hope that the economic development of those territories would benefit from the much larger means of their neighbours. The merging process was finished on 1 March 2008. No new mergers have been planned since March 2008. The six territories became "administrative-territorial regions with special status". They have large proportions of minorities, with Russians being a majority only in three of them. Four of those territories have a second official language in addition to Russian:

Komi-Permian, Koryak. This is an exception: all the other official languages of Russia (other than Russian) are set by the Constitutions of its constituent Republics (Mordovia, Chechnya, Dagestan
etc.). The status of the "administrative-territorial regions with special status" has been a subject of criticism because it does not appear in the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

Date of referendum Date of merger Original entities Original codes New code Original entities New entity
2003-12-07 2005-12-01 1, 1a 59 (1), 81 (1a) 90 Perm Oblast (1) + Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug (1a) Perm Krai
2005-04-17 2007-01-01 2, 2a, 2b 24 (2), 88 (2a), 84 (2b) 24 Krasnoyarsk Krai (2) + Evenk Autonomous Okrug (2a) + Taymyr Autonomous Okrug (2b) Krasnoyarsk Krai
2005-10-23 2007-07-01 3, 3a 41 (3), 82 (3a) 91
Koryak Autonomous Okrug
(3a)
Kamchatka Krai
2006-04-16 2008-01-01 4, 4a 38 (4), 85 (4a) 38 Irkutsk Oblast (4) + Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug (4a) Irkutsk Oblast
2007-03-11 2008-03-01 5, 5a 75 (5), 80 (5a) 92 Chita Oblast (5) + Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug (5a) Zabaykalsky Krai

In addition to those six territories that entirely ceased to be subjects of the Russian Federation and were downgraded to territories with special status, another three subjects have a status of subject but are simultaneously part of a more populated subject:

With an estimated population of 49348 as of 2018, Chukotka is currently the least populated subject of Russia that is not part of a more populated subject. It was separated from Magadan Oblast in 1993. Chukotka is one of the richest subjects of Russia (with a Gross Regional Product [GRP] per capita equivalent to that of Australia) and therefore does not fit in the pattern of merging a subject to benefit from the economic dynamism of the neighbour.

In 1992,

Vainakhish languages, remain the two poorest subjects of Russia, with the GRP per capita of Ingushetia being equivalent to that of Iraq. According to 2016 statistics, however, they are also the safest regions of Russia, and also have the lowest alcohol consumption, with alcohol poisoning at least 40 times lower than the federal average.[17][18][19]

Until 1994, Sokolsky District, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast was part of Ivanovo Oblast.

In 2011–2012, the territory of Moscow increased by 140% (to 2,511 km2 (970 sq mi)) by acquiring part of Moscow Oblast.

On 13 May 2020, the governors of Arkhangelsk Oblast and Nenets Autonomous Okrug announced their plan to merge following the collapse of oil prices stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic.[20][21] The process was scrapped on 2 July due to its unpopularity among the population.[22]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e "Constitution of the Russian Federation". Government of the Russian Federation. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  2. .
  3. ^ Steve Gutterman and Pavel Polityuk (March 18, 2014). "Putin signs Crimea treaty as Ukraine serviceman dies in attack". Reuters. Retrieved May 7, 2016.
  4. ^ "Putin to annex seized Ukrainian land, U.N. Warns of 'dangerous escalation'". Reuters. September 29, 2022.
  5. ^ This treaty consisted of three treaties, see also Concluding and Transitional Provisions: [1] [2]
  6. ^ a b "The Constitution of the Russian Federation". Garant-Internet. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  7. ^ Knizhnik, Irina (2009). "On legal terminology, the jury is still out" (PDF). SlavFile. 18 (1). Slavic Languages Division, American Translators Association: 20. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 31, 2020. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  8. ^ Nekrasova, Tamara (2011). "Traps & Mishaps in Legal Translation" (PDF). Eulita. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  9. .
  10. . Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  11. . Retrieved October 6, 2019.
  12. on March 23, 2019. Retrieved March 4, 2019.
  13. ^ "Оценка численности постоянного населения по субъектам Российской Федерации". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved September 1, 2022.
  14. ^ a b "Crimea becomes part of vast Southern federal district of Russia". Retrieved July 29, 2016.
  15. ^ a b "В России создан Крымский федеральный округ". RBC. March 21, 2014. Archived from the original on March 22, 2014. Retrieved November 18, 2015.
  16. ^ a b c d Number of Present Population of Ukraine, as of January 1 "Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2021" (PDF) (in Ukrainian and English). Kyiv: State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 21, 2021.
  17. ^ "БГД - Регионы России. Социально-экономические показатели - 2017 г." rosstat.gov.ru.
  18. ^ "Число умерших по основным классам и отдельным причинам смерти в расчете на 100000 населения за год". ЕМИСС. Archived from the original on March 26, 2018.
  19. ^ ""Рейтинг трезвости-2017": кто в России меньше всех пьет". Вести.Ru (in Russian). November 27, 2017. Archived from the original on July 2, 2023.
  20. ^ Quinn, Eilís (May 14, 2020). ""Catastrophic" economic situation prompts merger talks for Nenets AO and Arkhangelsk Oblast". The Barents Observer. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
  21. ^ "Russian Regions to Become Single Federal Subject in Decade-First". The Moscow Times. May 13, 2020. Retrieved May 15, 2020.
  22. ^ Antonova, Elizaveta (July 2, 2020). "The head of the Nenets Autonomous District declared refusal to unite with the Arkhangelsk region". RBC (in Russian). Retrieved July 6, 2020.

Sources

  • 12 декабря 1993 г. «Конституция Российской Федерации», в ред. Федерального конституционного закона №7-ФКЗ от 30 декабря 2008 г. Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская газета", №237, 25 декабря 1993 г. (December 12, 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation, as amended by the Federal Constitutional Law #7-FKZ of December 30, 2008. Effective as of the official publication date.).